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:. .


. The

..o;.y: .. ~ for the

~ . ._C.ipUon of

~ UDuplained
..:.;;.:: ...

ne M8yan Disk of Cbinkultic (6 B.C.) from "Our Mayan

AneestoII by M. Chateillin, page 15.

Volume 21
Number 1

Whole No. 81
First Quarter


The Society For The Inv~stigation Of The Unexplained

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A Theory on Ancient Methods of Navigation
by Evan Hansen
The UFO Impact ---: Part I of a IV-part Series
by Jean-Pierre Petit
The Mundrabilla UFO in Western Australia
Our Mayan Ancestors
by Maurice Chatelain
Possible Human-Animal Paranonnal Events
by Berthold Eric Schwarz. M.D.
Trying to Figure Out Those Human Calculators
a SITUation
Forgotten Tesla Letter - Rediscovered
by Fred Bobb
Do Ghosts Barrier Oscillate?
by Daniel Eden
Cherokee 'Little People' Legends of North Carolina
a SITUation
Some Latest Infonnation About "Yeti"
compiled by Kumar Basnyat
Chinese Love Their Oddities
a SITUation
A Mammoth Leyline in the American Northwest?
by Dr. Michael D. Swords
Books Reviewed
The Notes of Charles Fort
Deciphered by Carl J. Pabst







We can't say for sure when

minutes, as part of an hour, were
first devised but Evan Hansen offers
us possibly a recreation of milleniums of effort to navigate unknown
waters. And, please remember,
communication then was definitely
not as we know it today,
Yet, communication between pets
and humans continues in a way we
can not, as yet, understand. Dr.
Schwarz tells us of some of his unusual such reports he has learned
about over the years.
Mr. Petit offers to communicate
to our English reading audience his
trials and tribulations regarding the
study of UFOs in France in this, the
tirst of a four-part series.
Again in these and the articles by
Maurice Chatelain and Daniel Eden,
etc., we must commend those who
think seriously and share their observations with us.


Pursuit Vol. 21, No. I, Whole No. 81 First Quarter 1988. Copyright 1988 by The Society for the Investigation of the Unexplained. ISSN 0033-4685.
No pan of this periodical may be reproduced without the wrinen consent of the Society. Roben C. Warth, Publisher and Editor, Nancy Warth, Production
Editor, Manin Wieg1er, Consulting Editor, Charles Berlitz, Research Editor and Oceanographic Consultant.

First Quarter 1988

Pursuit 1

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- - - - - - -

------ - - - - -------


A Theory on Ancient Methods of Navigation

by EvaD HaDseD
The identity of America's early native tribes has been a
matter of conjecture, at least, since Columbus first set foot on
North American soil. Opinions about them range from
Asians having crossed the Bering Strait from the Pacific side
during the Ice Ages, (when the polar ice cap locked up
enough water, as ice, to allow dry land to connect to Asia) to
their being survivors of the sunken 'continent of Atlantis. But
most of the ideas were more mundane i.e., involving peoples
of various cultures for centuries crossing the ocean.
Some researchers involve the "Ten Lost Tribes of Israel"
in one or another of the native tribes. Other scholars have
found tangible evidence of Northern European, Mediterranean, and Chinese influence in America; including "loan
words" in the native languages. Claims were made by some
travelers, such as Welshmen, to have been able to converse in
Welsh or other native tongues with some Indian tribes.
Then, in 1848, the Smithsonian Institute sent out the
Davis-Squier expedition to investigate ancient Mound sites.
Suddenly, the official dogma changed so that all the
American tribes were native to America, with no contact to
any Old World cultures for, at least, the last 20,000 years.
Ocean crossings before Columbus were impossible, it was
said. Everyone who claimed to have found evidence of ocean
crossings was ignored or discredited.
I have always been aware of this attitude, but I didn't know
how deeply this dogma had been imbedded in the academic
community, untill found proof of ancient Celts in America,
and I tried to get support to investigate my finds. I Other
members of the Epigraphic Society have been making similar
archeological discoveries, some of them even better than my
Celtic mines. Every such person, without exception, is getting
the same opposition as me and, some are catching even more
static than I am on the subject.
Of course, there's nothing new in this. Heretics who
challenge established doctrine, nave been persecuted at least
as far back as history has been recorded. We are all familiar
with the threat to Galileo 300 years ago for denying the Earth
is the center of the universe. But while we no longer burn
heretics at the stake, the persecution is still just as strong. It is
simply more subtle. The self-appointed "authorities" don't
like to be challenged.
At first, this opposition puzzled me. Why should earlier
ocean crossings have been impossible? The problems solved
by Columbus in 1492 A.D. are virtually the same problems
that existed in 1492 B.C. or even much earlier. If Columbus
could cross oceans, then others could have crossed oceans in
sea-worthy vessels.
However, one argument against earlier such crossings that
could have merit might be: We know pre-Columbians did
have ships. As far back as 5000 years ago, nations such as
Egypt and Sumer had ships that were large enough, and
strong enough to be ocean-going cargo carriers. But the argument goes that they never ventured onto the open sea because
they had no means of navigation. They stayed within sight of
land at all times and navigated by following landmarks. If
they never ventured beyond sight of land they could never
find America, even by accident. So the critics rationalize that
ocean crossings before Columbus were, therefore, impossible.
Pursuit 2

The object of this article is to oppose this concept. Ocean

crossings were possible, and they did occur on a regular basis.
Probably every nation with ships has put people into the
Americas, and most left rock writings as proof of it. Now
that we are learning to recognize these ancient writings, we
are not only realizing various groups did reach America, but
the core of a new view of history is slowly taking shape. Let's
take a look at the critics' contention that the methods of
transoceanic navigation are of a relatively recent discovery.
The objection, based on medieval navigation methods was,
namely, that if any navigational methods had been known in
antiquity, they would still be used 200 or 300 years ago.
Even recent history shows that knowledge can be lost. Just
because some medieval sailors had to hug the coasts, and
navigate by landmarks, is no proof that older, and wiser ship
owners were as equally ignorant. Let me point out one obvious fact; merchants tried their best to eliminate competition.
If one had a secret that gave an advantage over competitors,
that information was very carefully guarded. Ship's (cargo or
war) crews who did not know navigation, most certainly
would have hugged coastlines or follow known shipping
But those who did know navigation, as those who did
reach America, might well have kept their secret here. Also,
wars, plagues, and natural catastrophes can explain, too, how
a guarded discovery could be 10sL Just as new knowledge can
be discovered, so can it be lost.
Did ancient mariners know how to navigate? Most emphatically. There are primitive methods that can give adequate
results, probably developed on land and applied for use at
Modern knowledge of latitude and longitude isn't needed
in order to find a desired port. There are plenty of less sophisticated methods that are totally adequate. For instance, the
Polynesians found every island in the Pacific, and knew how
to reach them at will. Their method used wind directions,
ocean swells, and reflected waves from islands. They observed behavior of birds. They looked for the green of a
jungle to reflect off the clouds. There are books on this for
those who care to search out Polynesian methods.
Most of us are aware of children's stories about the
voyages of Sinbad. What few realize, is that these stories are
essentially true. They are much embellished ro be entertaining, ~ut beyond this aspect they are stories of very real people, who sailed to very real places and faced very real problems. Although Arabian seafaring played a very important
part in history, this knowledge has often been ignored.
Though Arab seamen didn't know navigation in the sense
of latitude and longitude, they did use a very adequate latitude finding method. The rotation of the earth gives it gyroscopic stability, so it's axis always points to the North Star.
At the equator, the North Star touches the horizon. At the
North Pole, it's directly overhead. So measuring latitude is
easy; you just measure how high the North Star is above the
Arab seamen didn't measure this in degrees, such as we do,
but they did utilize it well enough to reach any intended port.
They had a crude, but very adequate, instrument they called a
Kamal. Basically, this was a rectangl~ of wood with a cord in

First Quarter 1988

the center. While at a pon they intended to reach again, they

would go out at night, and hold this block of wood at a
distance from the eye so that the bottom was touching the
horizon, and the top touching the north star. Then a knot was
tied in the cord at a position that the knot could be held in the
teeth, and then, placing the block at exactly the distance from
the eye, so that the North Star and the horizon were at top
and bOllom of the block. This particular knot was then identified with that port. When out on the open sea, and trying to
reach that port, this knot was placed between the teeth, and
the block held with the bottom on the horizon. If the North
Star was above the top of the block, the ship was north of
that port. If it was below the top of the block, the ship was
south of the pon. Then they would head east or west, holding
to the correct latitude, until this port came into sight. Even
without longitude, they could still find the desired port.
But whatof modern methods of measuring exact positions
in degrees? Is this a modern invention? Or was it known to
the ancients? Most readers of PURSUIT arc familiar with
Piri Re'is map.2
The story begins in 1929 when this map was found in the
Imperial Palace in Constantinople. It was painted on parchment, and dated 919 in the Moslem calendar, or 1513 in ours.
It was signed by a man known to us as Piri Re'is. He claimed
to have compiled this by using some 20 older maps, including
one used by Columbus. The curious thing is that it shows not
only the Atlantic coast of Africa, but also South America as
well. Both are correct in present day latitude and longitude,
generally to within 50 miles, allowing for a few copying mistakes. The map itself is essentially correct.
But how is this possible? In 1513 we must assume there was
no culture on earth that knew how to find longitude. Finding
latitude was easier, as we said, by measuring how high the
North Star is above the horizon. But because the earth
rotates, it requires knowing an absolute time to measure
longitude. Not even our culture could find longitude until the
invention of the chronometer about 200 years ago. Before
that, everyone probably guessed on such things as how fast a
ship moved through the water. Longitudinal errors of hundreds of miles were the rule. Like the Arabs using the Kamal,
the European navigators would just go to the correct latitude,
and go east or west, until they made a landfall. Only with invention of the chronometer was it possible to find longitude.
As if this wasn't bad enough, the Piri Re'is map has
another shocker; it shows the correct shape of the Antarctic
land mass without it's ice cover! We didn't even know this
ourselves, until 1958 when expeditions of the International
Geophysical year used seismic echos to find the land mass
beneath the Antarctic ice. So how did Piri Re'is know this correctly, in 1513? The only possible way is that he used much
older source maps, dating from some time in the distant past
when the South Pole was not over Antarctica, an.d it had little
ice cover. But that must go at least to the Pleistocene period,
more than 10,000 years ago. What was the condition of civilization in those times?
My personal opinion is that catastrophic flooding at the
close of the Pleistocene period, was so severe that it wiped out
civilizations, though many people survived. This memory has
reached us through such traditions as the Biblical story of
Noah's Flood. 3
The Piri Re'is map indicates that seafaring, including correct methods of finding both latitude and longitude, is one
thing we salvaged from the ruins of the flood. But if longitude requires measuring time precisely, was there some other

First Quarter 1988

method that could have been used before the use of precision
mechanical equipment? While evidence points toward the
early as not having this advantage, could longitude
be found by using only the sky and human logic?
Of course, even if such a method could be found there is no
proof the ancients actually used it. We must have some supporting evidence before we suggest that they could use the sky
to find longitude. The Piri Re'is map provides proof that
some method was known in ancient times. So, either there
was some method known in antiquity, and is now lost, or the
only other alternative is to accuse the Turkish government of
forgery. The odds are heavily against this since modern lab
methods can detect such fakes.
I had to ask myself if it could be possible to use the sky to
find both latitude and longitude. If such a method exists, why
did our immediate ancestors fail to find it? After the
discovery of America, the motive was strong enough to put
the world's best minds to work on the problem. Trade rivalries were almost on a war basis - they were that important.
With minds like people such as Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton
trying to solve the problem, it would seem it couldn't be done
without the chronometer. Now, if the ancient races were not
so mechanically advanced as we are today, did they find
something that even Newton had missed? If such a method
does exist, why did I think I could find it if men like Newton
failed, given their much stronger motive?
But I had one advantage that Newton lacked. I was so ignorant that I didn't know it couldn't be done. When I was a
child, back during World War II, I heard a story about the
value of ignorance. It seems someone calculated that according to all the known laws of aerodynamics, it's impossible for
the bumblebee to fly. But since bumblebees don't know this,
they keep right on flying anyway. Newton had been taught
that longitude by the sky wasn't possible, so he failed, but
since I didn't know it was impossible, perhaps that wao; to my
advantage. This had worked for me hundreds of times in the
past, so why not use it again? If I ignored the things that
everyone "knows" and just observed the sky, then perhaps I
could identify something that others had overlooked.
I had no special knowledge of astronomy, only such basics
as that the earth is round, the sun is center of the solar system, the moon orbits the earth, and the earth's axis is tilted.
But, while I do have a questioning mind, I have trained myself to think, so perhaps my ignorance makes me an ideal subject to try this. If I could find a method by only my own observation, and logic are used, then the same thing was probably available to our ancestors, too, no matter how far back
in the past we look.
I knew ancient navigational instruments included the astrolabe and cross staff but I hadn't paid particular attention
to how they worked. I decided to keep it this way. I
deliberately avoided the books describing those old instruments, and tried to reinvent them on the basis of what
was needed to make the required observations. If my path of
logic led me to these same instruments, I'd take this as indication that their original inventors had used this same path of
I did assume the earth is round, and critics insist the ancients thought it was flat. I don't believe this since I was
a\Vare that the ancient Greeks had not only known of the
spherical earth, but had actually calculated its size within reasonable accuracy. So while I had determined to try to reproduce the lines of logic used by the ancients, it wasn't cheating
to read up on things they had available in ancient times in

Pursuit 3

order to try to experience their thinking, I went back to the

record of Eratosthenes.
After Alexander conquered all of Asia, the Greeks decided
to set up a center of learning at Alexandria, Egypt, and try to
collect all worthwhile knowledge into a single library. They
almost reached that goal. Eratosthenes was appointed chief
librarian at Alexandria in 235 B.C. We don't know if his
work was copied from older records which were available
there, or if he invented everything himself. But we are sure of
what he did toward proving the true condition of the Earth as
part of the solar system.
Eratosthenes knew that there was a well at Syene (modern
Aswan) where the sun was directly overhead on the summer
solstice. At noon on the solstice, the bottom of this well was
fully illuminated. But he also knew that in Alexandria, the
gnomon on a sundial still cast a shadow on that day. So he
measured the angle of this shadow, and used it to calculate
the size of the Earth. His figures came out at around 29,000
miles, while the real figure is a bit under 25,000 miles, but the
error was due to inaccurate measurements, not to any flaw in
his method. To start, Syene was 23 miles too far north to be
directly under the sun on the solstice. Possibly the well wasn't
exactly vertical, or maybe it had a slight shadow that wasn't
noticed. But that threw his calculations off. Alexandria isn't
directly north of Syene, it's actually 180 miles west, and that
added to the error. But the biggest error is that he had no surveying methods of finding distance. He just hired a professional pacer to step off the distance between Alexandria and
Syene. Considering all this, we must admire his accuracy. At
least his method was correct, and if he had used accurate data
for his calculations, he would have reached the true size of the
Earth. And since this calculation was made 2200 years ago,
we can safely assume that at least the Greeks were aware of
the spherical Earth, and they never abandoned this realization. Because this was done at Alexandria, it's possible this
was taken from far more ancient records.
While part of my research involved trying to reproduce the
mental process that ancient navigators might have followed
to find longitude, it was equally important to find how far
they had actually taken their knowledge. So, while I avoided
study of their instruments, I continued to read" whatever I
could find on how much they actually knew. I had been on
my own study of the sky for about three months, when a new
book came out, by two other Epigraphic Society members,
Bill McGlone and Phil Leonard, titled Ancient Celtic
America. The subject of this book is the series of Celtic
astronomy caves in southeast Colorado. 6
In their effort to crack the astronomical meanings of the
marks, they enlisted the help of Rollin Gillespie, whose calculations formed the basis for NASA being able to put men on
the moon. He added an appendix to the book to explain basic
principles of astronomy and how these petroglyphs in the
Colorado caves display the ancients' advanced knowledge of
astronomy. In his research for this, Gillespie uncovered one
method that was known for calculating longitude, and it was
used successfully by Hipparchus in 331 B.C.
In brief, this method used an eclipse of the moon to get an
exact time for different observers to make their calculations.
Since the moon can be seen from any spot on earth that's facing it, the earth's shadow could be used to co-ordinate observations. As the shadow hit any preselected spot on the moon,
or as it left the moon, that instant would be seen by all
observers of the moon wherever they might be located. All
observers could then measure angles of their position in

Pursuit 4

regard to the moon, or any chosen marker star, and

discrepancies between the positions could be used to measure
Hapgood 7 describes efforts by the Spanish to use this
method to find the longitude of Mexico City. In 1541 they
had two moon eclipses, with observers in both Toledo in
Spain and in Mexico City. Unfortunately, their calculations
were total failures to an error of 1450 miles. Quite obviously,
the Spanish group had no idea how to accomplish what they
were trying to do.
What I am about to say here is getting ahead of myself, but
it fits better here than "later. After my theory was nearly complete, I asked the help of experts in solving the final problems.
One man I contacted, Avery Johnson, was also working on
this problem. His theory required two widely separated
observers to time the exact instant the earth's shadow left the
moon at the end of an eclipse. Both observers would then
measure compass direction and elevation of the moon. Triangulation would then be used to calculate"longitude. On Oct.
6, 1987, the United States had a partial eclipse, so we both
took readings. Unfortunately, this didn't have the earth's full
shadow touch the moon, but only the penumbra, so that the
shadow was too weak to see the exact instant it left. As an
alternative, we both used the official time of maximum
eclipse. Avery's calculations came out to about one degree error. My compass readings might have been off that far, but
it is difficult to read a compass precisely in darkness.
So at least Avery's theory does, apparently, work correctly
but to prove it we need an eclipse with the earth's full shadow
touching the moon. Only then can we know if the earth's
shadow leaving the moon will catch an exact instant for widely separated observers. We can accept his method of triangulation as correct.
For this experiment it's very obvious these particular
SPaniards had little understanding of navigation. It's bad
enough to get an error of 1450 miles for the longitude of Mexico City, but Columbus himself was ignorant of how to find
even latitude. On his first voyage, he took readings on the
North Star, at Puerto" Gibara, and decided it's latitude was
42 nortl:1. It's true position is 21 06 r for an error of about
This shocked me! I can eyeball latitude closer than that!
The North Star touches the horizon at the equator, and is
directly overhead at the North Pole, so at any place in between, one can just measure how high the North Star is above
the horizon. Half way between overhead and the horizon is
45 and almost anyone can estimate that angle correctly. So I
went outside and held up my ann at the angle I assumed to be
45 and noted that the North Star was a bit less than IA of the
distance from my arm to the horizon. I subtracted 10 to
estimate my own latitude at 35, then I got out my topograpical map to check my true position. My exact latitude was 37
.45 so that my error was under 3 degrees.
If I could eyeball latitude to within a 3 degree error, what
could I do with instruments? I cut the end from a cardboard
box, assuming it was machine cut and had a square end. Using a compass, I drew a quarter circle and measured half of
that to get my 45 0 line. Then I subdivided this into 5 degree
segments. A small weight was tied on a string and hung from
the top corner. (Figure I) I took this outside, and sighted
along the top toward the North Star. When the weight stopped swinging I pressed the string to the edge, and took it inside to make my reading. The string was closer to the 40
mark than it was to the 35 0 mark, so, because my true latiI,

First Quarter 1988

North Star

Figure 1. FIrst step toward Inventing the astrolabe.

tude was a bit under 38, that was just about as perfect as I
could expect from such a crude instrument.
The next step was obvious - build it with metal, calibrate
it carefully and see if I could improve my readings with a better instrument. I had two choices, I could extend this same
design and hang a pendulum from precision bearings, or I
could use a full disc suspended from chain links, to find the
true vertical, then have a movable pointer to use for aiming. I
chose the latter, because it might also perform some of the
functions of a compass. I didn't know if the compass was
known to the ancients, but a disc that's calibrated into 360
degrees can be used to follow a fixed course. At dawn, just as
the North Star loses visibility, one takes a final north reading.
By laying the disk flat, with the zero line pointing north, the
movable pointer can be used to set an exact course. By laying
the pointer at the selected degree reading all a helmsman
needed to do would be to steer in the direction of the pointer.
After I completed my instrument I went to my books for
comparison. BINGO! I had just "invented" the astrolabe!
My instrument was essentially the same as surviving examples
of astrolabes. If I had followed my original plan of the string
hanging from a quarter circle I would have "invented" a quadrant. Either instrument serves the same function, and both
work astonishingly well. My readings are far more accurate
than I expected, usually to within a YI degree.
While I was solving the problems of what instruments to
"invent," I was also observing the sky. It rapidly became obvious that I was dealing with three motions, all based on the
360-degree circle. First, there is the orbit of the earth around
the sun, which moves 360 degrees in 365 'A days. Next, there
is the orbit of the moon around the earth, which is 360
degrees in 29.5 days. Finally, there is the rotation of the earth,
which is 360 degrees in 24 hours. All my calculations are based on these standard movements.

First Quarter 1988

But why do we use 360 degrees in a circle'? Why not 100'?

Or some other figure? The answer became clear with a bit of
logic. The 360 degree circle is based on the orbit of the earth
around the sun. Each night at a given time, the stars are one
degree west of their position the night before (or almost one
degree). With 365!1.1 days in a year, the error is under 2070,
and the eye can't see that close. So the degree is equivalent to
how far the stars move each night. But 365!1.1 is almost impossible to use in calculations, while 360 is one of the easiest
to calculate. Every ~Ie number from 1 to IO except 7,
divides into 360, leaving a whole number remainder. This
ease of calculation would generally, more than offset any lost
of accuracy.
I noticed some other supporting data for this idea. Several
ancient calendars use a 360-day year, with the extra 5 1,4 days
added as intercalary days outside the 'normal' year. At first,
this is a shocking idea. What can be more absurd than time
outside the year'? If this had only been found in one nation we
could dismiss it as ignorance of the true length of the year.
But I had found this 360-day calendar in use in Egypt, India,
Mexico, and Peru, all of them very advanced cultures, and
I'm sure there were others as well.
Since this 360-day year was widely used, they had to have a
very good reason for doing it. What segment of a society, that
had political clout, would have a motive for using a 360-day
year? Not farmers! Yet, many believe that farmers invented
the idea of a calendar. In every society, food is the most important commodity. Life itself depends on planting and harvesting at the optimum time. If planting is done too early, the
seeds will sprout, and then a late frost will kill them. Planted
too late, and a fall frost will kill them before the crop ripens.
In warmer climates there is the same problem with the wetdry cycle. So for every culture, an accurate calendar means
food, not starvation.
A 36O-day year would be catastrophic for agriculture. In
less than a decade the planting time would be off so far as to
have a total crop failure. So I feel it definitely wasn't the
farmers who invented a 36O-day year. The usual idea is that
this is 12 months of 30 days. But the moon cycle is not 30
days, it's actually 29.5 days. That gives a 354-day year, which
is an even bigger error.
So what other segment of society is there with enough clout
to control the calendar'? And would this group have a motive
for a 360-day year'? Yes, the merchants. And their motive
would be to allow them to use the 360-day year to fit the 360
degrees in the circle for navigation. Each night, the stars
move exactly one degree from their position of the night
before, so that on any given night of the year a certain key
star will be exactly at the zenith at a fixed time. The extra 5!1.1
intercalary days each year will correct the discrepancy and
bring star time back into cycle with calendar time.
I had just finished working out ihis line of logic, when my
. copy of Ancient Celtic America arrived. Upon reading this, I
found that Rollin Gillespie had independently reached this
same conclusion. This was heartening for me. In fact, he took
it a step farther, in assuming the small circle we use as the
degree symbol is actually to indicate the sun's, or one day's
movement in the sky.
Gillespie added something I didn't know. I had known for
years that ways for predicting eclipses were known for at least
5000 years. As far back as the Sumerians, and perhaps farther
back in time the astronomers could predict eclipses of both
sun and moon. What I didn't know is that there is a fixed cycle, known as the Saros. Every 54 years, 34 days, any eclipse

Pursuit 5

will repeat itself at the same place and time of day. Anyone
who has a chart of the Saros positions for our Sun and
Moon, can predict eclipses for any time in the future, or even
check those in the past. 8
Thus, knowing that such charts have been kept as far back
as history has been recorded, I knew we had the basis for
following my navigation theory. Charts such as the Saroo;
charts, would have all the base data a navigator would need.
He could just copy as much information as he needed and
carry it along on his voyages.
Both Gillespie and Johnson independently realized that
lunar eclipses can be used to find longitude. Their methodo;
worked out when they actually put them to the test. Possibly
the Piri Re'is map could have been made by using this eclipo;e
method. But for navigational purposes, it's useleso;, since
eclipses are such rare events. A navigator, therefore, needs a
method that works on a regular basis. But does such a
method exist?
After much observation and thought, I realized that it '<;
possible to use the movement of the moon in relation to fixed
stars. The moon moves 360 degrees in' 29.5 days. That's 12.2
degrees in 24 hours, or 0.508 degree per hour. Gillespie gave
another important clue that I didn't know before reading his
information. The diameter of the full moon is almost exactly
0.5 degree. When I saw that, another piece of the puzzle
seemingly fell into place. The length oj the hour was hosed on

the amount oj time it takes the moon 10 move a distance

equal to it's own diameter, rounded off to tit exactly into the
In all probability, someone was watching the moon one
night, while a bright star was directly in its path. It probably
was a crescent moon, since the full moon is so bright it
obscures all but the brightest stars. As the moon passed in
front of the star, it disappeared from view. An hour later, it
emerged from the other side of the moon. This would arouo;c
curiosity, so the viewer would watch for it to occur again.
This might have been something the person couldn't explain,
which would arouse so much interest that this observer might
have decided to use this as a major base unit of time.
We know the Earth rotates 360 degrees in 24 hours, or 15
degrees per hour. That means one degree of movement in
four minutes. Could this be combined with movement of the
moon, to find an absolute time, without a chronometer?
After several efforts to determine this failed, I finally found
one that did work.
As a general rule, the sky becomes dark enough to see stars
about one hour after sunset. To measure an interval this
short, an ordinary hourglass is accurate enough. Even if it io;
off by a few seconds isn't important. So, to use this method.
our hypothetical navigator uses his hourglass to measure one
hour after sunset. All subsequent time checks are taken
directly from the star's positions. Any bright star can be used
as a marker star, when it's directly overhead, or at zenith.
Starting one hour after sunset on their new year's day, the
zenith star is noted. Then, whatever star is at zenith at the
same time, the following night the new zenith star will be one
degree away from the previous zenith star. Each 'iubsequent
night a similar such observation is made, and each degree is
identified by the new chosen marker star.
To find the zenith, a meridian line is required, but it's easy
to build: A string is tied to some solid object, such as a tree,
or a stake driven into the ground. The observer stands at this
stake, directing an assistant who moves the other end of the
line to the north. When the line points exactly toward the
North Star, a second stake is driven, with the line tied and anPursuit 6

chored tight. Then a plumb bob is hung from the line. By lying face upward directly under the plumb bob, an observer
can check for accuracy by noticing if the north end of the line
is touching the North Star, while his or her eye is directly
under the plumb bob. If not, adjustments must be made until
this occurs. When the line runs exactly north, the observer
has a meridian line. All stars "touching" this line at the same
time, are exactly on this same meridian, without regard to
how far north or south they are. By using this, any star in the
sky can be used as a marker star.
Our navigator needs a home base for his base figures for all
calculations. Our culture uses Greenwich, England for its
home base, so, for purposes of discussion, our hypothetical
home base will be called "Greenwich," in quotes, without
regard to where it may actually be located. The Saros would
be calculated on the basis of "Greenwich" observations. By
carrying these figures on his voyages, our navigator could
compare his local data with "Greenwich" data as the basis
for finding his longitude.
The first thing we need is local time, and this is taken
directly from the stars. Since the earth rotates, and sunset
time is the basis for calculation, the local time will be the same
everywhere. For every night of the year, a different marker
star will be at the zenith an hour after sunset, and each will be
nearly one degree apart. Since the circle is 360 degrees and the
year 365 v.. days, it won't be exactly one degree, so corrections
must be made. Also, since time of sunset is variable with
latitude, this needs to be addressed as well. Going into summer, each sunset is later and, likewise, going into winter, each
sunset is earlier. This discrepancy increases the farther north
you go, so all these variables must enter into the calculation.
And, as long as this is being done anyway, the extra 5 v.. days
can be added into the formula while we are at it. But since all
this occurs on a regular basis it's no obstacle. It adds to tht:
difficulty, but a fixed, easy formula can be worked out to
make all these corrections with only a few calculations.
There are enough bright stars to assign one to every degree
of the circle, but if the navigator couldn't memorize 360 stars,
he could select any longer interval equivalent to 5 degrees, \0
degrees or whatever, then estimate the shorter intervals in between. Once he times the first hour after sunset on his hourglass, he could then lie under his meridian line, note which
marker star is touching the line and get his exact time all
through the night. Since the earth moves one degree every
four minutes, his precise time accuracy would be as good as
his skill at seeing which star is touching the meridian line at
any given moment. If he could see stars one degree apart, his
time would be within four minutes accuracy. Since the.
moon's diameter is 0.5 degree, if he could see stars as far
apart as the moon's diameter, he would have time to within
two minutes accuracy. A skilled observer might get his accuracy to within seconds.
He could improve accuracy by avoiding the hourglass entirely. He could go directly to his "Greenwich" chart and
note the key marker star for that date, then lie under the
meridian line until that star touched it, at which time he
would star his observations. It's important to keep one thing
in mind; while latitude will distort most measurements, the
zenith is the one constant thing. No matter where you are on
the earth, the stars touching the meridian line at the same
time, are always exactly overhead. Moving toward, or away
from the meridian line, stars above the equator move faster,
and stars toward the poles move slower. So this line is useless
for anything but the zenith. But at the zenith, everything is
exact, so that must form the basis for all observations.

First Quarter 1988

Above: Use cross stalT by placing one end under eye, and use
pins to mark one degree spacing.
Lell: Astrolabe and cross stalT.


small pins v..

degree apart

Large pins 1 degree apart

FIgure 1. Use of cross staff to measure conjunction between tbe moon and a
chosen marker star. The marker star is set above whichever pin fils die moon
being on the right edge of small pins. Because Ught is dim, tbe star needs a big
pin to be visible. If light is too dim to see the pin, it can be put over tbe star, to
block it's light, and still get the star on the same pin for each observation. The
small pins can be seen against the moon, and the smaller they are, the better accuracy is possible. It takes 30 minutes for die edge of the moon to move from
one small pin to die next.

