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Soft computing

BY:
ARUN PRASAD K.M.
Assistant Professor
Model Engineering College
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Soft computing techniques

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)


Fuzzy Logic

Genetic Algorithms

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Reference Books
S.N. Shivnandam, Principle of soft computing,
Wiley.
S. Rajshekaran and G.A.V. Pai, Neural Network
, Fuzzy logic And Genetic Algorithm, PHI.
Jack M. Zurada, Introduction to Artificial Neural
Network System JAico Publication.
Simon Haykins, Neural Network- A
Comprehensive Foudation
Timothy J.Ross, Fuzzy logic with Engineering
Applications, McGraw-Hills 1.
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Artificial neural network


Human brain is a highly complex, nonlinear,
and parallel information processing system

Human Brain is made up of cells called Neurons

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Syllabus
Module 1
Introduction to Neural Network: Concept,
biological neural network, evolution of artificial
neural network, McCulloch-Pitts neuron models,
Learning (Supervise & Unsupervise) and activation
function, Models of ANN-Feed forward network and
feed back network, Learning Rules- Hebbian,
Delta, Perceptron Learning and Windrow-Hoff,
winner take all.
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Brain Computer: What is it?


Human brain contains
a massively
interconnected net of
1010-1011 (10 billion)
neurons (cortical
cells)

Biological
Neuron
- The simple
arithmetic
computing
element

BIOLOGICAL NEURON

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BIOLOGICAL NEURON

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BIOLOGICAL NEURON
In the human brain, a typical neuron collects
signals from others through a host of fine
structures called dendrites.
The neuron sends out spikes of electrical
activity through a long, thin strand known as
an axon, which splits into thousands of
branches.
At the end of each branch, a structure called
a synapse converts the activity from the
axon into electrical effects that inhibit or
excite activity from the axon into electrical
effects in the connected neurons.
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The Artificial Neuron model

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The analogy between HUMAN


NEURON and the ANN
Human

Artificial

Neuron

Processing Element

Dendrites

Combining Function

Cell Body

Transfer Function

Axons
Synapses
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Element Output
Weights
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Activation Functions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Threshold
Signum
Sigmoid
Hyperbolic tangent (tanh)
Piece-wise linear

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1.Threshold function

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2.Signum Function

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3.Sigmoid Function

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4.Hyperbolic Tangent

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5.Piece-wise linear

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Applications of Artificial
Neural Networks

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Speech Recognition
Pattern Recognition
Signal processing
Text to speech Conversion
Robotics
Control
Medical diagnosis
Stock Market Prediction
Sales Forecasting
Energy Demand Forecasting
Parameter Estimation

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Mc-Culloch and Pitts Model

For Mc-Culloch & Pitts Model, the activation function is


Threshold or signum
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