You are on page 1of 42

Another Handout for the ECL-Impaired

(by your Learning-Guide Dog: Mr. Williams)


A. Pay very close attention to SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT. In the grammar
questions, always look for the SUBJECT first if you are supposed to pick a verb to go
with it.
1. John and Steve ______ absent today.
a. is
b. was
c. am
d. are
2. The police ______ here to question you about the robbery.
a. are
b. is
c. was
d. has been
3. The reason for his many absences and failures _____ easy to determine.
a. are
b. were
c. is
d. have been
4. My father, who ________ in Oklahoma, is a retired rancher.
a. live
b. living
c. is live
d. lives
5. ECL tests ______ fun.
a. is
b. are
c. was

d. are being

6. The books that we use at DLI _______ good.


a. is
b. am
c. are
d. was
7. Eagles ______ faster than chickens do.
a. flew
b. flying
c. fly
d. were flying
8. Economics ______ a difficult subject.
a. are
b. am
c. is
d. were
9. There __________ some bad accidents on Loop 1604 in recent years.
a. are
b. have been
c. has been
d. was
10. Dogs ________ to chase cats.
a. likes
b. like
c. liking

d. are like

11. There ______ three students waiting to see the supervisor.


a. is
b. was
c. are
d. has been
12. Dogs and cats ________ each other.
a. dislikes
b. disliking
c. are dislike

d. dislike

13. Several people _______ that tomorrow is a holiday.


a. says
b. saying
c. are said
d. say

14. There ______ a big problem with computer #3.


a. were
b. was
c. have been
d. are
15. What _______ the ages of your children?
a. is
b. was
c. am
d. are
16. The news ______ good about your X-rays.
a. are
b. were
c. is
d. have been
17. This exercise _________ to be easy.
a. seem
b. seeming
c. is seem

d. seems

18. Five aircraft ________ parked near Hangar 436.


a. is
b. was
c. are
d. does
19.

a. is

Three sheep ________ killed and eaten by the hungry wolves.


b. was
c. were
d. has been

B. Pay very close attention to TIME WORDS, such as


YESTERDAY TOMORROW
RIGHT NOW
LAST YEAR
NEXT YEAR
TWO WEEKS AGO
AT THIS MOMENT
These words determine the TENSE of the VERB that goes in the blank.
1. I _______ to the airport tomorrow.
a. going
b. went
c. will go
d. am go
2. I _______ a good movie last night.
a. see
b. saw
c. seeing
d. seen
3. The children __________ right now.
a. playing
b. play
c. are play
d. are playing
4. My friend _________ yesterday.
a. graduates
b. is graduate
c. graduated
d. will graduate
5. Every afternoon I ________ to play tennis.
a. like
b. likes
c. liked
d. has liked
6. At this moment, the supervisor __________ your record.
a. examines b. is examining
c. examined
d. will examining

7. I _________ in the military for 6 years.


a. is
b. am
c. are
d. have been
8. By the time you graduate next month, you ________ at least 20 ECL tests.
a. will have taken
b. will be take
c. will have took
d. are taking
9. He _________ a long time ago.
a. graduates
b. graduate
c. is graduated
10. My dog _______ cars all the time.
a. chases
b. is chase
c. chase

d. graduated

d. chasing

11. Lt. Smith and his wife _______ in Europe last year.
a. were
b. was
c. are
d. has been
12. I _________ at DLI since Aug 15.
a. am
b. have been
c. has been

d. will be

13. Your father _________ two hours ago.


a. call
b. calls
c. is call
d. called
14. The privates _________ lunch right now.
a. are eating
b. eats
c. eating
d. was eating
15. I ____________ to Paris next year.
a. went
b. am going
c. did go

d. have gone

16. Yesterday, I _________ to the movies.


a. go
b. am go
c. went
d. will go
17. The next ECL _________ two weeks from now.
a. are
b. will be
c. were to be
d. was
18. I _____________ the Alamo.
a.
has never visit b. have never visited

c. never visiting

d. no visit

C. If you have TWO CLAUSES, pay close attention to the VERB TENSE of the
completed clause because that will determine the tense of the verb you need to put in the
blank.
1. While I was driving to work this morning, I _________ about my briefing.

a. think

b. was think

c. will think

d. was thinking

2. First, I went to the movie; then, I ______ some pizza.


a. eat
b. will eat
c. ate
d. am eating
3. Before the firemen could extinguish the flames, the house _________.
a. will already burn down
b. was already burn down
c. is already burn down
d. had already burned down
4. When I was a child, I always ______ my homework.
a. did
b. do
c. will do
d. have done
5. Before I went to bed last night, I _________ my teeth.
a. brushed
b. brush
c. brushing
d. was brush
6. Because it was raining, we _________ the picnic.
a. cancel
b. canceled
c. are cancel
d. cancels
7. I __________ the taste of raw tomatoes ever since I was a little boy.
a. like
b. am like
c. liking
d. have liked
8. I need to borrow some money because I ________ to bring my wallet this morning.
a. forget
b. am forget
c. will forget
d. forgot
9. While I was in college, I ________ on most of my tests.
a. cheat
b. have cheat
c. cheated
d. am cheating
10. You may leave now, unless you _______ to hear the same lecture again.
a. wanted
b. want
c. are wanting
d. will be wanted
11. Just as I was walking into the classroom, the bell ________.
a. ring
b. ringing
c. rang
d. did run
12. I will sit in the car and wait while you ________ in the store.
a. shops
b. shopped
c. will be shop
d. shop
13. Before I could stomp on the brake, I ________ the dog.
a. will hit
b. was hit
c. hit
d. have hit
14. Because it ________ so much last night, I was unable to play soccer.
a. rain
b. rains
c. rained
d. raining
15. Just as I walked outside, it _________ to rain.
a. started
b. starts
c. starting
d. is start
16. Before I mail this letter tomorrow, I __________ it.