By using the marker stars crossing the meridian line, our

navigator gets his local time as exactly as his skill ~llows. Next
he must find "Greenwich" time, and the discrepancy is his
longitude at the rate of one degree longitude for every four
minutes of difference between his local time and
"Greenwich" time. After months of observation, I found I
could use the conjunction between the moon and marker
'itars. Most everything in the sky moves from east to west, due
to rotation of the earth, but the moon moves west to east at a
rate almost exactly equal to it's own diameter in one hour. If
a chosen marker star is very near the moon, the conjunction is
easy to observe. But here we get into a problem. The moon is
so bright, it "washes out" all but the brightest stars. So we
must use a new star with enough distance from the moon to
enable it to be seen.
At first I tried to use my meridian line with stars north or
~ouLh of the moon. This was a total failure. Though such
First Quarter 1988

In actual use, the moon is half covered, so

pin is touching edge of moon.

conjunctions occur with enough regularity to be useful, this is

almost never at the zenith. As stars move toward or away
from the zenith, those toward the equator move a greater distance than those toward the poles, so the meridian line is useless away from the zenith. If a star is more than 2 degrees
north or south of the moon, this is so great that measurements are useless. I finally realized that I had to use stars
directly in the moon's path.
This required a cross staff. (Figure 2 and photos) One end
of the staff is placed on the cheek directly under the eye. This
puts the crossarm at exactly the same distance from the eye
for every observation. To calibrate my cross staff, I measured
off 5/8ths inch intervals, and drove nails at the marks. The
final segment uses small pins at V-! this distance. My intention
was Lo calibrate this at one degree between the big nails, and
II.. degree between pins. Since the moon is supposed to be Vz
degree diameter, I put the arm at a distance from my eye, so
Pursuit 7

the moon would fit exactly between two of the pins.

But on using this, my observations didn't come out accorciing to calculations. After several days of bad readings I
thought of another way to calibrate it. I'd use the horizon for
my calibration, since that's always 360 degrees. We have a
north-south road going past my home [a convenient, modern
advantage] with official survey markers at both ends, so I
know that was exactly on a correct direction. An east-west
road crosses this at right angles. Placing a stand at the
intersection to hold the cross staff steady I took readings for
90 degrees of the horizon, going from west to nonh, then
back to west again. I kept sliding the crossarm back and forth
until it repeatedly gave me 90 0 for this reading. When I consistently got 90 0 for this, I rounded the full circle of 360 0 for
several times, and when this came out to be exact for several
readings, I knew my arm position was right. I marked this
position on the staff, for one degree readings between pins.
Next, this was repeated by sliding the crossarm closer to my
eye to get two degrees between pins. The crossarm was then
measured at intervals and marked.
When I tried this on the moon, it measured at 0.7 degree
instead of 0.5 as it should do. After discussing this anomaly
with friends, I learned they got the same result. After kicking
this around between several people we finally decided this is
due to optical propenies of the human eye. As the pupil enlarges in dim light, we get a double image falling on the
retina. This not only tells why an image is larger in the dark,
but also why it blurs. At least this is an explanation that seems
to fit observations. (If any reader has a better explanation,
I'm certainly open to learn their correction or comment.)
At least with this new calibration my observations came
out exactly as predicted by my calculations. Starlight is dim,
so big nails are needed to mark the chosen star for observation. In case of a thin crescent moon, when stars are easiest to
see, the natural light is often too dim to see the pins. In such a
case, a big pin can be put over the star, to blot out it's light,
and even if you can't see the pin, you know it's on the star.
Then the small pins are used on the moon. It's alway bright
enough to see the pins, and the smaller these are, the more accurate the reading. With these pins at Y4 degree spacing, it
takes almost exactly 30 minutes for the moon to move between pins, just as calculations predicted. (Always use the
bright edge of the moon to be consistent.)
My own vision is weakening with age, and it's more obvious in the dark. But I found no difficulty catching time to
within 4 minutes. If the bright edge of the moon has even a
thin sliver of light showing behind a pin, it's easy to see this.
The moon is in conjunction with the marker star at the exact
instant this last sliver of light blinks out. With each pin giving
30-minute segments, if you can see half the space between
pins, you are on a IS-minute accuracy. If you can see V! spacing between pins, you are on IO-minute accuracy. Even with
bad eyesight, I consistently caught four minutes. Since four
minutes is one degree, that gives me my longitude within one
degree error. Someone with eyes that are better than mine,
could easily get it to a half degee, and with a more precise
cross staff the estimate could be cut to half that.
So our navigator would use the cross staff to catch the time
of conjunction between moon and his chosen marker star.
His "Greenwich" chart would list the time for this conjunction, and it wouldn't need to be an exact conjunction, it could
be any distance up to the limit of pins on the crossarm. He
could say, for example, "Five degrees east of the moon occurs at 1:15 a.m." At the point his cross staff measures the
five degrees, he lies under his meridian line a.nd observes his
Pursuit 8


FIgure 3. Exaggerated dnwing to show parallax problem. If star Is

aactIy In line with the moon to aD observer at the zenith, aD observer
east of the zenith will see the star as east of the moon, aDd aD

observer west of the zenith will see it as west of the moon.

local star time. The discrepancy is his longitude.

If he is at a different latitude, he uses a different marker
star with the moon, his meridian line tells him which stars are
on the same meridian. If he can't see the star at 1:15 a.m.,
say, because clouds obscure it, he adds the appropriate correction. At 1:45 a.m;, the same star will be 4.5 degrees from
the moon. All that's needed are the base figures and, then,
the corrections are easy.
Now we faceone final obstacle; parallax! And this is a big
one. (Figure 3) If a marker star is exactly in line with the
moon for an observer at the zenith, another observer to the
east will see the star as east of the moon, and a third to the
west will see it as west of the moon. Realizing parallax exists is
. no problem, even children have observed this. Any observer
with the mental capacity to reason his way this far, will
automatically know he or she must correct for parallax. But
how much? And what kind of observation must be made to
arrive at the right formula?
After kicking around the problem for nearly a year, I had
several ideas on how to observe parallax, but all my observations failed to give results. It may not be possible to make observations in one position, that will give reliable results. But at
First Quarter 1988

least a few who are skilled in math, were able to work backwards from the size of the moon, and its distance from the
earth, to tell me how much correction must be made. If I understand the figures correctly, it's a fairly simple correction to
There will be no parallax at the zenith, and it's greatest at
the horizon. It reaches the maximum on the equator, and is
zero at the poles, so the amount of correction is reduced
toward a polar latitude. For example, an observer at latitude
of 45 would use exactly half the correction needed on the
equator. For observers on the equator, with the moon's path
following the equator, the maximum correction needed is
0.09 degree correction for each degree the moon is away from
the zenith. Zero correction with the moon overhead, and 90
for the horizon. So you just measure moon position to know
how much correction to use, and multiply that reading by
0.09 to make the correction. For example, if the moon is 30
from the zenith, the parallax correction is 2.7 degrees.
Correcting parallax is, possibly, the only remaining obstacle here. All other parts do check out by actual observation.
This explanation is designed for use on land, but it will still
work on a ship, though with less accuracy. A meridian line
gives a perfect mark for the zenith, but even on a wave-tossed
ship, a good observer knows what is directly overhead. Using
an astrolabe and cross staff gives the best results if they are
stable, but it's still possible for a skilled observer to call his
mark at the instant he's on target. And for a rough estimate.
he can go to his "Greenwich" chart to see how high the moon
is above the horizon for a particular conjunction, and then
note his present moon position, thus giving him at least a ballpark estimate. even without instruments.
For example, if the "Greenwich" conjunction point has
the moon overhead, and our navigator sees this star moving
into position with the moon halfway to the horizon, he knows
even without instruments, that his longitude is near 45.
For mapping purposes, accuracy can be increased by
averaging. By taking multiple readings the extremes cancel
out. If one reading is high, another will be low. All things
considered, I see no serious obstacles in getting results as
good as the Piri Re'is map. Now, as to the age in which this
was done, we can only guess. It might have been between
2000-3000 years ago. Or it might have been in the Pleistocene
period, over 10,000 years ago. This question cannot be resolv
ed at this time.
And let's not neglect other methods such as using moon
eclipses. Gillespie and Johnson have both worked out correct
methods for using this to find longitude. In fact, this method
can be used to collect data for parallax corrections. At the instant when the earth's shadow is seen to leave the moon, all
observers also note the distance between the moon and a key
marker star. On comparing these distances later, the correction for parallax will become clear. So no matter how complex this may become, it still is possible to use the sky to lind
longitude. Those ancient people had good minds. If I can find
this method, those ancient people could find it just as I did.
But did they? We have no direct proof, but there is external
support. For one thing, these observations lead to the source
of the 360 degree circle, and the length of the hour. My observations led me to "invent" the astrolabe and cross staff.
both instruments known to be used by ancients. And in using
them, I had a lot of ideas on how to "improve" those instruments. One such example, was that I thought to use a grid
instead of a cross staff, so that I could use marker stars to
north or south of the moon, as well as those in line with it.
This grid failed miserably! Accurate observations demand
First Quarter 1988

points be kept at an exact distance from the eye. It proved impossible to make a grid that kept all points the same distance.
At the most, I could get two points the same, but other points
were closer or farther away.
So all my "improved" ideas failed to work. The ones that
did work, are the same ones used by the ancients. So when I
reached the same end results, it seems obvious that I followed
the same path of logic that produced those results in earlier
Another bit of supporting evidence is already familiar to
most readers of PURSUIT. In 1900, an ancient shipwreck
was discovered off the coast of Antikithera. It turned out to
be a Greek ship, of the first century B.C. Among the objects
recovered was a corroded mass of bronze. This sat in storage
until 1975, when X-ray studies revealed it to be a complex box
of gears. By counting teeth, it was possible to build a
workable replica. Studying this revealed it was a calculator
designed to show positions of sun, moon, and a few key stars.
Simply by turning a crank once for each day, the gears would
move dials to give readouts for past or future. Question: what
possible use could there be for such an instrument aboard a
ship, except with such a method as described here? Would
longitude be needed in the Mediterranean? Or did that ship
venture out into the Atlantic?
None of this is proof that advanced navigation was known.
but it does prove that longitude could be found by using the
sky. If I did it. then others could also have done it. I feel I did
"invent" (he same instruments used by the ancients, and my
"improved" instruments all failed to work. So I did follow
the same path of logic they used. We have the Antikithera
mechanism, to indicate that star positions were used for
navigation, and not just for latitude, either. Latitude means
only the North Star. And we have the Piri Re'is map to prove
that both latitude and longitude were known, usually to less
than a 50-mile error. How long these were used can only be
A~ Mark Twain once said "Sometimes circumstantial
evidence can be very strong ... such as when you find a trout in
your milk." Well, a trout in milk isn't absolute proof that someone dipped water out of a river to dilute the milk, but no
rational person would argue that fish come out of cows. In
the same sense, I have no proof that longitude was found
reading by the stars and used in navigation, but, \'ll guess the
smart money bets that way! Should you feel otherwise, plea~e
come around and talk with me. I'd like to discuss your buying
some desert land. I'll give you a real bargain, only $10,000
per acre!
I. Hansen, Evan, "Ancient Mines in America," PURSUIT, Vol. 18,
2. Hapgood, Charles, Maps 0/ the Ancient Sea Kings, Chilton
Books, Phila., PA, 1966.
3. Hansen, Evan, "Geological Evidences of Noah's Rood," PURSUIT, Vol. 16, Nos. 3 & 4, 1983.
4. Ronan, Colin, Lost Discoveries, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY,
1973, chapter 3.
5. McGlone, W., and Leonard P., Ancient Celtic America, Panorama Books, 1986.
6. Guffey, S.J., "Celtic Cave Drawings in Colorado?", PURSUIT,
Vol. 19, No.3, 1986.
7. See footnote #2, above, page 41.
8. See footnote #5, above, page 246.

Pursuit 9

The UFO Impact.

by Jean-Pierre Petit

Part I of a IV-Part Series

How to Get Involved in UFO Research
In 1965 I was involved, as a senior researcher, in a MHD
(magnetohydrodynamic) research project in France. I worked in the Insitut de Mecanique des Fluides de Marseille, in the
south of France. The French CEA(Commissariat de l'Energie
Atomique)tried to operate MHD converters. Such machines
were supposed, if successful, to convert the energy of hot
temperature nuclear reactors into electricity, with high overall
efficiency, through a closed loop. Unfortunately, these MHD
converters appeared to be very unstable and the electrothermal instability (Velikhov instability) severely reduced their
conversion efficiency. Then the CEA gave some money to the
Institute of Marseille in order to try to simulate the conversion process in our ."shock tunnels." They were shortduration wind tunnels giving an atmospheric pressure, supersonic argon flow at lO,()()()OK. At such a temperature this gas
becomes a highly conducting plasma (more than 3,000 mhos
per meter). Thereby, we could convert the kinetic energy of
the flow, running at 1,500 miles per second along the tube. In
1966 we operated a small, linear Faraday convertor producing several megawatts of good electrical energy (lasting some
hundred microseconds, to be precise). In the United States
Bert Zauderder, at AVCO, used the same kind of MHDequipped shock-wind tunnel.
Unfortunately, the gas temperature was too high for
steady-state industrial applications. We could just use it for
simulation. It was convenient only for short duration experiments. But similar pulsed-power plants are presently
developed in California's Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to
feed some sort of "starwar" space-baule gadget.
When converting the kinetic energy of the working fluid into electricity, the gas was greatly slowed down and it created a
strong stationary shock wave in this constant-area wind tunnel.

Many years later, in 1975, after the occidental nations had

given up all MHD activities, I remembered these experiments
and said to myself: "If we were able to produce strong shock
waves in a constant-section channel, just by electromagnetic
forces, we should be able to cancel a 'natural' shock, due to
the presence of an obstacle in a supersonic flow, just using
Lorentz forces. in the opposite way."
It seemed good. At (he time I did not realize, doing this,
how I would become involved in the UFO problem. Nevertheless, the connection quickly became evident. Witnesses
reported about UFOs with a tremendous velocity, cruising
silently and close to the ground.
This new flight concept was presented in December 1975 in
the French Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences de
Paris in a four-page notice, and the press reported about it.
At this time I had shi fted to theoretical astrophysics, galacti~
dynamics and so on, and I belonged to the observatory of
Marseille. Thus, there was no possible way for me to do atmospheric pressure gas experiments. A friend of mine,
Maurice Viton, an astronomer, belonged to the LAS(Laboratoire d'Aslronomie Spatiale) and he had seen five UFOs very
clearly near Avignon several years earlier.

"Truncated Rilys"

Fig. 2 High Frequency Ionization Effect

Fig. I MHD Linear Converler

Pursuit 10

The First Experiments

We decided to prepare some experiments towards two
directions: low pressure gases and hydraulic simulations. The
scientific community was so strongly against such investigations that Viton and I decided to work secretly in a remote
area of the LAS - the key word being "covert."
We got several scientific results, in spite of very uncomfortable working conditions. First, we got pictures corresponding to plasma patterns due to an electrical discharge around
various bodies, with a magnetic field present. We showed, for
an example, that the ionization due to high frequencies
created high-frequency straight sparks very similar to socalled "truncated rays." We made splendid color pictures of

First Quarter 1988


Then I remembered one could simulate shock waves, using

free surface water no'ws (all students who attended aeronautical schools are familiar with this). We added electromagnetic
forces, using a one tesla magnetic field, as produced by heavy
coils and carbon electrodes connected to a cell. On the first
atlempt the front wave was cancelled. And, under certain
conditions, the Lorentz forces could cancel the turbulent
wake, too. It was a good beginning.
The Birth of Gepan
Claude Poher, who ran a department in the French CNES
(Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) in Toulouse, visited us
and became very interested in our research. He had been interested in UFOs for a long time. At the same time (the end of
1976) the French IHEDN (Institut des Hautes Etudes de la
Defense Nationale) recommended the creation of an official
group devoted to the UFO study. This service was created in
1977 as a part of CNES, and Claude Poher, was put in charge
of it.
Unfortunately, Poher talked to people about our experimental research in the LAS, but worse, he wrote an official
letter to CNRS about it.
When the director of this laboratory found out what was
going on in the basement of the building he ordered Viton to
stop the activity immediately. As for me, I belonged to the
observatory of Marseille as a member of the French CNRS
(Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique). CNRS is a
large organization of some 30,000 researchers who pays people scatlered throughout many different universities and state
laboratories. It was then that I started to get into trouble, too,
with the officials in Paris.
We had to move the equipment elsewhere. Fortunately, the
director of the observatory of Marseille, the fair and honest
Georgelin, offered to shelter this research in a recess of that
building in complete secrecy. Then we shifted from one niche
to another one. During the transfer I had a serious accident.
A heavy magnet broke my spine and I had to spend six
months in a hospital. Viton continued the work alone, part
time and with difficulty. Of course, it was out of question for
me to maintain any contact with the chief of GEPAN,
Poher, who terribly underestimated the opposition of the
French scientific community to the UFO problem.
During the year 1977 Viton finished the work on our simulation device and the reader may find the results in my book,
entitled The Silent Barrier published by William Kauffman
Editions (95 First Street Los Altos, California 94022). These
results were later presented for the 8th international MHO
meeting, held in Moscow in 1983, but the book is a more
popular presentation for the nonspecialist.
Poher gave up as Director of GEPAN during the summer
of 1977 and his interest in UFOs died at the same time. He
was not a scientist. He believed that the mission of GEPAN
was to stimulate real scientific research into UFOs (we will see
later that the reality was somewhat different). From this point
of view, this service was nothing but an empty box. Poher
decided to leave his directorship of the service to his righthand man, Alain Esterle, an American with a PhD in statistics.
At the end of '77 Viton endured attacks in his own lab and
was obliged to give up. My stay in the hospital ended, but I
could not continue the research alon!:, so I got in touch with
Alain Esterle, now the new head of GEPAN. I suggested we
get involved in experimental research in gases. Esterle asked
me to write a report containing all my basic ideas about MHO
propulsion, and I accepted. I enclosed a lot of theoretical

First Quarter 1988

~"""'-I:;;:::::'--=::;:;;"--.- Microwave
Wave Guide (2.45 GHZ)

Coil (5000 Gauss)

Fig. 3 The Toulouse


work and computational results thilt I had derived during my

stay in the hospital, with a small, pocket Texas Instrument
calculator, only recently available in France at that time.
But, a few months later, I discovered that GEPAN had
tried to develop an experimental research project with the army at CERT (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche Technique) in
Toulouse. It was a large laboratory with many departments.
The project included a cold subsonic wind tunnel, a large
5000 gauss magnet and a huge microwave generator (750 kW
peak power!). A contract was signed and several researchers
were already at work preparing the experiment. But, nobody
had told me that. It was crazy.
A Real Mess
I gave up GEPAN and felt very disappointed. To tell the
truth, they had chosen a peculiar experiment in my report in
which I suggested a way to eliminate the turbulent wake
beside a cylinder, using Lorentz forces. It was the extension to
gases of the water experiment that Viton and I had done one
year earlier. Since cold air is a very poor electrical conductor I
had suggested, in the report, to ionize it with microwaves, recommending a pulsed 2.45 GHZ generator (see the old US
RB-47 affair, in 1957, I believe). The people of GEPAN asked the department of microwave studies, CERMO (Centre
d'Etude et de Recherche sur les Micro Ondes) in Toulouse, to
build the generator. They made quite a big one. The peak
power was close to one megawatt, and it was expensive.
Unfortunately, they injected microwaves from the wall of
the wind tunnel, through a tenon window, and as any real
scientist knows, when microwaves ionize a gas, the ionized
layer behaves like an absorber. They could not ionize deeper
thana few millimeters. They did not find any solution and so,
they simply gave up.
If I had been in charge of this project I would have done
the job successfully. In fact, the ionization had to be confined
close to the wall of the object such that the best way was to
use the cylinder as a radiating wave guide. In such a condition
one would have created a thin ionized layer exactly where it
should be, i.e., close to the wall, in the boundary layer. But
CNES and the military had decided to keep me away.

Pursuit 11

We knew all that one year later when an engineer of CNES,

completely disgusted by this affair, got th~ final report about
all this mess and sent it to us. I gave it "to the press, who
reported about it and it became a scandal. Esterle was moved
to another service. The Director General of CNES asked him
to write a negative final report about GEPAN's activities. But
it appeared difficult to manage that for I could have contested it immediately in the press. They preferred to reduce
GEPAN to almost nothing. Since 1983, the year of the scandal, GEPAN consists of only two persons: a female secretary
and a technician named Velasco, with a very poor technical
The officials of CNES continued to pretend that the service
was still in charge regarding the UFO problem, but it was
nothing but a bad joke.
Last summer in Quebec, I met a man named Roger
Lesgard. In 1977 he was the secretary general of CNES and I
suddenly remembered he was the executive administrator who
created GEPAN in 1977. Later, he was the director of SEP
company, which builds the propellents of Ariane rockets. He
was fired in "1986 for political reasons.
He did not recognize me and I asked him why CNES decided to create GEPAN. Since he believed I was a "classical"
sCientist he replied ingenuously:
The army and CNES were furious about all the noise made
about UFOs. Then we created GEPAN to cool and extinguish the problem and it worked perfectly.
Since the summer of 1987 we know what GEPAN really
was: wind. I give these details to clear up definitively this question for the American people. I admit this was unfortunately,
not a very glamorous part of our national scientific history.
The Trans en -Provence Affair
During the years, from 1977 to 1983 GEPAN published a
dozen small, yellow reports. Most of them are totally uninteresting, but the last one was completely different.
When Poher was in charge of the service, investigations of
UFO landing sites were very primitive. When Esterle became
the head I suggested to him that he do more refined analyses,
including biologic analysis of grass samples.
In 1981 an old man named Nicolai, retired, living in a
house with his wife in the village of Trans-en-Provence, saw
a strange metallic "cheese box" land in his garden with 1i loud
noise. It stayed a minute and took off very quickly. He told
his wife about it, who told the story to her neighbor, whose"
husband was a policeman. Then the officer came and picked
some samples of grass in and out of the track area. These
samples were sent to GEPAN. Fortunately, the officer picked
up some soil, too, so that the plants did not die. These
samples were sent 39 days later to a biologist, Michael
Bounias, of the INRA (lnstitut National de la Recherche
Argonomique), in Avignon. Also by chance, Bounias was
one of the best specialists in plant traumatology. He did a
very sophisticated analysis, which revealed sorlie very important differences among the samples. Caroten, pheophytine,
the chlorophylls A and B, and ~II the pigments of the sample
plant were seriously altered by up to 80070. He asked for a
systematic study of the landing site. Additional samples were
picked ten days later. A systematic biochemical study of the
site revealed that the pigment distribution changed slightly
from the center of the UFO landing area to, say, ten meters
away. The curve was uniform (the correlation coefficient was
better than .996).
Bounias showed that this phenomenon could be due to the
action of radiation. In effect, the impact on grass followed a
Pursuit 12

law like IIr2. No known natural process was found able to"
produce such effect on grass. This was interesting because for
a simple witness, just observing the landing site, the aspect
and color of the grass were unchanged. This method showed
that sophisticated information could be picked up from landing area data. The biochemical alterations normalized after
six months.
Bounias suggested to try to reproduce such alterations
with pulsed microwave irradiation on grass. He sent a
research plan to GEPAN, but Velasco did not answer. At
that same time (1983) GEPAN was already being reduced to
almost nothing.
We know that other landings occurred in France, but
Bounias, in spite of his excellent work about the Trans-en
P.rovence affair, was kept away. Just one year later a UFO
stood 20 minutes in the garden of a researcher, in northern
France. But, the grass, and flower samples were ruined. The
policemen sent samples to a biology laboratory in Toulouse,
but they cut the stalks too short and packed the samples in
plastic bags. When the grass "samples arrived at the
laboratory, they were completely rotten.
Dead Men Don't Talk
In 1977 CNES created both GEPAN, itself.. and a panel
whose duty it was to check GEPAN's work. It was composed
of seven officials and scientists, and we know their names.
From 1977 to 1981 the members of the panel met ten times,
but after 1981 there were no more meetings. Some members
of the panel agreed to such an easy end. From the beginning
they were against UFO investigations. Two of them, the specialist of astronomy and the specialist of meteorology, asked
why there were no more meetings. They wrote several letters
to the Director General of the CNES, saying:
Does the GEPAN still exist? If so, what are its present activities in the last few years? If not, does CNES intend to
organize a final meeting. Will a final report, with a conclusion, be forthcoming from the panel?
Several letters were sent out. The last one was accompanied
by a letter from the head of the French meteorologic official
service. There was no reply. I think the answer came from
Lesgard, who told me last summer:
There will be no ~ore meetings. CNES considers it is
finished.They just let GEPAN die "naturally."
The Rouen Experiment
In 1983 a yOl,lng engineer named Bertrand Lebrun asked if
he could do his Ph.D. thesis under my scientific direction. I
predicted many difficulties for him but he insisted. Then he
attended fluid mechanics courses for one year. I invented a
theoretical approach in order to describe the shock-wave
cancellation process, based on the characteristic theory.
Together, we did preliminary work giving the orders of magnitude of 'the fluid and electromagnetic parameters. It was
well accepted by the fluid mechanics commission of Marseille
that gave the best possible mark to Lebrun. But, later they
refused to accept the subject. They said it was scientifically
correct but that the commission was not interested. I complained to the CNRS at the highest level. The Director
General gave us a two-year s~holarship for Lebrun. A small
amount of money made it possible to'buy two Macintosh computers and then we started to work hard.
As the student registration in the fluid-mechanics department grew, problems were created so that the Directors of
CNRS asked us to shift to the applied mathematics department, which we did. They said: "go ahead. When you have
good, solid results and publication material we will try to find
First Quarter 1988


2750 MIS

Coil!; (2 Tesls!;)

"ig. 4 The Rouen


a better arrangement in this university."

In the same time the Directors of CNRS found a French
fluid mechanics laboratory, in Rouen, that had a convenient
hot-gas wind tunnel. Nothing but that good old shock tube we
used in the sixties. They accepted to try a shock cancellation
experiment if financial support could be found. Lebrun proposed to compute the experiment by numerical simulation.
The CEA gave a mountain of high-capacity condensators, in
order to produce the necessary two-teslas magnetic field and
the accelerating discharge in the gas. Finally, a costly, sophisticated image converter was given to us plus a $200,000 grant.
The Impact of a Political Change
Just when the contract was about to be signed in 1986, the
government changed. Then, too, the Directors of CNRS were
also immediately changed. The Director General of CNRS,
Papon, who helped us, was fired. The new director ignored
our scientific efforts. Similar changes in the army also caused
new difficulties. They said the grant would be cancelled at
once if I would pretend to get any official scientific position
in this affair. This was similar to the CNES affair six years
earlier. It was that or nothing, so I decided to accept. We
hoped that things could be changed later.
One night, at the end of 1986, Lebrun got his first real success, showing by numerical simulations that a shock-wave
system could be completely removed from around a thin
body imbedded in a supersonic gas flow. In February 1987 he
presented his Ph.D. thesis on this subject, in the applied
mathematics department. His scholarship was alinost complete.
In France we can get a gradation called "These d'Etat"
whose level is somewhat higher than the Ph.D. Lebrun asked
to be enrolled in the fluid mechanics department of Marseille,
but they refused again and he was obliged to find enrollment
at another university: Poitiers. His scholarship ended and I
searched actively. how possibly, to support him.
Since the summer of 1987 he was paid by the owner of a
French private company, acting as a sponsor, whose activities
had nothing to do with MHD. Our team had been completely
abandoned by the CNRS. Personally, I shifted to cosmology
and returned to the observatory of Marseille. But, and this
will be the matter of the third paper, the reader will see that I
did not give up on UFOs. Not at all. Lebrun finished his State
Thesis in December. He works on a VAX, that belongs to the
computing center of the University of Marseille.
The situation was so bad that we decided to give up Rouen.
Now they run it on their own. They said that the army was interested in the experiment and would help them getting
materials and financial support. But MHD is a sharp field. I
am not sure it will go in the right directiQn.

First Quarter 1988

As the reader probably knows, French politics encountered

some changes recently. The leftists have come back. Thus, the
general direction of the CNRS will be changed again. Similar
changes will certainly occur in the army, too.
Among the so-called French ufologists the evolution was
similar to other countries. Following the message of Jacques
Vallee, 1976, a part of them considered that UFOs definitely
belong to the paranormal world. The other part shifted
towards a so-called psychosociological interpretation of the
UFO phenomenon. For such people UFOs are definitively a
dream, a phantasm, some sort of an hallucination. Personally, I belong to what Americans call "nuts and bolts" men.
There are probably only a handful of us in France. In general,
French scientists vigorously ignore the UFO problem.
The next paper will concentrate on the scientific approach,
through fluid mechanics.
About the Author
Jean-Pierre Petit, Director of France's National Center for
Scientific Research, sent PURSUIT a cover letter that summarized his upcoming four-part series of articles. Here are excerpts from that letter.
"I was, personally, very impressed by the quality and content of the paper of R. Perry Collins entitled "UFO Intervention - The Possibility" published in PURSUIT Vol. 19, #2,
in 1986. I agree with it and would like to add some comments
of my own. First, may I present myself. I am 51, married,
with two children. My initial fields of interest" were aeronautics and space science and I graduated from our national
aerospace engineering school in 1961. Then I worked in a test
site devoted to powder-propelled missiles later launched from
French nuclear submarines. In 1965 I joined civilian research
and worked on magneto gas dynamic devices (MHD pulsed
generators). In 1974 I shifted towards astrophysics and cosmology. I presently belong to the Marseille Observatory.
I got interested and involved with UFOs in 1975 simply
through scientific interest. At the time I was thinking about
the possibility of operating external MHD propellors. MHD
acceleration has been known for a long time. We can say that
the first inventor was the great Michael Faraday himself...
It would take more than a simple paper to tell all that happened in France since 1975. In fact, it would deserve at least a
book. Briefly, the CNES (equivelent to N.A.S.A. in the U.S.)
created a service named GEPAN in 1977. It was devoted to
the official study of UFOs. But, rapidly, it appeared that this
small group's activities were only devoted to debunking (and
even self-debunking). They refused all serious technical work
with UFOs and did their best to anesthetize people (and perform a self-ansthesia, as well). From the beginning it seemed
to me that they were deathly afraid of the subject which R.
Perry Collins refers to in his article as cultural shock ...
By the way, I wrote a dozen popular books that have been
translated in ten countries including, in the United States, The
Advemures of Archibald Higgins and on the subject of
UFOs, The Silem Barrier.
~---Member George Andrews,
author of Extraterrestrials
Among Us, sent PURSUIT his excellent translation (from
French) of the article of Michael Bouineas' "Application of a
Research Program Concerning the Characterisation of Vegetable Traumatisms by studying Metabolic Irregularities after
a Phenomenon of Unknown Origin," published by OVNI
Presence, No. 31, 3rd Qtr., 1984.
The article was, we felt, too technical for use in PURSUIT
but was a major breakthrough in the study of chemical aftereffects on vegetation following a UFO's close contact with a
field of alfalfa on Jan. 8, 1981, in the Var region of France.

