You are on page 1of 9


Limiting Reagent


Al + CuCl2 = Cu + AlCl3.
One experiment had .25 g Al. The other had .05 g Al. Al was the limiting reagent in the
second one done (.05 g Al). .51 g CuCl2 was used in both experiments. CuCl2 was the
limiting reagent in the first experiment (.25 g Al)
The chemical reaction that has been experienced is between Aluminum (foil) and a solution of
Copper Chloride. The experimenter will just fill a receptacle with a deliberate amount of water,
then take a teaspoon of Copper Chloride, mass it, and add it to the water to make the
arrangement. The dissolving of the CuCl2 is a physical response that happens in science.
Shaping the Solution
The response happens when the Aluminum is added to the recently shaped Copper Chloride. In
the first place however, the experimenter requires to mass the Aluminum. Note that this amount
is essential and will decide the results of the response. Given that here we utilize the amount of
the Aluminum 0.25 g first. We will attempt to make one of the reactants the constraining reagent
it is vital to take note of some imperative proportions.
The Solute
At the point when the aluminum is added to the solution, the experimenter will notice percolating
and a sudden appearance of a red substance. This red substance is an accelerate of the response
as the aluminum supplanted the less dynamic metal Copper in the watery solution. Never again is
the arrangement made up of copper chloride particles, it is comprised of aluminum chloride
particles. The aluminum substance has been supplanted by copper, which is the recently framed


During the lab test, we effectively saw that a red accelerate framed, yet it is additionally vital to
discover proof for the aluminum ionizing in the arrangement. In the event that the arrangements
shading changing is seen acutely amid the response, it can be seen that it has lost its light blue
tone that we noted it was described by at first. This uncommon shading change is confirmation of
a compound change.
Subjective Observations:
In this response aluminum goes from being an impartial particle to being a particle in a chloride
solution. It goes from having zero to having a positive charge so it loses electrons and in this
manner Al is oxidized. Copper goes from being a decidedly charged particle in copper chloride
to an unbiased iota (all molecules are nonpartisan in control). In this manner it is decreased.
Chloride remains a contrarily charged particle the entire time-it is never oxidized. Chloride is an
outsider particle.
Oxidation and Reduction
After the response has finished for the most part this occurs without any forethought. The
arrangement and the item then changed through a channel to independent the solids and the
fluids. Filtration is a method for isolating a blend and exceptionally powerful in isolating solids
from fluids. At that point, the filter paper, the precipitates and (potential) abundant reactant are
left to dry. After that, accepting that there is overabundance aluminum as there was in our
response, the aluminum and the copper are isolated which is done by utilizing tweezers in light
of the fact that they have altogether different colors and have distinctive qualities also.


Post Reaction
During this lab experiment, the practice has been made to determine the quantities of the limiting
reagent in a synthetic reaction. The test be performing is a single substitution reaction which
happens in an aqueous solution. The procedure goes ahead as follows;
Copper Chloride is a twofold Ionic compound, in this way when it is added to water, it can shape
an aqueous solution. This is conceivable in light of the fact that it is an ionic compound, and
along these lines it shapes particles in an answer. This is just conceivable with ionic mixes and
Arrhenius acids.
Copper Chloride Solution Equation
Frequently in an analysis there are numerous responses, and subsequently various adjusted
mathematical statements that can portray the whole experiment.

CuCl2 + H2O -> CuCl2 (aq)

Ratios and Balanced Equation

When dealing with any sort of reaction, having a balanced equation is a necessary resource for
proper measurements and data analysis. This is because of the law of conservation of mass:
which states that in any reaction the mass of the reactants must be equal to the mass of the
The balanced equation for this reaction is:
2Al(s) + 3CuCl2(aq) -> 3Cu (s) + 2AlCl3(aq)
This equation is a single replacement reaction in which an active metal (aluminum) replaces a
less active metal (copper).


