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John A. Coleman, S.J.

Authority, Power, Leadership:


Sociological Understandings
The first thing to say about the sociological usage concerning authority is that there is no consensus among sociologists about its conceptualization and meaning. For some, it is always a sub-set of the
larger concept, power. Authority, on this reading, is legitimate power.
Other forms of power, even if not per se illegitimate, can be exercised
but lack social justification. Some sociologists, however, include both
power and persuasive influence as elements of authority. On this second reading, authority and leadership (even informal or purely personal leadership) become conflated.1
AUTHORITY DEFINED
Yet, most sociologists, even if they differ from them, begin any discussion of authority with Max Webers classic definitions of power
and authority. For Weber, power is the probability that one actor
within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own
will despite resistance, regardless of the basis on which this probability rests. Authority (Herrschaft), for its part, is the probability that a
command with a given content will be obeyed by a given group of
persons.2 The major difference between power and authority rests in
the fact that power is essentially tied to the personal characteristics of
individuals or groups, whereas authority is always tied to social positions or roles. Weber notes that while power is a merely factual relation,
authority is a legitimate relation of domination and subjection.
1
Robert Peabody, Authority, The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (New
York: Crowell Collier-MacMillan, 1968) vol. 1, 473.
2
Max Weber, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft (Tbingen: Grundrisse der Sozialekonomie,
1947) 4th ed., 28.

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John A. Coleman, S.J.

Power need not be consensual; authority must be. A demagogue


may, in fact, exert power over groups of individuals whose motivations he manipulates or actions he controls. A dictator may cow (or
even physically coerce) people into acquiescing in his commands. But
the control of a manager over workers, of the civil servant over her
clientele, or of an army officer over her soldiers is authority. In authoritative relations, the right to command (and the probability of obedience)
exists as a settled mutual expectation, independent of any specific person who occupies the office of manager, civil servant, or army officer.
Authority, for Weber, is legitimate power. It rests on a voluntaristic
understanding and is intertwined with notions of imposition of will,
obedience, and assent to commands.
As we will see, the radical source of disagreement among sociologists about how to define authority stems from their prior differences
about how to define power. Indeed, as British sociologist, Steven
Lukes, has persuasively argued, power (like justice) is an essentially
contested concept. Power is one of those concepts which inevitably
involve endless disputes about their proper uses on the part of users.3
To engage in disputes about the meaning and locus of power is, itself,
to engage in politics.
Those who follow Webers definition of authority note, first, that
wherever there is organization, there will be authority and authority
will become enmeshed in traditions.4 Ralf Dahrendorf draws out the
implications of Webers understanding of authority as legitimate
power:
(1) Authority relations are always relations of super- and subordination.
(2) Where there are authority relations, the superordinate element
is expected to control, by orders and commands, warnings and
prohibitions, the behavior of the subordinate element.
(3) Such expectations attach to relatively permanent social positions rather than to the character of individuals; they are in this
sense legitimate.
(4) By virtue of this fact, they always involve specification of the
persons subject to control and the spheres within which control is
permissible. Authority, as distinct from power, is never a relation
of generalized control over others.
(5) Authority, being a legitimate relation, non-compliance with authoritative commands can be sanctioned; it is indeed one of the
3
4

Steven Lukes, Power: A Radical View (London: MacMillan, 1974) 26.


Edward Shils, Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981) 148.

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functions of the legal system (and of course of quasi-legal customs