a. am reread

b. will reread

c. did reread

d. rereading

17. I was sitting in my car when _________________.


a. the storm start
b. starts the storm
c. the storm started
d. the storm is start
18. While you are taking the ECL tomorrow, I ___________ your papers.
a. read
b. am reading
c. will be reading
d. have read
19. The policeman shot the suspects before they _______________.
a.
will surrender b. could surrender
c. surrender
d. are surrender

D. -- An extension of this Category will be the IF clauses, where the correct answer for
one clause depends totally on the verb form of the other clause.
1. If it rains tomorrow, I _______ home.
a. will stay b. stayed
c. had stayed

d. would have stayed

2. If I were you, I _______ more.


a. will study b. would study
c. studied
d. would have studied
3. If I had seen you at the BX, I __________ you a ride back to the dorm.
a. will give
b. would have given
c. gave
d. am giving
4. If a student cheats on a test, he _________ a score of zero.
a. got b. would have gotten
c. will have gotten
d. gets
5. If you had been in the Lab on time, you ________ the test with everyone else.
a. could take
b. can has taken
c. could be taken
d. could have taken
6. I will wait for you if you ________.
a. hurry
b. hurried
c. would have hurried

d. hurries

7. They would have drowned if they _____________ their life jackets.


a. had not worn
b. will not wear
c. do not wear
d. didnt wear
8. You might get good scores if you _______ tomorrow.
a. study
b. studied
c. would have studied
d. are study
9. I would resign immediately if I _______ the president.
a. was
b. were
c. am
d. have been

10. If you see Joe, _____________ him a message?


a. will you gave
b. did you give
c. have you given
d. will you give
11. If you do well on the next ECL, Ms. Stuart ________ happy.
a. is
b. was
c. were
d. will be
12. If you memorize all of these rules, you ____________ well on the next ECL.
a. do
b. should do
c. would have done
d. are doing
13. I will be happy if your ECL score ________ next time.
a. go up
b. went up
c. goes up
d. is gone up
14. If today _______ Sunday, I might be at the mall.
a. is
b. are
c. was
d. were
15. I will be very happy when I ________ home.
a. returned
b. am return
c. return
d. had returned
16. If it had rained yesterday, I _____________ my raincoat.
a. will wear
b. would have worn
c. am wearing
d. wear
17. I never answer my telephone if it ________ after midnight.
a. ring
b. was ringing
c. rings
d. will ring
18. If I ______ you, I would memorize my IF CLAUSE patterns.
a. were
b. was
c. had been
d. am

E. You must learn how to create proper questions.


1. What __________ last night?
a. you did
b. do you did
c. did you

d. did you do

2. Where ___________ tomorrow after class?


a. are you going
b. you are going
c. you do

d. does you go

3. When ________________?
a. starts the test
b. does the test starts
c. is going to start the test
d. is the test going to start

4. Which is correct?
a. How old you are?
b. How old is it are you?
c. You how old are?
d. How old are you?
5. What time ______________ this morning?
a. you got up
b. does you got up
c. got you up
6. In what year ________________?
a. were you born
b. you was born

c. you born

d. did you get up


d. was you born

7. We are leaving now. ___________________ with us?


a. You still go
b. Are you still going
c. Still you go

d. You go still

8. Which is correct?
a. What rank he is?
b. What rank do he have?
c. What rank is he?
d. What rank he has?
9. Why ____________ that?
a. he did
b. do he did
c. is he done

d. did he do

e. he done

10. When is the movie going to end?


a. At what time end the movie?
b. The movie end when?
c. At what time will the movie end?
d. The movie going to end when?
11. I just saw Titanic. ____________________
a. Has you seen it yet?
b. You have saw it yet?
c. Did you have seen it yet?
d. Have you seen it yet?
12. Where ___________ that book?
a. did you bought
b. you bought

c. did you buy

13. I think Joe is stupid. ___________________


a. You are agree with me?
b. Do you agree with me?
c. Does you are agree with me? d. You does agree with me?
14. When ___________________?
a. you are graduate
b. does you graduate

d. you was bought

c. are you graduating

d. you will graduate

15. ________________ a question correctly yet?


a. You can ask b. Do you can ask c. Can you ask

d. Are you can ask

F. You must learn how to analyze TAG QUESTIONS.


1. The test will be difficult, __________?
a. shouldnt it
b. will it
c. wont it
2. English is fun, __________?
a. isnt it
b. cant it
c. dont it

d. wasnt it

d. will it

3. John has never been to Italy, _________?


a. does he
b. has he
c. hasnt he
d. cant he
4. Maria bought a new car yesterday, ___________?
a. doesnt she b. cant she c. will she d. didnt she
5. We should bring Mr. Williams some fudge brownies, ____________?
a. should we c. shouldnt we
c. will we
d. dont we
6. There is another ECL next week, __________?
a. is it b. is there
c. isnt it
d. isnt there
7. It has never snowed in San Diego, ________?
a. does it
b. hasnt it
c. did they
d. has it
8. Joe is not a Major, ________?
a. is he b. does he
c. do he

d. isnt he

9. Your brother didnt do his homework last night, _____________?


a. didnt she
b. does he
c. did he
d. didnt he
10. We will leave soon, _________?
a. wont we b. will we
c. dont we