The molar ratios can be broken down:
2M of Al (s) is needed to produce 3M of Cu (s) -> 2:3 ratio of Al:Cu
This is important for finding the limiting reagent, because anytime you are performing this
reaction, the products will combine in this ratio. This too is because of the law of conservation of
Copper Chloride
Copper Chloride is an Ionic Compound made up of the metal Copper and the non-metal
Chlorine. Thus it is custom to name the compound by stating the Metal first and the Non-Metal
second, in its ion name (ie Chloride not Chlorine)
Qualitative Observation:
Copper Chloride
It is important to note any physical characteristics of the reactants so that after the reaction, the
experimenter can note any changes in color or properties. Those physical changes can be
indicative of a chemical reaction. Copper Chloride has a distinctly blue hue, and once it is added
to the water, the aqueous solution thus has a turquoise hue as well.
Qualitative Observation:
When the reaction first occurs, there is a lot of bubbling that will appear. This is not because a
hydrogen gas is being released as a result of the reaction as often bubble indicate. In fact in this
reaction it is because as soon as the aluminum comes in contact with the copper chloride the
solution starts to boil.


Boiling is also indicative of the release of heat, meaning that this reaction is an exothermic
Mass is always be measured in grams (or kg) in labs, which can be easily done using a gram
scale. The amount of substance though is measured in moles. Moles are indicated by coefficients
in a balanced equation.
Qualitative Observation: Density
When the aluminum is placed in the solution, it is clear that it does not sink. This means that
aluminum must be less dense than the copper chloride solution. However once the copper
precipitate starts to form, the copper sinks to the bottom- evidence that copper is more dense than
the aluminum chloride solution and of aluminum.
Limiting Reagent (CuCl2)

Note any known measured or calculated mass of reactants. Here the mass used for the

limiting reagent is 0.51 g.


Multiply mass by 1 mole/formula mass :-> this gives us the moles for the

measured quantity.

Divide those moles by the coefficients of the balanced equation (2 for Al and 3 for


Compare those two numbers and whichever is the smaller number will be the limiting

What is a Limiting Reagent?
A limiting reagent is the reactant in a reaction that has the least "batches" of. If one thought of an


experiment like a recipe, the limiting reagent is like the ingredient that runs out the quickest. If
not for that ingredient, a larger amount of product could be made, however the limiting reagent is
keeping the reaction from having a greater product outcome. In an experiment with a limiting
reagent there will always be an excess reactant, and thus the reaction will never be fully
Products Formed;
Once the aluminum replaced the copper in the aqueous solution, a copper solid precipitate was
formed. To find the mass of this solid, the solution is then filtered and the solid is left to dry out.
Then any excess aluminum is separated in order to have an accurate measurement of the copper.
Quantitative Observation
Difference between accuracy and precision
Accuracy is how close a measurement is to the actual value. To find out whether the
measurements are accurate, one can find the theoretical yield of a specific product. Precision is
how close measurements are to each other. If the same experiment is repeated multiple times, the
results of the practice would be comparable to each other and will determine the precision of
Determining the Theoretical Yield of Copper and Aluminum Chloride
Al moles used= AlCl3 moles produced (0.011)
CuCl2 moles used= Cu moles produced (0.017)
Multiply Mass of AlCl3 and Cu by the indicated moles
AlCl3 : 011 x (133.5)= 1.469 grams of AlCl3


Mass of Cu= .017 x (63.5)= 1.080 grams of Cu

To find the quantity of excess reactant , multiply the used molar amount of the limiting reagent
by the ratio between it and the other reactant.
.017 mol x 2/3= 0.011 mol Al
Subtract X from original molar amount to discover excess reactant.
.064 mol - .011 mol= .053 mol Al
Multiply this molar amount by formula mass of reactant. The moles will be canceled out and
mass of excess reactant will be left.
.053 mol x 27 gram/mol = 1.431 grams


Limiting Reagents. (2015). Boundless. Retrieved from,. (2015). Chemistry Tutorial : Limiting Reagents and Reactants in Excess.
Retrieved 13 November 2015, from