and norms) to support the reflective exercise of legitimate authority.5

The distinction between authority and power can be illustrated by


an industrial manager who would try to control people outside his
factory or the private lives of those who work inside the firm. These
actions would trespass the borderline between authority and power.
Although the manager has authority over defined aspects of the worklife of people in the firm, his control would assume the form of mere
power as soon as it goes beyond the specified persons and spheres of
legitimate control. But, of course, just this kind of trespassing is ubiquitous in almost every authority relation because power, even legitimate
power, is never simply neutral or totally benign. There takes place,
almost universally, a fusion of authority and mere power which can lead
to or intensify intra-group conflicts. This fusion also serves to delegitimize authority when it is seen to exceed its bounds of legitimacy.
As a second stab at defining authority, we can look at Roberto
Michels definition in The Encyclopedia of Social Science. Note how
closely it parallels Webers insistence that authority is a sub-set of
power and involves hierarchy, obedience, and command:
Authority is the capacity, innate or acquired, for exercising ascendency over a group. It is a manifestation of power and implies
obedience on the part of those subject to it. One principal means
of exercising authority is the dispensation of rewards and punishments.6

A final definition comes from sociologist Robert Bierstedt who defines


it as sanctioned power, institutional power.7 Bierstedt insists, however, in reaction to Michels, that authority is not a capacity or innate. It
is relational and exists even when it is not being explicitly exercised.
SCOPE OF AUTHORITY
Almost every socially recognized group or institution in society
(e.g., the family, schools, churches) has its own appropriate set of authoritative offices and legitimated sanctions. Parents may legitimately
5
Ralf Dahrendorf, Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Societies (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1959) 16667.
6
Roberto Michels, Authority, Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (New York: MacMillan, 1930) vol. 1, 319.
7
Robert Bierstedt, The Problem of Authority in Morroe Berger et al., Freedom and
Control in Modern Society (New York: Octagon Books, 1964) 79.

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John A. Coleman, S.J.

exercise power (and not just persuasion) over underage children; bishops over priests; teachers over students. But society, itself, exercises a
wider authority. It alone, on Max Webers account, may legitimately
resort to coercive violence or use of force. In that sense, society exercises sovereignty.8 Sovereignty refers to the ultimate right of command
in society (the right to which other rights must, in cases of conflict, yield).
Historically, theories of sovereign authority in society appeal either
to God or to the people to ground ultimate authority. The sovereignty
of the people means they must assent to legitimate authority because
they consented (through some variant of a social contract) to set it up
for the common good. In obeying legitimate authority or laws, the
people are really obeying themselves. Sovereignty of the people implies that they, ultimately, author all authorities. They originate and
authorize those who represent authority over them. So, authority is
always intrinsically limited by the purpose of the original social compact: i.e., a proposed common good.
Theories of sovereign authority which appeal to God (as in Romans
13) can vest authority in the rulers directly from God (as in divine right
theories of government) or, indirectly, through the people. Here, too,
sovereign authority may be limited by higher appeals to the common
good or the natural law. No true authority involves generalized power
over other persons. It is always specified in scope and range. Some
variants of theories about God-given sovereign authority, however,
have made the ruler responsible only to God.
Societal authority is implicated in the authority structures of subsystems of society and vice versa. Just as the traditions of the state
derive some of their efficacy from the traditions transmitted in family,
school and church, so the traditions within each of these three institutions are helped to maintain their internal efficacy by their acceptance
of the traditions of legitimacy of the state and its government.9
Again, The phenomenon called authority is at once more ancient
and more fundamental than the phenomenon called state. The natural ascendency of some men over others is the principal of all human
advances.10
BASES OF LEGITIMACY
Weber postulated three major sources to legitimate authority (either
societal-wide or within smaller groups or traditions within society).
8
Bertrand de Jouvenal, Sovereignty: An Inquiry into the Political Good (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957).
9
Shils, Tradition, 186.
10
de Jouvenal, Sovereignty, xiii.

