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CompactionusingRollers:

Rollersaretheconstructionequipmentusedforthecompactionofsoil,gravel,sand,crushedstone
layers,etc.Rollerworkingprincipleisbasedonvibration,impactloading,kneadingandbyapplying
directpressureontherespectivelayer.Thefourmostcommonlyusedrollersare
1) Vibratoryrollers
2) Sheepfootrollers
3) Smoothwheelrollers
4) Pneumaticrollers(Rubbertiredrollers)
Vibratoryrollers:
Vibratorytyperollershavetwosmoothwheels/drumsplusthevibrators.Oneisfixedatthefrontand
theotheroneisontherearsideofvibratoryroller.Vibratoryrollercoversthefullareaunderwheel.To
makevibratoryrollermoreefficient,vibratorsarealsofixedwithsmoothwheelrollers.Vibrationof
vibratorsarrangetheparticlesbyfirstdisturbingeventhearrangedones.Ontheotherhandweightof
wheelsexertsdirectpressureonthelayer.Vibratorsareturnedoffduringthereversedmotionofroller.
Inthattimeonlystaticweightdirectlyactsonthesoillayer.
Vibrationistoreducetheairvoidsandtocausedensificationofgranularsoils.Duringvibrationofsoil
layer,rearrangementofparticlesoccursduetodeformationofthegranularsoilbecauseofoscillation
oftherollerinacycle.
SheepFootRoller/TampingRoller:
Sheepfootrolleralsocommonlynamedastampingroller.Frontsteeldrumofsheepfootrollerconsists
ofmanyrectangularshapedbootsofequalsizesfixedinahexagonalpattern.Coverageareaofsheep
footrollerislessi.e.,about812%becauseofthebootsondrums.Sheepfootrollerdonecompaction
bystaticweightandkneadingofrespectivelayer.Thismakestampingrollerbettersuitedforclaysoils.
Contactpressureofsheepfootrollervariesfrom12007000Kpa.
Tampingfootrollerconsistsoffourwheelsandoneachwheelkneadingboots/feetarefixed.Tamping
rollerhasmorecoverageareai.e.,about4050%.Contactpressureoftampingrollervariesfrom1400
8500KPa.Itisbestdedicatedforfinegrainedsoils.
Smoothwheelroller:
Smoothwheelrollerandvibratoryrollersaresimilar.Onlythedifferenceinbothisvibratoryequipment.
Smoothwheelrollerhasnovibratorattachedwiththedrum.Thismakessmoothwheelrollerbest
suitedforrollingofweakeraggregates,proofrollingofsubgradesandincompactingasphaltpavements.
Compactionofclayorsandisnotagoodchoicetodonewithsmoothwheelroller.Thisisso,because
therearemanyemptyvoidsinclaysoilandsand,whichcannotbeminimizedwithoutvibrators.


Pneumaticroller:
Pneumaticrollerhasanumberofrubbertiresatthefrontandattherearend,andalsoknownasrubber
tiredroller.Emptyspacesleftinbetweenthetwotiresthatmake80%coverageareaunderthewheels.
Pneumaticrollerhastheabilitytoexertcontactpressurerangesfrom500700Kpa.Pneumatictired
rollercanbeusedforhighways,constructionofdamsandforbothfinegrainedandnoncohesivesoils.
Itisalsousedforsmootheningoffinishingbitumenlayeronhighways,roads,streetsetc.
Dynamiccompaction:
Dynamiccompactionisamethodthatisusedtoincreasethedensityofthesoilwhencertainsubsurface
constraintsmakeothermethodsinappropriate.Itisamethodthatisusedtoincreasethedensityofsoil
deposits.Theprocessinvolvesofdroppingaheavyweightrepeatedlyonthegroundatregularlyspaced
intervals.Theweightandtheheightdeterminetheamountofcompactionthatwouldoccur.Theweight
thatisused,dependsonthedegreeofcompactiondesiredandisbetween8tonnto36tonn.Theheight
variesfrom1mto30m.
Theimpactofthefreefallcreatesstresswavesthathelpinthedensificationofthesoil.Thesestress
wavescanpenetrateupto10m.Incohesionlesssoils,thesewavescreateliquefactionthatisfollowed
bythecompactionofthesoil,andincohesivesoils,theycreateanincreasedamountofporewater
pressurethatisfollowedbythecompactionofthesoil.Thedegreeofcompactiondependsonthe
weightofthehammer,theheightfromwhichthehammerisdropped,andthespacingofthelocations
atwhichthehammerisdropped.Theinitialweightdroppinghasthemostimpact,andpenetratesupto
agreaterdepth.Thefollowingdrops,ifspacedclosertooneanother,compacttheshallowerlayersand
theprocessiscompletedbycompactingthesoilatthesurface.
Mostsoiltypescanbeimprovedwithdynamiccompaction.Oldfillsandgranularsoilsaremostoften
treated.Thesoilsthatarebelowthewatertablehavetobetreatedcarefullytopermitemissionofthe
excessporewaterpressurethatiscreatedwhentheweightisdroppedontothesurface.
Vibrocompaction/VibroFlotation:
Thecompactionprocessconsistsofaflotationofthesoilparticlesasaresultofvibration,wichthen
allowsforarearrangementoftheparticlesintoadenserstate.
Step1:Penetration:Thevibroprobepenetratestotherequireddepthbyvibrationandjettingactionof
waterand/orair
Step2:Compaction:Thevibroprobeisretractedin0.5mintervals.Theinsitusandorgravelisflowing
towardsthevibroprobe.
Step3:Completion:Aftercompactiontheworkingplatformneedsbelevelledandeventuallyroller
compacted.

