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............................................................................................................................................ 2
1.

............................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 ................................................................................ 3

2. ............................................................................................................................. 3-5
3. ........................................................................ 5
4. , , .................................................. 5-6
5. ............................................... 7
5.1 (Hg) ...................................................................................................................... 7
5.2 (Cd) ............................................................................................................................... 7
5.3 (Cu)............................................................................................................................... 7
5.4 (Pb) .......................................................................................................................... 8
5.5 (Fe) .............................................................................................................................. 8
5.6 (Zn) ..................................................................................................................... 9
5.7 (Cr) ............................................................................................................................... 9
5.8 (Ni) ................................................................................................................................ 9
5.9 (As) .......................................................................................................................... 10
6. ............. 10-11
6.1 ........................................................ 10
6.2 ................................... 10-11
7. ............................................................................................................................ 12-13
: .


Minamata 34.000
Minamata.
1956.
Minamata ,
Minamata
.
.
,
200.000
Minamata
Minamata.

, 2.255 , 2.376
..

W. Eugene Smith.
Tomoko Uemura , Minamata, 1972 [1]

, ,
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Minamata, , .
.

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-,
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50%
24 .
mg/Lt mg/Kg .
.
LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level)

. mg/Kg
.
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Hg >Cu >Zn >Ni >Pb >Cd >As >Cr >Sn >Fe >Mn
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6

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. [16,12,
23,24,25,26,27,28,29]

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0,01 mg/Kg .
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100 mg/Kg.
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[18,17,12]

5.4 (Pb)
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5.6 (Zn)
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[13,12]

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5.8 (Ni)
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. [12,13,14]

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10

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. [19,20,21,22,28,29]

11

7.
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2. , , , . . 50
, ,
, 2004.
3. , , , 2012

4. ., (2004). .
., .
. ,
5.

.,

.,
-
:UNIVERSITY STUDIO PRESS, , 1998

.,

6. http://www.e-yliko.gr/htmls/perivallon/kallisto_files_/Ydatika_oikosys.pdf

7. http://www.metal.ntua.gr/uploads/1588/Wastewater_Treatment_Engineering.pdf

8. . .
., : ,
, 2007
9. . , , : , , 2004
10. ., ., .
- , : , .
2008
11. . , , : , , 2002
12. . . , .
: University Studio Press, 1996: 89-131
13. . , . , 2008:
58-93
14. . . ,
. . : , 2002: 61-68
15. Atchison G. J., Henry M. G. and Sandheinrich M. B. Effects of metals on fish behavior: a review.
Environmental Biology of Fishes. 1987; 18: 11-25
16. Jorhem L. Heavy metals. In: DMello J.P.F., Food Safety Contaminants and Toxins. CABI
Publishing, 2003: 199-215
17.Gibney M.J., Vorster H.H., Kok F.J. . :
.., 2007
18. Gropper S.S., Smith J.L. & Groff J.L. . : 2.
.. , 2008: 481-577
12

19. Kouroutou P., Kalis S., Chagistavrou K., Linou A., the effects of occupational heavy metal
exposure on morbidity and mortality, archives of hellenic medicine, 2012, 29(1):70-76
20. Kishi R, Tarumi T, Uchino E, Miyake H. Chromium content of organs of chromate workers

with lung cancer. Am J Ind Med, 1987, 11:6774


21. Glahn F, Schmidt-Heck W, Zellmer S, Guthke R, Wiese J, Golka K et al. Cadmium, cobalt and
lead cause stress response, cell cycle deregulation and increased steroid as well as
xenobiotic metabolism in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells which is
coordinated by at least nine transcription fac- tors. Arch Toxicol 2008, 82:513524
22. Afridi HI, Kazi TG, Jamali MK, Kazi GH, Arain MB, Jalbani N et al. Evaluation of toxic metals in
biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Toxicol Ind Health 2006, 22:381 393
23. http://anercia.com/el/heavy-metals
24. http://www.greenmed.gr/arthra/toxika-varea-metalla-ke-i-epiptosi-tous-stin-ygeia.html
25. http://www.e-asis.com/index.php/upiresies/analusi-barewn-metallwn-apotoksinosi
26.http://www.efet.gr/portal/page/portal/efetnew/legislations/sociable_legislations/contaminan
ts
27. http://www.paidiatros.com/prolipsi/perivalon/dilitiriasi-ydrargyros
28. ., , . ,
20, , 1984
29. ., , , .
. , 1997

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