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Ready for takeoff?

Overcoming the practical and legal difficulties

in identifying and realizing the value of data

Executive summary
Big data technologies represent a disruptive innovation

that market-leading businesses will use to drive

competitiveadvantage. Seventy-nine percent of business
decision-makers believe that big data will boost revenue.1

The value of big data lies in the insights that businesses can
draw from it, rather than in the information itself.

There are practical problems to overcome. In particular,

there will be a battle for talent, driven by the shortage
of people with the technical skills to generate insights.
This requires people who can identify the right business
questions that can be solved with analytics.

While big data offers huge opportunities, there are also

serious risks, including the legal and regulatory hazards

relating to issues such as data privacy that can result in
breach of trust. Seventy percent of consumers say that
they are never happy for companies to share personal
information while 49% say that they will be less willing to
share personal information over the next five years.2

To secure topline value from big data, enterprises need a

holistic and strategic plan for identifying the opportunities,

overcoming the hurdles and managing risks.

Fueling the plane

Big data is the phenomenon of our time.
The combination of the astonishing
explosion of data and the rapid
development of new technologies capable
of storing and processing this information
will transform the way enterprises run
their businesses. After an initial period,
when big data was an optional extra for
most businesses, its value is now widely
accepted. Big data and analytics are
starting to enter the mainstream of daily
business practice.
Organizations all around the world are
racing to exploit the opportunities big data
presents. But they have made relatively
little progress at a strategic level, in either
realizing the value or managing the risks.
Few companies have been able to quantify
the value to be obtained from analyzing the
structured and unstructured data they hold
in order to generate insights on which to
base decisions.
Many companies are yet to develop a
comprehensive framework for analyzing
what will drive that value. Projects have
generally been implemented individually
and separately, rather than as part of
a coherent plan across the enterprise.
Often, businesses do not even know what
questions they should be asking.

Ready for takeoff?

Just as the pilot of a plane must complete a series of checks before

taxiing down the runway, so business leaders must master the risks and
opportunities of big data in order to get their enterprisesflying.

Nor have companies yet arrived at a full

picture of the barriers that stand in their
way as they seek to realize the value of
their data. These barriers include a number
of practical issues, including the volume
of data with which businesses are now
confronted and the skills shortages in areas
such as analytics.

Legal bumps
Most of all, the legal and regulatory
questions that surround businesses use
of all types of data represent a huge
barrier. Concerns such as privacy, data
protection, competition law and intellectual
property rights remain hugely sensitive.
Laws across jurisdictions are inconsistent
and constantly changing. The potential
penalties for the misuse or loss of data
are rising; for example, the European
Parliament has voted for fines of up to
5% of a companys global revenues for
data privacy breaches. More importantly,
companies that fail to consider carefully
how they use customers digital footprints
risk violating their customers sense of
privacy and risk losing those customers.
Forty-nine percent of consumers say that
they will be less willing, over the next five
years, to share their personal data. This

emphasizes the fact that companies need

to serve their customers better.3

Big data can make your

Is it possible to overcome these difficulties
in order to unlock the value of your
businesss data?
The answer is yes, if enterprises are
prepared to undertake an honest appraisal
of their existing big data capabilities and
to look at the drivers of value within their
businesses, and the challenges preventing
them from realizing this value. Flexibility,
adaptability and integrated thinking will
However, in such an uncertain and
difficult legal environment, this process
must go hand-in-hand with a rigorous
examination of what regulation currently
allows. Those businesses that manage this
balance successfully will build customer
confidence and trust. And drawing
together these legal considerations will
underpin a more integrated and holistic
approach tobigdata. This requires a shift
in the mind-set of board members and a
transformation across the organization
and closer collaborations between

Ready for takeoff

This paper addresses these issues by
looking at five key industry sectors where
companies exploitation of big data is at
different stages of development. The
conclusions it makes are based on the
extensive work conducted by EY across
its global team of industry specialists, big
data and analytics consultants, and legal
and regulatory experts. It also considers
the evidence presented in external studies
and research, as well as drawing on the
best practices of the many market-leading
businesses with which EY works.
Using all these insights, it sets out a
blueprint for organizations determined
to identify value drivers within their
business, and to confront and prepare the
challenges they face in exploiting such
With companies facing increasing suspicion
about their use of personal data, it is
now more important than ever for them
to clearly identify and focus on the value
they can generate from data; to consider
carefully and respond to the regulatory,
legal and practical issues they face; and to
develop a coherent and company-wide big
data strategy. Big data is ready to take off.
Those who fail to address the technical,
strategic and risk issues will be left behind.
Ready for takeoff?

Setting the context:

the explosion of big data

Big data and analyticsdefined
Data comes in many forms. It may be
structured or unstructured, and it may be
generated by organizations themselves or
obtained from third parties. Big data refers to
the huge and increasing volume of the data
now available, as well as the variety of it and
the velocity at which it can beprocessed.
Analytics is the means for extracting
value from this data the tool through
which actionable insights are generated.
Without analytics, businesses have no
way of using their big data to establish

Ready for takeoff?

The world currently has 2.7 billion internet

users, 39% of theworlds population.4

The world currently has 6.8 billion active
mobile subscriptions, equivalent to 96% of
the worlds population.5

6 zettabytes
The volume of data generated or processed
in 2014 will exceed 6 zettabytes,
increasing to 40zettabytes by 2020.6

208,300 photos
Unstructured data is booming: every
minute 208,300 photos are uploaded to
Facebook and 350,000 Tweets are posted
on Twitter.7

Forty-nine percent of consumers say that
they will be less willing to share personal
information in the next five years.8


Seventy-eight percent of consumers

believe that their personal information
enables companies to make more money.9


Fifty-nine percent of business decisionmakers use customer-generated data for


Seventy percent of consumers say that
they are never happy for companies to
share their personal data, compared with
a quarter who say they are happy to share
their personaldata.11

Seventy-nine percent of businesses
believe that big data will boost revenue.12

Seventy-one percent of executives
state that they are not concerned that
customersmay start to restrict the use
ofpersonal information. Thiscompares
withjust 19% who areworried.13

US$325 billion
Better analytics tools create huge value.
The mainstream adoption of big data
analytics would boost the output of
global retail and manufacturing
industriesby $325 billion.14

Companies that successfully use data
outperform their peers by up to 20%.15

Fueling the plane: big data
can make your business fly

In-flight turbulence: dealing

with the legal bumps


On the runway or stuck

in departures? A big data
self-assessment guide


Appendix: Further reading,

contacts and

Eighty percent of organizations are in
theearly stages of big data initiatives.16
Ready for takeoff?