Pursuit 13


Some IS minutes after stopping, the family

The MandrabWa UFO

In Western Aastralla

returned to the

and rapidly changed the

tire. They proceeded to the Mundrabilla

Motor Hotel in W.A.
A sample of the "soot/ash" found on and
in the car was collected 10 hours after the
event by a police forensic squad officer who
was at Ceduna police station on another matter. Results of the analysis are still awaited.
On 2S January, Channel 7 announced that its
experts said "analysis of black material on the
car reveals that it is mostly iron oxide consistent with residue from worn brake linings"
and that the almost perfect cut on the right
rear tire was probably caused by running a
considerable distance on the rim. This could
likewise explain the shaking and smoke. There

The front pages of many newspapers of the

The exact sequence of events from here is
21st of January reported provocative details very confused, but included:
of a family's alleged encounter with a UFO.
-The right rear tire blew out whilst they
The glowing object resembled a giant egg in
travelled at speed. Sean braked the car to a
an egg cup. It allegedly stopped their car and
left behind physical traces. Follow-up reports
-Mrs. Knowles placed her hand on the
gave details on other alleged witnesses. The
car's roof and felt a "spongy substance."
unidentified driver of a car with caravan
She retracted it after feeling the material.
travelling in the opposite direction to the
Immediately the back of her hand felt
Knowles family, reportedly swerved to avoid
warm for a few seconds, then the sensation
the object. Graham Henley, driving a truck
of heat faded.
IO-IS kIn ahead of the Knowles, saw in his
rear vision mirror, a bright white light hovering over the car's headlights. Another truck
driver, probably John De Jong, travelled
some distance behind the Knowles' car. There
was possibly one other unidentified truck
driver who may have first reported the incident to the Eucla police. Other reports came
from Alan and Tina Parkes, who saw a very
bright, greenish-bluish object stationary on
the horizon While driving from Mt. Gambier
to Melbourne on 16 Jan. Two separate tuna
boat crews reported sighting UFOs in the
Great Australian Bight.
The following details on the central
Knowles family sighting are derived from
preliminary reports compiled by Keith Basterfield and Ray Brooke of UFO Research
(South Australia) and kindly provided by
Vlad Godic of UFORA, and from media
sources. Ceduna police telephoned Ray Brooke
some 10 hours after the incident had occurSketch of the UFO drawn by Mn. Faye Knowles for Ceduna police after she crossed the
red, whereupon an interview with the family
NuUarbor PlaID.
was arranged for when they reached
Adelaide. Unfortunately, TV Channel 7 intercepted the family enroute and arranged an
-The family wound down the windows were also four slight indentations discovered
and a "greyish-black mist" came into the at the four comer points of the roof. It is
"exclusive" deal with them. After negotiations with the network, Keith and Ray were
possible, though yet to be conflflIled, that the
able to informally talk with the Knowles,
-The sound of their voices changed in marks may have occurred when the family's
two suitcases strapped to the roof disapthough in a hectic atmosphere sandwiched bepitch and appeared to slow down.
tween TV studio interviews.
-They believed the object had landed on peared, presumably by being ripped off at
Mrs. Fay Knowles and sons Sean, Patrick
the roof of the car, although upon ques- high speed.
The UFOR(SA) investigators have em-.
and Wayne were travelling in a 1984 blue
tioning, they said they did not see anything
Ford Telstar from Perth, Western Australia
protruding front, rear or over the sides of phasized that "the physical evidence is not as
strong as the media have reported and caution
to Melbourne, Victoria. At a point some 40
the car.
is urged until technical reports are in." They
km west of Mundrabilla, Sean, the driver, saw
-A humming sound was heard.
concluded that the family appeared to be
what he at fIrSt took to be a truck's light ap-Sean
blacked out for a period.
down-to-earth people trying to cope with
proaching along the road from the E. It was
-They all became hysterical, shouting and some traumatic episode. Indications of a hoax
"jumping about a bit," disappeared, became
crying. Mrs. Knowles said she believed are minimal. At this date, the entire incident is
visible again and continued to approach their
they were going to die.
still open to a number of interpretations. Invehicle. Sean commented that it looked like a
"spaceship." It became bigger and brighter.
-They believed the car was lifted off the vestigations are continuing and a more detailThey kept driving towards it. It then disaproad. However, when asked if they had ed report is in preparation.
looked out and saw the car off the ground,
(Media sources include: "Daily Telegraph ..
The next thing they knew it was behind
they said they had not done so.
Sydney "Sun" and "Daily Minvr. " 21-22 Jan:
them. Sean accelerated the car in an attempt
-They reported the vehicle dropped to the "Sun-Herald" and "Sunday Telegraph," 24
to get away from it. Suddenly it was in front
ground and the tire burst.
Jan 88; and Channel 7 "Nightly News" and
again. At some stage, Sean did a U-turn and
-Their two dogs went "crazy."
"Newsworfd, .. various dates.)
travelled W for a while, then did another
Our thanJcs for the above repon to the
-They reported a smell like "dead bodies"
U-turn to resume the original E travel. It is
Australian Centre for UFO Studies (ACUFOS).
in the air.
not clear whether this was an attempt to dude
After a period of time, Sean stopped the PO Box 728, Lane Cove. NSW 2066
or follow the light. At another time, the light
was seen close to their vehicle and they swerv- car and they all got out to hide in adjacent Australia.
ed to miss it and nearly hit a car and caravan scrub. They reported the light/object remained in the vicinity of the car and then departed.
coming the other way.

Pursuit 14

First Quarter 1988

Oar Mayan Ancestors

by Maurice Chatelain
The chronology of ancient Mayas, who were living in Mexico several thousand years ago, probably was the most
sophisticated that ever existed. Their calendar had weeks of
thirteen days and months of twenty days. And in addition to
the solar year which they had correctly estimated to 365.242
days, they had computed years of 260, 360, 364, and 365
days, as well as twenty-one cycles called Katuns of 7182,
7200, 7254, or 7280 days, which were all used in different
places and at different times. They also had several cycles of
5200 years representing 13 Baktuns or 260 Katuns whose duration could be 1,867,320; 1,872,000; 1,886,040 or 1,892,800
days - corresponding to great astronomical cycles.
Some may wonder why Mayan astronomers had used a
sacred year of 260 days representing twenty weeks of thirteen
days or thirteen months of twenty days, but there were several
good reasons for this. First, in the south of Mexico where the
first Mayas lived, the Sun is at the zenith 260 days apart, on
13 August and 30 April. Then two of these years represented
three eclipse cycles and three of them corresponded to Mars'
synodic cycle of 780 days. And, finally, most Mayan calendars were exact multiples of 260 days.
For example, there was a short calendar of 37,960 days
which represented 104 years of 365 days, 65 Venus cycles of
584 days, and 48.J Mars cycles of 780 days. That simple
calendar was too short by 25 days to coincide with the Sun,
but it was only three days too long for Mars or five days for
Venus. As a matter of fact, Egyptian astronomers had a
similar but longer calendar where Venus cycles of 584 days
coincided with years of 365 or 365 \4 days.
Mayan astronomers also had two great calendars of 5125
and 5164 years, the first one being based on the conjunctions
of Mercury, Venus and Mars, while the second one was based
on those of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The calendar of 5125
years represented 260 Katuns of 7200 days or 1,872,000 days,
as well as even numbers of Mars cycles or Mercury and Venus
conjunctions. That calendar seems to have started on 6
September - 3113 [3114 B.C.] which was the day 584,283 in
the Julian calendar. It should therefore come to an end on 21
December 2012 which will be the Julian day 2,456,283.
The starting date of 6 September - 3113 is indicated by
two inscriptions discovered in the Temple of the Sun of
Palenque in Mexico. The first inscription tells us that a great
conjunction of Jupiter was observed on the day 1,388,996
which was in the year 690 of our calendar. We know that
such a conjunction of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn occurred on
18 July 690, Julian day 1,973,279. The difference between
these two numbers tells us that the Mayan calendar of 5125
years started on the Julian day 584,283 which was 6
September - 3113. Triple conjunctions of these planets can
only happen every 516 years after an average of 188,604 days,
which is one tenth of the calendar of 5164 years.
The second inscription tells us that an heliacal rising of
Jupiter, which is its first apparition on the right of the Sun
after its conjunction with it, had been observed on the Mayan
day 192,462 and another one on the Mayan day 275,055.
And, effectively, that phenomenon occurred on 12 August
- 2586, Julian day 776,745 and on 27 September - 2360,
Julian day 859,338. In each case (he difference between the
First Quarter 1988

Mayan day and the Julian day is equal to 584,283, which also
proves that the Mayan calendar of 5125 years had really
started on 6 September -3113.
The calendar of 5164 years represented 260 Katuns of 7254
days or 1,886,040 days, or 260 conjunctions of Jupiter and
Saturn or 2418 of Mars and the Sun. This calendar had
started on 16 August - 3164 which was the Julian day
565,635 and it will end on 10 May 2000 which will be the
Julian day 2,451,675 during a spectacular conjunction of
Mars, Jupiter and Saturn behind the Sun, which had been announced four hundred years ago by the French astrologer
Nostradamus in his quatrain 9-83.
These two great calendars can only coincide every
2,901,600 days, after 403 Katuns of the first or 400 Katuns of
the second. They have exactly coincided on 9 January 1047,
Julian day 2,103,483 when Jupiter and Saturn were in conjunction behind the Sun. They almost coincided twice, between 18 July and 5 August -1595, and between 13 June and
29 September 1086. The difference between the first dates of
each coincidence, which is 979,200 days, represents 135 conjunctions cycles of Jupiter and Saturn of 7253 VJ days which
were used by the ancient Hindus of the Indus valley. The difference between the last dates of each coincidence, which is
979,290 days, represents 135 conjunction cycles of 7254 days
used by the ancient Mayas in Mexico several thousand years
Most of the time the conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn do
not occur on the exact date indicated by one or the other of
these two calendars, but their intervals often represent exact
multiples of the 7200 or 7254 days cycles. For example, conjunctions with the Sun of the five planets Mercury, Venus,
. Mars, Jupiter and Saturn have been observed on 28 August
- 1852 and on 10 April 849. The interval between these two
dates is 986,400 days, which represents 137 Katuns of 7200
days or 6850 conjunction cycles of Mercury and Venus of 144
days each. This could explain the Katuns of 7200 days of the
5125-year calendar which was based on these conjunctions.
For the 5164-year calendar, 1 found the dates of 26 March
1345 and 26 January 1643. These two dates are separated lJy
an interval of 108,810 days which represents 15 Katuns of
7254 days or 186 Venus cycles of 585 days each, or fifteen
conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn. However, these astronomical dates did not exactly coincide with the dates of the two
calendars, since the astronomical conjunctions periods of
these planets are 144.564, 583.921, and 7253.445 days, and
the calendars had to be adjusted from time to time to remain
in phase with the astronomical phenomena. This explains the
differences of 228 days in the first and 107 days in the second.
A similar adjustment was made in 1582 by Pope Gregory
when he decided that the 5th of October of the Julian calendar would become the 15th of October of the new Gregorian
calendar, so that the following spring equinox would again
fall on 21 March 1583 as it was supposed to do. It probably
was the only important decision of that pope who only reigned for thirteen years and died two years later, anyway. The
Gregorian calendar, more precise than the Julian, is made of
400 years of 365.2425 days or 146,097 days, which is still too
long by three days over a period of ten thousand years.
Pursuit 15


FROM 16 AUGUST -3164 TO 10 MAY 2000




























































1722 .
































































0383 0014



We have seen before that heliacal risings of Jupiter had

been observed by Mayan astronomers on 12 August - 2586
and 27 September - 2360. The interval of 82,593 days between these two dates exactly represents 207 synodic cycles of
Jupiter of 399 days each. These dates certainly were important steps of another great calegdar of 1,867,320 days or 260
Katuns of 7182 days, each representing 18 Jup.ter cycles of
399 days or 19 Saturn cycles of 378 days. Ancient Hindus of
the Indus valley had also computed a similar calendar of
308,448 days representing 816 Saturn cycles or 378 conjunction cycles of Mars and Jupiter of 816 days each.
This great Mayan cycle represents a mathematical achievement. At first, Mayan astronomers had computed that it
represented 4680 Jupiter cycles or 4940 Saturn cycles, but
after several hundred years they noticed that the real Jupiter
cycle was slightly shorter and that the Saturn cycle was slightly longer. That was when they had the bright idea of counting
one more cycle for Jupiter and one less for Saturn. That way
they obtained Jupiter cycles of 398.915 days and Saturn
cycles of 378.006 days, two synodic periods which are very
close to those used by modern astronomers.
They also obtained 399 cycles of 4680 days representing six
cycles of Mars or eight of Venus, and found everywhere in
the Dresden Codex which is the classical astronomy book of
the Mayas. However, a calendar representing 258 conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn was not very practical for Mayan
astronomers who counted ever.ything by thirteen or twenty.
Pursuit 16










































Having observed that the average interval between two conjunctions was 7254 days, they adopted the calendar of
1,886,040 days which we have already mentioned.
Mayan astronomers also had a great calendar of 1,892,800
days representing 260 Katuns of 7280 days or 5200 lunar years
of 364 days, and 10,920 eclipse cycles or 64,096 synodic cycles
of the Moon. They had also noticed that the conjunctions of
Jupiter and Saturn occurred behind the Sun every 355,408
days or 973 years, as it happened in - 1892 and - 919, in 54
and 1027, and as it will happen on to May 2000 at twenty
degrees of Taurus, as Nostradamus has announced. From
that observation, they had computed another calendar made
of 891 synodic cycles of Jupiter, 940 of Saturn, and 49 conjunction cycles of these two planets. It therefore appears that
~ayan astronomers had not one, but several.different calendars based on the relative motions of the planets.
Mayan astronomers probably knew the existence of the
planet Uranus which is often visible with the naked eye during
its conjunctions with the Earth every 370 days. The Dresden
Codex contains many time periods of 702 days which certainly
correspond to the conjunction period of that planet with
Mars of 702.713 days, and time periods of 14,040 days which
represent 18 cycles of Mars, 20 of Uranus or 24 of Venus. As
a matter of fact, the calendar of 1,867,320 days is an exact
multiple of these two cycles, which is another confirmation of
its existence in the Mayan chronology.

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Mayan astronomers had also discovered the great cycle of

the transits of Venus in front of the Sun which can also be
found in the Dresden Codex. That cycle of 88,756 days
represents 243 years or 152 passages of Venus in front of the
Sun. The best known of these transits are those of 6 June
1761 and 4 June 1769, the last one observed in Tahiti by the
famous Captain Cook. The next two transits will occur on 8
June 2004 and 6 June 201t. These ancient astronomers probably knew the exact duration of the synodic cycle of Venus
but in their calendars they used the more practical numbers of
584 or 585 days which could coincide with those of 365 for
the Sun or 780 for Mars.
As for the Moon, the Mayas knew that 44 lunar months
lasted 1300 days and that 405 months made 11,960 days. They
also had a short calendar of 27,759 days representing 76 years
or 940 months, and a long one of 421,490 days representing
1154 years or 14,273 months. For the eclipses, they knew that
three eclipse cycles made 520 days, and they knew the cycle of
coincidence between 93 solar years and 98 lunar years, as well
as that between 521 solar years and 549 lunar years which was
known by the Sumerians, and after which the same s~lar
eclipse occurs automatically on the same day of the year and
on the same poine of the zodiac. Mayan astronomers also
knew the Saros cycle of 6585 days, the Meton cycle of 6940
days, and the lunar standstill cycle of 6800 days between ex~
treme moon rises north or south of the east.
However, there still exists in the Mayan chronology
First Quarter 1988

another problem to be solved, for which many different solutions have been proposed. It is generally accepted that the
5125-year calendar must have started on a day I IMIX - I
POP, but nobody so far has been able to determine the day
of the Julian calendar which corresponds to a certain day 4
AHAU - 8 CUMKU which was at the same time the beginning of a solar year and that of a Mayan year, and also was a
very important historical or astronomical date.
Each day of the Mayan chronology was defined in the year
of 260 days by a certain number and a certain name, such as I
IMIX or 4 AHAU, for example, and in the year of 360 days
by another number and another name, such as I POP or 8
CUMKU, for example. It was therefore necessary to wait
93,600 days or .256.2683 solar years to have the same day
again at the beginning of 260- and 360-day years, and it took
41 of those cycles to coincide with 10,507 solar years of
365.2422 days each.
As one can see, Mayan astronomers had to wait for 10,507
years to see a day that would be at the same time the first day
of a solar year, of a 26O-day year, and of a 360-day year.
Egyptian astronomers had probably made the same calculations because the number 41 was for them a sacred number
that can be found in the dimensions of the Cheops and
Chephren pyramids measured in feet of 375mm. Moreover,
in the Cheops pyramid, the Chamber of the Queen and that
of the King are 41 and 82 cubits of 525mm above the base.
Also, 82 days represent three sidereal months of the Moon.
Pursuit 17

A day 4 AHAU is the day 160 of a 260-day year starting on

a day 1 IMIX, and a day 8 CUMKU can be considered as the
day 350 of a year of 360 days starting on a day 1 POP. To
determine the day of the Julian calendar which corresponds
to the Mayan day 4 AHAU - 8 CUMKU, we have to calculate, after the starting date of the 5125-year calendar, a certain number of days which would be at the same time a multiple of 360, a multiple of 260 plus 160, and a multiple of
365.2422 plus 350. The smallest number which fulfills those
three conditions is 678,240. If we add that number to
584,283, the Julian starting date of the calendar, we obtain
the Julian day 1,262,523 which was the 7 August -1256 in
our calendar.

number 9 which should not be there probably represents a

number of great cycles of 1,872,000 days and, in that case, it
would indicate a date 17,983,011 days or 49,236 years after
the beginning of the first great cycle on 15 May - 49240,
Julian day -16,263,717. And that day would have been the4
March - 5. That explanation would be logical since the
Greek historian Diogenes Laertius tells us that the chronology
of the Egyptians had started in the year -49219, 21 years
later. It appears that both chronologies could have started at
the same time on both sides of the Atlantic ocean after some
cataclysm occurred of cosmic or terrestrial origin which
would have required the calculation of new astronomical

And that day was a very special one, not only because
Jupiter and Saturn were in conjunction, but also because that
conjunction occurred right in the middle of the zodiac at the
longitude ISO, or zero degree of Libra. That is a very rare
astronomical phenomenon that can only occur every 768,865
days after 2105 sidereal years or 106 conjunctions of Jupiter
and Saturn. Since we know that these two planets were very
. important for Mayan astronomers, it seems almost certain
that the last day 4 AHAU - 8 CUMKU was on 7 August

The third mystery is that of the inscriptions of Copan and

Quirigua. It has been found on a stela of Copan, in Honduras
next to the Guatemala border, an inscription representing
5.239 million years of 360 days, or one thousand Mayan great
cycles of 260 conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn, almost as
long as the Nineveh Constant of the Sumerians. It has also
been found, on a stela in Quirigua, in Guatemala next to the
border of Honduras, another inscription representing 403
million years of 360 days each, or twenty million conjunction
cycles of Jupiter and Saturn, or 31 million cycles of Mercury,
Venus and Mars. That fantastic number of years could represent the time elapsed after the appearance of man on the surface of the Earth, since that extraordinary event seems to
have occurred in Africa about four hundred million years
ago. We now have to discover how it could have been known
by the Mayas who were living in America.

Some authors think that the date of 6 September - 3113

could have been a day 4 AHAU - 8 CUMKU. That seems to
me difficult to believe because in that case, we would have to
go back in the past to 28 October -11763, Julian day
- 2,575,077, to find a day 1 IMIX - 1 POP which was at the
same time the first day of a solar year, of a 260-day year, and
of a 360-day year. That, however, is not .impossible since we
have found dates of -11654 among the Hindus and - 11540
among the Egyptians which are about as old and could correspond to a period of cataclysms and calculation of new and
more sophisticated astronomical calendars around the world.
There still are three more mysteries in the chronology of the
Mayas. The first mystery is that of the Grolier Codex. It was
believed that only three sacred Mayan texts had survived the
fire of Diego de Landa, Bishop of Yucatan, who believed that
they had been written by Satan. These texts were the Paris
Codex, the Madrid Codex, and the Dresden Codex. Then a
fourth codex appeared in New York in 1970 under the name
of Grolier Codex and of unknown origin. And, as I had done
for the three others, I tried to decipher it in order to find out
if it contained more information about the Mayan chronology.
It took me some time to discover that the Grolier Codex
represented a great calendar of 1953 cycles of 1352 years of
365 days each, or an enormous period of time of 963,766,440
days or 2,640,456 years which was an exact multiple of the
Mayan cycles of 46SO, 7254, and 37,960 days which we have
already mentioned. It could therefore be considered as
another astronomical constant of the solar system, similar to
the Nineveh Constant of 2268 million days or 6,300,000 years
of the Sumerians.
The second mystery is that of the disk of Chinkultic which
was discovered in the ruins of that archeological site in Mexico. That disk represents a ball player surrounded by
unknown hieroglyphs and the six numbers 9, 7, 17, 12, 14,
11, in Mayan numeration. The disk is a mystery because the
date is indicated by six numbers instead of the usual five. The
Pursuit 18

In addition to astronomical and chronological data, the

Dresden codex also indicates the measuring system used by
the Mayas who wrote it. The Dresden codex is made of 39
pages folded like a fan or an accordion with illustrations on
both sides, which makes a book of 79 pages. The pages are
21cm high and 9cm wide, which represents a total length of
351cm when the book is unfolded. This indicates a measuring
system of 54cm for the cubit, 36 for the foot, 9 for the hand,
21A for the inch, and 1 !h for the finger. The size of each page
was therefore 14 x 6 fingers and the total length of the book
was 39 hands or 234 fingers.
These measuring units have been used for a long time
around the world, along with other units which also are exact
fractions of one meter and therefore related to them. For example, an ideal unit length of 12,6OOm would represent an exact number of each twelve different feet used by our ancestors
in different countries. In millimeters, these are the feet of
Mykenos of 277.777, Danube of 280.000, Angkor of 291.666,
Rome of 296.296, Egypt of 300.000, Babylon of 308.642,
Baalbek of 333.333, Egypt of 350.000, Mexico of 352.753,
France of 357.143, Maya of 360.000, and Egypt of 375.000.
In the same order, a unit length of 12,600m would represent the following numbers of feet: 45,360; 45,000; 43,200;
42,525; 42,000; 40,824; 37,800; 36,000; 35,719; 35,280;
35,000; 33,600. This, of course, does not prove that our
ancestors knew the metric system, which is now used allover
the world, but it certainly proves that they knew the dimensions of the Earth and had developed an international
measuring system which was very similar to it. The most
amazing fact is that four of these ancient feet have been
found in Europe, three in Africa, three in Asia and two in

First Quarter 1988



Mayan Disk of Chinkultic

4 March -5 (6 BC)

America, which seems to indicate that these different civilizations had a common origin.
The Mayan square foot of 0.1296m 2 can be found in Uxmal, Mexico, where the palace of the governor was built on a
huge platform of 160,000 square feet or 20,736m2. This area
has been estimated by some archeologists at exactly
20,000m 2, which had given them a square foot of 0.125m 2
corresponding to a linear foot of 353.553mm, which is very
close to the length from the Dresden codex and possibly correct.
The Mayan cubic foot of 0.046656ml can also be found in

First Quarter 1988

the sarcophagus of the pyramid of Cheops which has an internal volume of 1.1664m l and an external volume of
2.3328m\ which respectively represent 25 and 50 Mayan
cubic feet. Since we know that there are many similarities between the pyramid of Cheops in Egypt and that of the Sun in
Teotihuacan in Mexico, it _would not be surprising if that
pyramid had also been built with the Mayan cubic foot. In
that case, its original volume of 1,036,800m1 would have
represented exactly 22,222,222 Mayan cubic feet or 40070 of
the volume of the pyramid of Cheops of 2,592,OOOmI ~
would be another strange coincidence.
Pursuit 19

Possible Human-Animal Paranormal Events

by Berthold Eric Schwan, M.D.
Folklore, myths, and legends supply countless examples of
the strange affinity between man and animals. Vincent and
Margaret Gaddis' have collected many provocative examples
of this. Ivan Sanderson, 2 a well-known biologist, had also
noted many such events between a variety of species and
man. Although he had handled many wild animals on his TV
shows over the years, he jokingly said that he still had his ten
fingers. One very weird case studied by the psychonalystparapsychologist Nandor Fodor,] concerned the bizarre
poltergeist example of a talking mongoose. In another study
he cited and speculated about the amazing animals that
materialized in seances' witnessed by eminent sci'entists. In his
memoirs the newspaperman Pierre van Paassen' wrote about
his personal experiences with a possible poltergeist dog that
savagely fought with van Paassen's two German police dogs,
one of which dropped dead immediately afterward. Other
celebrated controversial man-animal biocommunications include horses that were allegedly telepathic and could calculate, and of course the not uncommon news stories of dogs
and cats (and other pets) who had been abandoned or lost
and then returned over great distances and time. The scientist
Milan Ryzl6 has summarized much of the animal parapsychological data. Von Urban,7 the psychoanalyst, recalled his own
turmoil and the bellowing and howling of animals before a
major European earthquake in 1895. The research physician
Abraham G. Ginsberg, 8 who independently discovered a
device similar to radar, recalled how when he was living in the
Adirondacks his dog crawled under the bed and stayed there
every time his sister, who was very fond of the animal, was
operated on by Dr. Will Mayo in Rochester, Minnesota. LillY,9 the multifaceted research physician, has studied the intriguing communications between man and dolphins. Keel'o
has recorded many bizarre man-animal interactions that
deserve serious consideration.
Although Grad, Cadoret, and Paul," in well-controlled
laboratory studies, demonstrated the effects of psychic healing on guinea pigs, there has been little critically analysed
clinical material presented in the medical literature. The telekinetic hypothesis gives clues for a possible modus operandi
for placebo effects in the study of drug actions, and it might
explain the different results sometimes obtained from identical experiments by various investigators. This is a practical
question which should not be overlooked.
Because of the intimate nature of their work, psychiatrists
are favorably situated to observe possible telepathy between
patients and their pets, as well as to be sensitive to such
possibilities in their own lives. For example, Mrs. Krystal'2
and her sons presented convincing evidence of how, when she
was traveling in Mexico (pp 11-12) she telepathically (and correctly) learned of her dog's death in Maryland. In a planned
experiment with myself (BES) that was spontaneously derailed, she telepathically picked up many of the segments of a
horrible situation where a dog savagely attacked my friend
(pp 22-24).
It is of interest that Jacques Romano, 8 the extraordinary
*Dunninger investigated several of such cases and never found an example of
genuine paranormal ability. He contended that Ihe horses were trained 10 respond 10 cues.

Pursuit 20

nonagenarian paragnost, claimed he was never bitten by a

dog, although he was exposed to many dangers in his life.
Pets, mostly dogs and cats, have always played a large role
in the personal life of the distinguished telepathist, Joseph
Dunninger: Both Romano and Dunninger, interestingly
enough, called attention to the possible telepathic affinity between cockroaches aDd man. For example, if one thought of
squashing a certain cockroach in a group of several, thai
specific cockroach would frequently scamper away. The
parapsychologist Mrs. Anita Gregory reported'] some cockroach experiments done by Russians which were based on an
earlier study done by an Israeli scientist; and Helmut
Schmidt 14 has reported his investigations using cockroaches.
In a previous report" brief mention was made of a woman
who had persistent success in winning substantial sums of
money at the horse races. I studied her until I was unable to
keep up with her fast pace. I did go to the races with her once,
however, and was satisfied that she seemed to have some genuine abilities. Her family physician, who had observed her
over the last decade, told me that she was still successful
(1972). It is of interest that this woman's whole life seemed to
be focused on horse racing, and that this interest, which she
shared with her husband, might have been the means of keeping her otherwise precariously balanced marriage intact:
Although her husband approached racing in a scientific,
mathematical way, his luck was terrible. But she, at the last
moment just before the races started, t would rush to the betting booth, place a small bet, and almost always win. At
times, when she departed from her usual custom and told her
. husband about a race - including the long shots - he would
never follow through on her advice, ana he would lose. The
woman would then be overcome with a near orgy of success.
Among hypotheses for such feats are these: (I) the lady
telepathically cognized a crooked race; (2) she exercised true
precognition; (3) she had direct communication with the
horses and in some obscure way determined who would win
from them. Moss and Sands'6 have reported a controlled investigation in picking the winners.
The following examples from research on Joseph Dunninger, from psychiatric practice, and from personal life explore
this topic.
"In a psychodynamically devired c:Iinicai experiment thaI was designed 10 take
advantage of Ihe transference, I gave the woman a small sum of money 10
place bels that, if suc:c:essful, would be sufficient 10 bring IOlhe United Slales
for a visil, Ihe distinguished parapsychologist and experl on proscopy, Prof.
W.H.C. Tenhaeff. The experiment ./latly failed.
tDunninger, unlike hisfather and brother, was not particularly interesfed nor
knowledgeable aboul horses in horse racing. However, he went on fWO 0("(:0
sions. Thefirsllime wasaf Belmont Racelrack when he wasac:c:ompanied by
his wife, an NBC executive, and Ihe latter's girlfriend. The execufive wanted
fO impress his girlfriend by having Dunninger pick Ihe winners. Dunninger
was as surprised as anyone when he picked five winners in a row, bUI no one
won any money because Dunninger did not place any befs and hisfriends did
not follow his direclions. "Dan T. (execulive) said I chose long ShOfS and
plugs. .. The second horse race thaI he attended was in San Francisco, when
he was again ac:c:ompanied by his Wife, who verified fhis information. He
entered Ihe arena and as a Slunt wrole his prediclion for the big race of Ihe
day on a small slate and showed it 10 the grandstands. He again picked the
The only time the dowsing paragnosl Henry Gross" dabbled in horse
racing, he picked bolh the winner and Ihe loser of Ihe Kentucky Derby (p.