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These are captured by Webers three ideal types of authorityrelations: (1) traditional authority; (2) charismatic authority; (3) rationallegal authority.11 Each form of legitimate authority rests on consensual
beliefs, shared in by subalterns as well as authorities, about the
grounding, scope, and purpose of authority. When assent to these beliefs corrodes, authority loses its credence. Weber tended to imply an
evolutionary scheme by which traditional authority shifted, over time,
to rational-legal authority (which Weber saw as the typical form of
authority in modernity).
TRADITIONAL AUTHORITY
Weber devoted a large section of his analysis of legitimate authority
to traditional legitimate authority. This type of authority grounds its
legitimacy by reference to its connection to the past and justifies its
actions by claiming that they conform with precedents. Traditional
authority tends to be conservative and lacks, intrinsically, any inner
motor for social change. Traditional authority, which includes patrimonial, feudal, and monarchical-bureaucratic regimes, has held sway
over a large part of human history and of the earths surface. As the
ancients taught us, As our originating sacred document declares,
As the founding fathers saw are typical motifs and appeals within
traditional authority systems. Sometimes, traditional authority relies
on strong origin myths to which appeal is frequently made. Current
actions are to conform to the pattern of the originating myths. As we
will see, traditional forms of authority never fully fade away. All authority rests on some variant of tradition or gets related back to it.
CHARISMATIC AUTHORITY
By charismatic authority, Weber points to authority which rests on
the wisdom or, even, sacred gifts of an extraordinary individual and
his followers. The charismatic leader breaks with tradition: You heard
it said of old, but I say unto you. From the vantage point of the beliefs
of the charismatic leader and his or her followers, charismatic authority does not derive from the consent of the governed. The charismatic
leaders unusual gifts or direct conduit to God are seen as compelling
and self-justifying. In that sense charismatic authority is non-rational
(which does not mean irrational).
The charismatic authority is able to break with authority based on
traditions by an appeal to a higher power (either within the great genius
11
Weber treats of the three forms of legitimate authority in Economy and Society,
Guenter Roth and Claus Wittich, eds. (New York: Bedminster Press, 1968) vol. 1,
212301.

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John A. Coleman, S.J.

or from God). Charismatic authority represents the major carrier or


motor for discontinuity and change in systems of traditional authority.
While many of the examples Weber presents of charismatic authority
derive from the religious realm, charisma need not be specifically religious. Weber applies the concept to the realm of law (e.g., khadi justice
in Islam, the justice of Solomon) and politics. Charles de Gaulle was
charismatic by force of his personality and his claims to embody the
ideals of France. Nietzches Superman involved an appeal to charismatic authority. Charismatic authority can be malevolent (Caesarism,
Hitler) as well as benevolent (Jesus).
The followers of the charismatic leader do not think that they have
a choice in obeying her command (You have the words of eternal
lifeto whom else could we go?). They never imagine that they author her authority. The belief is that a charismatic leader by force of
heroic personality, holiness, or direct intervention of God deserves adherence. But, in fact, a charismatic leader who lacked followers would
remain unknown to history and incapable of social impact. In that
sense, even though their belief system does not endorse this truth,
followers always create and author the authority of charismatic personalities.
Weber thought charisma to be an inherently instable form of authority. It could only with difficulty live on after the death of the original
charismatic personality. Charisma tended to get tamed, routinized
and transferred to what Weber called the charisma of office. Charisma
if it is to leave any permanent legacymust pass over into institution. Charisma either lapses back, itself, into a form of traditional authority (the new myth of origins and sacred precedents being the
originating actions of the charismatic personality and his followers) or
passes over into a form of rational-legal legitimate authority.
RATIONAL-LEGAL AUTHORITY
The final ideal-type of authority Weber proposes is rational-legal
authority. It is embodied in formal bureaucracy, the rule of law, the
appeal to efficiency, and the rational fit between means and intended
goals. Procedures properly followed displace the personal rule of
charismatic authority (based mainly on witness and virtuosity) or the
substantive traditions of traditional authority. Like charismatic
change, rational-legal authority systems allow for social change but,
unlike charismatic change, in rational-legal authority systems change
is orderly, incremental, and constrained by procedure, law, and scientific calculation.
Indeed, Weber feared that this modern form of authority might
become a kind of iron cage, devoid of spirit and radical possibility.