d. cant we

11. You have never been arrested, ________?


a. are you
b. havent you
c. arent you

d. have you

12. There is a bad storm approaching, __________?


a. isnt it
b. are there
c. isnt there
d. doesnt it

13. I am the best student in this class, _________?


a. am I
b. arent I
c. do I
d. dont I
14. We must study more, _________?
a. mustnt we
b. should we
c. cant we
15. Joe was studying all night, __________?
a. was he
b. wasnt he
c. did he

d. will we
d. has he

16. Mike has an interesting accent, ____________?


a. doesnt he
b. has he
c. dont he
d. have he
17. This exercise is easy, _________?
a. doesnt it
b. is it
c. wont they

d. isnt it

18. You have never lived in Sewden, ___________?


a. are you
b. arent you
c. have you
d. havent you
19. I am scheduled for another ECL next week, ____________?
a. arent I
b. am I
c. amnt I
d. do I
20. It is cold outside, ___________?
a. is it
b. does it
c. does there

d. isnt it

G. Is it ACTIVE or PASSIVE voice?


Look for the word by to indicate who or what does the action in a passive voice
sentence. Sometimes, however, the agent is missing.
1. Horses ______ grass.
a. eats
b. are eat
c. eat

d. are eaten

2. Presents ____________ at Christmas in the United States.


a. are given
b. give
c. gave
d. are giving
3. This handout __________ by Mr. Williams.
a. is write
b. is writing
c. was write
d. was written
4. Japan _______ good automobiles.
a. make
b. is made
c. makes

d. was made

5. The best automobiles ________ in Japan.


a. make
b. is made
c. are made
d. is making

6. The money ________ from the bank was found yesterday.


a. steal
b. steals
c. stolen
d. stealing
7. This exercise, ____________ by Mr. Williams, might help you.
a. which is wrote
b. which was written
c. which is writing
d. which writes
8. The earthquake _________ the village.
a. destroy
b. was destroyed
c. destroying

d. destroyed

9. President McKinley ______________ in 1901.


a. assassinated
b. is assassinated
c. was assassinated
d. will be assassinated
10. Susanna _________ a beautiful diamond ring by her fianc.
a. is gave
b. gave
c. has given
d. was given
11. Your car ___________ before closing time.
a. will fix
b. did fixed
c. will be fixed
d. is fixing
12. Any test __________ by Dr. Grinch will be difficult.
a. wrote
b. writes
c. writing
d. written
13. Valentines ____________ on February 14.
a. are exchanged
b. exchanging
c. exchange
d. do exchange
14. The next ECL ____________ on a Wednesday because of the Monday holiday.
a. is gave
b. gives
c. will give
d. will be given
15. You cannot drive here because this road ____________ for the next few weeks.
a. is work on
b. is going to be worked on
c. was work on
d. is working on
16. The car ______________ by my neighbor was found last night near Darwintown
Lake.
a. steal b. which was steal
c. stolen
d. was stolen
17. The next ECL ______________ in four weeks.
a. is gave
b. will be gave
c. will be given
18. These techniques __________ before the next ECL.
a. must be learned
b. must learn
c. has to be learn

d. was gave
d. have been learned

H. You have to learn all the MODALS and their equivalents.


1. You must learn about modals.
a. should
b. ought to
c. have to

d. would rather

2. Joe is able to run 5 miles in 20 minutes.


a. will b. can
c. must
d. had better
3. You ought to memorize all of the irregular verbs.
a. must
b. have to
c. should
d. shall
4. It might snow tomorrow night.
a. will
b. may
c. has to

d. would

5. When I was a child, I was able to stay awake all night long.
a. can
b. could
c. should
d. will
6. When I was a child, I used to stay awake all night.
a. would
b. should
c. had to
d. ought to
7. You have my permission to leave early today.
a. would rather
b. may
c. would
d. shall
8. We expect rain tonight. It _______ rain.
a. would rather
b. have to
c. should

d. wont

9. The weatherman says it may rain tomorrow.


a. will
b. did
c. used to
d. might
10. You should call your family tonight.
a. ought to
b. must
c. can
d. have to
11. She must mail her packages today.
a. have to
b. is to
c. has to
d. had to
12. When I was much younger, I was able to survive on just 3 or 4 hours of sleep.
a. could
b. should
c. have to
d. must
13. I prefer to eat beef, not fish.
a. had better
b. would rather

c. ought to

d. may

14. I was required to take another test last week.


a. ought to
b. had to
c. would
d. need to
15. The British teacher says we will return tomorrow.

a. shall

b. might

16. You must study more.


a. has to
b. had to

c. could

d. may

c. ought to

d. have to

17. You ought to see Saving Private Ryan tomorrow.


a. will
b. can
c. must
d. should
18. You have my permission to go get a drink of water.
a. will
b. might
c. used to
d. may
19. If I were you, I _________ study these modals very carefully.
a. will
b. am
c. would
d. shall
20. The next test is to be tomorrow.
a. will be
b. might be
c. could be

d. may be

I. You have to learn which form of a verb (gerund? infinitive? simple form?) follows
certain primary verbs.
(See Book 34, page 4-19 for a good chart of them).
Learn the rules for make, let, have, see, and get someone to do something--as
in
I made the children GO to bed early.
I got the students TO DO their homework.
1. You should avoid _________ downtown alone after midnight.
a. go
b. going
c. to go
d. gone
2. He volunteered ________ to Alaska for a three-year assignment.
a. to go
b. go
c. going
d. for go
3. I got the dog ________ barking.
a. stop
b. stopped
c. stops

d. to stop

4. I saw the man ______ from the bridge into the river.
a. to jump
b. jumped
c. jumps
d. jump
5. I had the maid _______ my room again.
a. clean
b. to clean
c. cleaned
d. cleans
6. He anticipates ____________.