EffectsofVibroCompaction:
Thesandandgravelparticlesrearrangeintoadenserstate.
Theratioofhorizontaltoverticaleffectivestressisincreasedsignificantly.
Thepermeabilityofthesoilisreduced2to10fold,dependingonmanyfactors.
Thefrictionangletypicallyincreasesbyupto8degrees.
Enforcedsettlementsofthecompactedsoilmassareintherangeof2%to15%,typically5%
Thestiffnessmoduluscanbeincreased2to4fold.
Vibroreplacementmethod:
a. StoneColumnMethod(Dry):
Loosesandysoilsbelowthewatertableliquefyduringanearthquake.Topreventthis,stonecolumns
canbeinstalledandhaveathreefoldeffect:
Theydrainthesoil.
Theycompactloosesandandgravellayers.
Theyreinforcelayersthatcannotbecompactedandfacilitatedrainage(mainlyverysiltysandsto
sandysilts)
Step1:Penetration:Thevibroprobepenetratestotherequireddepthbyvibrationandjettingactionof
air.
Step2:Installation:AddinggravelthroughatremiepipealongsidetheVibroprobecreatestheStone
Column
Step3:Completion:Thecolumndiametermayvarydependingontheinitialstiffness/densityofthesoil.
Differentialsettlementsaregreatlyreducedbyallowingmoregraveltobeplacedinweakersoilregions.
Therequireddiameteratanydepthintervalcanbesensedbyobservingthevibroprobesmotorcurrent,
whichisanexcellentindicatoroftheconfinementofthemachineinthesoil.
StoneColumnsareusedonlargeinfrastructureprojectslikeearthdams,highwayembankments,airport
runways,portfacilitiesandunderlargeindustrialstructuressuchasoiltanksandsilos.Theyarea
commonchoiceforfoundationsinliquefiablesoilsinearthquakeproneareas.

b. StoneColumnMethod(Wet):
1. Wherethecompactionofsandyandgravellylayersisrequiredandthoselayersarelocatedabove
thewatertable.Compactionisgenerallybetteraccomplishedwiththewetmethodthanwiththe
drymethod,astheflushingwaterassistsincompactionofthesandysoilaroundthecolumn.
2. Whereparticularlycleanstonecolumnsarerequired.Theflushingwatercleansthecolumnsduring
installation.
3. Wherevertherearenocontaminantsinthesoilandthesoilisnotahighlyplasticclayleadingtothe
problemofhandlingthemudintheprocesswater.