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Method replaces vision. Charismatic authority can yield revolution or a


major paradigm change. Rational-legal authority only yields progress
within a received paradigm. Weber saw the shift from charismatic to
rational-legal authority exemplified, inter alia, by the shift from Jesus and
the first apostles to the church of offices) as a kind of de-mystification
which took the magic out of life. Reason was increased, wonder reduced.
While Weber partially hoped (it seemed, almost against any rational
hope) that some new charismatic outbreak in modernity might renew
modern rational-legal authority, he mainly remained pessimistic about
its possibility.
IDEAL-TYPES
Weber worked with ideal-types. These were thought-experiments
about logically possible diverse forms or types of social organization.
They were meant to serve as heuristic devices for research purposes, to
be tested against data and experience. In real life, no pure types existed.
Thus, every type of authority-system included, for example, elements
of traditional authority. None totally eclipsed the charismatic form of
authority:
The other types of authority were also bound by tradition. Weber
gave much attention to the transformation of charismatic authority into traditional authority. The rational-legal type of authority
bureaucracywas encased in the tradition of its own particular
form of legitimacy. In a rational-legal order, as understood by Max
Weber, rules are derived from and subsumed under other rules, in
an ascending pyramid. At the pinnacle stand the most general
laws, written constitutions, fundamental principles, unspoken
postulatesthe things which are unquestioned. These fundamental principles and postulates of any legitimate political order, even
a rational-legal order, are ultimately charismatic, but they are
transmitted and received as traditions compelling respect both for
their sacred properties and for their traditional givenness.12

Rational-legal authority (modern methodical science, capitalism,


the bureaucratic state-apparatus) derived, in part, from charismatic
breakthroughs. Thus, Weber tied the rise of methodical capitalism to
the Puritan ethic and also saw connections between the rise of modern
science and beliefs that God worked in both the book of scriptures and
the book of nature. To the extent that these originating charismatic
moments get remembered, they serve as dangerous residues. As
Bacon, Einstein, Galileo, and Freud forged new scientific paradigms in
12

Shils, Tradition, 186.

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their time, their example for science can inspire new originators of new
paradigms. Jefferson and the founding fathers revolution toward a
form of the modern democratic state based on constitutional government remains as an exemplar for new radical breakthroughs, what
Jefferson saw as the necessary new revolution every new generation.
Religions (e.g., Christianity) can least of all totally tame their charismatic origins. Thus, one speaksdespite every rational-legal bureaucratic method of governing the Churchof the dangerous memory of
Jesus. Still, despite the fact that all three forms of authority intermingle
to some extent in any concrete organization or societal institution,
Weber thought that one ideal-type always predominates and tends to
subvert or subordinate the competing forms of authority. The rationallegal looks askance at charismatic authority as non-rational, even if it
can never totally tame or routinize it. The logics behind each type of
authority are, in the main, incompatible. You can not, simultaneously,
predominantly follow more than one type. The hegemonic or regnant
form tends to drive out the alternative types.
RE-THINKING THE WEBERIAN PARADIGM
OF AUTHORITY AND POWER
Sociologists have engaged in revisionary work on this Weberian
paradigm of authority and power along three main lines. First, some
question whether Weber has a strong enough notion of conflict ingredient in any authority system and of the inherent ambiguity of all
forms of authority. Second, some sociologists radically redefine the
notion of power which Weber employs, thus changing, in turn, the
definition of authority which is seen as a sub-set of power. Finally,
some sociologists question whether seeing authority as uniquely a
sub-set of power does justice to the wider lens by which to view authority when it is related both to power and influence and includes
leadership as a sub-set of the definition. I want to explore, briefly, each
of these three revisionary moves.
THE INHERENT INSTABILITY OF EVERY AUTHORITY SYSTEM
As we saw, Weber thought that charismatic authority was inherently
instable and needed to pass over into more secure institutionalizations. But he dealt with traditional and rational-legal authority systems as if they were very stable, difficult to deflect or change. Radical
changes in either pattern were the exception rather than the rule. He
saw these two authority-patterns as having massive inertial powers
against disruption. We need to question this assumption.
The heart of this critique of Weber rests on a suspicion that any authority is ever purely legitimate, ever without a messy admixture of