a. graduating

b. to graduate

c. graduate

7. I need _________ this article.


a. read
b. reading
c. to read

d. graduated

d. to be read

8. I let the children _______ outside.


a. to play
b. played
c. playing

d. play

9. He recommended ________ to the zoo first.


a. going
b. go
c. to go
d. goes
10. I remember ________ my keys on the kitchen table. Where are they now?
a. to put
b. put
c. putting
d. puts
11. Under what circumstances would you consider __________ yourself?
a. killing
b. to kill
c. kill
d. killed
12. This handout will help you _________ on the ECL.
a. improving
b. improve
c. improves
d. improved
13. I finally got the children _______ napkins when they eat.
a. to use
b. use
c. using
d. uses
14. When I was a kid, I used to ________ my bike to school.
a. riding
b. rode
c. rides
d. ride
15. I let the dog _______ outside.
a. to go
b. went
c. go
d. goes
16. I dont enjoy __________ tests.
a. take
b. taking
c. to take

d. taken

17. I finished _________ my car at 0945.


a. washing
b. to wash
c. wash

d. washed

J. PRACTICE: All of the above are mixed for maximum confusion.


1. Yesterday, three suspects _____________ by the police.
a. are arresting
b. was arrested
c. were arrest
d. were arrested
2. A child, hidden among the trees, __________.
a. was crying
b. cry
c. is cry
d. will be cry

3. I am scheduled for another ECL next week, _________?


a. am I b. arent I
c. cant I
d. will I
4. Lt. Smith ___________ Lackland tomorrow night.
a. leave
b. is left
c. will be leaving
d. was left
5. If I ______ you, I would analyze these questions more carefully.
a. was
b. were
c. are
d. have been
6. Because it rained yesterday, we ________ the parade.
a. cancel
b. canceling
c. are cancel
d. canceled
7. First, I bought some stamps at the post office. Then, I _______
some letters.
a. write
b. wrote
c. written
d. did writing
8. The men __________ by the police claimed to be innocent.
a. arresting
b. arrested
c. arrest
d. arrests
9. I daydreamed about retirement as I ___________ to work this morning.
a. drove
b. drive
c. driving
d. was drive
10. Tomorrow, I __________ the fudge brownies that the students owe me.
a. eat b. ate
c. am eat
d. will eat
11. He doesnt know what _____________.
a. he talking about
b. is he talking about
c. he talk about
d. hes talking about
12. You really ought to bring some flowers to your teacher.
a. must
b. have to
c. shall
d. should
13. If you study a lot, you __________ better test scores.
a. got
b. had gotten
c. could have got
d. will get
14. Because there was a lot of traffic this morning, I _______ late for work.
a. did
b. made
c. was
d. had
15. First, I changed my clothes; then, I _________ my mail.
a. read
b. do read
c. was read
d. am reading
16. Next week, my friend ______________.
a. graduate
b. graduates
c. is graduate

d. will graduating

17. If I had been at the party, I _____________ you all the latest gossip.

a. will tell

b. would have told

c. tell

d. was told

18. Because the movie had already started, we _________ the first few minutes.
a. miss
b. were miss
c. missed
d. would have missed
Other teachers are always stealing Mr. Harpers books and ___________ them
away to the students.
a. give
b. giving
c. gave
d. they are given
19.

K. PREPOSITIONS
We have a few preposition rules, but a lot of our preposition phrases are idiomatic. (We
cant explain WHY we say it that way, only that we do it that way because thats the way
we do it.)
1. My parents live ______ Main Street.
a. at
b. on
c. in
d. to
2. My parents live _______ 457 Main Street.
a. at
b. on
c. in
d. to
3. I was born ______ 1973.
a. of
b. to
c. at

d. in

4. I was born _______ Aug 12, 1973.


a. on
b. to
c. in
d. at
5. I was born ________ New York City.
a. on
b. at
c. from
d. in
6. The test will start _______ 0745.
a. in
b. on
c. at
d. to
7. Give the pencil _____ me, please.
a. at
b. to
c. for
d. with
8. This exercise was written ______ Mr. Williams.
a. by
b. at
c. on
d. of
9. I always take my vacation ______ the summer.
a. in
b. at
c. on
d. to
10. I have been in the military _______ 12 years.

a. since

b. during

c. at

d. for

11. I am not afraid _____ cobras.


a. to
b. of
c. by
d. with
12. I have been in this class ________ Sept 25.
a. since
b. for
c. on
d. at
13. It takes a long time to travel to Europe _______ ship.
a. by
b. in
c. to
d. for
14. He has been married _______ 1990.
a. for
b. since
c. at
d. in
15. I would like another cup ______ coffee.
a. to
b. in
c. on
d. of
16. Please give this book _______ Joe.
a. for
b. to
c. at
d. by
17. My son keeps drawing pictures ________ the walls of his bedroom.
a. in
b. on
c. to
d. at
18. I want to sit ______ the shade of that big tree over there.
a. among
b. in
c. on
d. to

L. You have to learn all the PRONOUNS.


We have personal pronouns (subjects and objects), possessive pronouns, demonstrative
pronouns, relative pronouns, indefinite pronouns, interrogative pronouns, and reflexive
pronouns. Unfortunately, you must learn all of them.
1. Give the books to _________.
a. he and she
b. Joe and she

c. him and her

2. My daughter fell down and hurt ___________.


a. herselves
b. himself
c. itself
d. herself
3. My father took _______ car to the repair shop.
a. her
b. its
c. those
d. his
4. Where is ______ book?