The first step in deriving value from big

data should not be to talk about how to
get value from big data, but rather to
start by asking what business decisions
should I make more efficiently and
effectively. Touse an explorer analogy,
there is areason why explorers who set
out with a clear goal or destination in
mind tended to be the ones we
remember inhistory. Columbus didnt set
out to get value out of the ocean.
Hesought an ocean route to China and
ran ashore in the Americas on theway,
ultimately gaining the insight that there
was a large land mass between Europe
and China tothewest.
Christer Johnson, Advanced Analytics Leader,
Enterprise Intelligence, EY

Fueling the plane: big data
can make your business fly
Ready for takeoff?

Businesses are under no illusions about the

size of the prize on offer to those who are able
to extract maximum value from their data.
EYs research shows that companies that
successfully use data are already
outperforming their peers by as much as
20%.17 Furthermore, 79% of business decisionmakers across sectors believe that big data
will boost revenue.
Nevertheless, many organizations are
frustrated with the limited progress they have
made so far. While this is to be expected with
the introduction of any new technology, there
is an opportunity for leaders to assert
themselves. They are confronted both by
overarching barriers that threaten to prevent
them reaching the destinations they know are
possible and by sector-specific issues.

Ready for takeoff?

Eight barriers blocking


The unknown destinations. Many

companies understand that they possess
data from which they can unlock valuable
insights. But they often do not have a
clear idea of what questions to ask of their
data and in which areas these insights can
be found. Many then fall into the trap of
pursuing big data without a clear focus
on how such projects can solve their
businesss problems.

The underlying technology

challenges. Big data is routinely described
in terms of volume, variety, velocity and
veracity and many organizations are
struggling with each of these measures.
They lack the means to cope with the sheer
scale of data flowing into the business and
with the diverse nature of structured and
unstructured data. While they understand
that it is an advantage to turn data into
insight quickly, they are intimidated by
ideas such as real-time analytics. Nor
do they always know which data sources
are to be valued and trusted, when to
question the insights generated, or which
technological tools can help them with
these concerns. They have little idea of
the resources they need to devote to big

There is certainly a lot of hype in the market today about big data and analytics. I think people
should keep in mind that we tend to overestimate things in the near term BUT underestimate
them in the long term. There is no doubt in my mind that analytics is going to transform how
businesses make decisions and shift where and how value gets created in most sectors.
Christopher J. Mazzei, Global Chief Analytics Officer, EY

The lack of a holistic approach.

Toofew businesses have yet confronted
the challenges of big data holistically.
Instead, they are proceeding on a
project-by-project basis, and with distinct
silos within the business operating
independently of one another and failing
to share results or best practice. Some
businesses are now creating specialist
roles, such as chief data officers and chief
analytics officers, but these remain illdefined and less recognized at the C-suite
level. Many businesses report a disconnect
between their desire to capitalize on data
and their ability to do so. Solving old
problems in a new and efficient way seems
to be a keychallenge.

The shortage of talent. In a relatively

young discipline, the shortage of skills is
a serious problem for many businesses.
They need data scientists, visualization
experts, business intelligence analysts,
data warehousing professionals and other
specialists such as data privacy experts
who can grasp business imperatives while
delivering sophisticated analytics. But
the supply of such skills remains tightly
constrained. Developing these skills inhouse is difficult in the short term, but
buying them in externally is expensive and
simply not possible in manymarkets.

The fear of cyber attack. As

businesses dependence on data and
analytics increases, so does their
vulnerability to cyber attack, and so
does the level of impact and damage
that breaches will cause, which includes
regulatory risk as well as outright
business and reputation loss. Many
organizations are unsure about how to
build cybersecurity measures into their big
data and analytics projects. One recent EY
report revealed that fewer than one in two
organizations (46%) have aligned their
information security strategy with their
business strategy.18

The difficulty of building the

business case. While C-suite executives
may accept the argument for big data
initiatives in general, they want to
understand the potential of specific
projects before signing off on any related
investments. Yet with relatively few
such projects completed, it is difficult to
provide such information. Executives are,
therefore, asked to make a leap of faith.
This is especially true for big data and
analytics programs focused on generating
new sources of revenue rather than cost
reduction. And where businesses have
gone ahead with investments, it is difficult
to measure in isolation the value and
efficiency versus effectiveness generated
by the data-driven insights.

The need for legal and regulatory

compliance. Many organizations
understand that issues such as data
privacy and security will have an enormous
impact on their work in big data and
analytics. But they have not yet begun to
address the huge regulatory and legal risks
these issues represent. If they dont, they
wont be legally entitled to use such data
for business purposes without exposing
their reputation and pocketbook.

The need for customer data. Given

the privacy issues surrounding the big data
revolution, customers appear to be less
willing to share data with companies. In a
recent EY survey,19 70% state that they are
never happy that companies share data
and 49% of customers say they will be less
willing to share personal information in the
next five years. These numbers suggest
that companies will face two serious
problems if they do not start to address
how they use the data they have to better
serve customers. One concern is that
customers will not engage with the brands
or organization if they fear that their data
is being misused and privacy violated.
Another concern will be that the insights
will not be customized to the end user.

Ready for takeoff?

Preparing for takeoff

How, then, to begin addressing
these challenges? Our extensive
work with a range of different
clients across a number of
industries suggests that, while
different organizations are at
different maturity levels with big
data initiatives and the picture
varies from sector to sector
there is a clear sequence for
businesses to follow as they
seek to drivevalue.

what you want to achieve
with thedata
Too many organizations take a traditional
approach to data and look at the data first
allowing it to the data to drive the decisionmaking process. Rather than starting with
the data, companies should come up with
different hypotheses based on the decisions
they need to make. They should then use
data and analytics to prove or disprove
these hypotheses.

generate insight
from data
This is about turning data into the type
of information that a business can act
on. There will be practical considerations
to address, such as how to store large
volumes of data and which analytics
tools are required to extract the desired
information. This will lead to a debate
about talent: does the organization have
people with the skills and experience to
conduct this analysis, check the veracity of
data and cleanse it from errors, typos and
doublets and fill missing attributes.

