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In the stabilize reactance modulator AFC system,

a. the discriminator must have a fast time constant to prevent


b. the higher the discriminator frequency, the better the oscillator

frequency stability

c. the discriminator frequency must not be too low, or the system will

d. phase modulation is converted into FM by the equalizer circuit

2. In the spectrum of a frequency-modulated wave

a. the carrier frequency disappears when the modulation index is large

b. the amplitude of any sideband depends on the modulation index

c. the total number of sidebands depends on the modulation index

d. the carrier frequency cannot disappear

3. The difference between phase and frequency modulation

a. is purely theoretical because they are the same in practice

b. is too great to make the two system compatible

c. lies in the poorer audio response of phase modulation

d. lies in the different definitions of the modulation index

4. Indicate the false statement regarding the Armstrong modulation system

a. The system is basically phase, not frequency modulation,

b. AFC is not needed, as crystal oscillator is used.

c. Frequency multiplication must be used

d. Equalization is unnecessary

5. An FM signal with a modulation index mf is passed through a frequency

tripler. The wave in the output of the tripler will have a modulation index of
a. mf/3
b. mf
c. 3mf
d. 9mf

6. An FM signal with a deviation is passed through a mixer, and has its

frequency reduced fivefold. The deviation in the output of the mixer is

a. 5

b. Indeterminate



7. A pre-emphasis circuit provides extra noise immunity by

a. boosting the bass frequencies

b. amplifying the higher audio frequencies

c. preamplifying the whole audio band

d. converting the phase modulation to FM

8. Since noise phase-modulates the FM wave, as the noise sideband

frequency approaches the carrier frequency, the noise amplitude

a. remains constant

b. is decreased

c. is increased

d. is equalized

9. When the modulating frequency is doubled, the modulation index is

halved, and the modulating voltage remains constant. The modulation
system is

a. amplitude modulation

b. phase modulation

c. frequency modulation

d. any of the three

10. Indicate which one of the following is not an advantage of FM over AM:

a. Better noise immunity is provided

b. Lower bandwidth is required

c. The transmitted power is more useful

d. Less modulating power is required

11. One of the following is an indirect way of generating FM. This is the

a. reactance FET modulator

b. varactor diode modulator

c. Armstrong modulator

d. reactance bipolar transistor modulator

12. In an FM stereo multiplex transmission, the

a. sum signal modulates 19 kHz subcarrier

b. difference signal modulates the 19 kHz subcarrier

c. difference signal modulates the 38 kHz subcarrier

d. difference signal modulates the 67 kHz subcarrier

1. c. the discriminator frequency must not be too low, or the system will fail
2. b. the amplitude of any sideband depends on the modulation index
3. d. lies in the different definitions of the modulation index
4. d. Equalization is unnecessary
5. c. 3mf
6. d.
7. b. amplifying the higher audio frequencies
8. b. is decreased
9. c. frequency
10. b. Lower bandwidth is required

11. c. Armstrong modulator

12. c. difference signal modulates the 38 kHz subcarrier

1. ______ is the maximum sideband suppression value using filter system.

A. 50 dB

B. 60 dB

C. 40 dB

D. 30 dB

2. _______ determines the number of sideband components in FM.

A. carrier frequency

B. modulation frequency

C. modulation index

D. deviation ratio

3. One of the following transmits only one sideband.

A. H3E

B. R3E

C. A3E

D. B8E

4. What produces the sidebands on FM?

A. signal amplitude

B. carrier harmonics

C. baseband frequency

D. broadband frequency

5. Which test instrument displays the carrier and the sidebands amplitude
with frequency to frequency?

A. oscilloscope

B. spectrum analyzer

C. frequency analyzer

D. amplitude analyzer

6. Mixer is also known as a ________.

A. modulator

B. suppressor

C. converter

D. beater

7. Which one of the following emission transmits the lower sideband and half
of the upper sideband?

A. A5C

B. J3E

C. A3J

D. A3H

8. An FM receives signal ______.

A. vary in amplitude with modulation

B. vary in frequency with modulation

C. vary in frequency and amplitude with wideband modulation

D. is not immune to noise

9. The process of impressing intelligence on the carrier is called

A. modulation

B. detection

C. mixing

D. impression

10. ______ is an electronic instrument used to show both the carrier and the
sidebands of a modulated signal in the frequency domain.

A. spectrum analyzer

B. oscilloscope

C. digital counter

D. frequency counter

11. What part of the carrier is varied by the intelligence during modulation in
an AM system?

A. phase

B. frequency

C. amplitude

D. both a and c

12. The difference between the RF carrier and the modulating signal
frequencies is called the



C. Sideband

D. Carrier frequency

13. What stage in a radio transmitter isolates the oscillator from the load?

A. Oscillator

B. Buffer

C. Separator

D. Mixer

14. The frequency of the unmodulated carrier in FM system is

A. modulating frequency

B. center frequency

C. carrier frequency

D. deviation frequency

15. The ratio of maximum deviation to the maximum modulating frequency

is called

A. carrier swing

B. deviation ratio

C. modulation factor

D. modulation index

16. A carrier signal has

A. constant amplitude

B. a frequency of 20 kHz and above

C. a varying amplitude

D. the information content

17. The modulated peak value of a signal is 125 V and the unmodulated
carrier value is 85 V. What is the modulation index?