Step1:Penetration:Thevibroprobepenetratestotherequireddepthbyvibrationandjettingactionof
water.
Step2:Installation:AddinggravelthroughthewashedoutannularspacealongsidetheVibroprobe
createsthestonecolumn.
Step3:Completion:Thesurfaceisleveledandrollercompacted.
c. VibroConcreteColumns:
Itcanbeclassifiedascastinsitudisplacementpiles.Thistypeofpilehasahighbearingcapacitydueto
ahighmantlefrictionandtheenlargedbasethatcanbeinstalledwhendryconcreteisused.
DeepSoilMixing(DSM):
Deepsoilmixing(DSM)isamethodthatachievessignificantimprovementofmechanicalpropertiesof
theexistingsoilbymechanicallymixingitwithcementorcompoundbinders.Itistypicallyusedfor
embankmentsonsoftsoils,foundationsupport,protectionofexcavationpits,stabilizationofslopes,
andreductionofliquefactionpotential.
Thewetmethodismoreappropriateinsoftclays,siltsandfinegrainedsandswithlowerwatercontent
andinstratifiedgroundconditionsincludinginterbeddedsoftandstiffordensesoillayers.Thedry
methodismoresuitableforsoftsoilswithveryhighmoisturecontent,andhenceappropriateformixing
withdrybinders.Stabilisationoforganicsoilsandsludgesisalsopossible,butismoredifficultand
requirescarefullytailoredbindersandexecutionprocedures
WetDSM:Thedrillingcausesnovibrations,andisassistedbycementslurryoutflowfromnozzles
purposelylocatedattheendofthesoilauger.Oncethedepthspecifiedbythedesignisreached,the
constructionphaseofDSMcolumnscommences.Themixingtool,whichmayalsomoveupanddown
alongthecolumnlengthtoimprovehomogeneityofsoilmix,assuresthroughoutmixingoftheslurry
withthesoil.Thecompositionandvolumeofinjectedslurryisadaptedtotherequiredpropertiesof
stabilisedsoil,takingintoaccounttherequiredstrengthand/orsealingfunctions.Tightnessmaybe
furtherenhancedbyaddingvariouscomponentstotheslurry,suchasbentonite.Theexpected
compressivestrengthofstabilizedsoilisusuallyselectedinrelationtophysicalandchemical
characteristicsoftreatedsoilandgroundwater,typeandamountofcementandotherrelevantworking
specifications,suchaswater/cementratioandappliedmixingwork.Thepurposeofgeotechnical
designistodeterminethefinalinstallationpatternanddimensionsofimprovedgroundonthebasisof
appropriatestabilityandsettlementanalysestosatisfyfunctionalrequirementsofthesupported
structure
DryDSM:Contrarytothewetmethod,drysoilmixingisonlypossibleinsoilsthathavesufficient
moisturecontenttoallowchemicalreactionofstabilisingbindersinjectedindryformwiththesoiland
groundwater.Thebasicadvantagesofdrymixingisthatstabilisationeffectscanbeobtainedindeep
depositsofveryweaksoils,includingorganicones,withhighproductivity,almostnospoilandcost
effective.Alsooperationsatlowtemperaturesarepossible.

InDryDSM,typicalcolumndiameteris60to80cm,andthedepthoftreatmentisupto25m.
Asaruleplasticclaysandsiltsarestrengthenedbylimeorcementwithlime,whileinorganicsoilsmixes
containingblastfurnaceslagareused.
Grouting
1. Compactiongrouting
2. Permeationgrouting
3. Hydraulicfracturing

CompactionGroutingistheinjectionofaverystiff,pumpablegroutmixtureatveryhighpressureinto
specificareasinthesoil.Theexpandingglobularmassofgroutthencompactsthesoilaroundeachpoint
ofdischarge.CompactionGroutingismostcommonlydoneinstages,workingfromthebottomondeep
injection,upsincethisisthefastestmethod.However,topdowninjectionisoftenusedonshallow
injectionapplicationsasthismethodstrengthenstheupperlayerofsoiltohelpcontainthepressuresof
thelowerlevelsofcompaction.

CompactionGroutingtechniquesareusedforpreconstructionsiteimprovement,toarrestfoundation
settlements,rectifysinkholeproblems,toliftandtolevelslabsandfoundations,butdon'trequiresandy
soilconditionsasinpermeationtechniques.

PermeationGrouting(pressuregrouting)isthemostcommonandoldestformofsoilgrouting.The
techniqueconsistsofdrillingaholeinthesoil,insertinganinjectionpipeintothegroundandthen
pumpinganynumberofliquefiedmaterialsintotheproblemarea.theyHowtheholeisdrilled,what
typeofinjectionpipeisusedandwhatmaterialisusedarealldeterminedbythespecificsoftherepair
beingperformed.

Thistypeofgroutingistypicallylimitedtosandysoilconditionssincethistypeofsoilallowsthegroutto
permeatemorereadilyoverawiderarea.Inothercommonapplications,thegroutisinjected,intorock
fracturestoimprovethestabilityoftherockformation.Thisiscommonlyusedforpreconstructionsite
improvement,toarrestfoundationsettlements,stoprockingslabsinwarehouses,repairfracturesin
machinebases,rectifysinkholeproblems,liftandlevelslabsandfoundationsandtocontrolsoftground
settlementsingranularsoils.

CementGrouting,themostcommonformofPermeationGrouting,istheinjectionunderpressureof
pumpablePortlandcementbasedgroutintoasoilorrockformationtofillvoidsorfracturesinthe
formation.Forexample,ifalargeconcretefloorslabweretiltingtooneside,agroutpipecouldbe
installedunderthelowsideoftheslabwherethetiltwasoccurring.Groutcouldbeinjectedunderthe
slabthatwouldactlikea"hydraulicjack"thatcouldthenraisetheslabbacktoit'sdesiredangle.