Ready for takeoff?

An enterprise-wide approach might

begin with the creation of a specialist
roles, such as chief data officer and chief
analytics officer. A few organizations are
now beginning to understand the value of
building centers of excellence that provide
a single point of focus and a platform for
information exchange and the sharing of
insights. These centers may also resolve
some of the issues around skills shortages
if they are, for example, located in markets
where talent is more readilyavailable.

How to
what is relevant
Companies should focus on a relatively
small amount of data to identify current
and anticipated problems. With a better
idea of which issues they wish to tackle,
businesses can start to work out how to
capture the data they need. The data may
already be available to the business from
existing processes, or new initiatives may
be required to access it. Alternatively,
it may be necessary to look beyond the
organization for example, through
partnerships with other enterprises. In
some cases, it may take work with several
partners to identify, acquire and refine the
data. It will also be necessary to estimate
the value to be had from using data to
solve a particularproblem. In addition,
EU data privacy regulation provides that
personal data must be adequate, relevant,
and not excessive in relation to the
purpose for which it is collected or further
processed. The future data protection
regulation will be even more restrictive and
impose a minimization requirement.

prepare for the

across the organization

continue driving
business benefits
The success of big data and analytics
endeavors will ultimately be judged on
the basis of their impact on profitability:
through lower costs or most importantly
of all through higher revenues.
Organizations, therefore, need to develop
ways to measure the specific impact of
their data efforts. Which metrics are
relevant will depend on the initiative, and
might include anything from spend per
customer to cost of capital. Developing
such metrics can enable the business to

concentrate its efforts on areas where the

greatest value is generated.
It clearly makes sense to start with the
low-hanging fruit those benefits that
can most easily be obtained. An exercise
to extract cost savings from finance
processes may be a quick win that
persuades others in the business of the
overall potential of big data and of the
need to begin generating ideas for such
initiatives themselves.

generate value

manage risk

from insight
Businesses need processes and systems
that will disseminate the generated insights
throughout the whole organization and
will share results and best practice. A silo
approach to data in which business units
act separately and independently usually
doesnt deliver maximum value.
However, a data strategy driven from the
center will not be successful if it does not

Meaningful operational and

transformational change comes from the
top. C-suite executives need to embrace
this change and identify the best talent
and empower other senior executives and
the rest of the organization to adopt the
best systems, technologies and analytics
for their business. Board members have
an essential role to play in ensuring that
the CEO and the management team are
taking the right steps to develop innovative
products and that they have the right
strategic approach for their company on
big data. In order to extract the full value
from big data, companies need all strategic
functions CEO, CFO, CIO, CMO and
CSO to work more closely. And this will
require a transformational shift across the

apply to the rest of the business in order to

exploit specific opportunities. For example,
local sales staff may dislike being told how
to do their jobs more effectively by data
scientists based thousands of miles away.
Only those businesses that embed a culture
that embraces data-driven decision-making
throughout the organization will reap the
full benefit.

The need to minimize and mitigate risk

for example, by taking a more proactive
approach to issues such as data privacy
and cybersecurity will be an ongoing
challenge. Risk-planning, scenario mapping
and fire-drill-type exercises will build
awareness throughout the business of key
risks, and an emphasis should be placed on
flexibility, adaptability and responsibility.
The demanding and ever-changing
legal environment represents the most
important risk of all.
Ready for takeoff?

Drive better decisions with analytics

To drive better decisions, we must first ask the right business questions and then seek answers in the data. Thus, our
work moves from left to right, but our thinking must move from right to left.

Relevant data






data sources


Rules or

Transaction or
behavior history




Continuous feedback loop

Focus of many consulting firms and

technology providers
Many analytics companies in the marketplace today

EYs strategic focus

Our focus is on value-driven analytics by going to market

through sectors and core competencies, supported by a

centralized group providing market-leading analytical and
big data skills and technology.

are dominated by data warehousing and enterprise

dashboard or reporting solutions.


Many clients, however, still struggle to embed analytics

into operational decisions in a systematic and repeatable
way, often resulting in clients not realizing the full value

Ready for takeoff?

We realize the importance of using change management

skills to help our clients use analytics more effectively to
create value.

Ready for takeoff?


Life sciences

business objectives with broader benefits

Life sciences companies, including pharmaceutical and medical device businesses, are
experienced data collectors with huge volumes of potentially valuable information,
but these companies are still at an early stage in their efforts to generate actionable
insights from this data.
One big issue to overcome is that many life sciences businesses have traditionally
operated through silos, with functions such as research and development and sales
and marketing operating autonomously. This has frustrated enterprise-wide data and
Nevertheless, businesses in the sector are now working hard to address this problem.
AstraZeneca, for example, has set up a centralized data function that aims to build a
skill set that can work across the enterprise. GlaxoSmithKline has launched a similar
endeavor. The greatest impact has been achieved where analytics projects have been
driven by business objectives, as opposed to a hobbyist approach by IT specialists.
One major opportunity now being explored by several life sciences companies
could be described as unbundling exploiting the potential of data to improve the
targeting and effectiveness of a drug, thereby helping to improve health outcomes

Patients increasingly demand more

control over their own health data.
Wecan expect a move toward patients
owning their own data and leasing
it to life sciences companies for
Patrick Flochel, Global Pharmaceutical
SectorLeader, EY


Ready for takeoff?

and reimbursement prospects. Such developments often require

new ways of working. Life sciences companies such as GSK, which
has traditionally been intensely protective of their intellectual
property, is just beginning to talk about sharing drug trial data for
the commercial benefit of their own business and for the industry
as a whole.
The industry may, in any case, soon be forced to be more open,
because policy-makers are increasingly determined to ensure
that clinical trial data is made publicly available to support public
health. Furthermore, tougher rules requiring pharmaceutical firms
to track and respond to any report of an adverse drug reaction
will demand more joined-up information systems. Companies
that are able to to successfully implement data sharing will gain
a commercial advantage in this environment and will limit their
The potential is exciting. One project that has interested many
companies is EUResist, in which data scientists use analytics tools
to segment patient populations at an increasingly granular level.
Such an approach has helped scientists to make huge advances
in treating HIV, for which different patients need different
combinations of drugs to secure the biggest improvements.
By reducing the cost of overall care though better-targeted
treatment, the data can change the balance of treatments,
because the savings can be used to support innovative medicines
that enable more specific, more predictable care.

