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CE 601: Field Compaction &

Grouting

Field Compaction Techniques


Soil compaction
p
by
y different following
g actions:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Tamping
Vibrating
Kneading
Impact

Cohesive soils: Compactors operating on the principles of Tamping,


Kneading, and Impact are most suitable for cohesive soils

Cohesionless soils: Compactors operating on the principles of


Vibrating, tamping are most suitable for cohesionless soils

Field Compaction: Rollers


Rollers commonly
y used in construction sites:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Vibratory rollers
Smooth wheel rollers
Sheep foot rollers / Tamping rollers
Pneumatic rollers / Rubber tired rollers

Vibratory
rollers

Sheep
foot
rollers

Tamping
Roller:
differs from
sheep foot
roller by its
wheel type.

Smooth
wheel
rollers

Pneumatic
Tired
Roller

Other Compaction Methods


Other commonly used compaction methods:
1) Dynamic Compaction
2) Vibro Compaction method (Vibro flotation)
3) Vibro Replacement method
a. Stone Column Method (Dry & Wet)
b Vibro Concrete Column Method
b.

Dynamic
D
i
Compaction
Dynamic compaction is when other
methods are ineffective.
Dynamic compaction is applied to
granular soils and for typical
applications is effective to depths of
6 to 10 m.

Dynamic Compaction

Dynamic Compaction

Filling
craters
with soil
Craters
f
formed
d iin
compaction

Vibro-Compaction/ Vibro-Flotation
Method

Penetration

Compaction

Completion

Vibro Replacement Method:


Stone Column Method (Dry)

Penetration

Installation

Completion

Vibro Replacement Method:


Stone Column Method (Wet)

Penetration

Installation

Completion

Vibro Replacement
Method:
Vibro Concrete
Column Method

Grouting Techniques

Grouting Techniques
Grouting
g by
y different following
g concepts/methods:
p /
1) Compaction grouting
2) Permeation grouting
3) Hydraulic fracturing

Compaction
Grouting

While compaction grouting had


originally been used only for the
foundation rehabilitation of settlement
sensitive structures, the field of
application in the meantime has been
extended.

Compaction Grouting

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Permeation Grouting

Difference in Compaction
&Permeation Grouting

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Permeation Grouting

Hydraulic
Fracturing

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Famous Grouting techniques


1))
2)
3)
4)

Deep
p Soil Mixing
g
Jet Grouting
Pressure Grouting
Chemical Grouting

Deep Soil
Mixing (DSM)
1)) Wet DSM

(Slurry with binders used)

2) Dry DSM

(Dry binders used)

Wet DSM is also possible inside a


tube This method,
tube.
method called Tubular
Soil Mixing (TSM), is mainly used
for execution of high-quality
columns applied for excavation
control.

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Wet DSM

Drilling with DSM tool


Installation of DSM

Hole drilled by DSM tool

Injection of slurry

Wet DSM

Exposed DSM column

DSM columns for Bridge


support

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Dry DSM
Ejection
j
of dry
y binder from
the mixing tool

Deep Soil Mixing (DSM)

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DSM field tests for quality control

DSM columns for Bridge


support

Jet Grouting
Jet g
grouting
g is a g
grouting
g technique
q that
creates in situ geometries of soilcrete
(grouted soil), using a grouting monitor
attached to the end of a drill stem.
Depending on the application and soils to
be treated, one of three variations is used:
the single fluid system (slurry grout jet),
the double fluid system
y
(slurry
yg
grout jjet
surrounded by an air jet) and the triple
fluid system (water jet surrounded by an
air jet, with a lower grout jet).

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Pressure Grouting
- Known as Slurry Grouting, Shallow Grouting, Pressure Grouting, Void
Filling, Mudjacking and Slabjacking
- Process of pumping cement grout into the soil by applying pressure

Chemical
Grouting
permeation of
chemical grout
fluid into soils to
produce stone like
masses that
th t are
capable of
carrying loads of
the structures

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Thank You

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