d. I

a. me

b. an

c. these

d. my

5. I bought a new CD, but now I cant find _______.


a. them
b. they
c. it
d. him
6. Please give the new books to __________.
a. him and I
b. he and I
c. me and he

d. him and me

7. The commanding officer ________ will inspect the barracks.


a. themselves
b. himself
c. ourselves
d. itself
8. My mother lost ______ keys.
a. hers
b. his
c. its
d. her
9. Give me that book! Its ________.
a. mine
b. my
c. me
d. no yours
10. I dont want to be in a class with ________ students who speak Spanish all the time.
a. others
b. another
c. other
d. some others
11. My wife hurt _________.
a. himself
b. sheself
c. ourself

d. herself

12. The car ______ I bought was a bargain.


a. who
b. which
c. whom
d. what
13. Mind your own business. This is an argument between _________.
a. Joe and I
b. he and I
c. him and I
d. him and me
14. He gave ___________ bicycles for Christmas.
a. my brother and I
b. my brother and me
c. I and my brother
d. me brother and I
15. That is ______ car.
a. me
b. my
c. he

d. him

16. My father took _______ car to the repair shop yesterday.


a. her
b. his
c. its
d. me
17. The girls did this report all by ______________.
a. herselves
b. theyselves
c. themselves

d. theirselves

18. I want to thank you for inviting my wife and ________ to dinner.
a. I
b. me
c. we
d. he

M. You have to learn how to use DETERMINERS.


1. Most people want _______.
a. the freedom
b. many freedom
c. freedom
d. lots freedom
2. I want to buy ______ cigarettes.
a. a
b. some
c. an
d. a few of
3. The teacher gives ________ homework.
a. too much
b. many
c. lot
d. a
4. May I please have _______ coffee?
a. any
b. both
c. some
d. much
5. I lost _________ money.
a. all
b. my all
c. all of me

d. all of my

6. I want a picture of _________ elephants.


a. that three
b. those three
c. them three
d. this three
7. I dont want to be in a class with ________ students.
a. others
b. other
c. that
d. them
8. There are ________ cars in the parking lot.
a. too much
b. some much
c. too many
9. I bought _______ book.
a. some old
b. a old
c. these old

d. some many

d. an old

10. The police said they captured ___________ robbery suspects.


a. both of
b. the both
c. one
d. both of the
11. To get 100 on the ECL and 3/3 on the OPI is extremely difficult.
______ students ever manage to do that.
a. Few
b. A few
c. Some
d. Many
12. I bought _________ pies for the buffet.
a. a
b. one
c. an
d. several
13. Tell ________ students that they will take the test.
a. all of five
b. the all five
c. all five
d. all the of five

14. The kids ate ___________ candy before supper.


a. too many
b. some of
c. lot
d. too much
15. I bought _______________ roses for my mother.
a. severals red beautiful
b. beautiful red several
c. beautiful several red
d. several beautiful red
16. I like studying ________ kind of exercise.
a. this
b. these
c. those
d. many
17. People in some countries do not have ___________________.
a. same freedoms
b. those freedom
c. the freedom
d. freedom
18. I dont like ________ exercise.
a. this
b. these
c. those

d. them

N. You have to learn all the CONNECTING WORDS--the conjunctions and the adverbial
connectives.
1. It was raining, _____ I stayed inside and watched television.
a. but
b. for
c. so
d. yet
2. I hate fish; ________, I ate two servings of it at my sisters party.
a. and
b. moreover
c. so
d. however
3. I had an accident. Thus, my insurance premium went up.
a. Therefore
b. But
c. Nevertheless
d. Still
4. I went to the movie ________ I returned home.
a. because
b. since
c. and then
d. however
5. I want to go to the BX, _____ I dont have time.
a. but
b. so
c. because
d. moreover
6. I like to drink tequila, _______ does my brother.
a. but so
b. and too
c. and so
d. while not
7. Brazil is a big country, _______ Denmark is small.
a. so
b. while
c. when
d. because
8. I like to learn English grammar, ______ my classmates dont.
a. if
b. when
c. but
d. moreover

9. He injured himself during the soccer game, ______ we took him to the hospital.
a. but
b. first
c. so
d. because
10. You should read the instructions _______ you begin marking answers on the answer
sheet.
a. after
b. during
c. if
d. before
11. I was late for work __________ an accident on Loop 410.
a. due to
b. because
c. since
d. reason for
12. He won the race ___________ his injured leg.
a. inspite
b. despite of
c. in spite of
d. because
13. __________ it was raining, the children wanted to play outside.
a. Although
b. So
c. But
d. However
14. I dont know if he will go or not.
a. why
b. when
c. where

d. whether

15. I studied a lot; as a result, I got a good score on the test.


a. therefore
b. however
c. moreover
d. furthermore
16. Neither Joe _____ Steve will be at the meeting.
a. and
b. or
c. but
d. nor
17. First, you must learn about verb forms; _________, you must learn prepositions.
a. before
b. then
c. while
d. however
18. He went to the hospital ___________ he felt very ill.
a. but
b. and
c. however
d. because
19. He got 100 on the ECL; _________ his teachers are proud of him.
a. otherwise
b. therefore
c. furthermore
d. moreover

O. A big problem will be VOCABULARY.


1. I feel depressed today because the weather is bad.
a. sad
b. joyous
c. healthy
d. rich
2. I want you to choose whichever dessert you want.
a. pick off b. pick up
c. pick away
d. pick out