First Quarter 1988

Dunninger's Cat O'Four Tales

Dunninger once recalled an event which happened near the
turn of the century when he was a child. His older (by four
years) brother Louis had become acutely ill with an obscure
fever and an oozing discharge from the eyes, nose, and ears.
Every day for several weeks between midnight and one
o'clock in the morning, Louis would become very frantic, exhibit violent behavior, and "the family had a hard time
holding him down. Dr. Steinach, our family physician, and
later consultants were unable to make a diagnosis or prescribe
a remedy that could relieve the condition."
Dr. Steinach, who knew Mr. and Mrs. Dunninger, Sr.,
very well, surprised them by asking: "Do you believe in
witchcraft? Lou's illness is so bizarre that I wonder if it could"
be caused by suggestion or a curse. I have read many books
about this kind of thing in medieval Scotch-English
literature." The doctor was cautious in his statements because
he knew this was a way-out position for a physician; and furthermore, neither Mr. nor Mrs. Dunninger believed in the
supernatural. Nevertheless, the very day of the physician's
statement, the family's white cat disappeared from their
home in New York City without apparent reason. The next
day, an employee of Dunninger's father, a Mrs. Ellit, who
also knew the brothers and who had originally given them the
white cat as a present, surprised the family by returning the
cat. Mrs. Ellit lived on the lower East Side, more than a mile
away from the Dunninger factory. She said, "The cat came
into my house last night; it must have escaped."
Joseph Dunninger commented: "This event made my
mother and father very suspicious, for on the night that the
white cat disappeared my mother saw several cats sitting on
the window sill of Lou's room. Although the window was
closed, my father had to get the broom and chase them away.
The following morning, when Mrs. Ellit brought the white cat
back, my mother accused her of bewitching the cat and of
cursing Lou. My father fired her.
"My parents knew that Mrs. Ellit was a vindictive woman
who felt she was given less sewing than the other German and
Italian women who worked in my father's factory. Mother
was infuriated. She picked up a pair of shears and said if Lou
didn't improve she'd kill the woman. Mrs. Ellit took the
white cat away and from that night on Lou gradually improved until he was better. We never told him the story because it
would upset him."
The Dunninger family had numerous cats and dogs as pets
through the years but they never had cats on the window sill,
as happened that night. "When Dr. Steinach heard of the
strange events, he suggested that if we ever saw Mrs. Ellit
again and she touched Lou or one of us, Mother should strike
her. One day Mother met Mrs. Ellit by chance on the street
and when the lady touched Lou, Mother hit her on the hand.
Although Dr. Steinach didn't believe in the supernatural he
had an interest in the occult. My parents just accepted the
doctor's explanation and that was that."
Many years later, when Louis was twenty-one years old, he
died on December 21, of tuberculous pneumonia. Joseph
Dunninger recalled: ",The night before Lou died he yelled to
me to come into his room and screamed, 'Look out the window. Get the cats away. They're bothering me. They'll kill
me. I can't sleep!' There were no cats. His room, and mine
which was next door, was high up, and cats couldn't climp up
the side of our brownstone building. This was the first time
Lou ever mentioned any cats. Nothing like this had happened
First Quarter 1988

Another related event to these cat experiences occurred in

October 1933, about thirty-one years after Louis' death,
when Joseph Dunninger, with the New York Journal
American staffwriter Joe Cowen and columnist Louis Sobel,
wrote a series of articles on Dunninger's investigations of
spiritualistic mediums.
One day they purchased a Harlem newspaper and read ads
about mediums and fortunetellers. They chose one name and
immediately dropped in unannounced. Among several items,
this otherwise unprepossessing tall, thin Negro medium told
them was that Dunninger had a brother who had died as a
young man and that his death had something to do with cats.
Furthermore, she described a particular type of high collar
that bothered Louis in life, so much that he couldn't wear it.
Dunninger was quite taken aback: ". wasn't thinking of this:
if anything I expected to have a laughable reading and to hear
only nonsense. But what she said was all true." His brother
never liked high collars and preferred a winged collar. Also,
when Louis died, the undertaker tried unsuccessfully to dress
him with a high collar. The undertaker called Joseph Dunninger for instructions, and he was told to substitute a winged
collar. Only Dunninger knew this.
The last major family cat experience might have happened
when Joseph Dunninger's mother was in the twilight of her
life. Once she went away for a few days. Her cat, Mimi, who
was accustomed to lying contentedly at the foot of her bed
and purring, became very upset - apparently at being abandoned - meowed incessantly, and refused food. Only when
Joseph Dunninger summoned his mother and she returned,
did Mimi settle down again. This happy state persisted until
Mrs. Dunninger's death. Then, contrary to expectations
based on the previous experience with Mimi, the cat surprIsingly enough jumped up on her mistress's bed, looked
around, "as if someone was there, purred, and assumed her
serene previous adjustment." This continued until she died
several years later and was interred with her former mistress.
The accounts of cat episodes which were always similar,
were related to me by Joseph Dunninger on many occasions
through the years. They were buttressed with appropriate
scrapbook newspaper clippings and independent corroboration by Mrs. Joseph Dunninger and Joseph Dunninger's late
older brother Max.
The Bat
My wife and I took my "summertime bachelor" colleague,
Dr. Brewster Breeden, to dinner for the first time. I knew that
part of his miliary service had been in Japan so I told him
about a fascinating article in Science. that I had read earlier in
the day. It was about the U.S. plans for using bats to which
incendiary bombs were attached as a secret weapon against
Japan during World War II. This was a focal point in our
discussion. After my wife and I had returned home from dinner and had retired, we were awakened at 1:30 a.m., hearing
a strange noise - first a pummeling against the screen and
Throughout her son's career; Mrs. Dunninger, Sr., used to look out the open
window of their apartment, with a shawl over her shoulders. waiting for him
to come home late at night. The shawl was then neatly folded and placed on
a choir by the window. The night before Mrs. Dunninger's death her son
returned from a performance that also featured the soprano Jessica
Dragonet. "I noted that Mother was very ill and her shawl was crumpled on
the floor. I (Ook her to bed and she died the following day of pneumonia. It
was very odd that the formerly crumpled shawl on the floor was now neatly
folded and placed on a chair. I could not think of any acceptable explana/ion
for this. I am also superstitious about the 6 of spades which I had dropped
that night during my performance. Anytime I encounter that card it seems
that I'm in trouble. ..

Pursuit 21

then odd sounds all around the bedroom. When I turned on

the light, I found that a bat, by some freak accident had
crashed through the screen and was flying around the room.
This happened on July 23, 1960; it had never happened
before nor has it since. One wonders about a possible communication, coincidence, synchronicity, or precognition.
The Squirrel
A middle-aged woman was visiting her sister in a nursing
home. It was the ninth anniversary of the sister's severe hemiplegia and motor aphasia. Although the sister could comprehend sufficiently to successfully manage her investments, she
had to be fed, dressed, pushed around in a wheelchair, and
attended constantly. The visitor, who was an animal lover,
noted that her sister was concerned over a newspaper article
she had read a week before about numerous animals in the
South that were killed on the highways because of the
drought. On the way home the woman went into a florist
shop that she seldom patronized and among many items
bought a stuffed toy squirrel as a surprise present for her
sister. She later learned at this time, many miles away, the
nursing home attendant had wheeled the sister outdoors
where she had a shocking experience: a squirrel jumped into
her lap and ran up her arm and lay on the back of her neck apparently the animal was tame. When the nurse swatted the
animal with a newspaper, it jumped down, ran up the nurse's
leg, and bit her. The police were called, and they shot the
The squirrel's head was examined by the Board of Health
for rabies, but no disease was found. Was this coincidence?
Or, could this unique experience of the disabled sister with the
squirrel have telepathically prompted the sympathetic woman
(who was an animal lover) to buy the toy squirrel at that exact
time (there were other choices) as an unusual telepathically
occasioned means, as described elsewhere l7 of reassuring the
sister that the animal was really harmless and should not have
been shot? Or, did the kind thought of buying the stuffed
animal in some way cause an interaction between the disabled
sister and the squirrel who took a short-lived liking to her? A
possible telesomatic exchange (Case six) involving this woman
and her family is reported elsewhere. IS
The Robin
Lester Riley, a middle-aged handyman-gardener of old"
Scotch-Irish stock was standing by his truck in the backyard
of my New Jersey house telling me about the trip he had to
make to Virginia the coming weekend to see his ninety-yearold mother, who was ailing and might be dying. While he was
describing his mother's health, we were startled to see a bird
(a robin) fall from the sky, crash onto the hood of his truck,
and skid onto the ground. It gasped and died. Neither of us
had ever had an experience like this before nor have we since,
although I had on rare occasions seen birds crash into the
window when the lights were on in the office. It was a cloudy,
cool day, and there was no apparent reason for this strange
happening. I immediately looked at Mr. Riley and said, "It's
very odd, but I guess you'd better go at once." Although I
was not superstitious, this statement was foolish and out of
place for me. When 1 next saw Mr. Riley, a week later, he
said that because of the weird coincidence, he left immediately for Virginia instead of three days later, as was his original
plan. He arrived just before his mother died. When he told
his brothers and sisters about the bird experience, they were
astounded. They all vividly remembered how twenty-five
years before, their father "who was in poor health since an
auto accident three years previously, told them how he saw
Pursuit 22

two bluebirds flying out of a window and interpreted that as

an omen of his death - which happened three days later. Mr.
Riley was so disturbed over these dovetailing coincidences involving his parents that he discussed them with his minister.
Such an event as this may be the folklore origin of the common parlance, "to get the bird."
The Eunuch Cat
A young housewife, who had chronic anxiety hysteria and
who had been adopted as a baby, had many telepathic events
in her life and treatment. On November 8, 1966, she came to
her session and told about an odd event with her sevenmonth-old male cat. She and her husband had planned to
leave for an Atlantic City vacation late one night, but had to
postpone their trip until early the next morning because their
cat, who was to be altered in their absence, had suddenly run
The cat, who was outside and therefore did not see them
pack their suitcases or make preparations, had never run
away before. They searched for him in vain. When they got
up early the next morning, they still could not find the cat.
Finally they received a telephone call from a neighbor who
said the cat was in their backyard. The cat refused to be coaxed
home, however, and ran away again. In anger, the woman
asked her husband's sister who worked for a veterinarian and
was familiar with animals, to have the cat castrated while they
were on vacation. When they returned four days later, they
found the cat meowing and shivering in their parked auto in
the garage. The husband's sister said that when she came to
the house on the morning they left, to take the cat to thr
veterinarian for castration, he attacked her, ripped her
sweater, and scratched her whenever she tried to get into the
"car. So she left the cat and went home. The cat had no food
or water for this period of time.
One can wonder if this usually docile cat sensed the separation from his masters, as well as from his generative organs.
" As"a built-in controp5 sequel to this experience, in a session
at 2:15 p.m. on Februa,ry 2, 1970, this woman patient, who
also had endometriosis and tried to become pregnant for a
long time, asked me (BES) about spaying my cat. She recalled
the aforementioned example how her cat was finally spayed,"
and then said that she had just returned from an appointment
with her gynecologist who advised her on the eventual need
for a bilateral oophorectomy.
Prior to this patient's session I wondered when my paper
on Edison 19 and Dunninger would be out. In truth, during the
session my mind occasionally drifted to this personal matter,
and during this interplay of polarized material involving the
previous possible telepathic cat experience, the patient's
discussing the castration of my cat (displaced unconsicous
wish for her physician who was not paying proper attention?)
and herself, plus my ihoughts of Dunninger, Joseph Dunninger telephoned me about another weird story concerning his
cat, who was just spayed. Touche.
As a backdrop, it should be mentioned that this patient,
Once. at the railrood sta{ion al Colombo, Ceylon. in the early thirties. Dllnninger met ..... a lall, swarthy gentleman in flowing robes. He spoke good
English. had long hair, and a saintly face. He asked; 'You look like a professional man or an artist, are you. ' 'No, I'm a magician. I am here to see what
you fellows can do. ' The Indian then said, 'I'll give you a demonstration. '
He then whislled softly, like a steaming teakellie that rould scarcely be
heard. and shortly the sky was swarming with hundreds of blackbirds. They
settled on the ground, all around him, and stayed until he whis{led again,
when they all flew off and the sky was black with them. Ano{her amazing
stunt was performed by a fakir and Dunninger recorded it on movie film.
"He had a rontainer of hundreds of beads which he threw on the ground.
He also had a {hreadedneedleand a blackbird rapidly strung all of the bead~."

First Quarter 1988

whose husband's family had once been patients of my father,

had one striking thing in common with the outstanding
paranormal event in Joseph Dunninger's early life. During
our session on October 2, 1969, she talked about the fiftieth
anniversary of the Slocum disaster (celebrated one year previously) in which her father-in-Iaw's mother and sister and
several other relatives perished. Ever since that session, I
wondered about the odd coincidence of this event that
associatively linked me through her to Joseph Dunninger.
From the thousands of patients and myriad hours of psychotherapy, I had never come across this specific associative link
before. One of Dunninger's most vivid childhood memories
concerned his father's prophetic dream of the Slocum disaster
which occurred June 15, 1904. Dunninger and his two older
brothers were going on an annual outing up the Hudson
River on the steamer, "General Slocum," until their father
following his prophetic nightmare, forbade them. He ran
around the neighborhood and kept thirty to forty other
children from going. The "General Slocum" caught fire, and
in the concatenation of horrible mishaps and errors, 1,031
lives were lost. It was the greatest ship disaster in the United
The last part of the patient's session was concerned with
her dream of an airplane crash, which she associated to a recent Swiss-air disaster in which forty people were killed by
Arab terrorists, who claimed they planted a bomb because of
suspected Israelis on the plane. Although the patient's session
was over and she did not elaborate on her dream, I inwardly
smiled at this capstone of the fusillade of associative
telepathy, because in all of his career and worldwide travels,
Dunninger had never flown until very recently. Very few
people knew of this fact and virtually no one knew of Dunninger's past telepathic and precognitive experiences that may
have accounted for his fear. It was no wonder that Joseph
Dunninger made one of his infrequent calls to my office during this session of criss-crossing telepathically a lrois when
one considers the matrix of polarized associations.
At first glance it might be hard to follow these reported
complex interactions and the psychic nexus, but this is the
essence of telepathy and the associations are simple and more
easily grasped if the telepathic hypothesis is used. Once one
hears Chopin's "Nocturne," one does not chose "Chopsticks." As the therapist calls on his (and his patient's) reservoir of experiences, he finds telepathy a useful tool in treatment. This example is in accordance with what happens in the
physician-patient relationship in psychotherapy or Professor
Tenhaeff's21 observation that the paragnost continually
rediscovers himself in his consultants. The sensitized areas
seemingly reverberate ad infinitum. In a related vein, Joost
A.M. Meerloo has written: " .. .in the psychic world, the new
time contains an older one. In the sequence of mental events,
later moments include earlier ones. "22
The Monkey
A senior premedical student in psychotherapy, who was
working on a monkey project with a psychiatrist, came into
Dunninger recalled: "Whit White. 01/ advertisil/g mun al/d a friel/d, wOllld
cal/Ille lip every time he flew because he kl/ew about myexperiel/ces. J'd advise him. I never told him not to go and he never had (In accident. Once I
SlOpped Dun Tlllhil/, formerly a vice president of NBC and later lilY
lIIal/ager, and got him drllllk to keep him from flying 10 Sail Francisco. The
plane he was 10 ha"e taken came down. Another tillle I lOre up either the
tickets or reservations of an insurallce agem for a specific plal/e flight - this
ilion was a neighbor and we bought our house from his relative. That plane
too, crashed. He thell called me al/d thanked me for saving his life. He had
confidence ill what J had to say . ., This type of experiel/ce ancl its relation to
the psychic I/exus is discllssed elsewhere. '0

First Quarter 1988

his session to report a possible telepathic episode between a

juvenile male rhesus monkey and himself. The patient had
just finished a seven-month period of controlled observation
- totaling 232 hours - and he and his mentor were preparing to kill the monkeys in order to section their brains. Four
of the seven monkeys had undergone midline thalamotomies
to study the effects of that lesion on their social behavior. In
no previous sessions did the patient note any unusual exchanges between the seven monkeys and himself. This was
also his experience from more than forty hours of observation of a colleague's monkeys (four had dorsal lateral frontal
lobotomies; four were untreated). However, now he noted:
"We have a chain hanging from the ceiling of the enclosure,
which the monkeys either held in their hand and walked
around in bipedal fashion, or climbed up and down when
playing with the others; or they would mouth the chain. I
always wondered why they did not swing on it. While I was
thinking about this, Nelson, who was an operated monkey,
suddenly grabbed the chain and swung like Tarzan. Nelson,
the third of a group of seven, was shy. He was different from
all the other monkeys in that he was the only one who would
look me in the eye. I felt close to him. The next day when I
entered the room to complete my observations, I wondered
about the previous day's performance. Nelson swung like
Tarzan for the second time!"
It might be wondered if the patient was upset and split with
the forthcoming sacrifice of the monkey which was symbolic'
of the patient's past social and academic school performance.
Perhaps he sent his thoughts to Nelson, who of the seven was
closest to him. Possibly the monkey had some awareness of
the significance of what would shortly follow and reacted by
telepathically complying with the researcher's wish. The
repeat performance might have supported this view because,
although this thought 'las not foremost in the researcher's
mind, both he and the monkey were sensitized to this behavioral communication. Although the data in this case is insufficient, it would be of interest to keep the psi hypothesis in
mind in a variety ~f experiments with animals who have undergone various neuroanatomical and other (e.g., bilateral
adrenalectomy) extirpation procedures.
This patient has had many teiepathic episodes in his
therapy, including telepathically detecting Christian names on
occasion, his physician's unannounced pending short trip out
of the country, and one episode of spectacular tracer-laden
overdetermined episode of telekinesis with built-in controls
and involving an exploding can of carbonated soft drink.
The Myna Bird
A referring physician, Dr. L, whom I have known for more
than thirty years, invited me to his home to meet a middleaged couple who were also his patients and neighbors. It
developed that I had seen the wife's father years ago in electroencephalographic consultation and I had known the husband, who was the manager of an automobile agency that I
had dealings with off and on for many years. He told me the
following story, whiCh was confl1ll1ed by all present. Although
anecdotal, the veracity of the informants was impeccable.
"Walter was my father's and my father-in-law's good
friend, and he also was my sister's father-in-law. Walter was
an inventor who lived in Florida, and he was a former patient
of Dr. L. Walter was an alcoholic, and at such times he could
be very mean. On a number of occasions he jokingly told his
son, daughter, my mother-in-law, and others, 'When I die,
I'm coming back as a myna bird.' No one knew why he said
this since none of us ever had a myna bird or an unusual experience with one. It was just his dumb joke. This stuck in my

Pursuit 23

mother-in-Iaw's mind, and when Walter died in Florida a few

years later, my parents attended his funeral. Following the
services they returned from the interment and sat down in my
parents' patio to have a drink. They were all amazed to see a
myna bird in a tree in the back yard. My mother-in-law
shouted, 'That's Walter!' The bird stayed there for one week
and then flew away. This was in Florida, and it should be
noted that these birds are not native to that state, and these
people had not had this type of experience before.
"Then a few days later the myna bird turned up at my
brother Rolf's house. The bird followed Rolf on his rounds
- he has an advertising agency and travels allover Palm
Beach. Wherever Rolf would go, there was the bird. Finally,
the bird disappeared and they didn't see him again until my
father died eight months later, on his birthday, January 14,
1969. Remember that Walter and my father were also good
friends, "and that Walter joked how he would return as a
myna bird.
"I flew to Florida from New Jersey to make arrangements
for my father's funeral. Throughout the whole service in the
funeral home Mother and all other members of the family
saw the myna bird in the window - that is, before they took
my father to the cemetery. After the service we drove to the
cemetery and there was the myna bird sitting in a tree, looking out at the grave. Walter was buried only two graves away
from my father's. Three days later the myna bird was again in
my mother's backyard where she saw him for the last time.
"However, the finale occurred just this winter (February,
1972), four years after my father's death. For three weeks we
had a myna bird fly to our backyard in the morning and
spend the day with us, take off, and then come back the next
day. 1 fed it suet, apples, and even bought 25 pounds of
sunflower seeds. I'd go out and say, 'Hello, Pop!' The myna
bird wasn't afraid of us, but he wouldn't come and perch on
our hands. My wife called the Turtle Back Zoo - they had a
few reports of the bird - and they sent an expert over to capture him, but the bird eluded him. Our home is in a wooded
suburban New Jersey area and there has been snow and ice.
Finally it must have gotten too cold for the bird and he took
off. It is odd that this incident happened at the approximate
time of my father's birthday, which was also the anniversary
of his death."
On June 7, 1972, while at the annual Associated Physicians' Banquet, Dr. L and his guest, the automobile agency
manager, called me over to their table. The manager wanted
to tell me the latest development: "The oddest thing happened two Saturdays ago when my mother returned from Florida
to New Jersey. While she visited my family in our backyard,
there, again, was the myna bird in a tree. We hadn't seen him
since February, or after this visit with Mother. My wife was
so upset that she wouldn't talk about it." The manager then
repeated his strange story to several curious physician friends
at the table. He looked in vain for an explanation.
The next time 1 met the manager was at the annual ban-"
quet, one year later. He seemed perplexed as he related the
most recent development: "On the anniversary of Father's
death, Aprilll, 1973, Mother and 1 flew to Florida where we
joined my brother and drove to the cemetery. There, on the
branch of a tree overhanging the grave, was the myna bird."
Examples of these strange, spontaneously occurring paranormal events between man and beast could be greatly expanded. The exact nature of the events makes coincidence
Pursuit 24

and chance an unlikely explanation. What can the link be between man and his pets, and between man and sometimes exotic wild animals? Could similar interactions from ancient
times have been the source "of the world-wide greatly
embellished legends, myths, and superstitions of dragons,
monsters, witches' cats, etc.? How might possible man-beast
paranormal events tie in with the many documented accounts
of UFOs2l (flying saucers) whose presence has often been
heralded by animals such as barking dogs, clucking chickens,
stampeding cattle? John A. Keepo has shown how many UFO
experiences often have associated paranormal activities, including telepathy, poltergeists, precognition, etc. Could the
key to an understanding of psychic matters be found in the
mystery of ufology, or vice versa? Are there other dimensions
to the life spectrum so that when the man-beast sensitivities
are attuned to a common resonance these strange communications can take place? What might be the common
physical modalities for such esoteric biocommunications?
Are they, as it seems, outside the electromagnetic spectrum
and comprise some untapped source of energy? What might
be the man-beast neuroanatomical and physiological
substrates? Could animals be telepathically summoned,
hallucinated, teleported, or materialized when the man-beast
needs and other factors are spontaneously fulfilled?
Eisenbud z4 has posed an intriguing exploratory generalization which he terms the "principle of confluence, according
to which 'psi' - some basic psi manifestation that is, not just
telepathy or PK, for example - is, like other great processabstractions in nature (e.g., electromagnetic, or, queer as this
sounds, 'the unconscious') an integral component in all
events (change of state of definable systems, let us say) and as
such represented in some measure as a determinate of the
final, common pathways of these events."
The study of human-animal paranormal events should be
vigorously pursued. If such disparate data exists, it should be
used and now swept under the rug. The clues for "the solution
of the riddle are there.
I. Gaddis, Vincent and Margaret: The Strange World 0/ Animals
and Pets, New York, Cowles Book Co., Inc., 1970.
2. Sanderson, LT.: Investigating the Unexplained: A Compendium
(~r Disquieting Mysteries 0/ the Natural World. Englewood Cliffs,
N.J., Prentice Hall, 1972; personal communication March 10,

3. Carrington, Hereward, and Fodor, Nandor: Haunted People,
New York, Dutton, 1952; "The Talking Mongoose," pp.

4. Fodor, Nandor: The Unaccountable, New York, Award Books,
1968, pp. 12\-125.
5. van Paassen, Pierre: Days 0/ Our Year.5, New York, Hillman
Curl, Inc. 1936, pp. 248-251.
6. Ryzl, Milan: Parapsychology: A Scientific Approach. New York,
Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1970.
7. von Urban, R.: Beyond Human Knowledge. New York, Pageant
Press, Inc., 1958, pp. 206-207.
8. Schwarz, B.E.: The Jacques Romano Story. New York. Univer~ity Books, 1968, pp. 196-199; personal communication.
9. Lilly. John c.: Man and Dolphin, New York, Pyramid Publications (paperback), 1962.
10. Keel, Johri A.: Strange Creatures/rom Time and Space, Greenwich, Conn., Fawceu Gold Medal Books, "1970.
II. Grad, B., Cadoret, R.J., and Paul; G.I.: An Unorthodox
Method of Treatment on Wound Healing in Mice, Int. J. Pctrap.\ydlOloRY. 111 (No.2): 5-24, 1961.
12. Schwarz, R.E.: Psychic-Dynamics, New York, Pageant Press,
1965: A Psychimrist Looks at ESP, New York, New American,
Library, 19611, paperback.

First Quarter 1988

13. Gregory, Anita: Importanl Russian Telepathy Findings, Fate, 24

(No.7): 45-51, 1971.
14. Schmidt, Helmut: PK Experiments with Animals as Subjects, J.
(~r Parapsychology, 34 (No.4); 255-261, 1970.
15. Schwarz, B:E.: Built-in Controls and Postulates for the
Tclepathic Evenl, Corrective Psychiatry and J. oj Social Therapy,
12:64-82, 1966.
16. Mos~, Thelma, and Sands, H.: Why Did I Flunk the Horse Test?
Parapsychology Review, I (No.5): 10-12, 1970.
17. Schwarz, B.E.: Parent-Child Telepathy, New York, Garrell
Publications, 1971, p. 98.
18. Schwarz, B.E.: Possible Telesomatic Reactions, J. oj the Medical
Society of New Jersey, 64:600-603, Nov. 1967.
19. The Telepathic Hypothesis and Genius: A Note on Thomas Alva
Edison, Corrective Psychiatry and J. oj Social Therapy, 13:7-19,
Jan. 1967.

20. Precognition and Psychic Nexus, J. oj the A mer. Soc. 0/ Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, Pan I, 18 (No.2): 52-59, 1971;
Pan II, 18 (No.3): 83-93, 1971.
21. Tenhaeff, W.H .C.: Proceedings 0/ the Parapsychological Institute 0/ the State University 0/ Utrecht, No. I, Dec. 1960; ibid.,
No.2, 1962; ibid., No.3, 1965.
22. Meerloo, J.A.M.: Along the Fourth Dimension, New York,
John Day Co., 1970, p. 144.
23. Creighton, G.: Effects of UFOs on Animals, Birds, and Smaller
Creatures, Flying Saucer Review, Parts 1-10, 16 (Nos. 1-6), 1970,
17 (Nos. 1-4), 1971.
24. Eisenbud, Jule: Why Psi? Psychoanalytic Review, 53 (No.
4):647-663, 1966-1967.

Editor's comments: While setting up the above article, my wife

Nancy and I were reminded of unusual incidents with some of our
own animals.
In 1970, we were returning from a trip to Europe. Our twoyear-old parakeet was entrusted, for the two-week trip, with a
close friend in a neighboring town.
Our return flight was delayed several hours so that we didn't
get home until about 8 a.m. Unfortunately, the parakeet died that
morning just before we arrived without explanation.
Ii is about 6 miles to the friend's house and Nancy drove over
to talk with her about the trip and, of course, to retrieve the body
of the parakeet. When she left she placed the dead bird in the
trunk of our car. After about a mile, a crow dove down out of a
tree along side the road directly into the front of the car hitting
the front grill head on and was killed instantly.
Nancy had never hit a bird before and this "coincidence" of
carrying one dead bird and killing another made her quite upset.
She nervously drove on and just a few streets away from home.a
second bird (which appeared to be a starling) did the same thing.
Needless to say, Nancy was startled and very upset by these two
Kamikaze-like attacks.
Eighteen years have passed and, to my wife's knowledge, she
never hit another bird with her car nor, likewise, has she carried
such a cargo since.
On another occasion, a second curious event took place ..
Again, we were returning from a trip to Europe.
Jack, Nancy's brother, was left in charge of the house and our
cat, Fritzi, in our absence. When our plane brought us back, we
called Jack to let him know we'd see him shortly.
Even though Jack was a frequent visitor to our home, Fritzi, an
indoor cat, decided not to come out from under our bed with
Jack in the house. Fritzi had always been skittish with"strangers"
because he had been physically abused when we rescued him from
his former owners. Jack did not have to look too far to find him.
The entire time we were gone, Fritzi never emerged once to allow
Jack to see him either eat or use his litter pan. Regardless, Jack
checked on him each day. Fritzi had the upstairs while Jack's activities remained downstairs, for the most part.
Jack told us, when we walked in the door two hours later,
"You know, you won't believe this but within seconds after you
called me here from the airport, Fritzi came downstairs, walked
right over to me and waited in the living room for you to arrive. "
We tried to rationalize that perhaps Fritzi heard Jack mention
Nancy's name but that would have been impossible since his distance from the phone and background noise outside excluded that
possibility. Also the phone rang often, everyday, and Jack mentioned Nancy's name each time, even if we supposed Fritzi could
have managed to eavesdrop.
Jack, always the doubter and skeptic, was amazed by this
But most remarkable, perhaps, is Rudi.
Jack stopped by the house one bitterly cold January evening in

1979. "Look what I've got," he said, as he opened up his old army jacket and lifted out a four-week-old pure black ball of fur. I
said, "No Jack, we've got two cats. No more!" How many times
have I heard and said those words?
Nearly three years passed since that January night when the
first signs of cystitis showed up. Cystitis is a fairly common and
often fatal male feline disease. The urinary tract is painfully
blocked and if left untreated quickly causes uremic poisoning and
Rudi's veternarian treated him but warned us to look for signs
of reoccurrence and to call him immediately - day or night. And
reoccur it did. This time Rudi was in serious trouble and the veternarian shook his head. He told us, after the lab tests came back,
that Rudi would, even after an operation, probably only have a
short time to live because the tests showed 70-850/0 kidney
I went to work that day severely depressed. I visited Rudi at the
vet's infirmary on my lunch break.
He was so weak he could not lift his head but uttered a faint
"meow" and pushed his paw out the cage for me to hold. With tears
streaming down my face, I promised him then and there that I
would do my utmost to save him.
We sought information from various national experts on feline
disease. Then, as a long shot, I called our new friend, Greta
Woodrew. This remarkable psychic's abilities are best expressed
in her book, On Q Slide 0/ Light.
Greta, with the apparent callousness of a hard-core, business
executive is inwardly a soft and sympathetic person. "Well," she
said to me briskly over the phone, "I have never tried to heal an
animal before, but if he means that much to you we can give it a
try." She lived miles away in Connecticut, at the time, and admittedly a healing at a distance was a long shot attempt. Nevertheless, I followed her instructions, and as soon as Rudi was
released following surgery, Greta helped us.
Two days later we took Rudi for a checkup. The vet was surprised to see him looking so well and took a blood sample. A day
later, with no explanation, he took another blood sample. Later
he told us that he had to take a second blood test to check the
results of the first test but both came out the same - no sign of
kidney damage! He stated that he had never seen this before and
then we told him about Greta.
That was nearly six years ago. Rudi takes precautionary
medication but otherwise is in very good health. Greta has a new
book out, Memories oj Tomorrow (to be reviewed in PURSUIT
shortly) and Nancy has. recently helped found a non-profit group
called S.N .A.P .S. (Spay, Neuter And Protect Strays) so that as of
this writing we are foster-caring just under two dozen, bouncing,
healthy, some with handicaps, but all lovable kittens waiting to be
adopted to good homes.
And thanks, Greta, our hearts will always be out to you.

First Quarter 1988

Reprinted, with permission, from the Journal 0/ the American Society 0/ Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, Volume 20, No.2.