A. 0.47

B. 0.68

C. 0.32

D. 1.47

18. An 891 kHz carrier having an amplitude of 80 V is modulated by a 4.5

kHz audio signal having an amplitude of 45 V. The modulation factor is

A. 0.56

B. 0.65

C. 1.78

D. 1.25

19. What is the modulation index of an FM signal having a carrier swing of 75

kHz when the modulating signal has frequency of 3 kHz?

A. 25

B. 12.5

C. 0.04

D. 0.08

20. In a FM system, if modulation index is doubled by having the modulating

frequency, what will be the effect on the maximum deviation?

A. No effect

B. Maximum deviation doubles

C. Decreases by

D. Increases by

21. Which of the following is considered as an indirect method of generating


A. Reactance modulator

B. Balanced modulator

C. Varactor diode modulator

D. Armstrong system

22. To generate an SSB or DSB signal one must use a circuit known as

A. filter modulator

B. ring modulator

C. balanced modulator

D. reactance modulator

23. Which is the first radio receiver?

A. TRF receiver

B. Superheterodyne receiver

C. Crystal radio receiver

D. Heterodyne receiver

24. An interfering signal with a frequency equal to the received signal plus
twice the IF is called

A. image frequency

B. center frequency

C. rest frequency

D. interference frequency

25. Double sideband full carrier emission type

A. A3J

B. H3E

C. R3A

D. A3E

26. Single sideband reduced carrier emission type

A. H3E

B. R3E

C. J3E

D. B8E

27. A single sideband suppressed carrier emission type.

A. H3e

B. R3E

C. J3E

D. B8E

28. Independent sideband emission type

A. H3E

B. R3E

C. J3E

D. B8E

29. Vestigial sideband emission type

A. C3F

B. J3E

C. R3E

D. B8E

30. Single sideband full carrier emission type.

A. R3E

B. H3E

C. J3E

D. B8E

31. Phase modulation emission type.

A. F3E

B. F3C

C. F3F

D. G3E

32. Which one is not an advantage of SSB over AM?

A. Power saving

B. Requires half the bandwidth

C. Wider area of reception

D. Better fidelity

33. The advantage of a high level modulated AM transmitter is

A. Less audio power required

B. Better fidelity

C. Higher value of operating power

D. Less distortion

34. The advantage of a low-level modulated AM transmitter is

A. Less audio power required

B. Better fidelity

C. Higher value of operating power

D. Less distortion

35. _____ is the bad effect caused by overmodulation in AM transmission.

A. Increase in noise

B. Deviation in the operating frequency

C. Interface to other radio services

D. Decrease in the output power

36. Which characteristic of a radio receiver refers to its ability to reject an

unwanted signal?

A. Sensitivity

B. Selectivity

C. Fidelity

D. Quality

37. What type of emission is frequency modulation?

A. F3E

B. G3E

C. A3E

D. B3E

38. AM transmission power increases with ________.

A. Frequency

B. Source

C. Load

D. Modulation

39. _______ locks the FM receiver to a stronger signal.

A. Hall effect

B. Capture effect

C. Image frequency

D. Homing

40. What is the highest percentage of modulation for AM?

A. 50 %

B. 75 %

C. 100 %

D. 80 %

41. In FM, the Carsons Rule states that the bandwidth is equal to twice the
sum of the modulating frequency and ______.

A. Carrier signal

B. Modulating signal

C. Frequency deviation

D. Image frequency

42. What is the carrier swing of an FM transmitter when modified by 75%?

A. 53.2 kHz

B. 48 kHz

C. 56.25 kHz

D. 112.5 kHz

43. The modulation system inherently more resistant to noise

A. Single sideband suppressed carrier

B. Frequency modulation

C. Pulse-position modulation

D. Amplitude shift keying

44. Subcarriers that are arranged so that the channels occupying adjacent
frequency bands with some frequency space between them is known as

A. Guard bands

B. AM bands

C. Band gap

D. Void band

45. Modulation of an RF amplifier carrier results in

A. Multiple channels

B. Smaller antennas

C. Directional propagation

D. All of the above

46. A process which occurs in the transmitter

A. Mixing

B. Modulation

C. Heterodyning

D. Demodulation

47. A process which occurs in the receiver

A. Beating

B. Modulation

C. Mixing

D. Demodulation

48. One part of the transmitter that protects the crystal oscillator from

A. Buffer amplifier

B. Modulator

C. Power amplifier

D. Antenna coupler

49. What aspect of the carrier is changed by modulation?

A. Frequency

B. Phase

C. Amplitude

D. Depends on the type of modulation

50. The amplitude of a sine wave which is modulated by a musical program


A. Be complex

B. Contain fundamental frequencies

C. Contain harmonic frequencies

D. All of the above

1. The general name given to both PM and PM is _____ modulation.

2. True or false. In FM, the carrier amplitude remains constant
with modulation.
3. The amount of frequency shift during modulation is called the _____.
4. The amount of frequency shift in PM is directly proportional to the _____ of
the modulating signal.
5. As the modulating signal amplitude goes positive, the carrier frequency
_____. As the modulating signal amplitude goes negative, the carrier
6. In PM, the carrier _____ is varied in proportion to the amplitude of the
modulating signal.