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legitimate power with mere power. The French political scientist,


Betrand de Jouvenal, for example, tends to approach every authority
with some suspicion. He shares the opinion of Lord Acton in his famous dictum that power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Since authority is regularly seen as a sub-set of power, there
is no reason to believe it is any more innocent:
These non-governmental authorities, to which we give the name
social authorities, are no more blessed with an angelic nature than
is Power itself. If they all were so blessed, there could be, depend
on it, nothing but perfect harmony and cooperation between
them. But it is not so: however altruistic one of these authorities,
such as the paternal or the ecclesiastical, is intended by nature to
be, human nature imparts to it a measure of egoism: it tends to
make itself its end. Whereas, conversely, an authority which is by
nature egoist, such as the employers or the feudal lords, is
sobered by time . . . Every authority is, by the law of its nature,
essentially dualist. Being ambitious, each separate authority tends
to grow; being egotistical, to consult only its own immediate interest; being jealous, to pare down the role of the other authorities.
There thus ensues an increased strife of authorities. And this strife
provides the state with its main chance [to grow in centralizing
power and to extend its authority].13

In de Jouvenals view, all power (legitimate or not) is expansionary


by nature. Those robed with power, even legitimate power, bring to it
their own vested interests, narrow perspectives, and insecurities. At
least at times, every legitimate power succumbs to the temptation to
expand power beyond its legitimate spheres. In this view, every form
of empirical legitimate power is inherently instable since insecurity,
interest, and special perspective will tempt the holders of it to move
beyond legitimate power to an exercise of mere power not within their
domain and right. In order to justify this expansion, they will also seek
to expand the writ of legitimacy for their authority beyond its domain.
Beliefs in legitimacy will spill over into distortive ideology. As de
Jouvenal sanely notes: That is not political science which does not
recognize the essential duality of Power: the egoist principle cannot be
purged out of it.14
Subalterns also have mixed motives for submitting to the commands of legitimate authority. Authority rests on more than just consensual belief. It also flows from force and benevolence. Subalterns
13
14

Bertrand de Jouvenal, On Power (Boston: Beacon Press, 1962) 130.


de Jouvenal, On Power, 127.

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submit to authority because it does have power and force and nonsubmission carries consequences of sanction; just as obedience may be
rewarded. Like authorities, subalterns also adhere to belief systems
grounding the legitimacy of particular exercises of power. But they
can, frequently, see through the ruse by which authorities expand
these beliefs into ideology. Subalterns can greet this expansion either
with direct revolt and contestation or with cynical non-compliance.
Finally, every authority system must, in some sense, reward subalterns, deliver real goods to them, be seen as benevolent. Otherwise, it
lacks credibility. In that sense, when, in fact, an authority system ceases
to deliver rewards, belief and adherence in it corrodes. Sociologically,
a well-functioning authority is best seen as deriving from an amalgam
of force, credence, and benevolence. That is no authority informed by
political science which does not expect resistance, non-compliance and
opposition. Conflict is built into any system of legitimate authority because every system of legitimate authority tends to transgress its legitimacy and use mere power.
RE-IMAGINING THE CONTOURS OF POWER
A second frontal assault on the Weberian paradigm for authority
and power comes from authors who reject two essential assumptions
in the Weberian paradigm of power. The first assumption is that power
is a kind of zero-sum reality: the more one has of it, the less others can
have. In zero-sum realities, hierarchy is essentially an ingredient in the
relationship. Ralf Dahrendorf reflects this zero-sum view of power and
authority when he remarks: If either nobody or everybody had authority, the concept would lose its meaning. Authority implies both
domination and subjection, and it therefore implies the existence of
two distinct sets of positions or persons.15
The zero-sum view of power has come under attack from two different directions. The late Harvard sociologist, Talcott Parsons, in a
widely-influential article on power, suggests that we conceive of
power as a system property and as, essentially, relational. He refers to
power as the generalized medium of exchange for political and social systems which mirrors money as the generalized medium of exchange in the economy. Just as wealth need not be a zero-sum reality,
neither need power. Thus, the whole economy may increase in such a
way that not only do the rich get richer but the poor get richer too.
Some rising tides lifts all boats. My increased wealth need not be at the
expense of yours. In a similar way, in political systems, the whole system may increase its units of power such that an increase in power for
15

Dahrendorf, Class and Class Conflict, 173.