Pursuit 25


Trying to Figure Out Those

HUlDan Calculators
Regal in her sari, Shakuntala Devi stood
before an audience at George Washington
University, her hands clasped like a singer's.
The music that came out, however, was
The cube of 121? "One seven seven one
live six one," she replied instantly. (She hates
commas.) Then, after a moment's reflection:
"That's also the fourth power of II. There's
something much more interesting to this
number than meets the eye."
In fact it is the sixth power of II, a lapse no
one noticed.
Someone asked if she could handle
decimals and wanted her to find the cube root
of 12812.904. That, she said without hesitation, is the third power of 23.4.
Then it was days of the week. Given a date
in. the distant past or future, she answered
"Thursday" or "Sunday" or "Tuesday"
almost before the questioner had got the
words out. She wao; always right. She played
with her hotel-room number, 1729: It is the
sum of 12 cubed and one cubed, also the sum
of \0 cubed and nine cubed.
But this was child's play for the plump,
50ish Devi, one of the world's more celebrated calculating prodigies. She made the Guinness Book of Records a few years ago by multiplying two 13-digit numbers - correctly, of
course - in 28 seconds.
In 1977 she made headlines allover the
world when she beat the Univac computer by
liguring in her head, before a rapt audience at
Southern Methodist University in Dallas, the
23rd root of a 20\ -digit number - in 50
seconds. The machine, which had to be
specially programmed for this event, took
more than a minute.
". have to be relaxed," she says. ". try to
clear my mind. I don't watch TV on the day I
perform; I don't get into conversations. I can
work about 90 minutes, and then I get
tired ... "
Everyone is fascinated by "lightning calculators," "human computers" and idiot
savants - who, at an age when most children
are barely aware they're alive, can do
ao;tonishing, almost miraculous things in one
narrow field, but who remain ordinary, or
even subnormal, in everything else.
Many of them turn up in music and math
(also chess), disciplines ihat resemble each
other in their architectural qualities, their
purity ao; abstract art, their freedom from the
imprecisions of language or any other form of
intellectual interpretation.
The musicians are the most famous: little
Mozart composing symphonies in the attic in
his pajamas; 2-year-old Claudio Arrau reaching up over his head to touch the piano keys
and discover his calling; Menuhin and Chopin
giving concens in knee pants; and so on.
Much rarer are the prodigy artists like
Nadia, an autistic girl who at kindergarten age

Pursuit 26

their Iive~ in mental iostillltiom, diagnosed as

retarued. and coutdn't pos~ibly have
memorized ,orne formula?
The fact is, numbers prodigies cover a vast
panorama of talent . .Iohn and Michael, the
much-televised twins with IQ~ of 60, for example, could quote, offhand, prime numbers
20 digit~ long. But any list would also have to
include mathematicians John von Neumann
and Karl Gauss, scientist Andre Ampere and
the wonderful Alexander Aitken, linguist,
compo~er, violinist, poet and instant calculator of the t'ir~t order.
And nearly all of these people do have
methods, although some wouldn't use the
word. Rather, they would say they are in love
with numbers, they play with them day and
night, they delight in the myriad ways
number~ relate to each other, create harmonie' in the mind. Numbers are their language.
Klein once said: "Numbers are friends for
me, more or less. It doesn't mean the same for
you, doe~ it, 3,844? For you it's just a three
and an eightand a four and a four. But I say,
'Hi, 62 squared:"
Salo Finkel~tein thought 214 "beautiful,"
was especially fond of 8,377, hated zero.
Shyam Marathe, flying over the Grand Canyon, was inspired to revel in the vastness of
the 20th power of nine. Eberstark sees "the
~inister 64 or the arrogant, smug, self-~tislicd
36... the fatherly, reliable ( i I' somewhat
stodgy) 76."
Many calculators, as part of their constant
fooling around with numbers, habitually factor any large figure they ~ee. Thus, at a moment'~ notice they can dismantle a number
like a toy, into more workable bits. Some
memorize the multiplication tables up to 100
and beyond. A few memorize logarithm
Smith gives a glimpse of Finkel~tein'~ mind
at work:
"Problem: reduce 6,328 to the sum of four
squares. Thought that 71 squared equals
5,041. Thought of subtracting it; didn't like it,
so didn't. Thought 72 squared. Doesn't know
it. 70 squared equals 4,900 subtracted from
6,328 equals 1,428. Has it. 1,428 into 3
squares equals 32 squared plus 20 squared
plus 2 squared. 6,328 equals 70 squared plus
32 squared plus 20 squared plus 2 squared."
This took him \0 seconds.
There are all sorts of tricks. Cube roots are
a favorite because, Smith writes, they're
ca~ier, "since the last digit of the power
unambiguously determine~ the last digit of the
root." Fifth roOls, he insists, are also duck

was drawing with the sophisticated skill of a

graduate art student.
The gift seems to appear earliest in the
math prodigies, often before they have any inkling that there is such a thing as mathematics, which is why so many of them seem to
reinvent it for themselves while musing in
their highchairs.
For all the fascination of the phenomenon,
remarkably little has been written on it.
One feature of the conference was a demonstration by Hans Eberstark, an engaging.
genius who has memorized pi to 11,944 places
and speaks at least two dozen languages.
He had the audience call out 50 digits,
which were copied on a screen behind him.
When he recited them, going slowly and methodically, he left out a chunk of \0 but soon
recovered and got them right. It was clear he
was using a memory system, and later he explained that he translates each digit into a
sound, then works these homemade syllables
into a private jargon.
Compared to Devi and some prodigies of
the past, Eberstark was rather reao;suring in
his hesitations and false starts.
He was introduced by his friend Steven B.
Smith, himself a numbers whiz, who has writlen proha'bly the be~t book ever on The Great
Mental Calculaton.
For those who are simply flabbergasted by
such math gymnastics, who start muttering
about deviant brain cells and the supernatural, Smith's book is a revelation.
For in~tance, about that feat of Devi's in
beating the computer, he has this to say:
"The computer apparently did not, as did
Devi, extract the 23rd root of a 20\-digit
number where the root was known to be an
integer, but rather raised a nine-digit number
to the 23rd power. The problems are altogether different. If the computer had been given
the same 201-digit number and programmed
to use methods similar to Devi's, it would
have given the answer virtually instantaneously, while no one could conceivably raise an arbitrary nine-digit number to the 23rd power."
Incidentally, Smith finds Devi's 28-second
multiplication of two 13-digit numbers frankly "unbelievable," because "it is so far
superior to anything previously reported."
But can these dazzling gifts be reduced to
merely a matter of method and technique?
Many of the famous calculators in Smith's ~Ollp.
book were illiterate and knew nothing about
"The dil'licuJty of extracting the root of a
arithmetic (at least when they started).
perfect power has little to do with the size of
Some learned to multiply by arranging peb- the power involved. Much more important
bles in rectangles. And when you consider the arc the number of digits in the root and the
o;peed - Wim Klein of the Netherlands ex- particular power selected." So he says.
tracted the 73rd root of a 500-digit number in SOURCE: Michael Kernan of the
Washington Post in the Inquirer.
under three minutes - it's hard to believe
there is time for any technique.
Philadelphia, PA Ii 11/88
And what about those people who can tell CREDrr: H. Hollander
you, just like that, the day of the week for any
date within thousands of years, yet who spend

First Quarter 1988


Forgotten Tesla Letter

- Rediscovered
by Fred Bobb
The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) and interstellar communication research interspersed with the
discovery of radio waves. Radio waves offered a pragmatic
mode of interplanetary communication. This possibility,
although visionary, deeply interested a leading wireless
pioneer, Nikola Tesla.
Nikola Tesla, the eccentric Serbian inventor, began investigations of high-voltage and high-frequency electrical transmissions in June 1899. Tesla constructed and operated a
powerful 200-foot radio transmitter on Knob Hill, near Colorado Springs, Colorado. Utilizing power from a nearby
generating station, Tesla created the first man-made lightning. Ultimately, he began experimenting with up to 100
million volts ... a feat not equalled for over half a century!
It was during the course of these experiments, that one
night, Tesla heard mysterious rhythmiC sounds coming out of
his sensitive radio receiver. Awestruck, Tesla listened intently.
He soon discarded theories that the electrical actions were disturbances caused by the Sun, earth currents or the Aurora
Borealis. Tesla could only deduce that such regular patterns
were a message ... a message to Earth by creatures from outer
(NOTE: Modern scientific opinion has it that what Tesla
actually heard were natural radio waves emanating from
pulsars or planets.)
But the faint, unknown message from another world had a
profound reaction on Tesla that would guide him throughout
his research career. The message read: ... two ... three .....
.. One ... two ... three ..... This idea contained the basic concept that most SETI researchers still believe about interstellar
SETI researchers, consist mainly of scientists and engineers. They assume that extraterrestrial SETI researchers have
the same technical backgrounds. These groups talk largely in
mathematics when in formal conversations with each other.
Therefore, it is assumed scientists and engineers trying to
communicate across the vastness of space would likewise use
mathematics as their language. Tesla believed that two intelligent groups who have no words in common cannot help but
comprehend the basic principle of addition. The easiest way
to get an extraterrestrial species to understand that a message
is being sent is to start with one pulse, then two, then three
pulses, then continue... One ... two ... three .....
Tesla steadfastly maintained his beliefs and began to
ponder the puzzle of how to answer the signals that could only have come from the angry red planet Mars. Announcements on the subject by the esoteric Serb, were met with intense ridicule from his peers.
A typical criticism was that of Professor Edward S.
Holden, former director of Lick Observatory at the University of California. He quipped:
"Mr. Nikola Tesla has announced that he is confident that
certain disturbances of his apparatus are electrical signals
received from a source beyond this earth. They do not
come from the sun, he says, hence they must be of
planetary origin, he thinks; probably from Mars, he
guesses. It is the rule of a sound philosophizing to examine

Artistic Rendition by author, Fred Bobb.

First. Quarter 1988

Pursuit 27

all probable causes for an unexplained phenomenon

before invoking improbable ones. Every experimenter will
say that it is almost certain that Mr. Tesla has made an error, and that the disturbances in question come from currents in our air or in the earth." 1
.... .it may safely be taken for granted that his signals do
not come from Mars."2
Many scientific minds agreed with this rationale. How
could Tesla pinpoint the ruddy planet as the source of the
signals? Why not a passing comet? Why not the Great Bear
of the Milky Way, or the Zodiacal light? Why presume to
propose any "planetary" origin for the signals if one was not
Tesla was disheartened and disenchanted by those reactions. But in 1902, Lord Kelvin, the British electrical genius,
visited America. He openly concurred with Tesla's assumptions that Mars was signalling the United States. This high
vote of confidence spurred Tesla on, and silenced many
dissenting voices for the time being.
Although the Serbian scientist became involved with more
practical research endeavors for George Westinghouse and
J.P. Morgan, he never lost sight of his goal to talk to the firmament. In fact, a recently rediscovered letter to the editor of
the N.Y. Times, expounded on these convictions. Tesla's letter appeared in the Times of May 23, 1909. He again re-
iterated his obsessions about the plausibilities of cosmic communion and extraterrestrial life:
"Of all the evidences of narrow mindedness and folly, I
know of no greater one than the stupid belief that this little
planet is singled out to be the seat of life, and that all other
heavenly bodies are fiery masses or lumps of ice."3
Tesla admitted that there was no absolute proof of Martian
life. He discounted Percival Lowen's "canal" theory as such
evidence, indicating that the canals were nothing more than
geodetically straight flowing rivers culminating from the erosion of mountains. He again emphasized that his beliefs were
based solely on:
"the feeble planetary electrical disturbances which ,I dis-
covered in the summer of 1899, and which, according to
my investigations, could not have originated from the sun,
the Moon, or Venus. Further study since has satisfied me
that they must have emanated from Mars."4
Dr. Tesla's letter also denounced most contemporary signaling theories as inadequate.
Professor W.H. Pickering, of the Harvard Observatory, at
Flagstaff, Arizona, believed that an elaborate system of
mechanically operated mirrors rhythmically flashed at Mars
would suffice as a communication attempt. Pickering's project would cost over $10,000,000 (in contemporary money!)
to perfect. He insisted Martians could see the mirror flashes,
"When Mars is at a distance of one hundred millions of
miles from the earth, a beam of sunlight half a mile square
would appear to its inhabitants of the same brightness as a
fifth magnitude star." S
Tesla had little faith in this theory. In his letter, Tesla stated.
"The total solar radiation falling on a terrestrial area
perpendicular to the rays (of reflected light) amounts to 83
foot pounds per square foot per second. This activity
measured by the adopted standard, is a little over 1S one
thousandth of a horsepower. But only about lOD,1o of this
whole is due to waves of light."6
The Serbian inventor continued his explanation by insisting,
Pursuit 28

"These, however, are of widely different lengths making it

impossible to use all to the best advantage, and there are
specific losses unavoidable in the use of mirrors so that the
power of sunlight reflected from them can scarcely exceed
S.S foot pounds per square foot per second, or about one
one hundredth of a horsepower.'"
Tesla declared that in view of the small activity, a reflecting
surface of about one quarter million square feet should have
been provided for the experiment. Tesla also believed that ordinary commercial plate mirrors would not work "for at such
immense distance the imperfections of surface would fatally
interfere with efficiency." 8
Tesla was further convinced that expensive clockworks
were needed to rotate the reflectors in the manner of he1iostats. (Heliostats were instruments that automatically rotated
mirrors to deflect sunlight in constant direction.) Provisions
for protection against corrosive elements was also needed.
Pickering's conservative budget estimate could never cover
such a vast array of equipment, according to the Serbian doctor:
Tesla. noted that the Pickering devices could only hope to
produce illumination 27,400,000 times feebler than that of the
full moon. He also doubted that the reflected rays could
penetrate planetary atmospheres. In essence, Tesla believed
this to be an effort of futility.
Professor Robert W. Wood, of John Hopkins University,
thought a simpler scheme would work. Prof. Wood proposed
that a tremendous black spot on the white alkali Staked
Plains of Texas, could be constructed at minimal cost. This
dark dot coUld be discerned by alleged Martians if t"-ey
possessed powerful telescopes like those on Earth. Furthermore, signals could be 'winked' with the ebony spot as with a
mirror of equal size. Most probably, even easier.
The spot could be made in small sections of black cloth arranged to ron up on long cylinders. This could be accomplished electrically, exposing portions of the white sward. Tesla
held this proposal with equal disdain.
Construction of large geometrical reflectors on the plains
of Siberia was another theory proffered by Eric Doolittle, a
professor at the University of Pennsylvania. He surmised that
a triangle, a square and a circular plane of great size could be
discernable to Martian astronomers. They then might construct similar devices in acknowledgement. Tesla had serious
doubts concerning this proposal also.
Dr. Tesla concluded his N.Y. Times letter by outlining the
only feasible method to contact the inhabitants of Mars:
,. A circuit properly designed and arranged is connecta.
with one of its ends to an insulated terminal at some height
and with the other to earth. Inductively linked with it is
another circuit in which electrical oscillations of great intensity are set up by means now familiar to electricians.
This combination of apparatus is known as my wireless
transmitter. "9
"By careful attunement of the circuits the expert can produce a vibration of extraordinary power, but when certain
artifices, which I have not yet described, are resorted to,
the oscillation reaches transcending intensity. By this
means, as told in my published technical records, I have
passed a powerful current around the globe and attained
activities of many millions of horsepower. Assuming only
a rate of IS,OOO,OOO, readily obtainable, it is 6,000 times
more than that produceable by the Pickering mirrors." 10
Tesla insisted that if his system were also utilized by the
electricians of Mars, they could multiply their receiving efFirst Quarter 1~88

1. Cheney, Margaret, Tesla: Man Out of Time, Laurel/Dell Publishing Co., 1981, p. 150.
2. Ibid, p. 151.
3." Tesla, Nickola, "How to Signal Mars," letter to the editor, New
York Times, May 23, 1909. Hereafter cited as Tesla letter, N.Y.

fects many thousands of times, concentrating energy received

over dozens of square miles!
As usual, though, Tesla was purposely elusive on the
specifics of "artifices" or procedures needed to project the interplanetary signals. No patents were ever issued for an interplanetary communicator.
Even in July, 1937, upon the occasion of being presented
with the Yugoslavian Grand Cordon of the White Eagle and
the Czechoslavakian Grand Cordon of the White Lion
awards, Tesla continued to insist that life on other worlds was
a "certitude" and that his cosmic communicator was fuDy
developed and ready for use. He even boasted of collecting
the Pierre Guzman Prize offered by the French Institute of
Sciences for interstellar communication. But, Tesla's theories
and methods for talking to the planets died with him on
January 7, 1943.
Controversy and intrigue still exist even today on the subject of life on Mars. However, current conventional debate
rests solely to its being on a microbiological scale. Whether
humanoids existed on Mars at the time of Tesla, or whether
they ever existed is extremely doubtful. The uncovering of
this letter merely intends to project the passions Tesla held for
a Martian radio communication link, and his belief in extraterrestrial life.

Related SlTUadoD.
Editor's Note: No doubt a number of our
members and readers are familiar with the
reports that appeared in the New York Times
the last ten days of August, 1924 regarding
radio signals allegedly "picked up" by radio
receivers as Mars approached 10 34,630,000
miles away from the earth.
The following are a few excerpts from two
of the reports printed on the 23rd and 28th of
August, resp.

Radio Hears Things

M .... NearsU.
An attempt by British wireless experts to
"listen in" on Mars resulted in strange noises
being heard at 1 o'clock this morning. The
source of the noises could not be ascertained
by the experts.
The attempt was made on a twenty-four
tube set erected on a hill at Dulwich.
Representatives of the Marconi Company and
of London universities were present.
Tuning in started at 12:30 a.m., and at 1
a.m., on a 30,OOO-meter radius, sounds were
heard which could not be identified as coming
from any earthly station.
The sounds were likened to harsh dots, but
they could not be interpreted as any known
code. The noises continued on and off for
three minutes in groups of four and five dots.

London. August 23 (AP)

The regular signals blotting out other

messages, which have led radio experts here
seriously to consider the theory that Mars is
trying to "tune in," were received at the Point
Grey wireless station again today and also
were heard by the wireless expert at the Merchants Exchange.
First Quarter


4. Ibid.
5. Pickering, William H., "Signaling to Mars," letter to the editor,
Scientific American, July 17, 1909, vol. 101, p. 43.
6. Tesla letter, N.Y. Times.
7. Ibid.
8. Ibid.
9. Ibid.
10. Ibid.

I. O'Neill, John J., Prodigal Genius, Arngriff Press, Hollywood,
2. Tesla, Nikola, Colorado Springs Notes - 1899 to 1900, Belgrad,
Yugoslavia, Nolit, 1978.
3. Tesla, Nikola, Complete Patents, Edited by John Ratzlaff, Tesla
Book Co., Millbrae, CA, 1983.
4. Hunt, Inez and Draper, W.W., Lightning in His Hand, Omni
Publication, Hawthorne, CA, 1964.

"The signal has been noticed at the same

hour practically every day for four weeks or
more," declared C. W. Mellish, wireless
operator at the Government station at Point
Grey. "It is absolutely distinctive and cannot
be attributed to any known instrument, or to
static or to leaking transformers in Vancouver."
This morning the signal, which dominated
the air lines, was heard at 5:20 and at 7:12, at
the same time to the minute that they came in
on the previous days. It again came in four
groups of four dashes and rather four
"slepps" so powerful that they"could not be
"tuned out."
The sounds had not been considered
seriously by the operators until the last day or
two, Mr. Mellish stated.
Vancouver, British Columbia. August 21

William F. Friedman, Chief of the Code

Section in the office of the Chief Signal Officer of the Anny, was standing by tonight,
ready to translate any peculiar messages that
might come by radio from Mars.
Lieut. Col. C.A. Siaone, Executive Officer
of the Signal Corps, had implicit faith, he
said, in Mr. Friedman's ability to decode
Martian messages as well as any man in the
United States.
Washington. DC, August 22

Seeks Sign From Mus

in 3O-Foot Radio FUm
The development of a photographic film
record of radio signals during a period of
about twenty-nine hours, while Mars was
closest to the earth, has deepened the mystery
of the dots and dashes reported heard at the
same time by widely separated operators of
powerful stations.
C. Francis Jenkins of Washington, inventor of the device, which he calls the "radio
photo message continuous transmission
machine," was induced by Dr. David Todd,
professor emeritus of astronomy of Amherst
and organizer of the international "listeningin" for signals from Mars, to take the record.
The film, thirty feet long and six inches
wide, discloses in black on white a fairly
regular arrangement of dots and dashes along
one side, but on the other side at almost evenly spaced intervals are curiously jumbled
groups each taking the form of a crudely
drawn face.
"I don't think the results have anything to
do with Mars," says Mr. Jenkins. "Quite
likely the sounds recorded are the result of
heterodyning or interference of radio signals.
The film shows a repetition, at intervals of
about a half hour, of what appears to be a
man's face. It's a freak which we can't explain."

It is 120 years, according to the calculations

On the 31st of that month a leiter was
of most astronomers, though. some differ with
them, since the two celestial travelers have prinied in the leiters to the editor column
been as near. Nothing but a mere 34,630,000 from our very own Charles H. Fort in Lonmiles will separate ~em at about 7 o'clock don entitled "Visitors of other Worlds. " Untonight (Eastern Standard Time), and when fortunately, he did not address the question,
astronomers get talking about interstellar what was the face "from Mars" decoded in
spaces, 34,630,000 miles is hardly worth men- Washington? Where is that 30.-/001 tape today?" [Ed.}


Do Ghosts Banier Oscillate?

by Daniel Eden

1963 pboto at Aetaa Springs, St. HeleDa, CaUlomia.

On a bright, sunny afternoon in 1963 Dr. Andrew von

Salza, a West Coast physician, was spending his vacation
time at a resort area in Aetna Springs, Sr. Helena, California.
Von Salza and Mr. George Heibel, the owner of the resort
area, were out on a golf course toying about with an unusual
camera - a "Wollensack" stereo camera. This device simultaneously snaps two different pictures of a scene from two
slightly different angles. The two slides that result can give the
viewer a 3-D image of the scene, like you see with those Viewmaster gadgets that people buy, especially for their kids,
each Christmas season.
The subject of the photographs they were taking was not
particularly relevant to our interests since they were just a
series of pictures of the resort's golf course. However, von
Salza, who seems to have a history of psychic abilities, took
one photo pair that seemed remarkably out of place. The two
stereo slides that resulted appeared to show a cluster of images of a ghost-like figure that seemed to have been rapidly
gliding across the field of view as the double photos were

Holzer's Interpretation
Professor Hans Holzer (See Note #1), who now owns these
photographs and holds the current copyright on them, published two large blowups of these slides in his book, Psychic
Photography'. Professor Holzer also published one of the
pictures in an article called "Psychic Photography - Graphic
Proof for Another Dimension," which appeared in Ted Holiday and Colin Wilson's, The Goblin Universe. 2 This smaller
version of one of the ghost photos seems to bring out more
detail of the figures than the larger version in Holzer's photo
Holzer interpreted the series of images to be a group of
ghostly religious figures. He wrote that "a group of rqbed
monks appeared seemingly out of nowhere, perhaps eight or
ten figures in all, and on one of the pictures (they were) surrounded by what appeared to be names. I I He suggested that
the images resembled a group of robed Dominican monks
Pursuit 30

Pboto of "Dominican Monks" from H. Holzer collection.

carrying candles. He says, "I was able to bring British medium Sybil Leek to this area in 1966, and through deep trance
establish the dramatic narrative of these monks." However,
as Dr. Arlan K. Andrews has pointed out in PURSUIT,' this
kind of test can sometimes fail even when you are using very
powerful psychics and mediums.
The Goblin Universe version .of the photo really caught my
interest because it did not look, to me, like a group of monks
carrying candles. Instead, it looked like a series of four very
bright images and three (or four) very weak images of the
same identical figure, appearing repeatedly. In other words,
these seven or eight figures may represent the world's first
stereographic evidence for ghostly barrier oscillation. .
. In his book, Prof. Holzer stated that the camera was set for
an exposure of 11250th of a second, at F/16, using daytime
color film with a rating of.l60 ASA. If this exposure time
were correct, and if we assume that there are about eight images on the film, then we would have a coining frequency of:
Fe = total number of images divided by the exposure time.
= 8 images I (11250 sec.)
=2000 Hz
Furthermore, judging from the picture, the image would be
travelling across the field of view at an incredible speed. For
instance, the image seems to glide along the groul).d somewhat
farther than its own body image is tall. If the tigure is assumed to have a typical height of about 5 feet, then it traveled
about 8 feet during the brief 11250th of a second. This would
mean it was moving at a speed of about 2000 feet per second,
or a little better than 1,360 miles per hour!
However, I wrote to Professor Holzer about the photographs and I asked him about this published exposure time.
He suggested then and later confirmed by letter that the exposure time had been 1/25th of a second rather than the
published 11250th second. If this revised exposure time is correct then the coining frequency is only about 200 Hz and the
ghost is moving along at a much slower (but still remarkable)
ground speed of about 130 miles per hour.
First Quarter 1988

Ghosts With Mass?

The barrier theory predicts that any object, disturbed from
its equilibrium in our world by being pushed in the direction
of higher space, will tend to oscillate in and out of our range
of perception. However this only applies to objects that have
a tangible, i.e., non-zero mass. Thus if we can demonstrate
that a ghost can barrier oscillate, then we will automatically
prove that such a ghost has a tangible mass - and if a ghQ';t
has a tangible mass then it is an objectively real entity. In fact,
it is possible that the mass of a ghost has already been measured by parapsychologists!
In a recent Fate magazine article: parapsychologist Dr.
Janet Lee Mitchell asks, "In Out-of-Body Experiences: Is
Anything Out?" She feels that the aBE is a real phenomenon
in which a tangible aspect of human consciousness does, in
fact, leave the body. Furthermore, this aBE ghost may have
a mass. She stated that, "Dutch scientists weighed the physical body before, during and after exteriorization to find a
weight loss of 2.25 ounces during exteriorization. This coincides with a finding by McDougall of a 2.50 ounce weight loss
at death ..... Thus it seems that Out-of-Body (exteriorization)
experiments and death bed experiences both tend to confirm
the possibility that something with a tangible mass does leave
the body.
Dr. Mitchell's weight range for a ghost, about 2.25 to 2.50
ounces (63.8 to 70.9 grams), is a fairly substantial weight. A
"Milky Way" chocolate bar, sitting on my desk as I write
this, weighs 2.24 ounces (63.5 grams), according to the wrapper. Charles Fort said that ghosts, when multiplied, take on
what is called "substantiality." A ghost that weighs the same
as a candy bar has to be considered "substantial," at least to
chocolate lovers.
Calculating the Barrier Constant K
Thus, it seems possible that a typical ghost might weigh
about 60 to 70 grams, at least immediately after it has
separated from the physical body (see Note #2). Now if Prof.
Holzer's later version of the exposure time (1125 sec.) is accurate then the coining frequency, as we previously said, is
about 200 Hertz. Let's assume that the mass of the ghost is
about 60 grams (0.060 kilograms) then the barrier constant
"K" is determined as follows:

=M x

(Tf x fc)Z
" -= 0.060 kilograms 0.14 x 200 Hertz)2
2366] kilograms - Hertz', which rounds off to.
2_37 x 10' kg-Hz'
This value for the barrier ~unstant is a magnitude smaller
than the roughly estimated value that I have used in previous
papers. If this is closer to the correct value for K, then the
previous calculations would also be off by about this amount.
On the other hand, if the exposure time was 11250 seconds as
Holzer first stated, rather than 1/25 seconds (his corrected
figure), then K would be in about the same magnitude range
that was previously estimated. This discrep;mcy shows us how
important it is to have the correct exposure lime on a
multiple-image photo. Without an accurate exposure time
then we will not be able to pin down the value of the barrier
constant K - and until we can get a really good measure of
K, then our calculations and predictions will be hovering in
limbo along with the other ghosts of our imagination.