3. The top of the mountain is covered with snow.


a. base
b. foothills
c. peak
d. side
4. When you are thirsty, you should drink __________.
a. gasoline
b. water
c. paint
d. ink
5. I live in a very safe ___________.
a. neigh
b. neighbor
c. neighborly
6. The test will be hard.
a. difficult
b. easy

c. short

d. neighborhood

d. simple

7. They inspected the engine completely.


a. partially
b. sporadically
c. thoroughly
d. superficially
8. It is risky to drive at night in an ice storm.
a. entertaining
b. hazardous
c. safe

d. fun

9. He was murdered when he was 23 years old.


a. born
b. graduated
c. married
d. killed
10. The doctors say he will recover and survive the operation.
a. pull over
b. pull out
c. pull off
d. pull through
IF YOU HAVE THREE ANSWERS THAT ALL MEAN THE SAME THING, THEY
CANCEL EACH OTHER OUT AND YOU ARE LEFT WITH WHAT IS THE
CORRECT ANSWER, EVEN IF YOU DONT KNOW THE MEANING OF IT.
11. I ate a gargantuan piece of cake at lunch.
a. gigantic
b. little
c. small
d. tiny
12. Steve is stupid.
a. smart
b. intelligent

c. dumb

13. He comes from a poor family.


a. wealthy
b. moneyless
c. affluent
-----14. The test was horrible.
a. awful
b. terrible
c. hideous
d. all of the above.

d. brainy
d. rich

15. The transformer is inoperative today.


a. good
b. malfunctioning
c. expensive

d. working

16. I need new glasses. I cant see the _______ of that clock.
a. fingers
b. arms
c. legs
d. hands
17. I feel weary today.
a. happy
b. exhausted

c. angry

d. silly

P. One aspect of vocabulary is your knowledge of PREFIXES.


1. How many wheels does a tricycle have?
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
2. This is unimportant.
a. It is very important.
b. It is not important.
c. It is extremely important.
d. It is really important.
3. The mayor of my hometown is _____________ because of some bad decisions he
made last year.
a. impopular
b. nonpopular
c. inpopular
d. unpopular
4. I want you to write your paragraph again. I want you to __________ it.
a. unwrite
b. biwrite
c. rewrite
d. antiwrite
5. Draw half of a circle on your paper. Draw a ___________.
a. circle
b. hemicircle
c. semicircle
d. demicircle
6. Im allergic to cigarette smoke, so I have to sit in the _____________ section of the
restaurant.
a. nonsmoking
b. unsmoking
c. antismoking
d. imsmoking
7. This is not a little store. It is a huge ________________.
a. supermarket
b. intermarket
c. contramarket
d. minimarket
8. A navy vessel designed to function under the water is a ______________.
a. boat
b. submarine
c. aircraft carrier
d. ferry
9. A piece of equipment designed to help you see things that are far away is a _______.
a. microscope
b. stethoscope
c. telescope
d. horoscope

10. A fast boat that can move quickly across the surface of water is a _____________.
a. monoboat
b. hydroplane
c. submarine
d. maximum
11. I cannot memorize all of the ____________ verbs.
a. unregular
b. imregular
c. irregular
d. ilregular
12. His answers were ________________.
a. incorrect
b. uncorrect
c. noncorrect

d. imcorrect

13. He speaks many languages. He is __________________.


a. monolingual
b. bilingual
c. nonlingual
d. multilingual
14. He is a _____________ person.
a. dishonest
b. unhonest
c. nonhonest
15. An octagon has ________ sides.
a. six
b. seven
c. eight

d. mishonest

d. nine

16. That scale model is very small. It is a ______________.


a. miniature
b. microture
c. mesature
d. sinecure
17. He wrote his own biography. It is _____________________.
a. an autobiography
b. a self-biography
c. a unibiography
d. an owner-biography
18. All of these questions are closely related to each other. They are _____________.
a. extrarelated
b. interrelated
c. intrarelated
d. quasirelated

Q. We learn hundreds of two-word verbs at DLI. You have to learn as many of them as
you can.
1. We will have to cancel the picnic.
a. call up
b. call in
c. call on

d. call off

2. We will not put off the soccer game.


a. cancel
b. postpone
c. publicize

d. attend

3. Can you lift that chair by yourself?


a. pick up
b. pick out
c. pick on

d. pick off

4. The meeting will wind up at 0930.


a. start
b. begin
c. commence

d. end

5. He has trouble explaining his ideas to his students.


a. getting out
b. getting across
c. getting up
d. getting in
6. Can you make up a good question about German history?
a. create
b. answer
c. remember
d. read
7. Im saving a little money each month to buy a new color TV.
a. putting out b. putting off
c. putting up
d. putting aside
8. He was raised by his grandmother in Florida.
a. done over
b. taken out
b. brought up

d. come to

9. He vomited after drinking too much warm Pepsi.


a. threw out b. threw up
c. threw away
d. threw in
10. Be careful!
a. Watch over!
c. Watch in!

b. Watch out!
d. Watch through!

11. We had to summon an expert to solve our problem.


a. call in
b. call out
c. call down
d. call back
12. The bomb exploded in the rear of the bus.
a. blew out
b. blew up
c. blew off
d. blew away
13. Despite the heavy rain, the plane took off after only a short delay.
a. landed
b. crashed
c. arrived
d. departed
14. I want you to hand in your papers now.
a. submit
b. correct
c. give out
d. redo
15. Can you create a good sentence in the passive voice?
a. make out
b. make over
c. make up
d. make through
16. Dont discard your books. Keep them.
a. throw in
b. throw out
c. throw up

d. throw off

17. The alarm bell sounded during the middle of the ECL.
a. came to
b. went off
c. did over
d. took apart

18. The total bill ___________ $323.43.


a. came to
b. took over
c. picked through

d. went out

Make it snappy!
Improve it with jokes.
b. Add more spicy flavoring to it.
c. Hurry up!
d. Rehearse it a little more!
19.
a.

