Michael Chiu AP US History Period 2 10/20/09

Outline of Chapter 8: Varieties of American Nationalism
-When the territory of Missouri applied for admission into the Union, the issue of slavery arose because it raised the question of whether it should be a slave or free state -the end of the War of 1812 increased economic growth of the U.S. Banking, Currency, and Protection -War of 1812 produced chaos in shipping and banking – also exposed inadequacy of the existing transportation and financial systems -the second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816 – more capital than first one -the American textile industry dramatically grew during the war -Francis Cabot Lowell developed a power loom that was better than English counterpart -founded the first mill in America that did spinning and weaving under a single roof -However, British competition grew – in 1816, a protective tariff was issued that effectively limited competition from abroad Transportation -Better transportation systems were necessary for manufacturers to access raw materials they needed – question was, should federal government fund roads? -When Ohio was admitted into the Union, the government agreed that the profits from the sale of lands should finance road construction -National road was constructed in 1811, in Cumberland, Maryland, and went to Virginia -Robert Fulton invented the steamboat before the War of 1812 and by 1816, they were used to go up and down the Mississippi to the Ohio River -However, in the war, on the northern and western frontiers, the absence of good roads had frustrated American campaigns -John C. Calhoun of South Carolina proposed a plan that would have used the funds owed the government by the Bank of the United States to finance internal improvements -Madison vetoed the Calhoun’s internal improvements bill in 1817 – last day in office -Madison believed Congress lacked the authority to fund the improvements without a Constitutional amendment The Great Migrations -The increasing westward movement of American settlers affected the nation’s economy by bringing vast regions of land into the capitalist system – also would affect Civil War -Expansion caused by continued population growth and attractive to white settlers -The War of 1812 had diminished a lot of the Native American opposition – in 1815, there were a series of treaties that took more land from the Indians -the “factor” system was where government agents supplied tribes with goods at cost -“factor system” drove out Canadian traders and it created situation of dependency The Plantation System in the Southwest -Southwest was expanded into due to agricultural reasons -Settlement meant spread of cotton, plantations, and slavery

Trade and Trapping in the Far West -After Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, it opened its northern territories to trade with the U.S. -William Becknell began offering American manufactured goods for sale – cause Mexico to lose its market in its own colonies because American goods were better and cheaper -Many of Becknell’s followers established trade from Mexico to the U.S. -Fur traders created a new commerce with the West -John Jacob Astor’s American Fur Company was established in Astoria in Oregon before the War of 1812 – sold interests to Northwestern Fur Company -Many fur trappers, or “mountain men” moved west – closely bound to the expanding market economy of the U.S. – some earned salaries and some were independent Eastern Images of the West -Explorer’s of the west greatly increased the awareness of Americans in the East -In 1819, Stephen H. Long led 19 soldiers to find sources of Red River – did not find it but wrote an influential report on his trip The “Era of Good Feelings” -Time after the War of 1812 was one of rising spirit of nationalism The End of the First Party System -Virginians summed to always be presidents since 1800 -Thomas Jefferson chose his secretary of state James Madison to succeed him -Madison nominated his secretary of state, James Monroe, who was also from Virginia -So-called “Virginia Dynasty” -After his inauguration, Monroe make a goodwill tour through the country – greeted with enthusiasm – Monroe reelected without opposition in 1820 – Federalist Party now gone John Quincy Adams and Florida -Adams wanted to resolve Florida dispute and gain the entire territory for the U.S. -Andrew Jackson, on orders from Secretary of War Calhoun to “adopt the necessary measures” to stop raids by Seminole Indians, invaded Florida and seized two Spanish forts – ordered hanging of two British subjects on charge of inciting Indians -known as the Seminole War -Luis de Onis, the Spanish minister realized that he had to come to terms with Americans -Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 – Spain ceded all of Florida to the U.S., U.S. gave up Texas The Panic of 1819 -the Panic of 1819 followed a period of high foreign demand for American farm goods -Ultimately caused land prices to increase dramatically – caused financial panic, which was blamed on the national bank – depression lasted for six years Sectionalism and Nationalism -Missouri Compromise averted a sectional crisis between north and south of U.S. The Missouri Compromise -When Missouri ask to be in the Union, slavery was already practiced there -The Tallmadge Amendment, proposed by James Tallmadge, Jr. of New York, prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and provide for gradual emancipation -Missouri would upset the balance between free and slave states – controversy -Maine also applied to become part of the Union

-Missouri Compromise said that Maine would become a free state and Missouri a slave state – also prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri – resolved danger to the Union Marshall and the Court -John Marshall served as chief justice of the Supreme Court for almost 35 years -strengthened judicial branch at the expense of other two branches and increased the power of the federal government at the expense of the states -believed that official contracts could not be repealed -In Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Republicans, having gained control of New Hampshire state government, tried to revise Dartmouth College’s charter to make the private school a state university – Daniel Webster argued for the college – insisted that the Dartmouth charter was a contract that was inviolable -In McCulloch v. Maryland, Marshall supported the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States – the bank had become so unpopular that in the South and West some states tried to tax the bank – Daniel Webster argued that the power to tax was the power to destroy – if states could tax the Bank, then they could tax it to death -Decisions of Marshall Court established primacy of the federal government over the states in regulating the economy – nationalistic decisions The Court and the Tribes -Marshall ruled that the Indian tribes had a basic right to their tribal lands and only the federal government could buy or take land in Johnson v. McIntosh -In Worcester v. Georgia, the Court denied Georgia laws that allowed access by U.S. citizens into Cherokee land – Marshall ruled that only federal government could do that The Latin American Revolution and the Monroe Doctrine -In the years following the War of 1812, there was a revolution in Latin America -the U.S. had already developed a profitable trade with Latin America -U.S. proclaimed neutrality in wars between Spain and its rebellious colonies, however, the U.S. sold ships and supplies to the revolutionaries -In 1823, Monroe announced the “Monroe Doctrine”, which said “The American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” – U.S. would consider any foreign challenge to sovereignty of existing American nations as an unfriendly act -Monroe Doctrine came from American fears that Spain’s European allies would assist Spain to retake its lost empire – also feared that G.B. had designs on Cuba The Revival of Opposition -By the late 1820s, political divisions were emerging in the Republican Party The “Corrupt Bargain” -Until 1820, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses of the two parties in Congress – in 1824, this system ended -In the next presidential election, the four candidates were William H. Crawford, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson -Jackson received the most popular and electoral votes, but not a majority -12th amendment said that the House of Representatives must choose among the three candidates with the largest numbers of electoral votes – Crawford and Clay were out -Clay was in a strong position to influence the result – supported Adams because he was a strong nationalist and because Jackson was Clay’s most dangerous political rival

-Adams won the election and Jackson’s supporters were enraged when Adams named Clay his secretary of state and believed it was a “corrupt bargain” The Second President Adams -the administration supported a new tariff on imported goods in 1828 – nicknamed “tariff of abominations” Jackson Triumphant -By the time of the next election, the Republican Party was split into the National Republicans, who supported economic nationalism, and the Democratic Republicans, led by Andrew Jackson, who called for an assault on privilege and a widening of opportunity -Jackson won the election – Adams showed strength in New England and the midAtlantic region, but Jackson triumphed in the south and west -Some Americans claimed that America had entered a new era of democracy

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