ChemicalGroutingisanothercommonformofPermeationGroutingthathasgainedpopularacceptance
tostrengthengranularsoilsistheinjectionofchemicalsolutiongroutsthatbondtheindividualgrains

togetherintotonelikemassesthatarecapableofcarryingloadsofthestructures.Thechemical
solutionstypicallyconsistofabasematerialthatismixedwithahardeningagentthatcausesthemixto
hardenatapredeterminedrate,dependingonthecompoundsusedandlengthofsettimedesiredfora
particularapplication.

Hydraulicfracturing:
Thegroutisrapidlypenetratesintoafracturedzone,whichiscreatedwhichisdonebycreatingthe
groutingpressuregreaterthanthetensilestrengthofthesoil/rockbeinggrouted.Itisbasedon
uncontrolleddisplacementofgroutinsoilmass.

JetGrouting:

Jetgroutingisperformedbyinjectingacementorlimeashslurryintothesubsoilusingadrillingrig.As
thegroutcolumnexpandsandsolidifiesthesubsoilisconsolidatedandstabilized.Thismethodofsoil
improvementallowsfoundationandstructuralconstructioninlocationswherepreviousgeotechnicalor
seismicconditionsdeterreddevelopment..

Jetgroutingiseffectiveacrossthewidestrangeofsoiltypesofanygroutingsystem,includingsiltsand
mostclays.Becauseitisanerosionbasedsystem,soilerodibilityplaysamajorroleinpredicting
geometry,qualityandproduction.Cohesionlesssoilsaretypicallymoreerodiblebyjetgroutingthan
cohesivesoils.Sincethegeometryandphysicalpropertiesofthesoilcreteareengineered,the
propertiesofthesoilcretearereadilyandaccuratelypredictable.

Jetgroutingsabilitytoconstructsoilcreteinconfinedspacesandaroundsubsurfaceobstructionssuch
asutilities,providesauniquedegreeofdesignflexibility.Indeed,inanysituationrequiringcontrolof
groundwaterorexcavationofunstablesoil(waterbearingorotherwise)jetgroutingshouldbe
considered.Usually,jetgroutingcanbeaccomplishedwithoutdisruptingnormalfacilityoperations.The
recentdevelopmentofsmallcontainerized,highlymobilesupportequipmenthasenabledstartingjet
groutingworkonthefirstdayofsetup,greatlyreducingmobilizationanddemobilizationcosts.Jet
groutingcanoftenresultinconstructionschedulesavings.

Pressuregrouting:
PressureGroutingisamethodoffoundationandsinkholerepair.Itcanbecalledbyanumberof
differentnames,suchas,SlurryGrouting,ShallowGrouting,PressureGrouting,VoidFilling,Mudjacking
andSlabjacking.Theprocessreferstopumpingacementgroutmixtureintosunkenportionsofconcrete
withtheobjectiveofeitherraisingthesunkenconcreteorfillingthevoidsbetweenthebottomofthe
slabandthefallensoils.
Aninjectionrodsarepushed,drilled,orjetteddowntodepth.Thenthehighlymobilefluidcement
groutmixtureispumpedintoeachpointfromfivetotenfeetbelowthestructure.Therodsandare
extractedwhilepumpingtoallowthegrouttospreadandflowthroughouttheweaksoilseasilyfilling
anyloosezonesvoids.Thestrengthisrestoredbyrecreatingcontactbetweentheslabandsoillayer

again.Radialpointsaretoppedoffandtheinjectionpointsarecovered.Duringtheinstallationprocess
thestructureisconstantlymonitoredformovementwithourlaserlevelmonitoringsystems.

ChemicalGrouting:
Chemicalgroutingistheintroductionandpermeationofchemicalgroutfluidintosoilstoproducestone
likemassesthatarecapableofcarryingloadsofthestructures.Watercontrolchemicalgroutingisthe
permeationofsandy,granularorgravelsoilswithchemicalgroutsthatcompletelyfillvoidsinorderto
controlwaterflow.Chemicalgroutingisextensivelyusedinleakingsubterraneanstructures.Chemical
groutingimprovesthestrengthandrigidityofthesoil.Chemicalgroutingwillalsolimitground
movementduringexcavationandconstruction.Chemicalgroutingapplicationsinclude,butarenot
limitedto:Forlaggingoperation,Supportoffooting,Groutedtunnelsupport,Pitexcavationbelow
water,Groutedcutoffwall,Groutedpipelinesupport