R. You need to learn the different parts of speech (noun, verb, adjective, adverb), so that
you can select CORRECT WORD FORMS to fill in the blanks.
1. I value your ___________.
a. friendness
b. friendly
c. friendhood

d. friendship

2. A lot of these numbers are ____________.


a. inaccuracy
b. inaccurated
c. inaccurate

d. inaccuracies

3. I think Dr. Garfield is ____professional.


a. un- b. imc. ind. mis4. This part of the country has a high level of ____________.
a. unemploy
b. unemploying
c. unemploys
d. unemployment
5. This magazine is about ___________.
a. entertainer b. entertain
c. entertainment

d. entertained

6. That was a(n) _______ act which he committed.


a. legal
b. legality
c. legalness
d. illegal
7. The safe __________ of troops is this units #1 priority.
a. deployed
b. deployment
c. deploy
d. deploition
8. I need to buy some additional car ______________.
a. insure b. insuring
c. insurance
d. insured
9. She has been a 911 radio _________ for over 10 years.
a. dispatcher
b. dispatch
c. dispatching
d. dispatchment
10. You need to ________ before you begin an important mission.
a. planify
b. plan
c. planet
d. planning
11. This movie is for adults only. It is not for ___________.
a. young
b. youngsters
c. youngs
d. youngers

12. I hear you had a car accident. How much are the ________ going to cost?
a. repairs
b. repairment
c. reparation
d. repairing
13. There is a lot of _________ in New York City.
a. criminality
b. crimes
c. crime
d. criminal
14. Hes not in the military. Hes a ____________.
a. civilian
b. civil
c. civilized
d. civilization
15. You are not supposed to make __________ calls from this telephone.
a. person
b. personality
c. personalize
d. personal
16. That was the ________ story I have ever heard.
a. saddest
b. sadder
c. sadness
d. sad
17. I cant concentrate today. I am ________ with work.
a. preoccupated b. preoccupation c. preoccupy d. preoccupied
18. During the first week of school, we have to _________ the students.
a. orient
b. orientate
c. oriental
d. orationalize
19. I think Joe is wrong. I ____________ with him.
a. am no agree
b. am disagree
c. disagree

d. no agree

S. You must learn how to use ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS correctly.


1. He is a very ________ driver.
a. quick
b. quicker
c. quickly

d. quickness

2. She is a ________ worker.


a. hard
b. hardly
c. hardness
3. That is a __________ horse.
a. beauty
b. beautiful
c. beautician
4. He speaks __________.
a. slow
b. slowly
c. slowness

d. harden
d. beautify
d. slowed

5. The students are ________ because the material is too easy for them.
a. bore b. boring
c. boredom
d. bored

6. Joe is a fast runner, but Tom is _________ than Joe.


a. fast
b. faster
c. fastly
d. more faster
7. I hope I can find an ________ banker to deal with.
a. honest
b. honestly
c. honestness
d. honested
8. The ________ children ran toward the clown.
a. laugh
b. laughing
c. laughed
d. laughter
9. The soccer game was very __________.
a. excite
b. exciting
c. excited
d. excitable
10. Mary is smart, but Susan is ___________ student in the school.
a. the most intelligent
b. the intelligentest
c. most intelligent
d. more intelligent
11. The police opened the door ____________.
a. careful
b. carefully
c. carfulled
d. carefullness
12. She is this companys most ________ worker.
a. capable
b. capacity
c. capability
d. capsizing
13. What is your _________ job here at DLI?
a. exactly
b. exact
c. exactness
d. exactitude
14. She sings _____________.
a. angelically
b. angel
c. angelic

d. angelical

15. This weather has been absolutely ______________.


a. wonder
b. wonderfully
c. wonderful
d. wondered
16. Think ___________ before you answer.
a. careful
b. care
c. carefulness
d. carefully
17. He answered the teacher very _____________.
a. polite
b. politely
c. politeness
d. politics
18. He guessed my ________ weight.
a. exact
b. exactly
c. exacting

d. exacted

19. He answered the question ___________.


a. correctly
b. correct
c. correctedly

d. correctionally

T. You have to learn proper SYNTAX (WORD ORDER).


1. I bought _____________.
a. a white sports Italian car
b. a sports white Italian car
c. a car white Italian sports
d. a white Italian sports car
2. How often do you go to the movies?
a. I go almost never to the movies.
b. I almost go never to the movies.
c. I almost never go to the movies.
d. I to the movies almost never go.
3. Which sentence is correct?
a. I bought three big wool sweaters.
b. I three wool big sweaters bought.
c. I bought three wool big sweaters.
d. I bought wool three big sweaters.
4. Which sentence is correct?
a. I never have to the Alamo been.
b. Never I been to the Alamo have.
c. I to the Alamo have been never.
d. I have never been to the Alamo.
5. Which sentence is correct?
a. He always at the messhall fish eats.
b. He always eats fish at the messhall.
c. At the messhall always eats he fish.
d. Fish eats he at the messhall always.
6. I dont like Latoya Jackson and _____________.
a. neither my brother do
b. my brother do not either
c. my brother too
d. neither does my brother
7. Joe asks, Where is the library?
a. Joe wants to know where is the library.
b. Joe wants to know the library where is.
c. Joe wants to know where the library is.
d. Joe is want to know where the library.

8. Which sentence is correct?


a. I saw a French white, ugly big poodle.
b. I saw a white French big ugly poodle.
c. I saw an ugly, French white big poodle.
d. I saw a big, ugly white French poodle.
9. Which sentence is correct?
a. I will go tomorrow to the airport.
b. I to the airport will tomorrow go.
c. I will go to the tomorrow airport.
d. I will go to the airport tomorrow.
10. Which sentence is correct?
a. We ordered a big sausage hot tasty pizza.
b. We ordered a sausage hot tasty big pizza.
c. We ordered a big hot tasty sausage pizza.
d. We ordered a big pizza sausage hot tasty.

