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CE 601: Consolidation & Settlement

Settlement
Settlement
S = Se + Sc + Ss

Immediate
Settlement
Se

Primary
Consolidation
Sc

Secondary
Consolidation
Ss

Immediate Settlement: Occurs immediately after the construction. This is


computed using elasticity theory (Important for Granular soil)
Primary Consolidation: Due to gradual dissipation of pore pressure
i d
induced
d by
b external
t
l lloading
di and
d consequently
tl expulsion
l i off water
t ffrom th
the
soil mass, hence volume change. (Important for Inorganic clays)
Secondary Consolidation: Occurs at constant effective stress with volume
change due to rearrangement of particles. (Important for Organic soils)

For any of the above mentioned settlement calculations, we first need vertical
stress increase in soil mass due to net load applied on the foundation

Primary Consolidation
Time-settlement analysis at given load in
Oedometer test (consolidation test)

1. Casagrande Method (logt method)


2. Taylor Method (t method)

Casagrande Method

Taylor Method

e-logp curve
(void ratio versus stress relationship)

Example : Oedometer test


e-logp curve (Void ratio versus pressure curve):
Incremental Loading & Unloading
Loading:
0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0,
8.0 Kg/cm2

0.60

Vo
oidRatio,e

0.55

Unloading:
8.0, 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.2,
0.1 Kg/cm2

0.50

0.45

Compression index
(Cc) = 0.1

0.40

Re-compression index
(Cr) = 0.01

0.1

1
LogEffectiveStressinkg/cm2

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Compressibility parameters (Cc & Cr):


Compressibility parameters Cc & Cr are used in settlement
calculations Cc is the slope of loading curve and Cr or Cs is
calculations.
the slope of unloading curve.
Settlement for NC soil

Sc

av

Cc H c
log o

1 eo
o

Settlement for OC soil

Sc

C H
av

Cs H c
log c c c log o

1 eo
c
o 1 eo

Void ratio versus pressure curve


mv = av/(1+e0)

Void ratio versus Stress (e-p) relationship

Coefficient of Consolidation (Cv)


St Si USc

Permeability:

cv t
Ht 2

k = Cv mv w

Settlement curve (oedometer test at each load):


Casagrade method : t500 (U = 50%)
Tayor method : t90 (U = 90%)
U = Degree of consolidation
T = Time factor
Find coefficient of consolidation (Cv) ?

cv t
Ht 2

Coefficient of Consolidation (Cv)


T

Time factor (T):


U <= 60%; T = (pi/4) U2

cv t
Ht 2

U > 60%; T = 1.781-0.933 log (100-U)

U = Degree of consolidation (%)


T = Time factor
Casagrade method : t50 (U = 50%)
Cv = (0.196 H2) / t50
Tayor method : t90 (U = 90%)
Cv = (0.848 H2) / t50

IS 8009 (Fig 13)

Time Rate of Settlement


St Si USc

cv t
Ht 2

Assumption of pore pressure distribution


under the given stress conditions

For open
clay layer
with two
way
drainage
use curve
for V=1

Relationship of
e, av, cv &
effective stress

Pre-consolidation pressure
(Bisector method)

e-logp curve (void ratio versus effective stress curve)

Overconsolidation ratio (OCR)


original
state

virgin consolidation line

vo

Field

void ratio

eo

OCR

vo

p'
vo '
p

log v

Effect of disturbance on
consolidation curve (e-logp)

Secondary Consolidation
Void ratio versus time (logt) relationship

Ss

C
ep

Hc

t
C H c
log 2
1 ep
t1

Secondary Compression Index

e
log t2 t1

Void ratio at the end of primary consolidation

Void Ratio, e

Settlement Due to Secondary


Consolidation

ep

t1

t2

Time, t (Log scale)


Thickness of Clay Layer

Secondary consolidation settlement is more important in the case


of organic and highly-compressible inorganic clays

Elastic settlement of Foundation


H

Elastic settlement:

Se z dz
0

Es
H
s

1
Es

s x s y dz

Modulus of elasticity
Thickness of soil layer
Poissons ratio of soil

Elastic settlement for Flexible Foundation:

Se

If
Es

qB
1 s2 I f
Es

= influence factor: depends on the rigidity and shape of the foundation


= Avg elasticity modulus of the soil for (4B) depth below foundn level

Elastic settlement of Foundation

E in kPa

Elastic settlement of
Foundation

Soil Strata with


Semi-infinite
depth

How to chose the Charts?


Recommendations (IS 8009):

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Contact Pressure and Settlement distribution


Cohesive Soil - Flexible Footing

Granular Soil Flexible Footing

Cohesive Soil - Rigid Footing

Granular Soil - Rigid Footing

Total Settlement from SPT Data for Cohesionless soil


IS 8009 (Fig 9)

Multiply the settlement


by factor W'

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Total Settlement from CPT Data for Cohesionless soil


St

H t o
ln

C o
3 q
C c
2 o

Depth profile of cone resistance


can be divided in several
segments of average cone
resistance
Average cone resistance can be
used to calculate constant of
compressibility.
Settlement of each layer is
calculated separately due to
foundation loading and then
added together

Depth correction
factor

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Differential Settlement
Terzaghis recommendation:
Differential settlement should not exceed 50% of the total settlement calculated for the foundation.
foundation
Considering the sizes of different footing, the following criteria is suggested for buildings:

Differential settlement of footing 75% of max calculated settlement of footing


For raft foundation the requirements shall be more stringent and they may designed for the
following criteria

Differential settlement of raft footing 37% of max calculated settlement of raft footing

= maximum settlement

= differential settlement
/ = angular distortion

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Allowable Bearing Pressure

Maximum bearing pressure that can be applied on the


soil satisfying two fundamental requirements

Bearing capacity with adequate factor of safety


net safe bearing capacity
Settlement within permissible limits (critical in most cases)
net safe bearing pressure

Thank You

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