Maturity level
Good data storage and
collection are just beginning
to generate insights.
Holistic approach
Now improving, with
greater use of enterprisewide strategies.
Business benefits
Early stage, but potential
for gains from new

Ready for takeoff?


Consumer products

focusing on risk and return


Ready for takeoff?

Consumer goods companies are often at the forefront of exploiting big data
opportunities in both consumer and customer-facing areas. They are increasingly
looking at profit and loss performance, including pricing effectiveness, promotional
effectiveness and trade spend.
Testing the results of such initiatives, where consistency of approach and visibility
of performance have always been difficult, is a major focus in the sector. The results
have been impressive: one leading company estimates that its most recent tradespend initiative, which focuses on the investment consumer goods companies make
with retail partners, has generated a sustainable gross profit improvement of 1%3% of
net sales. But there are clear challenges too. One is the diversity of the marketplaces
in which companies operate: it is not uncommon for a particular company to have a
presence in more than 150 countries.
Similarly, consumer goods companies often work with extended supply chains with
multiple intermediaries. These structures may explain why the sector appears to
have moved more quickly than others toward centralizing its data and analytics
functions often through the creation of multifunction business services operations.
Several consumer product organizations have created centers of excellence to drive
the take-up of analytics opportunities across their business. Those centers offer

valuable services to the rest of the business, including analytics

capabilities and functionality. That is not to discount the challenge
of attempting to drive enterprise data initiatives across so many
markets. One issue is that, in many areas, there is a lack of data,
particularly from external sources. Another key challenge is to
convert the insights generated at the center into actions in each
area of the business around the world.

Consumer product organizations are

beginning to see and realize analytics
as a competitive advantage and those
that get to grips with that and can drive
decisive decisions more quickly and more
respectively would be the winners.

Maturity level
Good in sales and marketing
areas; functions such as
supply chain, finance and HR
are now catching up.
Holistic approach
Benefiting from shift toward
multifunction business
Business benefits
Being realized in both
salesand marketing,

Richard Taylor, Global Consumer Products Advisory

Sector Leader, EY

Ready for takeoff?


Financial services

emerging from the credit crisis

The financial services industry has significant opportunities to capitalize on big
data and analytics technologies and it has seen increased pressure to leverage
this capability since the financial crisis of 2008. Regulatory stress has forced
many businesses, particularly banks, to invest in areas such as risk management,
compliance and operations. That has accelerated a trend, seen developing more slowly
in other industries, toward enterprise data management.
While some sub-sectors have moved faster than others, the financial services sector
is largely mature in terms of big data and analytics adoption across its traditional
business. The focus is now increasingly on utilizing these capabilities to drive new
sources of revenue. For example, insurance companies are looking to monetize the
data they get through telematics devices installed in policyholders cars by selling it to
retailers interested in the travel habits of potential customers. Credit card companies
can see similar opportunities to exploit their data and augment it with additional

Three drivers of big data adoption

are simplification, cost reduction and
revenue growth. An area we see revenue
growth being driven is through advanced
customer analytics enabling new
differentiated customer experiences.
Hyong Kim, Global Financial Services Organization
(FSO) Sector Leader, Enterprise Intelligence, EY


Ready for takeoff?

sources to offer merchant services or help customers become more

Some financial services companies have redesigned their
whole business model on the basis of insights gleaned from
data. One South American bank has restructured its divisions
around customer segments rather than types of product. Other
businesses are entering the financial services arena utilizing
big data and analytics to make significant advancements in the
payments space.
But key issues remain. The high degree of M&A activity within the
sector has left many companies with disparate IT systems that are
difficult to integrate and transform across the enterprise, often
requiring significant change.
Reputational risk is another important issue. Financial services
companies, so battered by the crisis, are extremely cautious in
areas such as data privacy and accessibility, where they fear the
risk of further deterioration in client relationships, even when they
comply with the letter of the law.

Maturity level
Good in operations and risk;
early adoption of big data into
customer and growth agenda.
Holistic approach
Good, but the struggle to
unite disparate systems
Business benefits
New monetization
opportunities are already
being explored, legal and
regulatory risks are now
being mitigated.

Ready for takeoff?


Power and utilities

data explosion promises infrastructure gains


Ready for takeoff?

Trends in the power and utilities sector are leading to the emergence of vastly bigger
data volumes along the whole value chain:

In generation, the decentralization of supply required by decarbonization has

created millions of small renewable assets, each generating its own data.

Fluctuating and weather-dependent renewable energy production made it

profitableto build weather forecasting data for increasingly sophisticated

In transmission, the focus on energy efficiency and reliability has swelled the
amount of data produced by sensors and monitoring equipment.

In retail, the trend is toward online smart meters and smart home applications,
which continuously generate data.

However, the level of maturity of big data technology adoption varies among the
stages of the value chain. Today, the steering of generation plant utilization as well as
the energy trading activities already depend on elaborate production and market data
models. Here, power and utilities profits from other sectors more advanced in big data
and analytics, e.g., the financial industry.
On the other hand, the full potential of big data in infrastructure operations and retail
is still to be uncovered. It is widely unquestioned that big data and analytics are the
foundation for improved grid operations (e.g., through enabling demand management
and virtual storages) and the conversion of the customer relationships. Smart
meters and smart devices, in particular, are an important new source of data that

enables utilities companies to build much closer relationships with

customers and to move into new markets.
Nevertheless, the development of these new smart services
offerings is still in its infancy. And the question about whether
there exist sustainable business cases for the majority of these
new applications still has to be answered.
And there are other obvious challenges. Building enterprise-wide
initiatives across the value chain is often hindered by sector
regulation, keeping generation, distribution and retail at arms
length from one another. The result is that the entities in control of
the data often arent those that could benefit from the information
that it brings incentives arent aligned to make the most out of
the data that is generated.
For these reasons, the sector is less mature than others in
its adoption of big data and analytics tools. It is important to
understand that the case for big data investment cannot be left to
the IT department, but rather has to be defined from a cross-valuechain perspective that goes far beyond existing utilities offerings.

