You are on page 1of 14

# CE 601: Consolidation & Settlement

Settlement
Settlement
S = Se + Sc + Ss

Immediate
Settlement
Se

Primary
Consolidation
Sc

Secondary
Consolidation
Ss

## Immediate Settlement: Occurs immediately after the construction. This is

computed using elasticity theory (Important for Granular soil)
Primary Consolidation: Due to gradual dissipation of pore pressure
i d
induced
d by
b external
t
di and
d consequently
tl expulsion
l i off water
t ffrom th
the
soil mass, hence volume change. (Important for Inorganic clays)
Secondary Consolidation: Occurs at constant effective stress with volume
change due to rearrangement of particles. (Important for Organic soils)

For any of the above mentioned settlement calculations, we first need vertical
stress increase in soil mass due to net load applied on the foundation

Primary Consolidation
Time-settlement analysis at given load in
Oedometer test (consolidation test)

## 1. Casagrande Method (logt method)

2. Taylor Method (t method)

Casagrande Method

Taylor Method

e-logp curve
(void ratio versus stress relationship)

## Example : Oedometer test

e-logp curve (Void ratio versus pressure curve):
0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0,
8.0 Kg/cm2

0.60

Vo
oidRatio,e

0.55

8.0, 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.2,
0.1 Kg/cm2

0.50

0.45

Compression index
(Cc) = 0.1

0.40

Re-compression index
(Cr) = 0.01

0.1

1
LogEffectiveStressinkg/cm2

10

## Compressibility parameters (Cc & Cr):

Compressibility parameters Cc & Cr are used in settlement
calculations Cc is the slope of loading curve and Cr or Cs is
calculations.
Settlement for NC soil

Sc

av

Cc H c
log o

1 eo
o

Sc

C H
av

Cs H c
log c c c log o

1 eo
c
o 1 eo

mv = av/(1+e0)

St Si USc

Permeability:

cv t
Ht 2

k = Cv mv w

## Settlement curve (oedometer test at each load):

Casagrade method : t500 (U = 50%)
Tayor method : t90 (U = 90%)
U = Degree of consolidation
T = Time factor
Find coefficient of consolidation (Cv) ?

cv t
Ht 2

T

## Time factor (T):

U <= 60%; T = (pi/4) U2

cv t
Ht 2

## U = Degree of consolidation (%)

T = Time factor
Casagrade method : t50 (U = 50%)
Cv = (0.196 H2) / t50
Tayor method : t90 (U = 90%)
Cv = (0.848 H2) / t50

St Si USc

cv t
Ht 2

## Assumption of pore pressure distribution

under the given stress conditions

For open
clay layer
with two
way
drainage
use curve
for V=1

Relationship of
e, av, cv &
effective stress

Pre-consolidation pressure
(Bisector method)

original
state

## virgin consolidation line

vo

Field

void ratio

eo

OCR

vo

p'
vo '
p

log v

Effect of disturbance on
consolidation curve (e-logp)

Secondary Consolidation
Void ratio versus time (logt) relationship

Ss

C
ep

Hc

t
C H c
log 2
1 ep
t1

e
log t2 t1

Void Ratio, e

Consolidation

ep

t1

t2

## Time, t (Log scale)

Thickness of Clay Layer

## Secondary consolidation settlement is more important in the case

of organic and highly-compressible inorganic clays

## Elastic settlement of Foundation

H

Elastic settlement:

Se z dz
0

Es
H
s

1
Es

s x s y dz

Modulus of elasticity
Thickness of soil layer
Poissons ratio of soil

Se

If
Es

qB
1 s2 I f
Es

## = influence factor: depends on the rigidity and shape of the foundation

= Avg elasticity modulus of the soil for (4B) depth below foundn level

## Elastic settlement of Foundation

E in kPa

Elastic settlement of
Foundation

Semi-infinite
depth

## How to chose the Charts?

Recommendations (IS 8009):

10

## Contact Pressure and Settlement distribution

Cohesive Soil - Flexible Footing

IS 8009 (Fig 9)

by factor W'

11

St

H t o
ln

C o
3 q
C c
2 o

## Depth profile of cone resistance

can be divided in several
segments of average cone
resistance
Average cone resistance can be
used to calculate constant of
compressibility.
Settlement of each layer is
calculated separately due to

Depth correction
factor

12

25

Differential Settlement
Terzaghis recommendation:
Differential settlement should not exceed 50% of the total settlement calculated for the foundation.
foundation
Considering the sizes of different footing, the following criteria is suggested for buildings:

## Differential settlement of footing 75% of max calculated settlement of footing

For raft foundation the requirements shall be more stringent and they may designed for the
following criteria

Differential settlement of raft footing 37% of max calculated settlement of raft footing

= maximum settlement

= differential settlement
/ = angular distortion

13

## Maximum bearing pressure that can be applied on the

soil satisfying two fundamental requirements

## Bearing capacity with adequate factor of safety

net safe bearing capacity
Settlement within permissible limits (critical in most cases)
net safe bearing pressure

Thank You

14