U. We have thousands of common IDIOMS. You must learn as many as possible, so you
can figure out what they mean in context.
1. Computer #5 is on the blink.
a. Its on the desk. b. Its on sale.
c. Its not working. d. It has been cleaned.
2. A million bucks is just chickenfeed to him.
a. Thats a lot of money to him.
b. That is more money than he will ever see or earn.
c. That is too much money to pay for anything.
d. That amount of money is insignificant to him.
3. Hes still a little wet behind the ears.
a. He is still sleepy.
b. He just got married.
c. He is starving.
d. He doesnt have much experience.
4. Im broke.
a. I dont have any money. b. My body really hurts.
c. I am very happy.
d. I am very tired.

5. Dont count your chickens before they hatch.


a. Dont try to order chicken in the restaurant today.
b. Dont assume you will have something until you actually have it.
c. Dont tell people that you did something if you didnt do it.
d. Dont tell lies to your friends and relatives.
6. Dont cry over spilled milk.
a. Dont worry about things from the past.
b. Dont argue with the teacher about grammar.
c. Dont punish your children when they do bad things.
d. Dont purchase milk from the store if it is bad.
7. Thats all just water under the bridge.
a. Forget about it.
b. You need to revive an old argument.
c. Dont go swimming.
d. You must finish all previous jobs.
8. The next ECL will be a piece of cake.
a. It will be very difficult.
b. It will be very easy.
c. Dessert is more important than meat.
d. The ECL is not important to us.
9. Hes gotten too big for his britches.
a. He needs some new clothes.
b. He should take them to the tailor.
c. Someone should cut him down to size.
d. We should congratulate him.
10. Mr. Williams has a short fuse today.
a. He doesnt have much money.
b. He feels very sick.
c. Hes extremely happy.
d. He has a quick temper.
11.
a.
b.
c.
d.

You look a little green around the gills this morning.


You look rich.
You look sick.
You look very happy.
You look extremely angry about something.

V. You need to learn how to READ PARAGRAPHS for the main idea (skimming) or for
specific information (scanning). Always read the question(s) FIRST, so that you know
what you are looking for when you actually start to read the paragraph.

There are many strange birds in the world, but by far the
most interesting to many scientists is the kiwi, which is
native to New Zealand. This bird is nocturnal, meaning it
sleeps during the day and searches for food during the
night. On the one hand, this is safe because most of its
predators sleep during the night. However, being a nocturnal
creature does have its disadvantages: namely, nighttime
predators, such as owls, can easily detect and attack the
tiny kiwis. Another interesting fact about the kiwi is that
it cannot fly. It scurries around rapidly, so that owls,
which are used to catching other nocturnal birds in midair,
have problems locating kiwis that have dashed into a bush
or clump of grass for safety.

1. What is the main idea of this reading?


a. Owls are the most famous birds of New Zealand.
b. The kiwi is a very strange and interesting bird.
c. Kiwis are predators that often attack and kill owls.
d. There are no nocturnal birds in New Zealand.

2. Which other bird is given as an example of a nocturnal animal?


a. a bush
b. a fly
c. a clump of grass
d. an owl

3. Based on this reading, we can reasonably conclude that a predator would


___________.
a. eat grass and seeds
b. eat fruits and nuts
c. not be able to fly at night d. eat other creatures for food

ECL Exercise Answers


A.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

d
a
c
d
b
c
c
c
b
b
c
d
d
b
d
c
d
c
c

B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

c
b
d
c
a
b
d
a
d
a
a
b
d
a
b
c
b
b

C
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

d
c
d
d
a
a
b
d
d
c
b
c
d
c
c
a
b
c
c
b

D
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

a
b
b
d
d
a
a
a
b
a
d
b
c
d
c
b
c
a

E
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

d
a
d
d
d
a
b
c
d
c
d
c
b
c
c

F
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

c
a
b
d
c
d
d
a
c
a
d
c
b
a
b
a
d
c
a
d

G.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

c
a
d
c
c
c
b
d
c
d
c
d
a
d
b
c
c
a

H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
19

c
b
c
b
b
a
b
c
d
a
c
a
b
b
a
d
d
d
c
a

I.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

b
a
d
d
a
a
c
d
a
c
a
b
a
d
c
b
a

J
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

d
a
b
c
b
d
b
b
a
d
d
d
d
c
a
b
b
c
b

K
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

b
a
d
a
d
c
b
a
a
d
b
a
a
b
d
b
b
b

L
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

c
d
d
d
c
d
b
d
a
c
d
b
b
a
b
b
c
a

M
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

c
b
a
c
d
b
b
c
d
d
a
d
c
d
d
a
d
a

N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

c
d
a
c
a
c
b
c
c
d
a
c
a
d
a
d
b
d
b

O
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

a
d
c
b
d
a
c
b
d
d
a
c
b
d
b
d
b

P
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

c
b
d
c
c
a
a
b
c
b
c
a
d
a
c
a
a
b

Q
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

d
b
a
d
b
a
d
b
b
b
a
b
d
a
c
b
b
a
c

R
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

d
c
a
d
c
d
b
c
a
b
b
a
c
a
d
a
d
a
c

S
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

a
a
b
b
d
b
a
b
b
a
b
a
b
a
c
d
b
a
a

T
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

d
c
a
d
b
d
c
d
d
c

U
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

c
d
d
a
b
a
a
b
c
d
b

V
1
2
3

b
d
d