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one person or group need not imply a decrease in power for others. All
may experience an expansion of power. Parsons argues that the use of
power, as when the ruled have justified confidence in their rulers, may
achieve objectives which all desire and from which all benefit. Parsons
mainly (and too exclusively) focuses on forms of power which are authoritative, consensual, and which further objective communal goals.16
Some have seen Parsons view of power as something essentially
neutral as, itself, ideologicala defense of the currently operating
political system. Yet he seems to put his finger on a real possibility
within social systems. Some forms of power (against Parsons intent)
may remain oppressive, dominative, and zero-sum. But not all forms
of power have to. Some critics who agree with Parsons general position
on power want, nonetheless, to call what he points to, influence, and
differentiate it from power. Influence is purely persuasive and does not
carry with it any right to coercion. Power, on the other hand, is related
to coercion or force (at least as the last weapon of recourse by authorities). Influence does not have resort to sanctions. Anyone who adopts
this Parsonian definition of power would need to rethink Webers assumptions that power always involves domination and subordination.
There are some forms of cooperative and non-dominative power
power with and not just power over.
Michel Foucault makes a point quite similar to Parsons, although
with much more subversive intentions. For Foucault, too, power is
essentially relational. No one in the net of interaction ever lacks some
power. There are no zeros in this game. Once again, a stark domination-subordination paradigm for power becomes quite misleading.
Subalterns do not just obey, they manufacture their own consent. They
connive or cooperate in any domination that takes place. Subalterns
always, also, have resources of resistance. Foucaults redefinition of
power goes back to a radically democratic understanding of all power
and authority. All government and all authority (whatever the explicit
belief system which legitimates it) is by the consent and connivance of
the governed. Or put slightly differently, powerwhich is always a
two-way relational realityis a network in which everyone is the authority. For Foucault any system of power which denies its inherent
mutual two-way relationality (as does each of the Weberian forms of
legitimate authority) is simply not authoritative or legitimate. Foucault
is not likely, of course, to want to keep the distinction between legitimate and mere power. Power, in his view, involves a game of negotia16
Talcott Parsons, On the Concept of Political Power, Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society, 104 (1963) 23262; Parsons, On the Concept of Influence, Public
Opinion Quarterly 27 (1963) 3762.

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tions, resistances, and strategies but no forms of it are any more legitimate than any others. There is no such thing as authority.17
MUST POWER BE CONCEIVED IN VOLUNTARISTIC TERMS?
Other social scientists have assaulted the Weberian definition of
power by focusing on its overly voluntaristic nature. This is the move
made by Steven Lukes in his widely influential sociological study,
Power: A Radical View. Lukes notes that it is a misleading indicator of
power only to look at the probabilities that someones commands or
explicit decisions will be followed. Many powerful people do not directly engage in command or get involved in explicit decisions. They
control, however, the agendaas it were, under the table, behind the
scenes. Even before any decisions are made, they determine the
assumptions. They exercise what the Italian Marxist social thinker,
Antonio Gramsci, called hegemony. Lukes distinguishes two different
ways of looking at power. In what he calls the one-dimensional view
(e.g., Webers), an analysis of power focuses on explicit commands and
decision-making. It misses, however, the ways power can be exercised
within the system, unconsciously, prior to any decision-taking, to limit
decision-making to acceptable issues.
Political systems (and the groups which operate within them) can
prevent demands from ever becoming explicitly political issues or
even from being made. Thus, for example, a mere reputation for
power, unsupported by any explicit acts of command or power, may
be sufficient to inhibit the emergence of certain issues (e.g., environmental controls). A one-dimensional view of power may not reveal the
less visible ways in which a social system may be biased in favor of
certain groups and against others.18 Prestige, for example, as a form of
power may sway actions, even in the absence of any explicit commands or decisions.
CONFLATING POWER AND INFLUENCE
A third way of drastically revising the classic Weberian understanding of authority and power moves in the direction of joining
together the notions of power and influence. In this view, authority is
a sub-set not just of power but also of influence. Influence points to the
arena of leadership outside of legitimate office or authority. Weber
17
Michel Foucault, Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings (New York:
Pantheon, 1980).
18
Lukes, Power, 37. For this view of background power predating any decision, see
Matthew Cresson, The Unpolitics of Air Pollution: A Study of Non-Decision Making in Cities
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971).