Unresolved Questions
Is this a real ghost flitting across a California golf course,
or are we being taken for a ride by someone, or something?
The fact that the camera was stereographic and that both
. First Quarter 1988

photos showed something in the same precise location would

seem to argue in favor of the tangible reality of an anomalous
image appearing in that particular point in space.
On the other hand there are some unresolved questions that
are not explained to my complete satisfaction. For instance,
one of the photographs has a green tinted background while
the other has a red haze surrounding the images. In a letter to
me, Professor Holzer admitted that he, too, was puzzled by
this background difference in the photos. His comment was,
"both were taken at the same time, about 4 p.m. - so the
difference in color (background) is not readily explicable.
Both were processed together."
Were differently colored filters placed over the two lenses?
Admittedly, I don't know enough about the Wollensack
stereo camera to know if it uses differently colored filters over
the lenses. (If it does, then the viewer would presumably need
to wear eyeglasses with red and green filters also to see the full
three-dimensional view.)
Another problem, perhaps much more serious, is that of
the photographer, Dr. von Salza, himself. This man has a
history of taking odd photographs. Some of these other ghost
pictures also appeared in Holzer's Psychic Photography
book. Some of these pictures look like candidates for hoaxes.
Von Salza has collages of photos of famous persons (like
Marilyn Monroe, John F. Kennedy, etc.) who were all in the
headlines and magazines of the 1960s at about the same time
that the psychic photos were said to have been taken. The irregular boundries of these collages suggest, even to my untrained eye, that they were created by scissors and paste.
On the other hand, in another letter to me, Professor Hans
Holzer had this to say about Dr. Salza:
"Dr. von Salza not only was absolutely honest man
and research person, but highly skeptical of anything
along these lines and (he) tried hard to find 'another' explanation: But when additional psychic photos happened.
to him when he took pictures, he finally realized the truth
and sought my counsel."
Could it be that Dr. von Salza was, in fact, totally honest
but that the spirits, themselves, were engaged in "obfuscation" of some sort?
And so, are the stereo photos hoaxes? I don't really know.
It is often difficult to pass fully sound verdicts on parapsychological and Fortean data. We are dealing with very tricky
territory here. In PURSUIT' E. Macer-Story used the term
"obfuscation" to describe these problems. Even the cautious
researcher, Luis Schoenherr, while showing a curiosity for
these "spirit" phenomena, reminds us that to go too far in
these directions may only sink us into a dark bog of endless
Colin Wilson, who is a very astute observer regarding
possible paranormal obfuscation, described problems faced
by early psychical researchers, in The Goblin Universe as
"If ghosts and poltergeists really existed, then they seemed determined to confuse the investigators with false information. G.K. Chesterton, who devoted some time to
experiments with the ouija board, agreed that the seances
produced unexplainable results, but added: "The only
thing I will say with complete confidence about that
mystic and invisible power is that it tells lies. "
Jacques Vallee, in his recent book, DimenSions' (see Note
113), points out that this same peculiar deception also occurs in
his field of study. He writes that "the UFO denies itself" and
Pursuit 31

more generally "the phenomenon negates itself." Just as

Chesterton's spirit force "tells lies" and may create deliberate
absurdities in its wake, so does the intelligence behind some.
UFO phenomena.
And so, even if Dr. Salza was really dealing with spirit
forces, and not simply hoaxing the photographs, could it be
that those same spiritual forces were also capable of hoaxing
us: Do spooks, themselves, play games with scissors and
paste'? On the other hand, the multiple images would probably not be expected to occur in a spurious 1963 ghost photo
because there would have been no particular reason for the
hoaxer to think that multiple images would seem more important than a single image. That is, there was no barrier theory
in 1963 to guide a practical joker. Maybe the stereo photos,
which were said to be spontaneous and unplanned, really did
catch a ghostly creature'?
Another Multiple Image Ghost Photo
I have discovered another multiple-image ghost photo
wherein an entity of some sort may have been caught off
guard by a man with a camera. The story is a fascinating one.
I found it in one of the very earliest issues of Fate magazine, 1
and it seems to have taken place at just about the time that
Kenneth Arnold was making Americans aware of strange
signs and portents in the skies above.
There, Vaughn Greene of San Diego, California took his
. ghost picture in the Autumn of 1947 when he was strolling
along Aquatic Park in San Francisco, California, on a
somewhat hazy day. The photo showed "an intricate series of
32 designs, all almost alike, which formed an L-shaped pattern." In my very old and worn copy of this magazine I can
only see about 16 images (including partial images) that look
like someone had taken a tangled wad of glowing string or
wire, and they had thrown it across a dark field of view while
it flickered on and off rapidly. Today, we might call this a
typical "nocturnal light" UFO.
However, it was not a nocturnal UFO that was being
reported by the witness. Instead, Mr. Greene said that he had
actually taken a picture of "a black man wearing white
robes." This peculiar fellow arrested Mr. Greene's attention
and he described events as follows:
"His singular appearance at once aroused my curiosity
so I edged closer and observed him. He was black, wearing a white turban, banging a tambourine and carrying
a long cross-staff. He would sing for awhile, then stop
and preach .
.. .I went up to him and asked if he would stand by the
water's edge. I wanted to contribute something to him
but I had no money. I did have a street car token which
he accepted, and I snapped his picture.
After listening to him say San Francisco would be
destroyed because of its many evil residents, I snapped
some other photos of boats and went home.
I had the pictures developed at Merrils, which is a large
drug store in downtown San Francisco. There were eight
shots on the roll and every one turned out perfectly - except the one of the black preacher standing in the
Just as in the von Salza case, the photo was an unplanned
spontaneous event and in both instances the witnesses were
enjoying their leisure time in a California resort area.
Also, in Mr. Greene's case, like von Salza's, there was
another person present when these things happened. Greene
wrote that, "Harvey Young ... was with me when I met the
preacher and can testify to all of the foregoing."
Mr. Greene's bizarre black man in white robes who makes
Pursuit 32


flickering images on film reminds me of a purely fictional

MIB case in J.N. Williamson's horror thriller, Brotherkind.
Williamson, who sometimes writes for PURSUIT, makes a
living at writing Whitley Strieber-type novels. In his fictional
Brotherkind he writes:
"Slowly at first .. then with gathering speed, the Man in
Black was fading out. Already he was a blurred outline
of zigzag dashes, an electronic message with its own
bizarre life. Quickly now the creature was disappearing
before their stan led eyes - until the only thing remaining was - like the Cheshire cat in Alice in Wonderland
- his singularly hideous, quite defiant smile."
Let us hope that, unlike Williamson's fictional heroine,
Ms. S. Sanderson, we will not have to deal with malevolent
Men in Black whose plans are to slowly replace humans as
Earth's dominant species (see Note #4).
Other Cases
There are other published photographs where ghostly blobs
and tangled masses of glowing "bent wire" apparitions
flicker across photographic emulsions. For example see
Rickard and Kelly's Photographs of the Unknown 9 , or Tom
Bearden's Excalibur Briefing,IO (see Note #5). A great many
of these photographs have been published here and there in
anomaly journals like PURSUIT, ArtifexlArchaeus, Flying
Saucer Review, Fate and many others .
Is it possible that at least one of these many photographs
represents a real, physically tangible, ghost'? Are we,
ourselves, really only ghosts who are wearing bodies'? When
you talk to your neighbor, your brother, sister or your
preacher, are you really talking to a living, breathing, ghost'?
Like a Saturday cartoon spectre, say BOO! to someone you
love today.
I. To some, Professor Holzer Ph.D., has a rather poor
reputation among professional parapsychologists. For years
they have decried his research techniques, his theories, his
credentials. However, Professor Holzer does go out into the
real world to collect data, and then he publishes it. The von
Salza photo set is a perfect case in point. A lot of the odd data
that he has collected over the years would never have seen
print if he had not been personally involved. By any measure,
he deserves some Fortean respect.
In a letter to me, he wrote: "My Ph.D. is in philosophy
with specialty in parapsychology and comparative religions."
For seven years he headed the cataloguing department of a
major coin collecting firm and he professionally studied archaeology and numismatics.
2. However, the situation may be somewhat more C0111plicated than this because Robert Monroe, and others, have
reported that there is more than one "OBE body." Somewhat like the multiple stages in an Apollo moon rocket, the
ultimate payload of human consciousness must disengage
itself from at least two "bodies" before it is ultimately free
from the physical body.
Monroe seems to describe a three part system, the normal
physical body is the heaviest, the second body is much lighter,
and the third must have only a very small mass. A ghost, presumably, could be the second body by itself, the third body
by itself, or both the second and third bodies in combination.
3. As the title of his new book implies, Vallee has come to
believe that we are dealing with higher-dimensional activities.
He writes, "I believe that the UFO phenomenon represents
evidence for other dimensions beyond spacetime; the UFOs
may not come from ordinary space, but from a multiverse
which is all around us ... "
First Quarter 1988

4. Williamson's fictional MIB [men in black), who are

slowly invading the planet, remind me of another tale of interdimensional invaders. One of the great writers of
literature, Joseph Conrad, helped another famous writer,
Ford Maddox Hueffer (later Ford Maddox Ford.) to write the
novel, The InherilOrs (1901). In this book an emotionless
woman "from the fourth dimension" says that a race of
fourth dimensional MIBs are slowly invading our world.
Consider this slightly edited quote: "The Dimensionists were
to come in swarms, to materialize, to devour like locusts, to
be all the more irresistible because (they were) indistinguishable (from humans). They were to come like snow in the
night: In the morning one would look out and find the world
white. "
Let's hope that Conrad and Ford were not "abductees'
because this strange lady from hyperspace goes on to say,
"We inherit the earth and you, your day is over. ....
5. Tom Bearden claims to have seen a large number of
multiple image photos. In a brief note that he wrote to me, he
stated that he was aware of many more such cases. In fact, he
suggested that there were too many cases to be reasonably
listed at one sitting. He tends to interpret most of these
photographs in terms of "materializations from the collective

unconciousness." Considering that we know so little about

"consciousness" or "unconsciousness," I'm skeptical of this
point of view.
1. Holzer, Prof. Hans, Psychic Photography: Threshold 0/ a New
Science? McGraw-Hill book Co., New York, 1969.
2. Holiday, Ted and Wilson, Colin, The Goblin Universe,
Llewellyn Publications, Minnesota, 1986.
3. Andrews, Dr. Arlan K., "The Colonel Had a Ghost," PURsurr, Vol. 20, No.1, p. 23.
4. Mitchell, Dr. Janet Lee, "In Out-of-80dy Experiences: Is
anything Out?," Fate, Vol. 41.
5. Macer-Story, Eugenia, "Unidentified Areas of Obfuscation,"
PURSUrr, Vol. 16, No.4, p. 156.
6. Vallee, Dr. Jacques, Dimensions: A Casebook 0/ Alien Contact,
Contemporary Books, New York, 1988.
7. Greene, Vaughn, Fate, Vol. 3, No.4.
8. Williamson, J.N., Brotherhood, Leisure books, New York,
9. Rickard, R. & Kelly, R., Photographs 0/ the Unknown, New
English Library, England, 1980, p. 40-41, 97.
10. Bearden, T.E., Excalibur Briefing, Strawberry Hill Press, CA,
1980, p. 65. 80-81.

Bat, What are the "White Streaks?9t

Editor's Comment: Actually, the above partially reprinted photos here, do not do justice to the color pictures as they
are reproduced in Rickard and Kelly's, Photographs of the Unknown, as mentioned in the above article. We dermitely recommend you obtain the book to better understand what is depicted in color.
We feel that the question of what the accompanying "streaks" are has not been properly addressed since they are
often seen, apparently, duplicated horizontally or vertically on both sides of the subject or as in the lowest picture
(above) both apparently in vertical and horizontal replication together in the same photograph.
Also, the left-hand squiggle or streak is in color and becomes white as it is repeated "moving" or pictured toward
the right side.
We have asked some photographic experts and their replies vary with the number of experts asked. Again, as we
have asked before, does anyone of our readers have an explanation of what the white streaks or "worms" are? It is
important to remember that the subject, particularly in the top three photos (above) does not show barrier oscillation
as the Holzer photos do but all six photos have the umbilical-like cord, as some suggest it appears to be.
First Quarter 1988

Pursuit 33


Cherokee 'Little People' Legends

of North Carolina
On summer nights, when the moon is full
and the sweet scent of honeysuckle is thick on
the North Carolina mountains, Bessie Jumper
believes she can hear the Little People drumming and dancing in caves in the rocky hillsides high above her home.
Mrs. Jumper, an aging Cherokee Indian
who lives in the Snowbird Mountains near
Robbinsville, N.C., does not venture into the
woods. To look for the Little People, says
Cherokee legend, is to look for trouble, and
Mrs. Jumper does not want to risk the wrath
of that race of elflike Indians known in the
Cherokee language as Yunwi Tsunsdi.
When a non-Indian asked Mrs. Jumper
about the Little People, she stared long and
har~, as if to say that there are some things a
white man should not ask an Indian. Then,
without answering the question, she went
back to stirring a pot of hominy that was
cooking over an open fire.
In winter, when deep snow has buried the
trails that run through the mountains, Cherokee hunters say it is not unusual to find small
footprints that follow those unseen trails and
lead them to safety.
But to retrace the tiny, childlike footprints
to where the Little People live is to risk being
pelted by rocks or having a spell cast from
which there is no recovery.
Many elderly Cherokees believe the Little
People still live in these thickly wooded,
remote mountains of western North Carolina.
The Little People are not wraiths that glide
through fog-bound hollows in the dead of
night or ethereal apparitions that rise with the
.. moon and dance on the wind near the rocky
promontories of Mount LeConte. Nor are
they the supernatural manifestations of overeager imaginations. Cherokees believe the little People are a race of Indian spirits that predates man. They are the protectors of tribal
tradition and the keepers of Cherokee history.
They are revered, feared and treated with the
kind of distant respect with which one treats
capricious spirits.
"There are many stories about the Little
People, but most of the older people are
afraid to talk about them because the Little
People can be good or bad. You never know, "
said Lois Calonehuskie, a Cherokee from
Robbinsville and a frequent visitor in the
Cherokee community of Snowbird, which is
tucked into the shaded mountain hollows a
few miles south of Robbinsville. Cherokees
escaping the Trail of Tears in 1838 fled into
these thickly wooded, nearly impenetrable
mountains of southwestern North Carolina,
just a few miles from their ancestral homelands along the Little Tennessee River. They
scattered throughout the mountains to evade
capture but eventually established their own
community about 60 miles west of the main
concentration of Cherokees who refused to be
moved to Oklahoma and hid out in the mountains around what is now Cherokee, N.C.

Pursuit 34

Martha Wachacha, however, said she

didn't mind sharing some of the stories about
Little People that she has been hearing most
of her 77 years. Mrs. Wachacha. a pleasant,
round-faced woman, sat on the banks of the
Snowbird River with her hands folded in her
lap and her eyes closed as she talked about her
days growing up in the mountains near Birdtown, N.C. She told how she learned to weave
baskets from thin splints of white oak when
she was about 6 years old and how she has
been weaving baskets ever since. And she told
of how late at night, when the whole family
was working on baskets by the uncertain light
of a kerosene lantern, her parents would tell
stories about the Little People.
Mrs. Wachacha claimed she has never seen
any of the Little People. But she has heard
them laughing along creek banks. And she
has heard their footsteps behind her at times
when she was walking alone along mountain
Mrs. Wachacha said the stories she heard
of the Little People described them as about
I Vz feet tall, with perfect proportions and hair
that touched their heels. Some wore gold
caps, she said, while others wore nothing on
their heads.
Gary Carden, said the Little People are frequently confused with other Cherokee spirits
that inhabit the surrounding mountains and
rivers. Most notable among them are the
~unnehi, the "people who live anywhere" or
"the ones who are always with us." The Nunnehi are immortal and invisible, except when
they want to be seen, and they are usually portrayed as protectors of the Cherokee people .
"The Little People," said Carden, "are
sometimes confused with the Nunnehi, but
the Little People are more like the Welsh and
Irish leprechauns. Most of the stories I have
heard about them indicate that each Cherokee
is born with a personal guardian who is one of
the Little. People. The Little People also help
hunters, reveal lost items and help with
John Roth of Carlsbad, N.M., has spent
several years chasing Indian spirits and
legends across the country trying to collect
enough information for a book on the subject. Roth, a national park ranger, said he has
at times had difficulty obtaining information
from some tribes because of a reluctance to
share tribal mythology with non-Indian outsiders.
But Roth said he learned from Oklahoma
Cherokees, that Little People accompanied
Cherokees from North Carolina on the infamous Trail of Tears. Finding no mountain
caves in Oklahoma in which to live, the Little
People learned to live in the deep holes in
Tenkiller Lake and nearby creeks.
Mrs. Calonehuskie, a counselor at Robbinsville High School, said "Sometimes at
night people will wake up and hear footsteps
and voices in their houses. When they get up

to see who is there, they find nothing. But in

the morning, when they go to the kitchen and
they find some food missing, they know the
Little People have been there."
Other times, said Mrs. Calonehuskie,
"You'll be standing by a stream and you'll
hear children laughing, but, when you go to
look, there's no one there. Then you know
the Little People have been there."
There are also stories of Little People harvesting com, clearing fields and chasing away
The Little People are an integral part of
Cherokee tribal history and mythology and
help enhance their spiritual reverence for the
mountains they called Shaconage, "the place
of the blue smoke." According to one Cherokee legend, each fall, the spiritual leaders of
the tribe would go to spires known as
Chimney Tops, which are in the heart of what
is now the Great Smoky Mountains National
Park. The shamans, or medicine men, would
stay there for seven days, praying to their
spirits, retelling the legends of the tribe and
sharing what they had learned the previous
year. At nightfall on the seventh day, the little People emerged from their caves and joined the Cherokees in singing and dancing. At
dawn, the Little People filtered back into the
forest, and the shamans returned to the tribe,
spiritually enriched for another year.
But most stories that are told of the Little
People concern their help to others. These
stories are prevalent in James Mooney's 1901
book, "Myths of the Cherokee," which is still
considered the most authoritative ever written
on the subject. The book was reproduced in
1982 by Charles and Randy Eller of Nashville,
Tenn., and is available in many bookstores
and gift shops in the mountains of western
North Carolina. Mooney, an Indian agent,
collected material for his book while living
with the Cherokees from 1887 until 1890.
One story Mooney relates in his book tells
. of a hunter who found small tracks, like those
of children, in the snow deep in the mountains. The hunter followed the tracks to a cave
and found it full of Little People dancing and
drumming as they normally do. The hunter
was taken in by the Little People, given a
place to sleep, bread to eat, and he stayed
with them for 16 days. The hunter's friends
thought he had died in the mountains and
stopped searching for him.
"After he was well rested," Mooney wrote,
"they had brought him a part of the way
home until they came to a small creek about
knee deep, when they told him to wade across
to reach the main trail on the other side. He
waded across and turned to look back, but
the Little People were gone, and the creek was
a deep river. When he reached home, his legs
were frozen, and he lived only a few days."
The Cherokees say it is important for
anyone who walks through the high regions of
the Smokys to remember that this is the home
of the Little People.

SOURCE: Ron Martz, Atlanta Weekly. GA

CREOrr: Member #826

First Quarter 1988

Some Latest Information About "Yeti"

eo.pIIed bp Kamar "'apt

Nepalese Name -Yaate

Tibetan Name -Mirgaya
Sherpa Name -Mi - Thi (Mi - means man, Thi
-means takes away)
Race -Ape Family
Color -Brown
Height -3 ft. to 15 ft. Depends on whether
it is young or full grown.
Hair - Thick fur around the body but
long hair around the neck; about
6" long.
Face -Sarno-like monkey (But not with a
sloping forehead. Skin is as that
kept of one in the Thangboche
Tail -No tail.
Chest -Full grown Yeti seems to have
huge double buffalo size chest.
Legs -Same as a monkey but very big.
Foot print -Different but the biggest one is
18" in length.
Hands -Long hands like a monkey.
Food -Animal meat like mountain black
bear, snow leopards, mountain
thar, sherow, blue sheep, Tibetan
nine, musk deer, yak cows, and
snow frogs.
Habits -It does not stay in the same place,
but hunts an animal from one
mountain to another.

Related SlTUatioDs
Soviets to Seek
Abominable Snowman
A society created within the Ministry of
Culture has begun a search for the abominable snowman, a large manlike creature that
has been sighted at least. 100 times, the official
Tass news agency said Saturday.
Tass said numerous reports collected by
search enthusiast Zhanna Kofman of Moscow
indicate the creature, known in Asia as the
yeti, has a protruding forehead and eyebrows
like cap peaks.
The news agency said anthropologists have
associated those features and the knot of hair
at the back of the yeti's skull with the prehistoric Neanderthal man.
"If one analyzes the whole available information he will find realistic features of the
hominid corresponding also to the anthropological data and his supposed way of life and
behavior," Tass said.
"The society of cryptozoologists set up
under the aegis of the U.S.S.R. Ministry of
Culture will engage itself in the search for
man's shy next-of-kin," Tass said.
The hairy giant, said to roam the snowy expanses of Siberia, is a favorite legend with
superstitious Soviets.
SOIJRCE: (AP) Gazette, Schnectady, NY
CREDrr: J. Zarzynski

First Quarter 1988

Altitude -Above 12,000 ft.

How it Hunts -When the animals take a rest or
Area inhabited -From Mt. Gaurisankar to Kanchajunga in eastern Nepal.
Number of Yeti -Estimated to be not more than
Types of Yeti -People say there are three types of
Yeti (1) Chhuti (2) Yeti (3) MiThi, but Mi-Thi and Yeti are from
the same family, the only difference being the size and age.
Mating Season -January, February.
Best Month to Watch -In December, January, February,
when snow falls.
Walking Style -When it climbs down and walks in
the plain area, it walks like a man,
but when it climbs up and jumps
it tends to walk like a monkey.
Other Facts -Yeti comes down when snow falls
and goes up when snows melt,
and a full grown Yeti can kill yak
cows as easy as we can kill
Last Seen -When seen in January 1987 that
Yeti was about 15 ft. in height. A
second seen on 25th December
1987 was about 7 ft. tall.
Gur thanks to Kumar Bosnyat for sending this to SITU.

Mythical Beast
Spotted In U.S.5.R.
Researchers from the Ukrainian capital
Kiev say they have come to within about 35
yards of a creature they believe to be an
abominable snowman in the rugged Pamir
The report did not give a description of the
The news agency Tass reponed Wednesday
that the group led by Igor Tatsl sighted the
creature during a visit last year to the Gissar
range in Soviet Central Asia near the Afghanistan border.
The group is preparing for another trip,
and hopes to make closer contact, Tass said.
SOIJRCE: Free Press, Burlington, VT
CREDrr: J. Zarzynski
And, too. about the

And, there is the famous wild man of
Yunnan, "ye ren," .the Chinese sasquatch,
according to Liu Minzhuang at the Shanghai
Museum of Natural History.
". am absolutely sure that the wild man exists," said Liu, a thin, eager man with a prophetic urgency about him. "I have seen his
footprints. I have collected specimens of his
hair. I have visited his dens in the
mountains. "

Liu says the wild man is about 8 feet tall,

weighs 550 pounds or thereabouts, is tailless,
walks upright and has bright shoulder-length
hair draped about its horselike face, with reddish brown fur over the rest of his body.
Its footprints are up to 18 inches long and
its sex organ is prodigious. Females have long,
pendulous breasts.
Liu's enthusiasm was infectious, particularly because he said he has plaster of Paris casts
of the ye ren's footprints, along with specimens of the fur. He closed his notebook with
a smack and looked triumphant.
So where were the fur and the footprints?
"They are kept under lock and key," Liu
"Do you have they key?"
"Yes, of course."
"Then can we have a look at them?"
"Impossible. They are in another
building. "
"Very far from here."
"Can we visit? I have a taxi waiting outside."
"Unfortunately, no."
"They are still being studied."
Bigfoot is the same allover the world: shy.
SOIJRCE: Michael Browning Arizona
Daily Star, 11/15/87
CREDrr: Member 826

Pursuit 35


Chinese Love
Their Oddities
These are the days of miracle and wonder
in China.
ESP and UFOs are so common in China
that they hardly make headlines anymore.
While the communist government rails
against feudalism and superstition, the staterun press serves up an almost daily farrago of
stories that would make Robert Ripley
In this land of prodigies they could find
plenty to amaze; delight and horrify their
There has been no retraction, no correction, no exposure of fraud concerning any of
these articles. Some even have photographs to
back them up.
Throughout all China's political storms,
the hunger for the marvelous, for the big
meteorite and the two-headed baby, has never
This intensely conformist Society is still
fascinated by the outlandish, the exception to
the rule.
A man with a womb turned up in the
Guangxi-Zhuang autonomous region last
March had to blink twice when a l7-year-old
Fujian province man had a fetus removed
from his chest in July 1982.
It had been inside him since birth and
weighed more than 1 kilogram and had underdeveloped hair, teeth and eyes, said
Xinhua, the national news agency.
At least the fetus wasn't screaming. In
January 1984, the indefatigable Xinhua an-"
nounced that a Shanghai woman, 27, began
hearing her unborn baby boy howl inside her
womb in the seventh month of pregnancy.
Doctors at the Shanghai No. 1 Textile
Hardware Factory even recorded" the cries.
The child was born on Jan. 4, in good health
and presumably good voice.
In a volcanic crater lake, Tianchi, on
Changbaishan Mountain near the North
Korean border, allegedly liv"es one of two
Chinese Loch Ness-style monsters.
Skeptics say it's only a black bear or a large
otter, and anyway the lake freezes over every
winter, so how does the beast breathe?
The other - or others, for there may be a
school of monsters in this case -lives in Lake
Hanas, 300 miles north of Urumqi in China's
Xinjiang autonomous region. The lake is
nearly 600 feet deep.
"The creatures are supposed to cause huge
waves and swallow cattle and sheep grazing
on the shores. People say that when the
monsters are happy, they chase each other in
the water, causing a gigantic swell tens of
meters high," reported the April 1986 issue of
China Reconstructs.
"We regard these stores as 'xin xian' fresh news," said Lu Haoming, a Xinhua

Pursuit 36

"We have three reasons for publishing

these things. One is they grab people's attention. The second is if we don't carry these
items, other newspapers will. The third is, by
printing it, we keep down the spreading of
wild rumors.
"It's very good, very fresh stuff," Lu
But is it true?
"I can't guarantee that," Lu confessed.
It seems likely then, that the Chinese press
throws in these curiosity stories like clove and
cinnamon, to spice up the dull ideological fare
that is the mainstay of newspapers here.
Poverty tends to be boring, and China is still
very poor.
Biggest, smallest, oldest, longest: The press
abounds with superlatives, more often than
not accompanied by verifying photos.
The Chinese are notoriously fond of
children, and child prodigies regularly make
headlines here - kids like Shen Kegong, who,
at the age of 1J, worked out the square root
of 1,455 in six-tenths of a second.
But on the outer limits are the X-ray
children, boys and girls who can detect underground pipelines, internal organs and hidden
messages on rolled-up paper.
In Shanghai in 1981, a conference on the
children was "hi:ld and no less a scientist than
Qian Xuesen, a physicist who helped develop
China's atom bomb, said the phenomena
should be studied, not laughed at.
Children brought to the conference were
reportedly able to read characters written on
bits of paper that were stuck in their ears, or
placed on the tops of their heads, or under
their feet, or in their armpits or even against
their buttocks.
"One hospital, the college of traditional
medicine of Hubei province, was even
employing some children as human X-ray
machines, Xinhua reported in August 1982.
By far the larget purveyor of fantastic
stories is the news agency Xinhua, which it
totally under the control of the Communist
Party. It is thus an oil-and-water mix, a weird
contradiction, as though Marxists were peddling mandrake root on the side.
A yellow atlas moth with a wingspan of 13
inches was captured by a People's Liberation
Army soldier in Yunnan provinCe in
December 1986, supposedly the biggest
specimen ever found.
A photograph of a giant mosquito from
Wuhan, 5 inches long and with a wingspan of
nearly 4 inches was shown, with a ruler, in the
Nov. 19, 1985 issue of China Daily.
China's biggest mushroom, weighing 25.3
pounds, was found in December 1985 in Panshi County, Jilin province, China Daily
repOrted. The fungus is 49 inches in diameter.
The mass suicide of 100 quail in Hunan

province was reported by Shanghai's daily

newspaper, Xinmin Ribao, in July 1984.
The quail all hurled themselves against an
eight-story building. The paper theorized that
their natural habitat ~ad been destroyed to
make room for new construction. The whole
thing sounded like some kind of protest.
Three murderers were caught by a monkey
in the Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefectu~ in Yunnan province in March 1983,
the Yancheng Wanbao newspaper reported.
The monkey jumped on a jeep in which
two soldiers were traveling, plucked at their
sleeves and made them stop. It then led them
to a spot in the forest and began digging until
its forepaws were bloody.
The soldiers took the monkey to the local
police station and the cops found two bodies
in the spot where the monkey had dug.
Realizing the monkey's value, the police
took it to a nearby village where the beast
screamed" and threw itself on a young man
who tried to run away along with two other
Under questioning (by the police, not the
monkey), the three confessed they'd killed the
monkey's two owners, two traveling
showmen, some days earlier.
But the most poignant animal story I have
ever seen in China, the one that decided me"
on keeping a detailed "curiosity" tile four
years ago, is the tale of the deathless turtle.
In November 1983, in Shenyang, Liaoning
province, an old house was tom down. Under
the foundation was a rotted wooden box.
Inside the box was a turtle, still alive, that
had not eaten anything for more than 50
Local records showed the house had been
built in 1931 and the custom in those daysa cruel one to be sure - was to place a live
turtle, a symbol of longevity in China, inside
the foundation to assure the house's permanence.
Li Daming, assistant professor of Liaoning
University's biology department, examined
the turtle and pronounced its survival a
Perhaps it is just a tall tale, but there are
millions of Chinese who would envy that turtle.
It missed World War II, the civil war between the communists and the nationalists,
and the Great Leap Forward in which 10
million people starved to death.
It missed the first "hundred flowers" campaign that virtually wiped out the cream of
China's intellectuals, the monstrous Cultural
Revolution, and all the purges and cataclysms
that have convulsed communist China's
It awoke in the midst of the campaign
against "spiritual pollution" and, if it is still
alive, it is witnessing the drive again!!t
"bourgeois liberalization" and "total Wester"nization."
Oh blessed repose!
SOURCE: Michael Bro~ning, Arizona
Daily Slar, 11/16" /87
CREOrr: Member #826

First Quarter 1988

A Mammoth Leyline
in the American Northwest?
by Dr. Michael D. Swords
Recent research in geology and ufology has coalesced to
produce a potentially rich case study area for the emerging
hypothesis of "Earth forces" and electromagnetic stresses as
causal agents for a variety of parascientijic phenomena. This
geographical location, the Pacific Northwest of the United
States, is the site of both abundant Fortean anomalies and
measureable Earth stress forces. It may be that further
research concentrated in areas such as this one will ullimate(v
unlock a few of our consistently baffling mysteries.
A topic of considerable interest to ufologists recently has
been the "Yakima Nocturnal Lights Phenomenon." These
lights are uncommon for several reasons: There have been a
large number of sightings by many different people; there
have been sightings (the majority in fact) by experienced
witnesses (usually forestry lookouts); the descriptions are consistent" (spheres of self-luminescence lasting brief time
periods, floating close to the hills, changing in color from
blue-white to reddish, apparently small; i.e. baseball to
beach ball in size, noiseless); and the scientific
"establishment" has photographed, and is interested in them,
as possible earthquake or volcanic predictors.
The phenomenon has lasted for years around the Yakima
Indian Reservation in the vicinity of Mt. Rainier and Mt. St.
Helens. A UFO "flap" of cases occurred there in the midseventies with 82 sightings between July 1972 and April 1977.
Geologist John Derr of the U.S. Geological Survey believes
that there is a powerful correlation between the incidences
and minQr earthquakes which followed. And, although the
nocturnal lights form the backbone of the phenomenon, the
local people report every type of UFO experience (including
Close Encounters of all kinds), when further questioned by
UFO investigators.
It may be coincidental, but the same general area is the
leading location for Bigfoot reports on the entire North
American continent. A cursory perusal of any Sasquatch
sightings map reveals the clustering in South Central Wash:
ington and adjacent Oregon. The second leading cluster in the
state of Washington is precisely at yakima. (See map, figure
I) A quick count of sightings from the registry in the Bord's
Bigfoot Casebook reveals about 20 sightings during the 1972
and 1977 period in this area alone.
Points on the "line"
A glance at map figure I will quickly bring this unusual
geographical complex into focus. Yakima and its UFOs and
Bigfoot clusters lies just to the east of the Cascade Range
which is the backbone of the U.S. West Coast. On the opposite edge of this backbone is the famous Mt. St. Helens.
another active Bigfoot area until it exerted an activity of a
somewhat more violent sort a few years ago. Just to the north
of the center point between these "dots" is Mt. Rainier.
highest point in the 48 contiguous U.S. states. Mt. Rainier in
some senses began ufology, as it was here in 1947 that Kenneth Arnold made his sighting and report of seven disks thus
launching the modern era of strange thirigs in the skies.
First Quarter 1988


Just to the south of Yakima is the leading Oregon cluster of

Sasquatch reports in the East Mountain region. The density
of such experiences has occasioned the institution of a
Bigfoot information center at The Dalles. To the west of this
spot, but probably coincidental, is the site of one of the five
or so best UFO photography cases on record, the pictures
taken by.Paul Trent at McMinnville, Oregon.
North of the Yakima-Mt. Rainier line lies Seattle. While its.
nature as a booming industrial city makes it a poodocation
.for Bigfoot and Close Encounters cases, something did occur
there in the 50's which may be germaine. Seattle was "host"
to one of the very few well-documented accounts of "mass
hysteria" phenomena in the United States: the "Soviet
nuclear windshield-pitting incident." In this moment of
shared craziness, dozens of citizens became convinced that atmospheric tests of nuclear fission weapons were raining
Pursuit 37

dangerous fallout on the city. The "way to tell," according to

the folk legend that arose, was whether your car's windshield
showed small pits due to the corrosive effects of the
dangerous falling chemicals. For a brief while (a few days in
most mass hysteria cases), citizen anxieties and demands
upon authorities were close to getting out of hand, but with
time other views of the "problem" prevailed and that aberrant state of mind passed into history.
Also in the Seattle area is a cluster zone for UFO reports,
according to Michael Persinger and G. Lafreniere in Space-

Time Transients and Unusual Events.