7. A varying phase shift produces a(n) _____.

8. A phase modulator produces a frequency deviation only when the
modulating signal is _____.
9. In PM, the frequency deviation is proportional to both the
modulating signal _____ and _____.
10. When the modulating signal amplitude crosses zero, the phase shift and
frequency deviation in a phase modulator are

a. At a maximum

b. At a minimum

c. Zero

11. A phase modulator may use a low-pass filter to offset the effect of
increasing carrier frequency deviation for increasing modulating

a. Amplitude

b. Frequency

c. Phase shift

12. The FM produced by a phase modulator is known as _____.

13. True or false. An FM signal produces more sidebands than an AM signal.
14. The bandwidth of an FM signal is proportional to the _____.
15. The maximum frequency deviation of an FM signal is 10 kHz. The
maximum modulating frequency is 3.33 kHz. The deviation ratio is_____.
16. An FM signal has a modulation index of 2.5. How many significant pairs of
sidebands are produced?
(See Fig. 4-6.) (page 75-Frenzel)
17. In an FM signal that modulating frequency is a 1.5-kHz sine wave. The
carrier frequency is 1000 kHz.

The frequencies of the third significant sidebands are _____ and _____ kHz.
18. Refer to Fig. 4-6. What is the relative amplitude of the fourth significant
pair of sidebands in an FM signal with a deviation ratio of 4? (page 75Frenzel)
19. The amplitudes of the sidebands in an FM signal are dependent upon
a mathematical process known as _____.
20. A PM signal has a deviation ratio of 3. The maximum modulating signal is
5 kHz. The bandwidth of the signal is _____kHz.
21. If the maximum allowed deviation is 5 kHz but the actual deviation is
3.75 kHz, the percentage of modulation is _____ percent.
22. A negative sign on the carrier and sideband amplitudes in Fig. 4-6 means
a(n) _____.
23. True or false. The carrier in an FM signal can never drop to zero
24. Calculate the bandwidth of an PM signal with a maximum deviation of 10
kHz and a maximum
modulating signal frequency of 4 kHz. Use the two methods given in the text,
significant sidebands, and Carson's role, and compare your answers. Explain
the difference.
25. The main advantage of FM over AM is its immunity from _____.
26. Noise is primarily a variation in

a. Amplitude.

b. Frequency.

c. Phase.

27. FM receivers reject noise because of built-in circuits.

28. The in an FM receiver causes a stronger signal to dominate a
weaker signal on the same frequency.

29. Typically FM transmitters are more efficient than AM transmitters

because they use class _____ amplifiers.
30. The biggest disadvantage of FM is its excessive use of _____.
31. True or false. An AM circuit is usually more complex and expensive than
an FM circuit.
32. Noise interferes primarily with _____ modulating frequencies.
33. The method used to offset the effect of noise in FM transmissions by
boosting high frequencies is known as _____.
34. To boost high frequencies a(n) _____ circuit is used.
35. To correct for the high-frequency boost, a(n) _____ circuit is used at the
36.The time constant of a pre-emphasis circuit is _____ s.
37. In an FM receiver, frequencies above _____ Hz are attenuated 6 dB
per octave.

1. angle
2. true
3. deviation
4. amplitude
5. increases, decreases (the reverse could also be true)
6. phase shift
7. frequency shift or deviation
8. changing or varying

9. amplitude, frequency
10. a
11. b
12. indirect FM
13. true
14. modulation index
15.3 (m = 10/33 = 3)
16. 5
17. 995.5, 1004.5 [3(1.5) = 4.5 KHz; 1000 4.5 = 995.5 and 1004.5 kHz]
18. 0.28
19. Bessel functions
20. 60 [2(5)(6)= 60 kHz]
21. 75 [(3.75/5)100 = 75%]
22. phase inversion or 180 shift
23. false
24. BW = 40 kHz; BW = 28 kHz using Carson's rule; Carson's rule gives
narrower bandwidths because sidebands of less than 2 percent amplitude
are not considered
25. noise
26. a
27. limiter (or clipper)

28. capture effect

29. C
30. spectrum space
31. false
32. high
33. pre-emphasis
34. high-pass filter
35. de-emphasis
36. 75
37. 2122