Maturity level
Slow to adopt new
technologies, but potential
now being seen.
Holistic approach
Hampered by legacy IT issues
and the structure of many
Business benefits
There are exciting asset and
infrastructure management

Big data needs to be tackled on a senior

executive level and should not be left
to the IT department only. It should be
tackled by the business as a whole.
Frank Fleischle, Partner, Power & Utilities Sector
Leader, Germany, Switzerland, Austria (GSA), EY

Ready for takeoff?



driving more enterprise-wide benefits

The automotive sector has made good progress on exploiting the possibilities of big
data in the customer-facing areas of its business, but some of the most interesting
developments are now to be found in engineering and other technical areas. For
example, the use of analytics to identify problematic components is dramatically
improving production quality and is generating substantial cost savings up to 80% for
certain companies. The increasing sophistication of the software installed in many
cars provides ever more data about engine performance, along with insights about
how cars are being driven.
One key issue is the complexity of the supply chain in the industry. Much of the specialist
work of design and manufacture has been outsourced to smaller suppliers. This makes
for more efficient and higher quality production, but reduces the amount of data
available to the manufacturer. And where suppliers are willing to share data, they may
be doing so across the industry, eroding individual businesses competitive advantage.
Like other industries, automotive is struggling to see the big picture on big data and
analytics. Return on investment is still being measured project by project, rather than

Functionality driven and enabled by

software contributes more and more
to the value of a car and developing
software is not within their genes.
Torsten Kiewert, Executive Director, Automotive
Advisory Services, EY


Ready for takeoff?

across the business as a whole. One potential stumbling block

to resolving this problem relates to a remuneration imbalance:
those parts of the business responsible for collecting data are not
generally the ones that benefit from the insights generated.
However, automotive companies are beginning to recognize
the potential of an enterprise-wide approach. For example, a
company is using data from its warranties operation to identify
areas where mechanical weaknesses are more likely and to adjust
manufacturing accordingly. This step addresses an increasingly
pressing need, as China has now adopted a law also in operation
in other markets that requires car manufacturers to offer an
exchange on any car that spends more than 35 days at the garage.
Some companies are also beginning to think about monetizing
their data by selling it on to third parties, or even, in the
case of data on previous owners and mileage, to customers.
The connected vehicle phenomenon will only add to

Maturity level
Low in customer-facing
areas functions such as
supply chain and engineering
are starting to catch up.
Holistic approach
Difficult, given complicated
supply chains, but some
progress is being made.
Business benefits
Experiments are taking place
with new revenue streams.

Ready for takeoff?


The industries like pharma, insurance, and banking are still the most mature industries in terms
of awareness of data privacy and compliance as they are already subject to sector-specific
regulations. Now, all industries are concerned by the protection of personal data, and the
million dollar question is how to use it. Ultimately, its a question of trust and reputation.
Peter Katko, Partner, EMEIA Head of IP/IT, EY


The difficulty of knowing what business problems they

should be solving with data and analytics
The technical and technological challenges of dealing
with the volume, variety and velocity of data
The lack of a holistic approach

The shortage of talent with data and analytics skills

Very low
Very high


Ready for takeoff?

The fear of cyber attack

The difficulty of building the business case,
given the lack of awareness about potential benefits
The legal issues around personal data,
privacy and copyright

Life sciences


Barriers Maturity

Barriers Maturity

Financial services Power and utilities Automotive

Barriers Maturity

Barriers Maturity

Barriers Maturity

Ready for takeoff?


Legal management of big data should be

considered as a topline value enabler,
not a burden.
Bruno Perrin, Partner, Technology Media and
Telecom(TMT) Market Segment Leader,
France, Maghreb, Luxembourg (FraMaLux), EY

In-flight turbulence:
dealing with the legal bumps
Ready for takeoff?


Protection of personal data

The legal issues confronting companies as they

seek to exploit the value of their data are
diverse, and vary from jurisdiction to
jurisdiction. But any data strategy that fails to
consider this matter will leave the business
vulnerable to damage such as regulatory
sanction and reputational harm. Inshort, it is
imperative to address the legal issues around
big data and analytics at the same time as the
strategic issues.
When establishing big data and analytics
operations, businesses will need to consider a
range of legal areas, including competition law,
intellectual property rights and taxation. But
the issue of data protection particularly of
personal data will sit front and center, and
will be the source of a number of legal and

Why personal data issues might force an


The increasing significance of personal data. The protection

of personal data is a central concern for consumers. This means that
compliance with regulations on personal data protection is not only
a way for businesses to adhere to the law but is also becoming an
effective way to convey their ethical and social commitment. Good
practices on data protection represent a competitive advantage for
any business that makes its behavior visible tocustomers.

The need to define and manage personal data carefully. Big

data and cloud computing can increase the risks raised by various
key questions on how data is managed and defined. For example,
what is the nature of the data the organization holds (is it sensitive,
pseudonymized, anonymized, relevant for business?), where is
personal data stored, how is personal data secured, do individuals
still have control over their data, how can they prevent the
processing of their data, and how can individuals recover their data.

The volume of data. The sheer scale of data collected by

organizations represents a growing risk. Those businesses that do
not keep track of what they hold, or keep checks on the accuracy
of their information, cannot guarantee they are complying with
the law. The high volume of data held also makes it increasingly
difficult for organizations to anonymize personal data to meet
regulatory requirements: anonymized records may still be
identifiable from other information held in databases.

The changing legislative environment. Legislators and

regulators in many marketplaces are scrambling to keep up with
organizations efforts to exploit the value of their data.
The European Commission, for example, is moving toward
implementation of a data protection regulation that will ensure
common standards across all member states of the EU that
will apply to any organization that operates with personal data


Ready for takeoff?

analytics sit at the heart of businesses

digital innovation, the legal instruments
available to protect and enhance data
currently seem too limited given its rapidly
increasing value.

inside the bloc. As well as governing the

way in which organizations must treat
the personal data they hold, the current
directive prohibits the transfer of data
outside the EU without the implementation
of appropriate safeguards involving, in
most countries, the prior authorization
of the State members data protection
regulators. Most data protection regulators
already sanction data controllers breaching
data protection law. In the near future,
the proposed regulation may also impose
penalties of up to 5% of revenue for
companies who fail to comply, raising a
significant financial risk here.

The possibility of a big data

backlash. Todays organizations are
used to operating in a golden age of
free customer data. From web browsing
behaviors to social media interactions with
brands, all this free data can be used by
companies to improve processes, decisions
and customer experiences and to identify
competitive differentiators.

for companies to share their personal

information (70%). Moreover, 55% of
consumers surveyed say that they have
become less willing to share their personal
data, and 48% say that over the next five
years they will be less willing to share their
personal data.

