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CE 601: Liquefaction

Liquefaction

What is Liquefaction?

Why does the Liquefaction occur?

When has Liquefaction occurred in the past?

Where does Liquefaction commonly occur?

How can Liquefaction hazards be reduced?

What is Liquefaction ?

Liquefaction
q
occurs in saturated soils
All pores are completely filled with water;
Soil is no more thirsty!!
The water in the pores exerts the pressure
on soil p
particles called Pore Pressure that
influences how tightly the soil particles are
pressed together

Why does the Liquefaction occur?

Prior to an earthquake: the pore pressure is low


Earthquake shaking causes pore pressure to Increase:
Undrained Condition!!
Pore pressure = Overburden press/Confining stress
Effective stress is Zero;
NO Shear
h
Strength!!
h
Soil particles starts readily move with respect to each other
due to zero shear strength.
LIQUEFACTION occurs!!

Mechanism: Why does the Liquefaction occur?


Soil grains in a soil deposit

The small contact forces are


because of the high water
pressure.

The length of the arrows represent the


size of the contact forces between
individual soil grains

In an extreme case, the


porewater pressure may
become so high that many
of the soil particles lose
contact with each other. In
such cases, the soil has very
little strength, and behaves
like a liquid; called
Liquefaction".

When has Liquefaction occurred


in the past?

Alaska Earthquake, USA, 1964

Niigata Earthquake, Japan, 1964

Loma-Prieta Earthquake, USA, 1989

Kobe Earthquake, Japan, 1995

Chi-Chi
Chi
Chi Earthquake,
Earthquake Taiwan,
Taiwan 1999

Bhuj Earthquake, India, 2001

Many More!!

IIndia
di Seismic
S i i
Zone Map
Zone - II: This is said to be
the least active seismic zone.
Z
Zone
- III:
III It is
i included
i l d d in
i
the moderate seismic zone.
Zone - IV: This is considered
to be the high seismic zone.
Zone - V: It is the highest
seismic zone.

Seismic
zoning Map
of India

Locations of soil sites in Kutch region experienced


liquefaction in Bhuj Earthquake 2001

Zone V:
Thiss zone
o e cove
coverss the
t e areas
a eas with
w t the
t e highest
g est risks
sks zone
o e that
t at suffers
su e s
earthquakes of intensity MSK IX or greater. The IS code assigns zone factor
of 0.36 for Zone 5. Structural designers use this factor for earthquake
resistant design of structures in Zone 5. The zone factor of 0.36 is indicative
of effective (zero period) peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.36 g
(36% of gravity) that may be generated during MCE level earthquake in this
zone. It is referred to as the Very High Damage Risk Zone. The state of
Kashmir,the western and central Himalayas, the North-East Indian region
and the Rann of Kutch fall in this zone.
Generally, the areas having trap or basaltic rock are prone to earthquakes.

Zone IV:
This zone is called the High Damage Risk Zone and covers areas liable to
MSK VIII. The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.24 for Zone 4. The IndoGangetic basin and the capital of the country (Delhi), Jammu and Kashmir fall
in Zone 4. In Maharashtra the Faltan area (Koyananager) is also in zone no-4
Zone III:
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, parts of Kashmir, Western Himalayas
fall under this zone. This zone is classified as Moderate Damage Risk Zone
which is liable to MSK VII. and also 7.8 The IS code assigns zone factor of
0 16 ffor Z
0.16
Zone 33.
Zone II:
This region is liable to MSK VI or less and is classified as the Low Damage Risk
Zone. The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.10 (maximum horizontal acceleration
that can be experienced by a structure in this zone is 10% of gravitational
acceleration) for Zone 2.

Liquefaction: Lateral Displacement

Alaska Earthquake, USA, 1964: Displacement of Houses


& cracked highway

Liquefaction: Tilting of Buildings

Niigata Earthquake, Japan, 1964:


Tilting of apartment buildings at Kawagishi-Cho

Liquefaction: Collapse of Expressways

Kobe Earthquake, Japan, 1995:


Collapse of Hanshin Expressway &
collapse of Nishinomiya bridge

Bhuj Earthquake, India, 2001: Damage to rail-road and highway; sand


boiling due to liquefaction

Collapsed State highway,


highway
California, 1989

Failed river dike, California, 1989

S d boils
Sand
b il iin a room iin Lunya-Li
L
Li in
i Yuanlin
Y
li
Town, Taiwan, 1999
Sand boils in a house at Shetou,
Taiwan, 1999

