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Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1

Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

3 and 10 July 2008

Diagnostic Radiology Imaging Physics


20082008-2009 Course Topics (hours)
Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1
Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

Atom, Radiation & Matter (3)


Computers, Networks, PACS
and Teleradiology (1)
X-ray Production (2)
ScreenScreen-Film Radiography (2)
Film Processing (off(off-line)
Image Quality (2)
Radiation Protection and
Radiation Dosimetry (2)
Radiation Biology (2)
Fluoroscopy (2)
Computed and Digital

Brent K. Stewart, PhD, DABMP


Professor, Radiology and Medical Education
Director, Diagnostic Physics
a copy of this lecture may be found at:
http://courses.washington.edu/radxphys/PhysicsCourse.html

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

Chapters 1 & 2 Lecture Objectives

Roentgen (1901, physics): discovery of xx-radiation


Rabi (1944, physics): nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR) methodology
Bloch and Purcell (1952, physics): NMR precision
measurements
Cormack and Hounsfield (1979, medicine): computed
assisted tomography (CT)
Ernst (1991, chemistry): highhigh-resolution NMR
spectroscopy
Laterbur and Mansfield (2003, medicine): discoveries
concerning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Spatial Resolution
Contrast

Generally describe what processes are involved in the


diagnostic radiology imaging chain
Describe the basic characteristics of electromagnetic
( ) radiation and how they are mathematically related
Describe how atomic electronic structure determines the
characteristics of emitted
radiation
Particulate radiation and the atomic nucleus what
whats the
matter?

UW and Brent K Stewart, PhD, DABMP

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

What a Nobel Path you Tread

Intro to Medical Imaging what are we after technically?

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

Radiography (2)
Radiological Adjuncts (off(off-line)
Computed Tomography (5)
Ultrasound (3)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
(2)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(6)
Mammography (3)
Lab and Q&A Review (3)
Nuclear Medicine (6)
Total = 46 contact hours

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1


Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

3 and 10 July 2008

Introduction to Medical Imaging

Transparency of Human Body to

Medical imaging requires some form of radiation capable


of penetrating tissues
This radiation must interact with the body
bodys various
tissues in some differential manner to provide contrast
The diagnostic utility of a medical image relates to both
technical image quality and acquisition conditions
Image quality results from many tradetrade-offs

Radiation

MRI

Patient safety levels of radiation utilized (ALARA


(ALARA))
Spatial resolution
Temporal resolution
Noise properties

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

X-rays the Basic Radiological Tool

Roentgens experimental apparatus (Crookes


tube) that led to the discovery of the new
radiation on 8 Nov. 1895 he demonstrated
that the radiation was not due to charged
particles, but due to an as yet unknown
source, hence x radiation or x-rays

c.f. Macovski, A. Medical Imaging Systems, p. 3.

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

NMR T1 for Tumor and Normal Tissue

Known as the radiograph of


Bera Roentgens hand taken
22 Dec. 1895

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

UW and Brent K Stewart, PhD, DABMP

c.f. Damadian, R, et al. PNAS 1974; 71: 14711471-3.

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1


Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

3 and 10 July 2008

Agent Scully, can


cant you tell the difference between a CT
and MR image? What
Whats a PP-E-T scanner anyway?

A Systematic Approach to Medical Imaging

Looking for Mulders brain?

Not just for


Fido anymore:
arf-arf!

c.f. http://www.askdrscully.com/

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UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

X-ray Computed Tomography

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

X-ray Tube
X-ray Beam

CT Table

+k

+k

Detectors

2D FT

:
Figure from Dr. Mahesh, John
Hopkins, MD, AAPM Handout.

-k
-k

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-k
-k

c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics of


Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., pp. 426, 429 & 461.

-k

-k

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Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1


Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

3 and 10 July 2008

Ultrasound

c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics


of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., p. 501.

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Nuclear Medicine/Positron Emission Tomography

c.f. http://www.cs.adelaide.edu.au/~evan/
project/prog1.htm

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Spatial Resolution What are the limits?

c.f. http://www.griffwason.com/gw_images/
MRI_scanner/glwMRI_scanner/glw-pet_scanner1.jpg

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

c.f. http://www.medscape.com/content/2003/
00/45/79/457982/art00/45/79/457982/art-ar457982.fig10.jpg

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Contrast What does it depend on?


Radiation must interact with the body
bodys various tissues in
some differential manner to provide contrast
X-ray/CT: differences in e- density (e-/cm3 = e-/gr)
Ultrasound: differences in acoustic impedance (Z = c)
MRI: endogenous and exogenous differences
endogenous: T1, T2, H, flow, perfusion, diffusion
exogenous: TR, TE, and TI

NM: concentration ( ) of radionuclide or + emitter


Contrast agents exaggerate natural contrast levels
Iodinated (x(x-ray/CT)
Paramagnetic (MRI)
Microspheres (US)
c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics
of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., p. 15.

