Michael Chiu AP US History Period 2 11/6/09

Outline of Chapter 10: America’s Economic Revolution
-The majority of Americans were farmers and tradespeople -By the Civil War, American farmers became part of a national, international market economy -The North and South began to diverge through economic changes The Changing American Population -Before an industrial revolution could happen, the U.S. needed a large enough population, a transportation and communications system, and it needed the right technology The American Population, 1820-1840 -The population of America was increasing rapidly during this time period – much faster than Britain or the rest of Europe – one reason was improvement in public health – mortality rate dropped -High population increase also result of high birth rate -At first, immigration wasn’t a huge factor, but it contributed greatly beginning in the 1830s -Major sources of immigration were the Irish, German, English, and other parts of Northern Europe Immigration and Urban Growth, 1840-1860 -Huge growth in cities during this time period – ex. New York went from 312,000 to 805,000 -Booming economy of the west also produced large urban growth -Farms in the Northeast declined and many foreigners arrived in the U.S. -came from many different regions: most from Germany and Ireland The Rise of Nativism -“Nativism” – a defense of native-born people and hostility to the foreign-born – viewed the growing immigration with alarm and desired to stop or slow immigration -Many secret societies were formed to combat the “alien menace” – first was the Native American Party – started in 1837 -Many nativist groups combined in 1850 to form the Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner -Members of this movement known as the “Know-Nothings” -Know-Nothings created a political organization called the American Party – declined after 1854 Transportation, Communications, and Technology The Canal Age -Until 1820s, Americans had relied on roads for internal transportation – inadequate -In the 1820s, steamboats grew in number and were improved -However, farmers from the West and the merchants of the East wanted a more direct root for goods to be shipped east – horses driven along canals would be faster -N.Y. was the first to build a canal – began construction when De Witt Clinton became governor in 1817 -The Erie Canal opened in 1825 and was an immediate financial success – gave N.Y. direct access to the Western markets – however, canals didn’t provide a satisfactory route for any of N.Y.’s rivals The Early Railroads -Technological inventions in railroads were tracks, steam-powered locomotives, and railroad cars that could serve as public carriers -Railroads competed bitterly with canals

The Triumph of the Rails -After 1840, railroads began to replace annals and other modes of transport -Most railroad systems were in the Northeast -Important change in railroad development was the trend toward the consolidation of short lines into longer lines -By 1853, four major railroad trunk lines had crossed Appalachian barrier to the West Innovations in Communications and Journalism -Telegraph was invented by Samuel F. B. Morse in 1844 – successful transmitted from Baltimore to Washington the news of James K. Polk’s nomination for the presidency -In 1846, Richard Hoe invented the steam cylinder rotary press, making it easier to print newspapers more rapidly and cheaply -In 1846, the Associated Press was formed to promote cooperative news gathering by wire -Journalism would become a unifying factor in American life but in the 1840s and 50s, it fueled sectional discord Commerce and Industry -By middle of 19th century, the U.S. had a modern capitalist economy and created enormous wealth The Expansion of Business, 1820-1840 -Organization of businesses was changing – in some larger businesses; the individual merchant capitalist was being replaced by the corporation -See page 271 for corporations -Many businesses relied heavily on credit and their borrowing created instability -Many banks issued lots of bank notes – little value – needed public confidence in value The Emergence of the Factory -Factories penetrated the shoe industry in eastern Massachusetts -The Northeast was where most of the industry was concentrated Advances in Technology -One of the most important results of the creation of better machine tools was the principle of interchangeable parts – would revolutionize watch and clock making, and many other things -American inventors had many patents including Goodyear’s vulcanized rubber and Elias Howe’s sewing machine – most important source of power was till water Innovations in Corporate Organization -In the middle of the century, merchant capitalism was declining – Britain stealing America’s trade -more important reason was that the merchants discovered that there were greater opportunities for profit in manufacturing than in trade -In the 1840s, ownership of American enterprise was starting to go to stockholders who each owned a small proportion of the total Recruiting a Native Work Force -The opening of fertile farmland in the Midwest began an industrial labor supply -see page 275 -the “Lowell System” relied only on young unmarried women -In England, women’s conditions were extremely bad – however, in the Lowell mills, the workers lived in clean dormitories and were well fed and carefully supervised – however, even these workers found the transition from farm to factory life very difficult – see conditions page 276 -Lowell System quickly declined – conditions got worse in factories