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tended too much to address formal authority. Leadership is a kind of


informal authority which flows from expertise, experience, personal
character, or being centrally located in a strong inter-personal network
within groups or organizations. Webers analysis of rational-legal and
traditional forms of authority prescinds from the personal qualities of
the wielder of authority. In rational-legal forms of authority, for example, we obey the office, not the person of the office-holder, or we
have a government of laws, not of persons. In traditional authority the
power of tradition rules, no matter the personal qualities of the bearer
or articulator of the tradition.
Charismatic authority, however, does not neatly fit this pattern. It is
really best seen as a variant form of influence or leadership. It seems as
much persuasive as coercive. Nor can influence be truly divorced from
a consideration of authority. Formal authority systems, in which the
wielders of authority over a long period of time or in the main even in
one time period lack leadership qualities (e.g., bishops who are inept
leaders in a church; university administrators without competence),
lose credibility.
The very belief system which grounds the type of authority gets undermined if the authority system does not deliver rewards to its members. We do also speak of someone being, e.g., an authoritative scholar
or work colleague (by reason of her capabilities and integrity) even
outside any formal authoritative system of power. Authority based on
leadership can only appeal to persuasion, not to coercion. But it may
be more powerful than the authority based on mere power. Legitimate
power does dependin the last analysison credibility, credence, and
effective deliverance of benevolent goods to those who yield to it.
Subalterns can transfer this credibility and credence away from formal
authority toward leaders who lack all legitimate authority but whose
qualities may be likened to those found in charismatic authority: an intrinsic personal authority based on wisdom, competence, character, or
insight.
APPLICATION TO THE CHURCH
I was asked to address in this article a specifically sociological and
general understanding of authority, power, and leadership. Other
essays in this issue will address more directly authority in the Church.
But several elements in this more general discussion can be directed
toward authority in the Church:
(1) Even theories of divine origin of authority (e.g., as in theories of
the authority of pope, bishops, the ordained) do not preclude appeals
beyond the divinely instituted authority to God or the originating
charismatic authority of Jesus.

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(2) The Church represents an amalgam of traditional, charismatic,


and rational-legal forms of authority. Its explicitly religious character,
however, lifts up strongly the authority of holiness. Charismatic authority in the Church can never be fully routinized.
(3) In the Church, as elsewhere, there is no generalized authority
without specific limits of competency as to persons and domains.
(4) No matter what the belief system which grounds the authority
system, in fact no authority is credible which does not serve its membership and deliver benevolence and genuine goods to it.
(5) Authority of office, systematically cut off from real leadership,
sociologically erodes its own authority.
(6) There is no reason to suspect, following in this de Jouvenal, that
even legitimate authority in the Church will resist inevitable temptations to link legitimate power to mere power. Hence, Actons dictum
applies no less to the Church than any other group: power corrupts
and absolute power corrupts absolutely.

John A. Coleman, S.J., served for over twenty years on the faculty of the Jesuit
School of Theology and the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley. Recently he assumed the Charles Casassa Chair of Social Values at Loyola-Marymount University
in Los Angeles.