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Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1


Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

3 and 10 July 2008

Radiation and the Physics of Medical Imaging

Radiation

Without radiation, life itself would


be impossible
impossible Prof. Stewart
Radiation is all around us. From
natural sources like the Sun to
man made sources that provide
life saving medical benefits,
smoke detectors, etc...
etc...
- nuclearactive.com
You
Youre soaking in it
it Madge,
Palmolive spokeswoman
10 Gy/day keeps the Dr. away
away
"It
"Its not the volts that
thatll get ya, it
its
the amps.
amps. Billy Crystal,
Running Scared
UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

The propagation of energy through:


Space
Matter

Can be thought of as either:


Corpuscular (particles, e.g., electron)
Electromagnetic (
)
Acoustic

Acoustic radiation awaits the ultrasound sessions later


on in the course

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Characterization of Waves

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Electromagnetic (

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) Radiation

radiation consists of the transport of energy through


space as a combination of an electric ( ) and magnetic
( ) field, both of which vary sinusoidally as a function of
space and time, e.g., (t) = 0 sin(2 ct/ ), where is the
wavelength of oscillation and c is the speed of light
Amplitude: intensity of the wave
Wavelength ( ): distance between identical points on adjacent
cycles [m, nm] (1 nm = 10-9 m)
Period ( ): time required to complete one cycle ( ) of a wave [sec]
Frequency ( ): number of periods per second = (1/ ) [Hz or sec-1]
Speed of radiation: c = [m/sec]
c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics
of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., p.18.

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c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics


of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., p.19.

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Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1


Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

The Electromagnetic (

3 and 10 July 2008

) Spectrum

Radiation Share the Following

Physical manifestations are classified in the


spectrum based on
energy (E) and wavelength ( ) and comprise the following general
categories:
Radiant heat, radio waves, microwaves
Light
Light infrared, visible and ultraviolet
X-rays and gammagamma-rays (high energy

emitted from the nucleus)

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

c.f. http://www.uic.com.au/ral.htm

Velocity in vacuum (c) = 3 x 108 m/sec


Highly directional travel, esp. for shorter
Interaction with matter via either absorption or scattering
Unaffected by external or fields
Characterized by , frequency ( ), and energy (E
(E)
SoSo-called wavewave-particle duality,
duality, the manifestation
depending on E and relative dimensions of the detector
to . All
radiation has zero mass.
*X*X-rays are ionizing radiation, removing bound electrons
- can cause either immediate or latent biological damage
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Wave and Particle Characteristics

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Wave and Particle Characteristics

Wave characteristics used to explain interference and


diffraction phenomena: c [m/sec] = [m] [1/sec]
As c is essentially constant, then
1/ (inversely proportional)
-9
Wavelength often measured in nanometers (nm = 10 m)
-1
Frequency measured in Hertz (Hz): Hz = 1/sec or sec

Particle characteristics when interacting with matter,


high energy
radiation act as energy quanta: photons
E [Joule] = h = hc/ , where h = Planck
Plancks constant
-34
-18
(6.62x10 JouleJoule-sec = 4.13x10 keVkeV-sec)
If E expressed in keV and in nm: E [keV] = 1.24/ [nm]
c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics
of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., p.18.

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

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c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics


of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., p.18.

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Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1


Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

Transparency of Human Body to

3 and 10 July 2008

Radiation

Raphex 2000 Question:

Radiation

G46.
G46. Regarding electromagnetic radiation:
A. Wavelength is directly proportional to frequency.
B. Velocity is directly proportional to frequency.
C. Energy is directly proportional to frequency.
D. Energy is directly proportional to wavelength.
E. Energy is inversely proportional to frequency.

MRI

c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics


of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., p.18.

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

c.f. Macovski, A. Medical Imaging Systems, p. 3.

Raphex 2001 Question:

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Radiation

Raphex 2001 Question:

G51. Which of the following has the highest photon


energy?

UW and Brent K Stewart, PhD, DABMP

Radiation

G52. Which of the following has the longest wavelength?


A. Radio waves
B. Visible light
C. Ultraviolet
D. XX-rays
E. Gamma rays

A. Radio waves
B. Visible light
C. Ultrasound
D. XX-rays
E. Ultraviolet

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Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1


Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

Raphex 2002 Question:

3 and 10 July 2008

Cartoon of the Day

Radiation

G51.
G51. Visible light has a wavelength of about 6 x 10-7 m.
gammas have a wavelength of 10-12 m and an
energy of 1.2 MeV. The approximate energy of visible
light is:

60Co

A. 720 MeV
B. 72 keV
C. 2 eV
D. 7.2 x 10-4 eV
E. 2 x 10-6 eV

E1 = hc/ 1 and E2 = hc/ 2, so E1 1 = hc = E2 2


E2 = E1 1/ 2 = (12 x 105 eV)(10-12 m)/(6 x 10-7 m) = 2 eV
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c.f. www.physics.utah.edu/~mohit/Physics_Cartoons.html. UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