The Immigrant Work Force -The rapidly increasing supply of immigrants gave businessmen a source of labor that was large and inexpensive – had extremely harsh working conditions The Factory System and the Artisan Tradition -Most artisans found themselves unable to compete with new, cheaper factory goods – because of this, craftsmen formed organizations to protect their endangered positions -In some cities, skilled workers of each craft formed societies to combine and set up central organizations known as trade unions Fighting for Control -In Commonwealth vs. Hunt in 1842, the supreme court of the state of Massachusetts declared that unions were lawful and that strikes were lawful weapons -However, union movement remained generally ineffective -Most of the craft unions excluded women – established their own unions – little power -The American working class had relatively modest power compared to that in England, where workers were becoming very powerful Patterns of Industrial Society The Rich and the Poor -Increasing wealth in America was being distributed very unequally -Significant amount of population were genuinely destitute and emerged in the urban centers of the nation – entirely out of resources – often homeless -Among the worst victims of racism were free blacks – had access to only menial jobs Social Mobility -Opportunities for social mobility, or working up the economic ladder were few Middle-Class Life -fastest growing group was the middle-class -Many new household tools were invented and changed middle-class life – included the cast-iron stove and icebox -Middle-class homes began to differentiate themselves from other classes – they were more elaborately decorated and furnished – homes became larger The Changing Family -The industrializing society of the Northeast changed the nature of the family -Before, a family itself had been the principal unit of economic activity, but when farming spread to more fertile lads in the West, agricultural work became more commercialized -With this change in economic function of the family came the decline of the birth rate -see why on page 282 Women and the “Cult of Domesticity” -Women had far less access to education than men did – effectively barred from higher education -Oberlin was first college to accept female students -Women’s roles as mothers and wives grew more important -Women began to develop their own female culture – friendships between women were intense and clubs and organizations were formed – distinct feminine literature emerged -Most men thought that this new female sphere made women in some ways superior to men -Middle-class men considered work by women outside of the household unseemly Leisure Activities -Reading was one of the main forms of leisure activities for educated people -Theaters became popular in cities – crossed class lines – public sporting and baseball

-P.T. Barnum was the most celebrated provider of visions of unusual phenomena -Opened the American museum in New York in 1842 – freak show populated by midgets -Opened his famous circus in the 1870s The Agricultural South -Most people remained with the agricultural world even when the Northeast was rapidly industrializing Northeastern Agriculture -After 1840, agriculture declined in the Northeast because farmers could not compete with fertile soil of the Northwest -Some farmers supplied food to cities; raised vegetables (truck farming) and sold it to towns The Old Northwest -In some states of the Northwest, the section experienced steady industrial growth -Chicago would be main center of the agricultural machinery and meatpacking industries -Many western farmers concentrated on growing one crop for market – crop specialization -Because the Northwest sold most of its products to the Northeast, their was a strong economic relationship between the two – isolated the South in the Union -The Northwest worked strenuously to meet the increasing demand its farm products- led to the adopting of new agricultural techniques – see page 289 for techniques -Two major machines: the automatic reaper, invented of Cyrus H. McCormick, and the thresher – increased efficiency of harvesting wheat and grain-growing Rural Life -The forms of social interaction in one area to another in life for farming people were similar – religion drew farm communities together strongly – many farm areas had people with common ethnic and therefore religious backgrounds -Many farmers valued their separation from urban culture and cherished the relative autonomy that farm life gave them

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