Sand boils in Loma Prieta Earthquake, 1989, California

Liquefaction-induced settlement at Taichung Port, Taiwan, 1999

1964 Niigata EQ
Multi span Bridge
Movement of Bridge Piers due to Lateral Spreading

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1964 Niigata EQ
Tilting of Building
Loss of Bearing Capacity

Where does Liquefaction


commonly occur?
Cohesive
C
h i
soils

Clay

Soils susceptible
t li
to
liquefaction
f ti

Granular
G
l soils
il or
Cohesion less soils

Silt
0.002

Sand
0.075

Gravel
2.36
(4 75 IS code)
(4.75;
d )

Cobble
63
(80)

Boulder
200
(300)

Grain size (mm)


Fine grain
soils

Coarse grain
soils

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Where does Liquefaction commonly occur?


Liquefaction occurs in saturated soil only, its effects are most commonly
observed in low
low-lying
lying areas near bodies of water such as rivers, lakes, bays,
and oceans. Port and wharf facilities are often located in areas susceptible to
liquefaction, and many have been damaged by liquefaction in past
earthquakes.
Most ports and wharves have major retaining structures, or quay walls, to
allow large ships to moor adjacent to flat cargo handling areas. When the soil
behind and/or beneath such a wall liquefies, the pressure it exerts on the wall
can increase greatly - enough to cause the wall to slide and/or tilt toward the
water.
Liquefaction also frequently causes damage to bridges that cross rivers and
other bodies of water. Such damage can have drastic consequences, impeding
emergency response and rescue operations in the short term and causing
significant economic loss from business disruption in the longer term.

Liquefaction Susceptible Soil

Soil

Cohesionless
Loose (sometimes dense too)
Saturated
Why not in Dense Soil ??
(negative pore pressure generation
during shearing!!)
Without EQ

With EQ

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Liquefaction: Principal Stress


Increase in
principal stress

Shear Stress

Without
EQ

With EQ

Normal
Stress

Shear Stresses in Soils under Earthquakes

Under EQ ground motion


Shear stresses generated at bed-rocks
Transmitted upwards
Loose cohesionless soils tend to densify and settle
Pore water is forced out from the voids
Shaking duration too short for pore water to drain
Pore water p
pressure increases
Effective stress reduces
In critical state, soil looses stiffness & shear strength

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Liquefaction: Flow Liquefaction

Flow Liquefaction

Only in loose to moderately dense granular soils (silty sands,


sands and gravels) with poor drainage
Soil stratum softens causing large cyclic shear deformations
In loose materials, associated loss of shear strength may cause
flow failure
For sharp slopes (>~5 %), landslides on a large scale
Hundreds of meters of motion of soil mass

eq
strength
Before Flow Failure

After Flow Failure

Liquefaction: Cyclic Mobility

Cyclic
y
mobility
y

In both loose and dense soils


Gentle slopes (<~3 %)
Movement of large blocks of mass towards free end
Sliding and disintegration of large soil mass
Tilting and subsidence of over-lying structures
Lateral spreading

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Sand Boils

Level-ground
l
d liquefaction
l
f
in layered
l
d soils
l
Sand boil

Cohesive
S il Layers
Soil
L
Cohesionless
Soil Layer

Large Ground Oscillations

Liquefaction at depth
Separation of layers
Ground soil layers jostle
back and forth
Ground waves
Large Ground
Lateral spreading due to Oscillations
flow liquefaction and/or
cyclic mobility

Tilting

Lateral
Spreading
Uplift
Subsidence

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Loss of Bearing Capacity

Liquefied
q
underlying
y g soil supporting
pp
g the
structure
Subsidence of heavier structures
Uplifting of lighter structures

Liquefaction Hazard
Seismic History Criterion

Confined to a zone within a distance


from EQ source
Magnitude
Distance from hypocenter
Local sub-surface conditions

Earthquake Magnitude
OR
Earthquake Intensity
is used for Designing the
Structures??

Magniitude

9
8
7
6
5
2

10

50 100

500

Distance from EQ

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Liquefaction Hazard

Seismic history of the site

Densifying
Better inter-locking between particles
Increased shear resistance

Earthquake ground shaking characteristics

Intensity
Duration

Structure should be
Earthquake Resistant
OR
Earthquake Proof..??