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Particulate Radiation
Corpuscular radiations
are comprised of moving
particles of matter the
energy of which is based
on the mass and velocity
of the particles
Kinetic energy (KE)
= m0v2 (for nonnonrelativistic velocities)
Simplified Einstein
massmass-energy relationship:
E = m0c2

The most significant particulate


radiations of interest are:
2+
Alpha particles
Electrons
e
+
Positron
Negatrons
+
Protons
p
0
Neutrons
n
Interactions with matter are
collisional in nature and are
governed by the conservation
of energy (E) and momentum
(p = mv).

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c.f. http://www.ktfhttp://www.ktf-split.hr/periodni/en/index.html

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Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1


Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

3 and 10 July 2008

Electronic Structure Electron Orbits

Electronic Structure Electron Orbits (2)

Pauli exclusion principle


No two electrons in an atom may
have identical quantum numbers
max. 2n2 electrons per shell

Quantum Numbers
n: principal q.n. which e- shell
: azimuthal angular momentum
q.n. ( = 0, 1, ... , nn-1)
m : magnetic q.n. orientation of
the e magnetic moment in a
magnetic field (m = - , - +1, ..., 0,
... -1, )
ms: spin q.n. direction of the espin (ms = +
+ or -)
For a more detailed discussion, see - http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/eleorb.html
c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics
of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., p.21.

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s, p, d, f, g, h,
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c.f. Hendee, et al. Medical


Imaging Physics, 2nd ed., p.4.

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c.f. Hendee, et al. Medical


Imaging Physics, 4th ed., p.13.

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Electronic Structure Electron Binding Energy


Eb

Z2

Highly suggested, very nice detailed description - http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hyde.html

c.f. http://www.ktfhttp://www.ktf-split.hr/periodni/en/index.html

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c.f. http://astro.uhttp://astro.u-strasbg.fr/~koppen/discharge/

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics


of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., p.22.

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Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1


Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

3 and 10 July 2008

Radiation from Electron Transitions


Characteristic XX-rays
Auger Electrons and Fluorescent Yield (
(characteristic xx-rays/total)

The Atomic Nucleus


Covered in Nuclear Medicine course (May 2008)
Composition of the Nucleus

K):

Protons and Neutron


Number of protons = Z
Number of neutrons = N
Mass number = A = Z + N
Chemical symbol = X
Isotopes: same Z, but different A
Notation: AZXN, but AX uniquely defines an isotope (also written
as XZ and N = A - Z
X-A) as X

Preference for Auger e- at low Z

For example 131I or II-131, rather than 13153X78

c.f. Bushberg, et al. The Essential Physics


of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., p.23.

UW and Brent K. Stewart PhD, DABMP

c.f. Sorenson, et al. Physics in


Nuclear Medicine, 1st ed., p.8.

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Raphex 2000 Question: Atomic Structure

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Raphex 2002 Question: Atomic Structure

G10G10-G14. Give the charge carried by each of the following:

G17. Tungsten has a KK-shell binding energy of 69.5 keV.


Which of the following is true?

A. +4
B. +2
C. +1
D. 0
E. -1

A. The LL-shell has a higher binding energy.


B. Carbon has a higher KK-shell binding energy.
C. Two successive 35 keV photons could remove an electron
from the KK-shell.
D. A 69 keV photon could not remove the KK-shell electron, but
could remove an LL-shell electron.

G10.
G10. Alpha particle
G11.
G11. Neutron
G12.
G12. Electron
G13.
G13. Positron
G14.
G14. Photon

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Introduction to Medical Imaging Chapter 1


Radiation and the Atom Chapter 2

3 and 10 July 2008

Raphex 2001 Question: Atomic Structure

Raphex 2001 Question: Atomic Structure

G18. How many of the following elements have 8


electrons in their outer shell?
Element: Sulphur
Z:
16
A. None
B. 1
C. 2
D. 3
E. 4

Chlorine
17

Argon
18

G18.
B
The nth shell can contain a maximum
of 2n2 electrons, but no shell can contain more than 8 if it
is the outer shell. The shell filling is as follows:
Z
K shell L shell M shell N shell
Sulphur 16
2
8
6
0
Chlorine 17
2
8
7
0
Argon
18
2
8
8
0
Potassium 19
2
8
8
1

Potassium
19

For interactive answer, see - http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Ar/econ.html

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Raphex 2002 Question: Atomic Structure


G15. 22688Ra contains 88 __________ .
A. Electrons
B. Neutrons
C. Nucleons
D. Protons and neutrons

c.f. http://www.ktfhttp://www.ktf-split.hr/periodni/en/index.html

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