Still going north; located in the area around Bellingham
and the Lummi Indian Reservation, is the number one area of
Sasquatch sightings in the state of Washington and, perhaps,
even in the entire United States.
These areas of concentration continue into Canada along
the strait separating the British Columbian mainland from
Vancouver Island.
Turning southward the route of clustered anomalies may
be less clear, but two local names in southern Oregon could
give a clue. In the vicinity of Crater Lake and Diamond Peak
lies Quartz Mountain, the significance of which name most
PURSUIT readers doubtless are aware. And, slightly to the
solith at the edge of the Siskiyou Mountains is Gold Hill. Not
only are gold and quartz often located together, with quartz
beging the popular "culprit" for strange earth-force stress effects due to its rare property of being piezo (pressure)-electric,
but Gold Hill has a Fortean fame of its own. It is the home of
the "Oregon Vortex." This spot (almost literally a spot: a
160-odd-foot radius) allegedly creates optical illusions, altered
states of consciousness, even violation of physical laws.
Whatever the truth of this, Indian legends call it "the forbidden ground."
Nearby, the Siskiyou Mountains not only have their own
allegedly Earth-energy "high" point, but are the site of the second great concentration of Bigfoot sightings in the U.S. The
Siskiyous, extending into Northern California, have been the
general scene for many other Sasquatch events, including the
now famous (filmed) Roger Patterson experience. Slightly"
further south is Mt. Shasta and its cluster of occult groups
and gurus alleging experiencing everything from paranormal
powers to contacts with underground Atlantaeans.
Between these northern and southern sites in Oregon is 'a
relative blank on the Fortean line, speckled with a fair
number of Bigfoot sightings in lots of wilderness. Perhaps
some energetic researcher of anomalies can solidify the line by
tramping into the Mt. Washington and Mt. Jefferson wildei'nesses and finding out about "Hoodoo, Oregon," the town
between the two.
While much of this may be coincidental, or more sociological, there is a new geological discovery which makes a physiological and/or physical explanation likely as well.
The Telluric current
What may separate the above litany of "post-hoc coincidences" from the typical untestable anomaly patterns is the
work of University of Washington geophysicists John Boo~
er and Gerard Hensel. While attempting to piece together the
geological jigsaw of the West Coast they have discovered and
partially mapped an immense underground electric current.
The current, Booker believes, is initiated in the Pacific Ocean',
perhaps by interactions between the charged particles of the
Solar Wind and the Earth's own magnetic fields. The current
pours down the Strait of Georgia between Vancouver and
British Columbia, past Bellingham and aims at the SeattlePursuit 38

FIgure 1. Darkened arrow shows measured current. Dotted area

shows speculated continuance.

Tacoma urban area. From there is bends slightly eastward to

Mt. Rainier and continues across Yakima to the Columbia
River at Washington's southern boundary. It is there that
Booker's research but probably not the current, ends. (See
map figure 2)
The current flows in a thin layer of porous sedimentary
rock, porous enough to contain water and become highly
conductive. It is wged between the crusts of the ocean and
continental plates, which have been ramming together for
millenia, producing an ancient but active fault zone. While
geologists, naturally, are interested in possible clues for earthquake prediction, Forteans should be similarly interested in
possibly predicting anomalies.
Michael Persinger, of course, has been a leader in this line
of reasoning. A perusal of his above-mentioned book shows
the dense cluster of anomalies in this zone, well before the
Booker-Hensel work was known. He is not alone in this pursuit, however. The Brown Mountain lights of North Carolina
have been studied with similar ideas in mind, and several
other U.S. sites could, and should, be researched in like manner. A prominent UFO researcher in North Carolina, Wayne
LaPorte, has catalogued and photographed the similar
,phenomena of Indian Trail, another old fault zone replete
with gold and quartz deposits. LaPorte feels that Harley Rutledge's results, published in the unique UFO book Project
Ident<{ication, are largely explained by Earth-stress lighto;
coming from the New Madrid fault zone. Paul Deveraux'
First Quarter 1988

Earth Lights is an i~triguing tour-de-force of astonishing concepts and connections in this emerging area on the edge of
But there is a missing link here. Lights-in-the-sky? Fine.
Unusual animal \?ehavior before earthquakes? Maybe. But
visions of spacecraft, humanoids, giant apes, and other
bizarre experiences? What is the bridge between the undersurface of the Earth and the undersurface of the mind?
Everyone seems to be taking their speculative best guess at
the causal agency, but don't worry, there will not be further
guessing inflicted upon you here. Instead, a simple list of
facts for your own intuitions to play with:
I. The Earth force allegedly involved in some of this
craziness that all we Forteans love has been measured
and identified; it is electricity and its alter-ego, magnetism.
2. This force operates via "fields," which although as occult a concept as anything in Forteana, are the establishment's way of rationalizing action at a distance.
3. Living systems work on two closely related powers,
"free" electricity (bound to small ions) and "bound"
electricity (bound to larger molecules); or in other
words, chemistry.
4. All levels of life forms have been shown to be able to
deal with hitherto unsuspected magnetic forces as well as
chcmi~aI. electrical ones; bacteria,
bees, pigeon~,
robin'i, and dolphins are a few of the recently uncoyered

Related SlTUadons

s_ Mout_

University of B.C. oceanographer Paul

leBlond doesn't want people to think he
believes in at least one of his research topics.
To leBlond, the word 'belier implies accepting something without actual evidence
and "I don't do that."
In addition to being an oceanographer, leBlond is a cryptozoologist, a scientist who
studies unknown - or at least scientifically
unverified - animals.
"If you asked me whether I believed in
large, unknown animals, I'd have to say
'no,'" leBlond said.
And he agreed with theories that argue
there could be more than half a dozen large,
unknown species of marine animal wandering
around the ocean out of the reach of mankind.
leBlond said unknowns like Cadborosaurus, or Caddy, an obliging marine beast that
has been reported numerous times over the
years - especially near Cadboro Bay - are
far more likely than Ogopogo or Nessie, the
Loch Ness monster.
"The problems with lake monsters include
the amount of food that would be required to
support a biologically viable population and
the absence of remains," he said.
"There are calculations that indicate there
would be just enough food in Loch Ness to
support a viable population but there have
never been any remains (of dead Nessies)
Following an extensive survey in the 19705,
LeBlond and Colleague John Sibert sifted
through reports of large marine animals over
1,600 kilometers of coastline and more than

Quarter 1988

"magneto-sensers;" now you can also add humans to

the list.
5. Physiological mechanisms controlling awareness, biocycles, and behaviors are finely tuned "threshold"
systems, requiring miniscule stimuli (the brain's own
electricity is only in the microvolt range) to create
dramatic differences in the "symptQms" produced
when the thresholds are crossed.
6. Individual human beings (like individuals of any species)
are geared differently in their various thresh hold
mechanisms; the whole field of psychiatry is moving
towards this realization; certain of us are susceptible to
unusual "mental experiences" we are continuously
riding certain thresholds; a small right, or wrong, environmental push and over we go.
7. There are plenty of well researched mental experiences
capable of dealing with most Close Encounter, Sasquatch, and "Creature" experiences, if the wrong
switch was tripped in the susceptible mind; the best candidate: Dissociative Hysteria.
None of this proposes to "solve" any large set of Fortean
phenomena. These mysteries are too grand for that. But the
new alliance of Earth scientists and Earth-line Forteans may
be on the verge of solving a piece of several of them. Some
people will regret and resist this. They are not Forteans. Forteans are interested. in facts ... all the facts ... where evtr they

60 years to come up with three main types of

B.C. coastal sea monster.
Here's what might be out there:
-A creature with a head like that of a camel
or a horse mounted on the end of along neck
and sporting large, laterauy set eyes. It has
short brown fur and no mane. leBlond concluded that, if it exists, it is likely a mammal
related to seals.
-A similar beast with much smaller eyes,
sometimes bearing horns or a mane.
-Along, serpentine animal with a head like
that of a sheep and a dorsal fm running along
its back.
SOlJRCE: Paul Musgrove, Sun, Vancouver,
BC, Canada, 2/20/88
CREOrr: L. Farish

Bigfoot Hair SaDlpl.?

The wisps of hair - longer and fmer than
that from many animals -:- might not have
drawn much attention from most people.
But to Paul Freeman, who claims to have
seen Bigfoot in the Blue Mountains while on
watershed patrol, those hairs possibly indicated evidence of what he had seen in 1982
on an abandoned logging road high up Tiger
Canyon out of Mill Creek.
For near the young pine sapling, snapped
off as if by a hand more powerful than his
own, were a long line of giant-sized footprints
in the spring softness of the trail. The hairs
were found on the saplings. Other hair was
found high up on the bark of an old fll" tree
snag alongside the same trail.
This was last spring, early in the year when
so much was seen of Bigfoot evidence. This
showed up in '87 in the form of not only an
abundance of footprints in several locations
of the northern Blues, but also these hair fmd-

ings, unexplained fecal droppings, the hefty

green saplings snapped off in a line as if to

mark a territory and the marks high above a
tall man's head, indicating rubbing by a
shoulder and scrapings not like any known

animal s.

Suited to that action, Freeman and I took

ourselves to the labs of Walla Walla Community College's cosmetology department,
headed by Mildred Harvey.
Excerpts from the examiner's letter follow:
"The hair is different from any I've ever
looked at in my 25 years of hair analyzing.
Since I do not have a 'Big Foot' comparison
- and as you advised, he isn't available for
interview - all I can tell you is that it IS hair,
but it is not completely human or animal. I've
never seen hair of this nature!
"Most of the hair fibers were fractured (as
in photo taken. Also noted, the even, almost .
fluid-like appearance of the medullary canal
in photo graph. The green retardation of color
is also somathing I've never seen. All human
or animal hair will retard yellow and magenta
regardless of condition. All the hairs I looked
at (20) were this shade of green.
"The only other possibility is that the hair
was human and a chemical process was applied, then dyed with a very strong chemical
before being made into a wig. But, again, I
have looked at lots of wig hair through the
years and this shade of green has never been
seen by me and when hair is chemically processed for wig making, the medulla is completely destroyed or diffused in the process.
"This hair still has a very different
medullary structure.
SOURCE: Vance Orchard, Union Blilletin.
WA 1/24/88
CREOrr: L. Farish

Pursuit 39

Books Reviewed
Netherlands; 1987; 340 pp.; $24.95 + $2.00 postage from
W.S. Heinman, Inc., 1780 Broadway, Suite 1004, NY, NY
Reviewed by George W. Earley
. Tarzan, Jungle Jim, Indiana Jones - they all bob around
the jungle with the greatest of ease and for most of us, Ol,1r
concept of The Jungle is based more on reel life than real life.
Comes now Roy Mackal, a University of Chicago professor and vice president of the International Society of Cryptozoology, with his account of two expeditions into the
African backcountry in search of a living legend, the Mokelembembe.
First time I encountered the creature's name was in one of
Willy Ley's books about curious creatures living or extinct,
fabled or real. Reports of the dinosaur-type M-m had filtered
into Europe late in the 19th Century, said Ley, and attempts
were made - particularly by agents of German zoos - to
find and capture the creature. No luck then and none now
either, Hollywood's Baby to the contrary.
The M-m is not a large sauropod - envision a body slightly larger than a VW Beetle with a small head at the end of a
lO-foot neck and about the same length tail at the other end.
A lO-meter beast, in other words.
Though reportedly a herbivore - Mackal's expedition
located and brought back samples of the vegetation allegedly
preferred by the creature as well as observing what may have
been its trail through the jungle - the M-m allegedly is quite'
hostile to anything entering its river flake domain. The natives
claim it will attack their canoes as well as hippopotomi and
other trespassers.
Mackal's account of the trials and tribulations as well as
the pleasures of the expeditions is told in a rather understated
style which, to my mind, makes it all the more interesting as
well as credible. The area is, quite frankly, not one I would
care to hike in - or slog in, rather, since a fair amount of the
walking was done in swamps.
Not having brought back either a M-m corpse or acceptable films of one, how do you build a case for such a prehistoric hangover in the face of skeptical sneers?
Here the explorers used both interviews and illustrations.
After milking the natives for as much information as possible
[there was a certain superstitious dread that hampered information acquisition], Mackal et. al. would produce illustrations of various African and other animals. The natives
would invariably identify those native to their region and say
'I don't know that animal' when confronted with beasts
specific to North America. But when confronted with an illustration of a brontosaurus they would inevitably murmur
"Mokele-mbembe, Mokele-mbembe" without hesitation.
In addition to gathering information on the M-m, the expedition collected native reports of a variety of other creatures unknown to western science: giant turtles, giant crocodiles, a giant monkey-eating bird and several others. Does the
jungle really hold that many unknowns? Skeptics, safely ensconsed in armchairs thousands of miles away, will automatically say 'No.' Mackal, having been on-scene, is more openminded and builds a case that Forteans will find acceptable.
Well illustrated - there's a marvelous picture of the entire
Pursuit 40

expedition armed to the teeth with knives, shovels and rifles,

and looking for all the world like a band of treasure hunters
out for pirate gold - the main text is supplemented by appendices and an extensive bibliography. You also get a fine
introduction by Bernard Heuvelmans, ISC president and the
man who coined the word 'cryptozoology'.
Given what you get, I consider the price most reasonable
and urge you not only to buy one for yourself but to persuade
your local library to do likewise.
Brad Steiger. a Dolphin Book, NY, 1988, 179 pps., $15.95.
THE UFO CONSPIRACY, by Dr. Frank E. Stranges,
I.E.C.. Inc. (P.O. Box 5, Van Nuys, CA 91408), 1985, 122
J. Klass, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1988, 200 pps.,
Reviewed by Robert Barrow
Some readers of UFO literature insist upon cramming their
libraries with absolmely every book spewed forth on the subject. To those stalwart individuals this triple review is
dedicated. Now, let's get on with the festivities ...
Brad Steiger has intrigued us with a measured degree of
UFO writing over the years. Certainly, his lengthy report,
Project Blue Book: The Top Secret UFO Findings Revealed
(a 1976 paperback recently reprinted by Ballantine) is a
memorable compilation and a lasting research tool.
This time, however, he gives us The Fellowship, something
a little different. Drawing upon more than two decades of
research into contactees - people who claim to receive
messages from outer space entities and their craft - Steiger
concentrates on the spiritual aspects of such reports. "With
their emphasis upon spiritual teachings being transmitted to
Earth by Space Beings," he submits, "these UFO prophets
have not only brought God physically to this planet, but they
have created a blend of science and religion that offers a
theology more applicable to modern humankind." Truly,
Steiger offers some interesting support to this, a statement
that pretty much introduces the rest of the book, but some
will find the whole affair a mite too preachy in its assertions
about an "intergalactic fellowship" and "gospels for a new
age. "
Nevertheless, if you really crave your UFOs with a gallon
of religious topping, don't miss The UFO Conspiracy, by Dr.
Frank E. Stranges, who hasn't failed to include a back cover
full of personal credentials. Foremost, the fact that he serves
as president of something called International Evangelism
Crusades should provide a clue to the book's contents though, of course, he is also director of an organization called
the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phe ... oops,
pardon us, we mean on UFOs, not to be confused, by some
remarkable coincidence, with that other well-known UFO investigative group.
Stranges (a name that I wish was mine, by the way, at least
for writing purposes) has already gifted us with the forgettable books, Flying Saucerama and Nazi UFO Secrets and
Bases Exposed. The current serving seems worth putting right

First Quarter 1988

down there with them, but the reader will have to decide,
since I wasn't able to venture far without losing interest.
Maybe that is because, in Strange's own words, "To some,
this may represent a fantastic novel; To others, something
that is about to take place. Still others will dismiss it as an account steeped in fantasy." A confusing selection, to say the
least - but maybe a major culprit in all the ambiguity is THE
AT US until we develop headaches that exceed the boundaries of aspirin relief and cause us to seek neurological help.
Are you seilrching for another salvation-via-UFOs books? Is
that what's at stake here? Well, author Stranges advises us
that "the true 'believer' will have no difficulty in understanding the overall message of this volume." Pardon me, but I
don'l understand the message, so I can only assume that a
ticket to hell awaits me.
And speaking of hell, we end our current book look on the
super-debunker side of the UFO tracks, a place where logic
dictates, as we've said before, UFOs cannot exist and therefore they do not. Indeed, UFO-deriding writer Philip J. Klass
this time focuses negatively upon people who claim encounters with and abductions by UFO occupants. Predictably, what with all the furor precipitated by Whitley
Streiber's book, Communion, Klass has simply been itching
to use" a mental chain saw on UFO investigators and other his word - "abductionists" involved in exploring alleged
witnesses' stories.
Okay, surprise! UFO Abduclions does make a valid point
or two about reasons for caution and the effect of media
hype. But readers of Klass' previous books will instantly
recognize the profound debunking and explaining away of
UFO encounters for what it is: vintage Klassism (deKlassification?) and his need, for who knows what reason, to staple
an "explained" label on any phenomenon that disrupts his
minimum daily requirement for an orderly universe.
We who tend to believe, and have for quite some time, that
the UFO is a major piece of what is the mystery of life and existence can only hope that Mr. Klass writes anoth~r rabid
UFO-damning book real soon. Does UFO research need
another book from this man? Well, doesn't every circus have
a clown?
MENA, compiled by William R. Corliss (The Sourcebook
Project, P.O. Box 107, Glen Arm, MD 21057), 1988, 239
pps., $17.95
Reviewed by Robert Barrow
This 24th voiume in the Sourcebook series brings "us much
closer to home than the previous compilation, Slars, Galaxies, Cosmos, and explores unusual topographic features of
Earth, some as near as our own back yards.
Again instituting the Sourcebook standard of drawing
upon scientific literature old and new for curious topics in
this, the first of four intended catalogs on geology, Corliss
now questions the origin of various mountain features,
unusual ground patterns and seafloor channels. Some 70
areas of geological enigmas are described, each supported by
in-depth examples.
Above all, Carolina Bays is fun to browse through, particularly because its contents involve planet Earth and, literally,
the awesome ground upon which we live, walk and die. Until
the day, one can hope, when Corliss assembles a book on
First Quarter 1988

ours being a "living planet" - a theory much tossed about

currently - the work at hand holds enough terrestrial intrigue to keep us thinking for years.
A major emphasis is to avoid the placement of definitive
labels on the phenomena, as Corliss explains: "When further
classifying topographic anomalies, we use value-free morphology: depressions, mounds, ridges, Valleys, etc ... .it avoids
classifications such as meteor craters and glacial moraines,
which assume a particular mechanism of formation ... it
avoids, for a time at least, making classification judgments
based upon hypotheses-of-the-moment."
Some exceptional phenomena are spotlighted, and certainly among my favorites are two examples of "cookie-cutter
holes," described as "holes left by the mysterious removal of
large slabs (divots!) of turf. The intact slabs, weighing tons on
occasion, are found nearby and closely match the holes.
Human activity does not seem indicated."
Other surface anomalies exhibited include so-called
bottomless pits, "rock cities," columnar structures, evidence
for an expanding Earth, Mima mounds (rounded mounds of
soil) and hills, marine and high-level terraces, raised and submerged beaches, astroblemes ("star wounds") and craters,
and the sameness of lake orientation. Of course, this is but a
partial list of contents.
While geological theories change daily, Corliss' volume-byvolume indexing system does not. Each catalog ends with a
five-index section pinpointing time, place, first author, source
and subject.
"In the long run," Corliss tells us, "the purpose of the
Catalog of Anomalies is the challenging of major geological
dogmas, such as the now-ascendant hypothesis of plate tectonics, the lee Ages scenario, and the belief that ocean levels
and volumes never changed much over the geological eons.
But, as usual, we moderate such heavy fare with stone polygons, walled lakes, blue holes and sundry curiosities."
(Fortean Tomes, I Shoebury Road, East Ham, London, E6
2AQ, England - available in the USA from Arcturus Book
Service, P.O. Box 831383, Stone Mountain, Georgia
30083-0023, price $15.95 + S.85 postage) 1987, 176 pps.
Reviewed by Jon Singer
Books on Atlantis are always popular among both Forteans and the general public while books on other sunken
lands and lost cities are increasing in popularity. As I studied
and hunted for lost city tales analogous to the Atlantis
mystery I came across British reports of drowned towns and
submerged kirigdoms. I wrote a couple of reports on the subjects and found, to my amazement, that Mr. Pennick had
written a whole book on the subject!
This work discusses sunken towns, cities and villages
located all along the coasts of England, Cornwall, Wales and
Scotland. He begins with a general survey of the Atlantis
legend, global deluge stories and evidence for such accounts
as discovered by geologists. Although Pennick's discussions
of Lyonesse (the sunken legendary realm off Cornwall) and
the lost city of Ker Ys in Brittany, France, are somewhat
superficial, most of the chapters in this work contain fascinating accounts of many sunken cities of which I had never
heard, such as Old Winchelsea or Brighthelmstone in the
English Channel and metropoli which sank in the North Sea.
There are detailed accounts of Dunwich, a famous sunken city of East AngJia and reports of modern floods from the
17th-20th centuries. Oddly enough, Irish tales are left out. My
Pursuit 41

only suggestion is that this work should be retitled Lost Lands

and Sunken Cities oj Britain, as this is primarily what the
book is about. (Archaeologists actually have found sunken
walls and artifacts at the site of Dunwich and at the alleged
site of fabled Lyonesse around the Scilly Isles west of Cornwall.)
There are prophetic warnings of modern deluges which destroyed coastal buildings and whole towns in the 19th and
20th centuries. In short, this book will become a classic collector's item in Fortean libraries and I'm sure that it wi\l inspire
other works.
Ed. Note: Jon Singer has wrillen articles for PURSUIT on varioll"\
sunken cities such as Lyonesse and Ker Ys mentioned above.
THE GELLER EFFECf, by Uri Geller & Guy Lyon Playfair, Henry Holt, New York, 280 pgs., illus., 1986, $17.95.
Reviewed by Robert C. Warth
I stopped for a short visit at Uri's home at the very time
that Uri's latest book, The Geller Effect, was hot-off-thepress in England. Uri handed me a copy and told me I was the
first American to be given a copy of the new book. Naturally,
I was thrilled and honored. But, it was Uri's managerbrother-in-law and best friend, Shippi, who qualified or
clarified that other books had been mailed to the United
States to Uri's friends and reviewers, etc., but yet, I was the
first from the U.S. to "receive" a copy.
But this is Uri, promising but sometimes impractical, immediately pleasing and complimentary to the point of embarrassment also quixotic, impetuous - and with an ego as effervescent as his friendliness. In some ways this comes
through in Uri's book but is made more palatable for the
reader by the professional assistance of co-author, Guy Lyon
Playfair. "
Mr. Playfair begins the book with a brief review of Uri's
life through the publication of Uri's first autobiographical
sketch, My Story in 1975. Then, after Uri fiUs us in on the
next "quiet" decade of his life; Mr. Playfair concludes the
work by bringing us up to date.
Fortunately for this reviewer, Mr. Playfair was also spending a day with Uri and, in conversation with him, I discussed
several incidents or experiences that were mentioned, only
briefly, or omitted from the book, usually for lack of space.
Some of these were detailed events witnessed by Uri with
For instance, could Uri expect his readers' acceptance of
the fact: He was sitting alone in his den, heard a "muffled
noise, turned to find his address book had "jumped" off the
bookshelf, he walked over to pick it up off the floor and
observed one name, intuitively phoned that person thousands
of miles away to be told by the individual on the other end,
"Uri is that really you? This is remarkable! At this very instant I was trying desperately to fmd your new telephone
number to ask your help with a question I have. " For most of
us this would have been a remarkable "coincidence," but for
Uri incidents like this are much more commonplace.
The Geller Effect appeals to those Hollywood type of
glitter-and-glamor fans who vicariously are thrilled admirers
of any nouveau riche family. Basically, Uri is a showman. He
is not "scientifically" analytical nor does he like being tested
and "picked apart," so don't look for that in this book.
You'll fmd incidents not introspection.
Uri keeps himself in a peak physical and mental state to
assure, to himself, that he Will do well in whatever is expected
of him. He accepts the fact that he is unique but allows
Pursuit 42

himself to be as curious about his abilities "as does his audience. He is in control and can describe an incident he feels is
significant, discuss it truthfully, but will not attempt a scientific self-analysis. That it happened to him, is a matter of fact,
and that is it.
I am pleased that Uri avoided lengthly attention here to
that annoying cult of disbelievers who continually contest
that Uri is nothing more than a clever sideshow, slight-ofhand magician, and apparently can not accept that Uri's
talents have made him a multi-millionaire.
Uri, over the years, attracted one heel-barker who has
become frustrated attempting to "expose" Uri as a fraud but
who, in the process, exposed himself to be a talentless
dullard. This unpleasant little troll is more reminiscent of
Grumpy of the Snow White tale than a believable skeptic or
critic. It seems he is of the ilk who: will perform any act to
divert attention to himself; would wave a barmer with "old
glory" on one side and a hammer-and-sickle sewn on the
other to be selectively displayed to an audience he would try
to distract; fanatically denies the existence of such things as
UFOs but, when the truth is told, will swear he knew theyexisted all along and was secretly protecting U.S. government
security on the subject". But enough remarks about this
"sorcerer. "
All in all, The Geller Effect is an entertaining follow up to
Uri'S earlier book, My Story. I would ask the reader,
however, not to judge the book by its cover. The fierce, glaring stare that "greeted" me made me sit back wondering if
the "guy" on the cover was trying to hypnotize me or was, as
an officer in the dreaded Nazi SS, about to watch me being
interrogated. It is a photo of Uri, but it defmitely does not
represent the Uri I know or the Uri you will enjoy reading
The book does have a generous sampling of other photos
and the one I like most shows Uri's mother, Margaret; his
wife, Hanna; and his two kids at home. Of the photos, it is
too bad there wasn't a bit more space to include a snapshot of
Uri's loyal friend Shippi Strangh and/or co-author Mr. Playfair.
But get a copy of The Geller Effect and read about one of
the world's most curiously talented and controversial figures.
Tim Dinsdale, "Nessie" Author, Dies
Mr. Tim Dhlsdale, who died on December 14, at the age of
63, spent the best part of the last tIuity years on the trail of the
Loch Ness monster - and with some success.
In 1960, he managed to shoot some flbn of "a large, zigzagging lump" - flbn which the Royal Air Force later analyzed and concluded to be a "probably animate" object. That
was Dinsdale's most concrete sighting: but, once seen, he believed.
Dinsdale, to his credit, adamantly refused to reap and fmanciaI rewards on the back of Nessie. He survived on his lecture
fees, and was much in demand. Loch Ness Monster (1961), a
chronical of an obsession; The Leviathans (1966), which included monsters from overseas, too; and Project Water HoI'S!!
(1975), a narrative of his years of almost fruitless searching.
On his boat, Water Horse - which was once his home offshore for a stretch of three months - camouflaged and bedecked with an array of sonar devices and cameras, he sailed
up-wind, switching off the engine, and floating - silently
waiting for the creature to surface. It seldom did, although in
the autumn of 1971 he saw "an object like a black telegraph
pole ... absolutely streak across the water."
The London Times, 12117/87

First Quarter 1988 "

mostly contemporary curious and unexplained events

Phobia Cured with

RUle Shot to Head
A young mentally ill man egged into a suicide attempt by his mother apparently cured
his phobia of germs and obsession for handwashing by shooting himself in the head, doctors said.
The .22-caliber slug destroyed the section of
the brain responsible for his disabling obsessive-compulsive behavior without causing any
other brain damage to the man, a straight-A
student, his doctor said.
The afflicted man tried to kill himself five
years ago, when he was 19, said psychiatrist
Leslie Solyom of Shaughnessy Hospital in
Vancouver, British Columbia.
Victims of the disorder typically have an inexplicable compulsion to repeat activities over
and over.
"Their basic problem is they hesitate and
are doubtful," Solyom said yesterday. "They
hesitate so much that after closing the door
they are not really cenain they closed to door,
so they have to go back again."
George's obsession was "very, very
typical," Solyom said.
George washed his hands as often as 50
times a day. He would take 4-hour showers,
and he would check and recheck to see
whether doors and windows were locked and
whether he had enough money in his wallet.
The behavior forced him to drop out of
school and quit. his job.
Solyom treated George for more than a
year before he attempted suicide.
"George was also very depressed and told
his mother that his life was so wretched that
he would rather die," Sol yom said. "Parents
mothers, often have cruel streaks."
"She said, 'So look George, if your life is
so wretched, just go and shoot yourself.' So
George went to the basement, stuck a
.22-caliber rifle in his mouth and pulled the
trigger. "
"He was found lying on his faCe, blood
oozing from his nostrils," Solyom said. He
was rushed to Vancouver General Hospital,
treated for 3 weeks and sent to Shaughnessy
The bullet lodged in the left front lobe of
the brain. Surgeons removed it, but could not
get out all the fragments. "If it had gone to
the center, it would have killed him. If it had
gone to the right, it would have had no
effect," Solyom said.
In effect, George may have given himself a
Or, more precisely, a leukotomy - Ii severing of the links between the frontal lobes and
other pans of the brain, rather than a removal
of brain tissue as in a lobotomy.

First Quarter 1988

"When he was transferred to our hospital

three weeks later, he had hardly any compulsions left," Solyom said.
"We staned on behaviortherapy," Solyom
. said. "But he was no longer obsessive." He
returned to school, got a .new job and is now
in his second year of college, having retained
the same IQ as he had before the illness
struck, Solyom said.
Monday's edition of Physician's Weekly,
the British journal of psychiatry, wryly described the failed suicide attempt as "successful radical surgery."
"The idea that a toan could blowout pan
of his frontal lobe and have his pathological
symptoms cured is quite remarkable, but it is
not beyond belief," said psychiatrist Thomas
Ballantine of Massachusetts General Hospital
in Boston.
"In the '405 and '50s, psychosurgeons
would get these patients and have reasonably
good results cutting the pathway between the
front pan of the brain and a part called the
striatum," said Dr. Thoma.. Insel, a psychiatrist at the National Institute of Mental Health
in Bethesda, Md.
Such surgery has fallen out of favor as effective drugs have been found.
Insel, who has specialized in this disorder,
said 'sophisticated brain images called PET
scans show that the frontal lobes are more active in obsessive-compulsive patients than in
normal people. That suggests that the source
of the disorder lies at least partly in the frontal
lobes, he said.
New research indicates that as much as 3
percent of the U.S. population displays some
obsessive-compulsive behavior, according to
psychiatrist Michael Jenike of Harvard University.
Conventional psychotherapy is useless in
such victims, Jenike said. The disorder is most
effectively treated with a combination of antidepressant drugs and behavioral therapy.
As a last reson, neurosurgeons will occasionally remove pan of the left front lobe of
the brain, where the obsessive behavior is
thought to originate.
"What made the case so very interesting
was that we had measured lQ and done a lot
of other tests before the suicide attempt,"
Solyom said. "Afterward, we compared
results and he had not lost anything. We used
very sensitive tests."
SOURCE: (AP) Herald, Augusta, GA
2/23/88 and
Dispatch, Columbus,OH
CREOrr: J. Sappington, and
J. Fry via COUD-I, resp.