The need to protect the companys

own data. As the threat of cyber attack
grows, companies own data may be
vulnerable, leaving them open to legal
and reputational risk. And while data and

However, consumers are becoming more

and more selective and careful about who
they share their data with. According to
an EY survey20 customers are increasingly
skeptical and many are never happy

It is not yet clear whether this indicates

that, in future, companies will have to
offer an incentive for data sharing (4 in
10 consumers would be willing to share
personal data if there was an incentive, but
76% of businesses have not prepared for
the possibility of offering an incentive or
paying customers for their personal data).
But one conclusion that can be drawn from
consumers unwillingness to share their
personal data is that now is the time for
companies to consider seriously how they
are gathering and using big data.

The US and Europe: two different

approaches to data protection

Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act

protects the personal data of children
from being collected or misappropriated
by commercial websites. The financial
sector is covered by the Financial Services
Modernization Act of 1999. There are
numerous laws to protect data, but they
are sector specific rather than universal.

The US and Europe have radically different

definitions of concepts such as protection
of privacy and personal data. While
the EU operates under a single regulatory
regime; in the US, federal laws sit alongside
the laws of each of the 50 states.
Moreover, unlike the EU, the US does not
have a single body of regulation protecting
privacy. Instead, legal protection is specific
to particular sectors of activity, industries
or other groupings. For example, the

There is also a philosophical difference.

While privacy law in the US is based
on consumer protection, and aims to
achieve a balance between privacy and
effective business, the EU sees respect of
privacy as a citizens fundamental right,

something that is more important than any

commercial interest.
One crucial difference is the emphasis
placed by US legislation on the protection
of data security especially the obligation
to declare breaches of security. Several
US states have long-established laws
obliging organizations to notify regulators
of security breaches. In Europe, no
such obligation currently exists, though
the commission proposes to introduce
something similar in its forthcoming
overhaul of EU data privacy legislation.

Ready for takeoff?


The critical in-flight safety measures

How to

confront the legal issues

on a enterprise-wide basis
How, then, do organizations
begin to grapple with these legal
risks? The response may be
different depending on the
organizations geography and
the nature of its business (in
certain sectors, such as finance,
industry-specific regulation adds
to the legal burden of dealing
with data). But EY teams that
have worked with businesses
toaddress legal and strategic
issues simultaneously have
developed key principles to
address the demands that big
data and analytics are now
making on organizations.


Ready for takeoff?

Legal issues must be addressed by the

business as a whole, rather than through
silos. Businesses that do not have an
enterprise-wide view risk falling foul of
compliance requirements in individual
territories or product categories, say,
because of non-compliant behavior in other
areas of the organization.
The standardization of regulation in
markets such as the EU will make it
easier for multinational organizations to

handle data compliance, but jurisdictional

variations will continue. In any case, the
need to confront the legal problems of big
data on an enterprise-wide basis offers
an opportunity to bring together other
policies and solutions to create a single
coherent strategy for the business.
Many organizations are already
establishing centers of excellence to
exploit big data and analytics. Building best
compliance practices from these centers is
a natural fit.

identify legally
questionable practices
Without improved information
management, an organization will have
little chance of staying in control of the
data it holds. Too many organizations
hold outdated, unnecessary, incorrect or
ambiguous data and make little attempt
to cull this poor-quality information. This
situation is problematic for any business
seeking to drive value from data. But
from a legal perspective, the lack of
good information management practices
presents a real danger: the enterprise
may even be unwittingly holding legally
questionable data.

This is a good example of where the

legal and strategic responses to the
challenges of big data go hand-in-hand.
Data, in itself, has little value and, in
this context, excessive, low-quality data
represents an unnecessary legal risk,
as well as a pointless cost. Professional
information practices mitigate risk and
cost while ensuring that the organization
can rely on the quality of its data as it
seeks to leverage actionable insights from
what it holds: the real value of big data

build a new structure

for handling the legal issues
A new discipline requires new types of
leaders to confront the challenges it
presents. Roles such as chief privacy
officer and chief information strategy
officer will become increasingly important
to organizations as they seek to implement
rigor in their handling and protection

of personal data and other types of

information. In order to be effective, these
figures will need the sort of credibility and
authority acquired by chief risk officers in
recent years. The roles may even become
board-level posts.

the customer in all legal

create a virtue
of data privacy
Commercial organizations increasingly
recognize that there is value to be gained
from having a reputation for good practice
with data. For example, Microsoft has
recently sought to establish such a
reputation through advertising campaigns
that have chided other businesses for
their lax data protection standards.
Facebook, meanwhile, has retreated
from strategic initiatives that caused
consternation among its users about
privacy. Other businesses have begun to
build consumer relationships by offering

customers something in return for their

data: most loyalty schemes now operate
Confronting the legal and regulatory
challenge also presents an internal
opportunity. Organizations are only as
strong as their weakest link. To be secure,
they need to embed a culture of data
awareness at every level of the business.
This fits neatly with the enterprise-wide
approach that businesses need to be able
to extract maximum value from their data.

Companies should always think about

what benefits they can generate for their
customers and for the public in general.
If companies focus their big data efforts
on things that solely benefit themselves,
they risk damaging the social contract that
allows them access to such data.
Protection of personal data generates
trust and business opportunities, and any
ignorance of legal issues leads to more
financial, legal and reputational risks.

Ready for takeoff?


Protecting the businesss data

Although businesses increasingly regard data as
an important strategic asset, it has strictly limited
legal protection.

. Databases are defined as collections of data

arranged systematically or methodically that
are individually accessible by electronic or other
means. Databases enjoy twofold legal protection:

protects the structure of the

database if the database can be deemed to be

original in terms of its organization, its sections

and their layout. Copyright is not intended to
protect the information content of the database.

sui generis right of database producers

allows for the protection of the investment

made in compiling the content of the database

and could, therefore, to a certain extent make
up for the limited nature of copyright.

. Protecting intellectual property may be

more difficult: know-how is a concept whose
definition can differ significantly from one country
to another. In some territories, there is no set
legal definition of the notion. Other countries
allow for more extensive protection of companies


Ready for takeoff?