Liquefaction Potential: Research

Referred as Simplified Procedure to


evaluate the Liquefaction potential of Soils
(Seed & Idriss, 1971; ASCE)

Largely empirical evolved over last 30 yrs


Research reviewed and recommended in 2
workshops, NCEER 1996 and NCEER/NSF
1998
Summary report in ASCE journal of
Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engg.,
October 2001
Title: Liquefaction Resistance of Soils

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Liquefaction Potential Evaluation using


Cyclic Stress Approach (Youd et al., Oct 2001, ASCE)

Earthquake loading is characterized by the


amplitude of an equivalent uniform cyclic stress
Liquefaction resistance is characterized by an
equivalent uniform cyclic stress required to
produce liquefaction in the same number of cycles
For Liquefaction evaluation: compare loading and
resistance.
Loading: Equivalent stress induced by Earthquake
R i t
Resistance:
St
Stress
required
i d ffor Li
Liquefaction
f ti
Liquefaction Resistance
OR
Liquefaction Susceptible
OR
Liquefaction Prone /Liquefiable Soils
SAME??

Initiation of Liquefaction
0

Cyclic Shear Stress

Zone of Liquefaction

Stress required
for Liquefaction
Equivalent stress induced
by earthquake

Depth

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Evaluation of Liquefaction potential


CRR CRR7.5 k m k k
CSR
Fs

a max vo
av

0
.
65
rd
g vo'
vo'

CRR
; If Fs 1.0; Liquefaction
CSR

CRR = Cyclic Resistance Ratio


Capacity of Soil to resist Liquefaction

CSR = Cyclic Stress Ratio


Seismic demand on the Soil due to Earthquake

Characterizing Earthquake Load

a
vo
g

a groundacceleration

Irregular
g
time history
y of shear stress is converted to an
equivalent series of uniform stress cycles at an amplitude of
65% of peak shear stress (Seed et al. 1975).

av 0.65

amax
vo
g

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Stress Reduction Coefficient, rd

av 0.65

amax
vo rd
g

rd = 1.0 0.00765z
rd = 1.174 0.0267z

for z 9.15m
for 9.15m < z 23m

(2a)
(2b)

Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR)

Seismic demand on the soil


Seed & Idriss (1971)

CSR

a max vo
av

0
.
65
rd
'
'
g vo
vo

vo

Total vertical overburden stresses

vo'

Effective vertical overburden stresses

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Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR)

Capacity of soil to resist


liquefaction
CRR CRR7.5 k m k k
Liquefaction case histories
used to characterize CRR in
terms of measured in-situ test
Boundary
parameters (Whitman 1971)
Liquefaction
Observed
Parameter generally used

SPT
CPT
Shear Wave Velocity
(SWV)

CRR

No Liquefaction
Observed

Field Test Parameter

SPT Correlations for CRR

CRR7.5 for SPT data

CRR ffor M7
M7.55 eqk
k for
f
Corrected Blow
Count (N1)60
normalized for 100
kPa overburden
pressure and hammer
efficiency of 60%
Correction factors for
non-standard SPT
values
(Youd et al. 2001)

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SPT Overburden
Correction
Correction for
Overburden
Pressure :
N ' C N .N

N' = Corrected value of


observed N
CN = Correction factor for
overburden pressure

Earthquake Magnitude (Km)

Correction
t CRR7.5
to
for
Earthquake
Magnitude
other than
7.5 (km)
CRR CRR7.5 k m k k

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Overburden Pressure (K)

Correction to
CRR7.5 for high
overburden
stresses, k

Correction factor for


CRR7.5 to extrapolate
for soil layers with
overburden
pressures greater
than 100 kPa
Simplified procedure
is valid for depths
less than 15 m.

CRR CRR7.5 k m k k

Relative density using SPT N value


(Terzaghi & Peck 1848; Gibb & Holtz 1957)
SPT value
(N60)

Relative Density
(Dr) (%)

Remarks

0-4

0-15

Very Loose

4-10

15-35

Loose

10-30

35-65

Medium Dense

30-50

65-85

Dense

> 50

85-100

Very Dense

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Initial Static Shear (K)

Correction to CRR7.5
f initial
for
i iti l static
t ti shear,
h

Correction factor for


CRR7.5 to account for
initial static shear stress
k
conditions such as due to
presence of embankment,
heavy structures, etc.