The pitfalls of competition law

Businesses that are dominant in their market
sectors may hold so much data that their position
is deemed anticompetitive. And while the principle
of data protection is to prohibit the sharing of
personal data unless strict criteria have been met,
competition regulators are likely to push for a
more open data market in sectors where there are
concerns about monopolistic practices.
Under competition law, various data collection and
storage practices could be deemed anticompetitive
agreements or abuses of a dominant position.
Ifa company that holds and reserves for its own
exclusive use data that is deemed vital to other
operators on the basis of intellectual property
law and specific laws on databases then it might
also be accused of abuse. And as an asset,
personal data can be taken into account in
competition impact analyses of mergers.
Another related issue is data ownership,
particularly in industries with highly developed
supply chains. For example, in the automotive
sector, several manufacturers may source
technology from a single provider, creating
questions about who owns and has access to
the data generated by that provider.

Ready for takeoff?


On the runway or stuck
in departures? A big data
self-assessment guide
Ready for takeoff?


How ready are you for the big data takeoff?

Which businesses are leading

the way on driving value from
big data? Every industry has
its leaders and laggards, but
the former share one thing in
common: an ability to selfevaluate in order to drive
continuous improvement.
Though many organizations
are very rapidly making huge
progress, analytics is a
technology still in its infancy.
Few companies are
approaching genuine maturity
in their attempts to evaluate
the value of the insights and
to break down the barriers
preventing them from
realizing it.


Ready for takeoff?

How mature is your businesss big data and

To what extent has the organization set
analytical objectives?
To what extent has the organization
developed analytics?
To what extent does the organization
possess analytics skills?
To what extent is the organizations
senior leadership supportive of analytics
initiatives, or taking a lead on them?

To what extent do the organizations

technology tools enable analytics
To what extent has the organization
embedded a culture of analytics?
To what extent has the organization
considered the legal challenges of
To what extent has the organization sought
to mitigate other potential risks, including
cybersecurity issues, related to big data?

Stages of analytical capability21


Strategic stages

Legal stages

The company uses

internal and external
data, statistical
analysis and

Best practices for the management of legal

Best legal approach

issues around data processing are implemented

and receive regular review (audit and control
regarding the management of data and IT
security to check compliance both with data
protection rules and with in-house data
protection and IP procedures).

Better legal approach


The company has

high-quality data
and a company-wide


The company has

business intelligence
tools, but there is no
easy access to them.


Analytics is used
mostly for reporting
businessas usual.


The company lacks

data skills, and the
data is of poor quality.
Please consider
whether data skill is
the right phrase, isit
analytics skills?

There is an established committee, close to the

board, that defines and manages data strategy.

The legal department has implemented a
systematic consultation process to handle legal
issues related to data management.
The chief privacy officer reports to
management, organizes training and is certified
by third-party organizations, such as IAPP

Binding Corporate Rules have been deployed

within the group.

There is a designated data privacy officer who

iswell connected with the data analysis teams.

Third-party certification of trust is part of business.

The establishment of a maturity model optimizes
the dissemination and management of these

Best practices regarding data protection

compliance such as Binding Corporate Rules

orEuropean Seals are being considered.
The databases developed by the company
areprotected as a strategic asset, with the use
of copyrights and other relevant IP.

Good legal approach

There is a reasonable level of awareness of data

be integrated in the business strategy.

Establishment of governance across various
Legal officers are involved if the case-by-case
project requires data management, but this
doesnt apply as such as policy in the

A chief data privacy officer has been appointed

Developing legal approach

Best practices regarding data protection

Strategic thinking is in progress on how data can

Collection and data management are recognized

as being part of the organizations challenges.
There is some awareness of data privacy topics
and an in-house contact to deal with data
privacy-related questions.
The chief privacy officer reports to
management, organizes training and is certified
by third-party organizations, such as IAPP

privacy topics.

to deal with data privacy issues.

Some data protection compliance procedures

have been developed.

The databases developed by the company are

protected as a strategic asset, with the use of
copyrights and other relevant IP.

compliance such as Binding Corporate Rules

orEuropean Seals are being considered.
The databases developed by the company
areprotected as a strategic asset, with the
useof copyrights and other relevant IP.

Poor legal approach

There is only a limited data strategy and there

noraconsistent data privacy compliance

management team.
Compliance is monitored on the basis of an
informal connection between the in-house
lawyers and CRM or marketing teams on a
case-by-case basis,

Collection, management and valuation ofdata

There is neither chief data privacy officer

are few internal tools.

are not identified as crucial to competitive

advantage for the organization.
Data is solely organized and managed by
thefinancial function.

Ready for takeoff?



To what extent has the organization

embedded a culture of analytics?

It does not figure.







To what extent has the

organization considered the legal
challenges of big data or analytics?

Awareness of data and analytics is

growing, and demand is beginning
Business leaders have begun to
drive data awareness throughout the
organization, and penetration rates
are starting to rise.
Business leaders have persuaded staff
throughout the business to recognize
the value of data-driven decision
The whole organization is geared
toward identifying data from which
actionable insights can be drawn, and
acting on those opportunities.





This is not on the agenda.

Awareness is very limited and
no single figure or function is
addressing these questions.
The business has begun to
consider legal issues as part of an
The business considers legal issues
at a high level and has processes
in place to ensure enterprise-wide
Consideration of legal risk is fully
embedded in an enterprise-wide
big data and analytics strategy.
Compliance is promoted and is
effectively a business enabler for

Your big data score

818 points
Your enterprise is only beginning to
consider the potential for exploiting big
data and analytics technologies. Where
projects are being considered, there is little
attempt to coordinate activity, and business
leaders are failing to take the initiative.
Your organization may also be vulnerable
to legal risk and cyberattacks.

1929 points
Your enterprise has made some
encouraging steps toward realizing value
from big data, but there is a great deal
more work to be done. There is some
leadership from the top of the company,
and functions are beginning to work
together, but a culture of data awareness
has not yet been embedded throughout
the organization. Risk mitigation needs

3040 points


To what extent has the organization sought to mitigate other potential risks
related to big data and analytics, such as cybersecurity issues?



We have yet to think about

We have begun to focus on big data
opportunities, but are not yet planning
and preparing for the associated risks.
There is growing awareness that, as
our enterprise embraces big data and
analytics, risk is a crucial challenge to
be confronted.



The business runs scenario planning

exercises and other drills in order to
address specific risks.
The question of risk is embedded
throughout our big data and analytics

Your enterprise has made good progress

with big data and analytics projects, and
it has a holistic strategy that emphasizes
enterprise-wide solutions. Staff members at
every level of the company are data-aware,
with C-suite executives leading the charge
toward driving value. The emphasis now
willbe on performance measurement
and on ensuring that data generates a
continuous cycle of businessbenefits.

This exercise is indicative only and should
not be considered a granular assessment
of your enterprises readiness for big
data takeoff, or its legal preparedness.
Individual corporate priorities will vary
from business tobusiness.

How mature is your businesss big data and analytics capability?

For each of the following eight questions, select one of the answer options to evaluate your companys current level of maturity.
The scale goes from 1 = not at all to 5 = completely. Calculate your total points and see your total on the flipside.


To what extent has the organization





It has limited insights into customers,

markets and competitors.
Some business functions have begun
experimenting autonomously.
The organization has begun
to set enterprise-wide strategies and
consider performance metrics.
A change management program is in
place to develop analytics capabilities
throughout the business.
The organization is already generating
deep strategic insights and is
continually innovating to boost datadriven decision making.


To what extent does the

organization possess

The skills are missing or have yet to



A handful of analysts work in

particular business functions.


Business functions have begun to

recruit greater numbers of analysts.



The organization has made

recruitment a priority at an
enterprise-wide level and has many
skilled analysts in place.
Skills shortages are not a problem
and analysts are working in integrated
teams throughout the business.


To what extent do the

organizations technology tools
enable the development of analytics



To what extent has the organization

developed analytics?

None are in place.

To what extent is the organizations

senior leadership supportive of
analytics initiatives, or taking
aleadon them?

Initiatives are localized or



Business functions operate

independently of one another.


The organization is beginning to

establish enterprise-wide processes.


Initiatives are led by business



Many enterprise-wide processes are in



Executives are starting to understand

competitive opportunities.


Enterprise-wide processes are fully

embedded in the organization.


Initiatives have C-suite support.

Initiatives have CEO support and
C-suite leadership.


Systems are not integrated and data is

in short supply orunreliable.
Data is missing and systems are
poorly integrated.
Data warehouse initiatives are under
way and some analytics tools are
Data is of high quality and enterprisewide solutions have beendeveloped.
The business has implemented an
enterprise-wide architecture that is
already generating good results.

Appendix: further reading,
contacts and
Ready for takeoff?


Additional EY thought
leadership resources
EY regularly publishes insights on digitalization, transformation,
governance, risk and compliance, including thought leadership on
information security topics. These perspectives are designed to
help clients by offering timely and valuable insights that address
issues of importance for C-suite executives.
Born to be digital: how leading CIOs are preparing for
adigitaltransformation, EY, 2014
Cultural behavior and personal data at the heart of the Big data
industry: finding the right balance between privacy andinnovation
Under cyber attack: EYs Global Information Security Survey2013
Privacy trends: the uphill climbcontinues
The Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013


Ready for takeoff?

Drazen Nikolic

Partner, EMEIA Enterprise Intelligence

Leader, EY
Phone: + 49 89 14331 19481

We would like to thank EYs experts across sectors and global workstreams on big
data for giving valuable insights to this point of view. Finally, we would like to thank
Longitude for helping us writing thispiece.

Christopher J. Mazzei

Kevin Koenig

Partner, EMEIA Advisory Services, EY

Phone: + 44 207 980 9250

Christer A. Johnson

DArtagnan Catellier

Fabrice Naftalski

Bruno Perrin

Errol Gardner

Patrick Flochel

Richard Taylor

Iain Scott

Elaine Parr

Dr. Frank Fleischle

Patrick James

Torsten Kiewert

Vincent Placer

Hyong Y. Kim

Peter Katko,

Christopher Moore

Partner, Attorney at law, EMEIA Head

ofIP/IT Law, EY
Phone: + 33 1 55 61 10 05

Global Chief Analytics Officer, EY

Advanced Analytics Leader,

Enterprise Intelligence, EY

Partner, TMT Market Segment Leader


Global Pharmaceutical Sector


Global Life SciencesCenter, EY

Partner, Power & Utilities Sector Leader,


Executive Director,
Automotive Advisory Services, EY

Global FSO Sector Leader,

Enterprise Intelligence, EY

Partner, FSO Advisory Services, EY

Senior Manager,
FSO Advisory Services,EY

EMEIA FSO Advisory Services,EY

Partner, Global Consumer Products

Advisory Sector Leader, EY

Advisory Market Development Leader,

Global Consumer ProductsSector, EY

Partner, Advisory Services Customer

Leader,UKI, EY

Executive Director,

EMEIA Head of IP/IT Law, EY

Ready for takeoff?


1 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.

16 Big data and enterprise mobility, EY, 2013.

2 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.

17 Big data and enterprise mobility, EY, 2013.

3 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.

18 Under cyber attack EYs Global Information Security Survey

2013, EY, October 2013.

4 World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database 2013, ITU,

December 2013.

19 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.

5 World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators, ITU, 2013.

20 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.

6 The Digital Universe in 2020: Big Data, Bigger Digital Shadows,

and Biggest Growth in the Far East, IDC, December 2012.

20 EYs data maturity model builds on the work of American

academic Thomas Davenport, whose work provides a
framework for organizations seeking to create better analytics
capabilities. Davenports strategy for successful analytics is
based on the DELTA model:
Data the nature, quality and uniqueness of the data the
business has, as well as the way in which it is integrated,
accessed and protected.
Enterprise the extent to which the business takes a holistic
view of the data it has and how toexploit it.
Leadership the commitment and passion for analytical
competiveness and capability.
Targets the extent to which the organization marshals its
resources particularly its skills inorder to focus on the
highest-value applications of analytics.
Analysts the extent to which the organization has hired
skilled data scientists who can convert data into

7 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.

8 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.
9 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.
10 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.
11 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.
12 Big Data Backlash, EY, 2013.
13 Extracting Insights from Exabytes, GP Bullhound,
14 Game changers: Five opportunities
for US growth and renewal, McKinsey & Co, July2013.
15 Big data and enterprise mobility, EY, 2013.


Ready for takeoff?

Ready for takeoff?


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Ready for takeoff?