CRR CRR7.5 k m k k

Factor of safety against liquefaction

Fs

Cyclic Shear Stress

CRR
CSR

CSR

Depth

Fs

Zone of Liquefaction

CRR

Depth

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Example: Liquefaction potential


Evaluation

Depth
(m)

Problem:

SPT data and sieve analysis

Water table at 6 m below GL

Expected earthquake M7.5 & Seismic Zone IV

Percentage
fines

N 60 Soil Classification

0.75

Poorly Graded Sand and Silty Sand (SP-SM)

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3.75

17

Poorly Graded Sand and Silty Sand (SP-SM)

16

6 75
6.75

13

P
Poorly
l Graded
G d d Sand
S d and
d Silty
Silt Sand
S d (SP-SM)
(SP SM)

12

9.75

18

Poorly Graded Sand and Silty Sand (SP-SM)

12.75

17

Poorly Graded Sand and Silty Sand (SP-SM)

15.75

15

Poorly Graded Sand and Silty Sand (SP-SM)

18.75

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Poorly Graded Sand and Silty Sand (SP-SM)

Example: Liquefaction potential


Evaluation

Liquefaction potential at depth 12.75 m

a m ax
0 .2 4 , M
g

7 .5

sa t

1 8 .5 k N / m

9 .8 k N / m

v 12.75 18.5 235.9 kPa


u 0 (12.75 6.00) 9.8 66.2 kPa

v' v u 0 235.9 66.2


= 169.7 kPa

CSR

a
av
0.65 max vo' rd
'
g vo
vo

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Example: Liquefaction potential


Evaluation

Liquefaction
q f
potential
p
at depth
p 12.75 m

Compute stress reduction factor

rd 1.174 0.0267 z 0.834

Compute CSR

CSR 0.65 amaz / g rd v / v'

CSR 0.65 0.24 0.834 235.9 / 169.7 0.18

Example: Liquefaction potential


Evaluation

Liquefaction
q f
potential
p
at depth
p 12.75 m

Compute CRR

CRR CRR7.5 k m k k
Read value corresponding to (N1)60 =14 (after overburden
correction) and fines content of 8%

CRR7.5 0.143
k m 1 .0

k 1.0

For vertical effective stress of 169.7 kPa = 1.7 atm

k 0.87

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Example: Liquefaction potential


Evaluation

Liquefaction
q f
potential
p
at depth
p 12.75 m

Compute CRR (N = 17, N =14 ) (fines = 8%)

CRR CRR7.5 k m k k
CRR 0.143 11 0.87 0.12

Compute Fs

Fs

CRR 0.12

0.67
CSR 0.18

Example: Liquefaction potential


Evaluation
Repeat for all depths
%

v'

Depth

fines

(kPa)

(kPa)

N 60 C N N1 60

0.75

11.0

3.75

16.0

6.75

12.0

9.75

8.0

12.75

8.0

235.9

169.7

17

15.75

7.0

18.75

6.0

0.83

14

rd

0.83

CSR CRR7.5

CRR

Fs

0.18

0.12

0.67

0.14

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CPT Correlations for CRR


CRR7.5 for CPT
data for Clean
Sand (CS)
CRR for M7.5
earthquake for
Normalized cone
tip resistance

qc1N cs
CRR CRR7.5 k m k k
(Youd et al. 2001)

(Youd et al. 2001)

CPT overburden correction

n = 0.5 for clean sand


n = 1.0 for clayey soil
n = between 0.5 and 1.0:
for silts and sandy silts

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CPT correction for grain characteristics

CPT correction for grain characteristics

For Ic > 2.6;


The soil is most
likely too clayrich to liquefy

(Youd et al. 2001)

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SWV
Correlation
for CRR

CRR CRR7.5 k m k k

SWV overburden correction

(1 ATM)

(Youd et al. 2001)

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Liquefaction Potential for


different soils using SPT

Soil Improvement Techniques to


overcome Liquefaction

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Measures to Overcome Liquefaction


1) Vertical Stress Increase (Surcharge)
2) Stone Columns (De-watering)
3) Compaction (Densification of soil)
4) Removal of Liquefiable soil
5) Anchored Piles
6) Liquefaction Resistant Structures

1) Vertical Stress Increase

Increasing surcharge

Surcharge
g

Surcharge
g

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Factor of Safety against Liquefaction

CSR

av
amax vo

0
.
65
rd
vo'
g vo'

Before Surcharge

After Surcharge

vo 50

1.25
vo'
40

vo 50 20

1.17
vo'
40 20
Fs

CRR
CSR

Vertical Stress Increase

Surcharge

Cyclic Shear Stress

Expected
Zone of
Liquefaction

Depth

Stress required
for Liquefaction
Equivalent stress
induced by EQ
with surcharge

Equivalent stress
induced by EQ
without surcharge

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2) Stone Columns

Drainage or De-watering

Stone
Columns

Seepage
S
flow

Excess Pore Water


Pressure release

Stone Columns

Drains

Liquefiable
Sand

68

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Stone Columns
Cyclic Shear Stress

Expected
Zone of
Liquefaction

Stress required for Liquefaction


with stone columns

Equivalent stress
induced by EQ

Stress required for Liquefaction


without stone columns

Depth

3) Compaction (Densification of soil)


a. Roller Compaction
p
b. Dynamic Compaction
c. Vibro-compaction & Vibro-replacement
d. Compaction Grouting
e. Compaction by Pile Driving

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3a) Roller Compaction

Vibratory roller

Pneumatic Roller (Rubber Tired Roller)

Smooth wheel roller

3b) Dynamic Compaction


Big weights
d
dropped
d from
f
25 m,
compacting the
ground.

Craters formed
in compaction

72

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3c) Vibro compaction & Vibro-replacement

Used for cohesionless deposits of sand and gravel with not more
than 20% silt or 10% clay
Crators are formed during vibratory motion. Sand /gravel is
added to the crator formed.
Vibrator

Compacted and
refill material

Original
Loose Soil

Vibro-Compaction

Vibro-Compaction (Vibro-Flotation)

Penetration

Compaction

Completion

37

Vibro Replacement Method:


Sand column / Stone column

Penetration

Installation

Completion

Vibro-compaction & Vibro-replacement

Compaction
0

Expected
Zone of
Liquefaction

Cyclic Shear Stress

Stress required for Liquefaction


with densification

Equivalent stress
induced by EQ

Stress required for Liquefaction


without densification

Depth

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3d) Compaction Grouting

Stiff, low mobility


yg
grout is
slowly injected into loose
soils under high pressure
grout does not enter the soil
pores, but forms a bulb that
compacts and densify the
y forcing
g it to occupy
py
soil by
less space

http://www.spsrepair.com/www.spsrepair.com/tabid/497/Default.aspx

3e) Compaction by Pile Driving

When pile is driven in loose sand


deposit, compacts the sand within area
covered by 8 times around it

Increase in the stiffness of soil stratum


due to pile driving

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4) Removal of Liquefiable soil

Soil layer
with potential
t li
to
liquefy
f

Removal of soil layers that


can liquefy
q y

Original GL

Lowering
the
ground
New GL

5) Anchored Piles

Piles are anchored in


bed rock

Liquefiable Layer

Bed Rock

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6) Liquefaction Resistant Structures


A structure that p
possesses ductility,
y has the ability
y
to accommodate large deformations, adjustable
supports for correction of differential settlements,
and having foundation design that can span soft
spots; which can decrease the amount of damage a
structure may suffer due to liquefaction.
To achieve these features in a building, following
aspects need to be considered:
a. Shallow Foundation Aspects
b. Deep Foundation Aspects

6a) Shallow Foundation Aspects


All foundation elements in a shallow
foundation should be tied together to make
the foundation move or settle uniformly,
thus decreasing the amount of shear forces
induced in the structural elements resting
upon the foundation.
(For example: The well-reinforced perimeter and
interior wall footings should be tied together to
enable them to bridge over areas of local
settlement and pprovide better resistance against
g
soil movements.)
A stiff foundation mat is a good type of
shallow foundation, which can transfer
loads from locally liquefied zones to
adjacent stronger ground.

Buried utilities, such as sewage


and water pipes, should have
ductile connections to the
structure to accommodate the
large movements and
settlements that can occur due
to liquefaction.

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6b) Deep Foundation Aspects

Piles driven through a potentially liquefiable


soil
il layer
l
to a stronger llayer not only
l h
have to
carry vertical loads from the superstructure,
but also resist the horizontal loads and bending
moments induced lateral movements if that
layer liquefies. Sufficient resistance should be
achieved by piles of larger dimensions and/or
more reinforcement.

Piles should be connected to the cap


i a ductile
in
d il manner which
hi h could
ld
allow some rotation to occur
without a failure of the connection.
If the pile connections fail, the cap
cannot resist overturning moments
from the superstructure by
developed vertical loads in piles.

Thank You

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