S ......... F... SdD Mystery

of MooDIIt Sd LaakaD Lagoon
The sounds of war have drowned out a
mournful tune made by the singing fish in an
eastern Sri Lankan lagoon on moonlit nights.
Since mid-1983, when minority Tamils
launched their revolt for a separate state, no
one living in Batticaloa has had the opportunity to hear the singing fish.
"Before the war, the fishermen here used
to pull out a fish from the lagoon and say they
had pulled out the singing fish," the Rev.
Harold Weber, jl 70-year-old Catholic priest,
said on a school veranda overlooking the redtiled roofs of the town.
"But we have not up to now known if it's a
fish that produces the sound from the
lagoon," said Father Weber, who has been
teaching mathematics here since 1937.
No scientific explanation has yet been
found for the multitude of faint but distinct
sounds floating at night from the depths of
the lagoon.
Some say it is like a distant orchestra playing a full range of chords, others tell of.a
mandolin-like melody.
"They prefer the moonlight and the sound
is particularly clearer when you put the oar in
the water and put your ear on the other end of
the oar," Father Weber said.
Residents say the sound is more distinct
near the Kalladi Bridge, now manned by Indian soldiers dug in with machine guns at
sandbagged emplacements at both ends.
Indian soldiers have been deployed in the
island's nonhern and eastern provinces to enforce a 7-month-old pact with Sri Lanka to
end the Tamil rebellion.
The 150,000 inhabitants of the town, like
most in the region, in recent years have not
been able to go out at night because of battles
and on-again, off-again curfews.
A fishing ban in the lagoon, which snakes
around the town, to prevent smuggling of
arms by guerrillas has been partly lifted by the
Indians to allow day fishing.
The Rev. Alfonso Del Marmol, a 66-yearold U.S. Catholic priest who has been teaching here for 40 years, said his mother dipped a
wrapped microphone into the lagoon in 1947
and recorded the sound.
His mother, a music teacher, then transcribed the tune into musical notes. "It sounds
like this," the bearded priest said, and hummed a tune that sounded like a dirge.
"There's no regularity to the sound,"
Father Del Marmol said. "U comes and goes
but it has a definite note in it."
SOURCE: The Sun, Baltimore, MD
CREOrr: H. Hollander

Pursuit 43

V-5hapecl UFO In Eaglea.

Seasoned policemen smiled when a woman
PC radioed in to say she had spotted a UFO
- until they heard engines droning above
their station.
PC Susan Jackson went to investigate when
dozens of sightings were reported to Ecclesfield police station near Sheffield. Minutes
later she saw a V-shaped craft hovering close
by.. Even above the car engine, Susan (29),
could hear its motors and saw a row of red
flashing lights.
A few hundred yards away PC John Boam
spotted the mystery object for 30 seconds
before it flew away.
They checked with RAF Finningley near
DOncaster, which covers the area by radar but nothing had shown up on its screens.
SOURCE: Daily Post, England
CREDIT: J. & c. Bord via COUD-I

Sua "Spiaalag' ia Mea.

Things are spinning in Manila.
Actually, just the sun spins, or so people
Folks have been skipping lunth for the past
couple of days to go out and watch it.
lt will spin several times and throw off
various colors.
Some folks who claim to have seen it say
it's a vision.
They're not quite sure what it means or
what they should do.
Cardinal Jaime Sin, Manila's archbishop,
has some advice for them.
"When you are hungry you see visions. so
my first advice is to eat," he said.
"When you are not hungry you wiD not see
SOURCE: The Inquirer, Philadelphia. PA
CREDIT: H. Hollander

N.J. P.,cIaIc H..... Police

Ia Stabbla. D_th
A psyChic from Nutley. N.J., who worked
on the disappearance of PaITicia C. Hearst
and. the Atlanta child murders. was in Hagerstown last week helping city police investigate
last year's stabbing death of a 24-year-<)id

DortthY.Allison, 63. a psychic informant,

interviewed about 10 friends and associates of
Sherry A nn Knapp, who was found murdered
July 20, 1987, at her house in Hagerstown's
west end.
Investiiators declined to reveal clues Ms.
Allison hai provided because the case remains
under inve.itigation.
"I'll go "nill I get the evidence. I don't rest
until I get my man or woman," said Ms.
Allison, a devout Catholic who considers it
sacrilegious to charge money for solvini
murder cases.
SOlJIlCE: Baltimore Sun, MD,
CREDIT: Mel Saunders via COUD-I
Pursuit 44
I ____________________~_______



CIa_ to .

Aadeat ChID__ D ........

Studies of history, weather and geology

suggest that 21 centuries ago the Chinese had
a real and deadly encounter with the worst of
Murphy's Law.
For people already burdened with despotic
rule and rampant warfare, Mother Nature apparently added the last straw: a massive
volcanic eruption in Iceland that blocked
sunlight, destroyed crops and caused famine.
As Murphy's Law in its various versions
would dictate, anything that could go wrong
did go wrong. Two scientists report that as a
result of the combined disaster, half the
population of northern China starved in the
years after the eruption, which occurred
about 210 B.C.
.. Although the harsh rule of the Chin
Emperors and the war for succession between
the Hans and the Chus were important causes
[of death], major famines, especially in 205
B.C.. also decimated the population,"
astronomer Kevin Pang and planetary scientist James Slavin said.
"Late in the third century B.C., more than
half the population of northern China perished, .. they reported at a meeting of the
American Geophysical Union in San Francisco.
Mr. Pang and Mr. Slavin. from the Jet
Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena. Calif..
told fellow scientists that "the failed harvests
seem to have been caused by a cold and wet
spell that began in 209 B.C .... the year immediately after the eruption.
The scientists said they learned, from
studies of geological data in areas such as
Denmark, that much of the Northern Hemisphere experienced the cold. wet conditions
that apparently led to famine in northern
Additional studies of materials found in ice
cores drilled from the deep glacial ice of
Greenland indicated that a major volcanic
eruption. apparently in Iceland. may have
loaded the skies with volcanic ash that "made
the stars invisible for three months," as
described in ancient Chinese accounts.
When the stars were invisible, Mr. Pang
said. "is presumably when [the ash] was
densest. So it took a few years to fall out."
"It was like a Krakatoa volcano. an explosion." he said. Krakatoa was a huge volcano
in the Sunda Strait. between Java and
Sumatra. that blew up in March 1883.
SOlJRCE: Newsday in The Sun,
Baltimore. MD 2121/88
CREDO': H. Hollander

DI'Owala. CoIac:WeaC88 Ia
Wlayah Bay. South CaronWhen Wright Skinner Jr. fell off a boat
ladder near Georgetown early Saturday. he
became the fifth person to disappear on that
date in Winyah Bay since 1977.
Some are saying the events are a coincidence. but there's also talk by locals of a
Devil's Triangle in the waters of Win yah Bay.
It was the third mid-February search of

Winyah Bay by rescue workers in II years.

The others:
On Feb. 13. 1977, David Browder and
John Stanley Gore went in search of a friend
in their IO-foot outboard. Their boat was
found overturned the following day and the
. Coast Guard continued its search by air and
sea, but didn't find the men. Their friend.
. Terry Miller. was found in his stalled boat
around 7:30 a.m. Feb. 14.
The bodies of Browder and' Gore were
found later in Charleston. about 60 miles
south of Georgetown.
On Feb. 13, 1982. Hubert Jordan Sr. and
his nephew David Jordan lef~ port in their
18-foot boat to go shad fishing. When "they
didn't return after dark. a relative. Tom Swinnie Jr . went in search of them. Swinnie found
the bow of the Jordan boat sticking out of the
water, but a life jacket and the gas tank for
the boat were not spotted until the following
There are other stories about the mysteries
of the bay.
"Two guys told me they were out on the
bay one time and they saw three men on a
4O-foot shrimp boat out there and they turned
their backs to the boat for a minute and when
they turned around the boat and the men were
gone and they never found it or the men,"
Goude said.
Editor's Note: We have no data regarding the IOtO/
number oj drownings that ocr:ur in Winyah BoY.


SOlJRCE: (Knight-Ridder) ChroniCle Herald, Augusta. GA 2/16/88

CREDIT: John Sappington

"Q_k.. W Sonic Booa

An earth tremor in southwest Scotland last
November 17 was almost certainly caused by
the sonic boom of a meteor, the Education
Minister Mr. Robert Jackson said yesterday in
a written answer to the Commons.
Mr. Jackson said that scientists had ruled
out an earthquake. Reports of a fireball in the
sky above Ross-shire in the Western Highlands of Scotland tended to confirm the .
meteor theory, he added.
SOURCE: Daily Post, Liverpool, England
CREDIT: J. & C. Bord via COUD-I

A RaiD of Pink FI'O"

Members of Gloucestershire Trust have
been puzzled by sightings of pink frogs.
The Trust has now received information
from Morocco which may offer a solution.
After spawning in pools in the Sahara. tiny
baby frogs sink deep into the sand to escape
the scorching heat of the sun. Buried in the
pink sand. the frogs themselves tum pink to
disguise themselves. returning to their natural
color when they breed.
Sometimes these pink frogs are lifted up in
the thousands and carried hundreds of miles
by hurricane force winds. and some have rained down on Gloucester.
SOURCE: Natural World 22
England, Spring 1988
CREDIT: J. & C. Bord via COUD-I
First Quarter


Black Paath. . Se. . In


Jeff Moyer of Mathias wrote recently

about several sightings in that neck of the
woods. His repon of mountain lion past and
recent sightings in Hardy County follows:
"On Dec. 10th, 1978 (it gets more recent),
my wife and I were on our way home about
II at night when we both saw something
standing in a side road beside the highway,"
Jeff said. "We turned around and went back,
and, shining my headlights into the side road,
we got a good look at a very large black cat,
standing two to three feet tall at the shoulder,
with approximately three feet of tail. He was
jet black with a head the size of a large dog.
"Some two or three years after this, the exact date escapes me, I was again on my way
home when I saw a 'brown-colored lion beside
the road in neighboring Virginia, about three
to four miles from the West Virginia line.
"I have spent a lot of time in the woods,
and never have I seen anything move with
more grace or power than those two cats.
"Getting a little closer to the present, last
year (1986) during bear season one of my
fellow hunters saw a mountain lion in the
mountains of eastern Hardy County. Then
during this year's (1987) bear season, a
gentleman that hunts with us and lives on this
panicular mountain told me that on Nov. 18
several men from another state were on their
way to their cabin on the mountain when a
lion ran across the road in front of their vehicle, only two or three miles from where the
sighting took place last year.
"You can dismiss this letter as the work of
a crackpot or whatever you wish, but I am
relating this information to you as I experienced it arid it was related to me. There are indeed mountain lions in West Virginia, at least
in Hardy County."
SOURCE: Advocate, Cacapon,
West Virginia 114/88
CREOrr: Walter Duliere

Myatery Cat

Puzzles North Mea
Sightings of another mystery black cat in
the Highlands have led two Inverness men to
begin an investigation into the origins of their
panicular feline.
Mr. Franny MacDonald first' spotted the
cat in Strathnairn where there have been a
number of repons of strange sightings.
He was completely taken aback by what he
saw - as soon as he realized it was not as it
first appeared, a black labrador dog.
That was more than six months ago. Since
then, he and friend Mr. Rod MacKenzie have
seen the cat several times - on each occasion
closer to the Hilton area of Inverness where
tl)ey both live.
The capture of a large black cat in a trap on
the Black Isle several weeks ago set the pair
wondering if there was any similarity in the
However, they think the cat they saw is
larger, with shon smooth fur and a longer,
slimmer tail than the Tarradale cat.

First Quarter 1988

On first inspection by scientists, the Tarradale cat" now in captivity at the Highland
Wildlife Park at Kincraig, appears to be a fine
specimen of a wildcat crossed with a domestic
Mr. MacDonald, 49 Oldtown Road, said,
however: "Our animal was quite large - 2 ft.
to 2.6 ft. high - and unlike anything I have
seen before."
A keen naturalist and birdwatcher, Mr.
MacDonald has come across quite a number
of wildcats but feels there is little relation between the two types of animal.
"Because of its size, I first thought it was a
dog. It ran as soon as it realized I was close.
But I followed its tracks and it was definitely
"I suspect it might be coming down off the
moor at this time of year to find shelter on
lower ground - on the occasions we have
seen it, it was headed off into the trees."
Now, when Mr. MacDonald and Mr.
MacKenzie go to the area of General Wade's
old military road and nearby Druid Temple
standing stones, they take binoculars, with
"We have seen it quite a few times now and
have got a good look at it. But it is always on
the move," Mr. MacDonald said.
The animal, although predominantly black,
does have a white or greyish patch of fur between its forelegs.
Because of the significant size of the animal
and the shape of its tail, Mr. MacKenzie
thinks its most likely origin is a sub-species
descended from an escaped circus or pet exotic big-cat.
The two friends are now trying to find out
more about sightings of similar animals - of
which there have been a considerable number
in the Nonh in recent years.
SOURCE: Press & Journal Scotland

PIlots. CoatroD. . Spot

a UFO Ov. Colomb.
Several pilots and air traffic controllers
spotted an unidentified' flying object over the
Medellin airpon on Feb. 9, the daily El Colombiano reponed yesterday.
At one stage, the international Jose Maria
Cordova airpon control tower, believing it
was a private plane, gave landing instructions,
the newspaper reponed. The crews of five different planes, including a military plane carrying army chief Gen. Oscar Botero, reponed
seeing the object, which stayed in the area for
half an hour.
SOURCE: Star-Ledger, Newark, NJ

CREOrr: N. Wanh

Electric Maa
A worker at a boiler factory in Xinjiang
province can emit electric charges strong
enough 10 knock down people just by louch
ing them, the New China News Agency said.
SOURCE: The Independent, England

CREOrr: J. & C. Bard via COUDI

Moakey8 Get Rev.....

In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia., a troop of
monkeys roaming the southern desert attacked a motorist who ran over one of its
members, jumping on his car and smashing
the windows, a newspaper reponed yesterday.
The Okaz newspaper said a man was driving to work when he killed the monkey on a
highway in the Khamis Mesheit region. He
escaped the monkeys, but ran into them again
on his way home.
When they spotted his car, they jumped on
it and smashed the windows with their fists,
the paper said.
SOURCE: Asbury Park Press, NJ,

CREOrr: J. & C. Bard via COUD-I
'Big Cat' Rabies AIeJt

CREOrr: N. Warth

A rabies warning was put out around Danmoor yesterday after a farmer shot a leopard
cat, which is a native of Asia.
The cat was shot at Widecombe after it was
seen chasing sheep. A vet, Mr. Neville Harrison who identified the animal - it is bigger
than a domestic cat, but much smaller than a
leopard - reponed the shooting to the
Ministry of Agriculture because he feared that
the animal' might have been brought into the
country illegally.
SOURCE: Daily Post, England

The next time you cut yourself and a BandAid's not handy, you might try the miraculous
secretions of the Persian Gulf catfish.
"If you put it on a wound, you can actually
see the wound start tQ close over in the next
two or three minutes," says Richard Criddle,
a professor of biochemistry and biophysics at
the University of California at Davis.
Seems Arab fishermen have been using the
slimy white gel secreted by the arius bilineatus,
a species of saltwater catfish, for years.
Tests on mice, rabbits and catfish show the
substance can reduce healing time by twothirds, Criddle says.
But the product may be years from the
Criddle says catching enough catfish is pretty difficult.
Scientists may have to make a duplicate
substance for use on humans.
SOlJRCE: J. W. Byrd, Inquirer,
Philadelphia, PA 1118/88
CREOrr: H. Hollander

CREOrr: J. & C. Via COUD-I

EJuaoor BeaR StrIkes

The beast of Exmoor - a so-far unidentified animal - was yesterday blamed for the
killing of a new-born foal which had its throat
tom out in a field at Muddiford on the fringes
of Exmoor in nonh Devon. A naturalist
found the largest prints he had seen during a
four-year search for the killer beast.
SOURCE: Daily Post, England


CREorr: J. & C. Bord via COUD-I

Pursuit 45

The Notes of Charles Fort

D.dph....d bV Cad.J. Pab8t

A.J. Sci
An Sci D
A Reg.
BA or Rept. Brit. Assoc.
del met
Eng. Mec.

exceptional note
indicates notch cut from note

Americfln Journal 0/ Science

Annals oj Scientific Discovery
Annual Register
Report 0/ tM British Association for tM Advancement 0/ Science
Books 0/ Charles Fan
Chaos, Fort's Working title for New Lands.

Comptes Rendus

Book o/IM Damned, page 176

detonating meteor

Engineering Mechanics

FletcMr's List

(Continued/rom PURSUIT, Vol.20,

14, page 192)

1850 July 22 I Northampton Herald,

July 27 - at Olney, cockchafers on
several trees in numbers so
[Reverse side) great. as to be mistaken
for a swarm of bees.
1850 July 22 / Cockchafers / Northampton Herald, July 27 - that "after
a violent
[Reverse side] storm near Clifton,
Durham Down was visited by a prodigious swarm of cockchafers.
1850 July 25 / (0-84) I fish and water.
/ Rajkote, India I All the Year Round

[BCF, p. 87:
After a "tremendous deluge of
rain, one of the heaviest falls on
record" (All the Year Round, 8-25S) at
Rajkote, India, July 25, 1850, "the
ground was found literally covered
with fishes."
The word "found" is agreeable to
the repulsions of the conventionalists
and their concept of an overflowing
stream - but, according to Dr. Buist,
some of these fIShes were "found" on
the tops of haystacks.]
1850 July 29 / Perforating lightning
killing boy / Long Island.

1850 last July I (with July 19th) /

While a heavy blight upon peas and
beans near Northampton, "The at-.
[Reverse side] was charged with a
gloomy brood about 3 days." / Northampton Herald, Aug. 24.
1850 Aug. 4 I 7 p.m. I Lightning
flashes without thunder at Havana I

Pursuit 46

Rec Sci
Sci Am
Sid Mess
Spon comb.
Th. st.

luminous objects
London Times
nothing more

Recrealive Science

Scientific American
Sidereal Messenger
spontaneous combustion
Society for Psychical Research

Timb's Year Book


1850 Aug 9 / met shower / At Coll- 1850 Sept 7 / Lit. Gazette of - NeW
ingwood, of 75 meteors in an hour or star in Little Bear, by M. Calomarde.
more, all but 4 or 5 from a point 1850 Sept 14 / Mo[on) / Rev. T.
somewhere near Beta Camelopardali. Rankin saw part of moon (in 8th day)
/ BA 51-39.
blotted out as if by a shadow. For
1850 Aug. 91 Stat met I Observatory more than an hour he examined it, and
it remained the same. / [8) Assoc
51-41 /
1850 Aug 11 I A flight of about 50 [Reverse side) B As. 57-41.
meteors over Kettering. I Northamp1850 Sept. 26 / Fluctuations in Zeta
ton Herald. 24th.
Lyrae, by Heis, like - see March,
1850 Aug 15 / [LT], 5-g I Met / S. 1856. / J.B.A.A., 13-326.
1850 Sept 27 /. Lumps of ice / destruc1850 Aug 20 / [LT], 6-d I Spon. tive fall at Pittsburgh, Pa / Many 9 to
14 inches in
18SO-51 / (Clergy) I Cideville phe I
Dale Owen's Footfalls I Home of a
clergyman, M. Tine!. Mediums were 2
children who boarded with him. Rapp'ings
[Reverse side] for 2\.1 months. Stopped when the children were sent to
their homes. Not only rappings but intolerable poundings some times. The
[Second page] beat time to music.
When asked would indicate the
number of persons in a room. Strong
force moved a table when the mayor
[Reverse side) of Cideville and another
visitor were sitting on it and trying to
prevent its movement.
1850 Aug 30 / [LT], 7-d / Tidal phe.
1850 Aug, last of / Deluges / Jamaica
I N.Y. Herald, Sept 12-3-6.
18S0 Aug last and Sept 1st I Destructive storms / U.S. / N.Y. Herald, Sept
1850 Sept, 1st week I Floods I U.S. /
N.Y. Herald 12-3-5.
1850 Sept I Th. st / Spain / B. Assoc /

[Reverse side) circumference, weighing

from 8 ounces to a pound / ac to Pittsburgh Gazette, copied in NY Herald,
Oct 4-6-6 /
[Front side] Some were irregular
shaped, but most round or oval, made
up of concentric rings.
1850 Sept 30 / Met train / 8:54 p.m. I
from Perseus I great met I fIIew
England / A.J. Sci 2111/131 I The
train for more than an hour.
18S0 Sept 30 I Great met train I Mass
/ BA S5/94.
1850 (Sept 30) I Met rocket I One seen
on Sept 30, 1850, mistaken for an
alarm rocket, at Aden, by a sentry,
who discharged his gun and summoned garrison of 3000 men to arms. I
[Reverse side] BAs. 51/43.
18S0Oct. I I (Cut)/from9:IOt09:3O
p.m. I reported from the Observatory
of' Durham I 3 meteors from an
aurora, "not passing through it, but
. emerging from it." /
[Reverse side] BAs. 18SI-23.

1850 Oct / - Small body observed 4

nights. / Smithsonian MisteD. Cols.
20/20 I C-3O+( .(Ch.)
[BCF, pp. 412-413 I See July 31,
1850 Oct I / Q - Ceveland, Ohio.
Low rumbling sound like distant
thunder - then vibrations felt. Cear
day. / An. Sci. 0-'51-278. .
1850 Oct 8 I [LT] , 8-b I 13-3-f I
Auroral Arch.
1850 Oct 9 I Large slow met burst. /
Rept BA 1860.

1850 Oct. 9 I Moon D-shaped I Brit

Assoc. 1851/41.
1850 Oct 13/ Met I Toronto. Canada
/ BA 51/40 ..
1850 Oct 141 Ship sunk by waterspout
near Malta / Timbs 'SI-271.

1850 Oct 31 I (lst) II Vessel shook like

Mik's [or Mile's?] petro\cum can /
(near England) I Times - or Trans
Bombay Geeg Soc 13/15S.
1850 Nov. 6/ Bombay I Met. streak
20 min. / Ret Sci 11137.
1850 Nov. 8/ q. I Malta / I [Light] /
1850 Nov 12/ Cut I S:5O / E J. Lowe
/ Highfield House I"A brilliant, vivid
nash; could it be a meteor? / B Assoc

1850 Nov 14/ morning / In a mountain pass between Bombay and Poona,
38 mets counted in one hour. I
[Reverse side] BA SI-46.
1850 Nov. 18 I Worms in snow /
Sangerfield, N.Y. 1(0-92).

1850 after Oct / New Star / An Sci

[BCF, p. 96:
Discov. 18S1/374.

First Quarter 1988

Uirge number of worms found in a

snowstorm, upon the surface of snow
about four inches thick, near Sangerfield, N.Y., Nov. IS, IS50 (Scientific
Americtln, 6-96). The writer thinks
that the worms had been brought to
the surface of the ground by rain,
which had fallen previously.)
IS50 Nov. 20 I Fr I (Lourdes) St. Pe I
1850 Nov. 23 I Woodstock I several
meteors I BA 51/40.
IS50 Nov. 29 I London I Oxford I
met I BA 60-90.
IS50 Nov. 30 I 3 p.m.lnear Bis empore I Metite I BA 51-47.
IS50 Nov. 30 I (FJ I Shalka, Bengali
metite I 3 hours before sunset I A. J.
Sci 21321141.

IS51 Ap. 2 I Violent"Q I Valparaiso I

On 4th, heavy rain set in and
[Reverse side) lasted 4 hours. I Stryker's Amer Register, IS51.
1851 Ap 21 Q and flash I (Chili) I See
May 24. I From Report of the U.S.
Naval Astro. Obs. Expedition to Chili
- by Lieut J.M. Gilliss - Some hours
before the Q, "x x there was a
[Reverse side) vivid, Quick flash of
lightning to the N.N.E. so intense in
brightness as to [i)lIuminate within the
observatory where I had been at work
some hours." No thunder. I Am. J.
Sci 2121/3SS.
IS51 Ap. 21 [LT), S-e IWild Woman
of Navido.
IS51 Ap. 3 -131 Q.I Chile I LT, June
16-5-d - at 6 a.m. I Many buildings
fell. I N.M. I first shock the severest.

IS51 Ap. 5 I Hauser I Athenaeum of

[this date) - from the "Correspondenz of Berlin. I A stranger picked up
IS50 Dec 141 Near the Bannmouth I at end of year IS50 in a small village
aerial troops, etc. I B. Assoc IS52 I 30 near Frankfort-onthe-Oder; how got
I (See July IS, in the 90's.) I C-212+. there no one knew. He spoke German
imperfectly. He was taken to Frank[BCF, p. 422:
"Phantom soldiers" that were seen fort. On being Questioned by
in the sky, near the Banmouth, Dec. [Reverse side) the burgomaster, he said
that his name was Jophar Vorin and
30, ISS0 (Rept. B.A., IS52-30).)
IS50 (Dec. 16) I Venus Inf Conj Sun I that he had come from a country called Laxaria, in a part of the world call(AI).
ed Sakria. He understood no Euro1851
pean language except some German
IS51 I Snails near Bristol. I Zoologist but read and wrote what he
[Second page) called the Laxarian and
1/9/3176, 31S7 [or 3087).
Abramian tongue, one of the written

ISSI I Fr I Vosges I Q I C.R. 33/69. language of the clerical order of his

people and the other the common
ISSII Cideville, France I Polt I Proc. language of the people. His religion
S. P. R., vol. IS.
was Christian in form
IS511 Sleeper Susan C. Godsey, near [Reverse side) but was called Ispatian.
Hickman, Ky. I See Oct. 27, IS73.
Laxaria was many hundreds of miles
IS51 Jan 131 [LT), Sob I Auroral Ar- from Europe, separated by vast
oceans. He had gone to Europe to seek
a long-lost brother, but had been shipIS51 Jan 2S I 9 p.m. I Lightning wrecked on the way; where he did not
flashes without thunder at Havana I know.
[Third page) His unknown race had
IS51 Feb 13, 14 I By Schmidt - on considerable geographical knowledge,
southern wall of Copernicus which knowing the continents of the Earth as
was in full sunshine.
Sakria, Aftar, Astar, Anstar, and
[Reverse side) Two black points - 3 Euplar. He was sent to Berlin,
more on 15th I on 16, invisible I [Reverse side) where he became object
L'Asto 4/309.
of great interest.
IS51 Feb. 22 I 7:45 p.m. I Gutenberg [BCF, p. 676)
and Eifel I det met. I BA 60-102.
IS51 Ap. 13 I QS I Armenia I Sweden
IS50 Dec 3 I [LT), 3-f I Met I Devonshire II 4-3-d I at Yalding.

ISSI Feb. 25 I By Schmidt - near

Copernicus I "A bright point surrounded by a dark gray nimbus." I
Observatory 5/254.
IS51 Feb. 2S - March 7 lab. 5:15 p.m.
I First shock I Rhodes I slighter to
March 7 I BA 'II I A. Reg., '51-16.
[Reverse side) Many springs dried up.
IS51 March 17 I [LT) , 5-e I Large
IS51 March 24 and Ap. 2 I West Indies I great Q I [BA) 'II.
IS51 March 26 I Le Moniteur of I
Metite that fell on the "clocher" ofthe
[Reverse side) church at Larignac (Lot)
was in part "schisteuse".
IS51 Ap. 2 I [American Journal of
Science) 2121/38S I Note up to 20
more shocks.

First Quarter 1988

both of these nights.

IS51 May 241 (+) I SeeAp 2.1 Qand
[Reverse side) Quotes "one of the large met I Andes. I BA 60-90.
oldest and ablest observers in India [BCF, p. 130)
that at Madras, on 19th, from S:30 to
9:30, facing east, he had counted not IS51 June I I Calcutta I S:30 p.m. I
less than 40 meteors, from N. and splendid meteor I B.A. 52-229.
IS51 June I Cotopaxi, Ecuador, active
N.E. to S. and S.W.
IS51 Ap.19/1oc mets I 10 p.m. I At after long inaction. I Nature 4-212.
Mazagon, near Bombay, from point IS51 June 26 I 11:30 p.m. I great met
I Bath I BA 51/49.
ab IS degrees above N.E. horizon.
[Reverse side) In ab VI hour abo 20 IS51 June 22 I Met I Kingston I
mets - largest left long trains. I BA Ireland? I Proc. Roy Irish Acad
IS51 Ap. 20 I At Cawnpor[e) I mets ISSI June 29 I Le Moniteur, July I I
like 19, from S to 10 p.m. I constant S that metite fell through roof of a house
to 10 p.m. I all from north to
in Vielle (Landros).
[Reverse side) south.
IS51 July 6 I Met I Paris I 7 - det
1851 Ap. 2S I at Cuneo (Piedmont), met, Epinal I BA 60-90.
Italy I Immense swarm of butterflies.
[Reverse side) Too early in year for IS51 July 141 Q. I Calabria I Am. J.
them to have hatched out in Italy. I Sci 2-12-443 I 700 bodies found up to
Aug 26.
Taunton Courier, May 21.
IS51 Ap. 25 - May II Hurricanes I In- ISSI July 14 I Q. I Calabria I 100
miles S.E. of Naples I A.J. Sci
dia I An Reg '51-73.
IIOS5015APril2/7 I Durham I great met I IS51 July I Hun I Comorn I Q I BA
: p.m. BA 51 / 42 .
ISS 1 summer I Quincay, France I met
I (F).
IS51 July 2S1 Total eclipse sun I Norway I C.R. 3S-295.
1851 May 2/10 p.m. I Madras - sky
IS51 July 30 I Copenhagen I Met.
overcast - a circular illumination thought be from a meteor I BA train? I or thing like Burlington I B.
Assoc IS72/68.
IS51 May 8 I 10:20 p.m. I St Ives, ISSI Aug S - 12 I Mauna Loa I
Hunts I Meteor "issued from below [American Journal of Science)
Jupiter and near him". I B Assoc
ISSI Aug S - 20 I Mauna Loa I A.J.
IS51 May S I L.T. of I That ac to Sci 2/12/299, 395.
Prof. Tosti, a luminous meteor had ISS I Aug I Maximum of Perseids I
Observatory 46-169.
recently set
[Reverse side) fire to a barn at Larcla- ISSI Aug 13 I Ice lumps I New
bourg, Calabria.
Hampshire I 0-176.
IS51 May IS I 8:10 a.m. I shock I ..
California I Time of eruption of [BCF, pp. 184-ISS I See May 12,
Mauna Loa I Ref, May 13, IS50.

I Austria I BA 'II.
[Reverse side) Sim Q's, Feb. 18, ISS9.

IS51 May IS to 25 I Q - torrent 11:45 IS51 Aug. 14 I Southern Neapolitan

a.m. I Majorica (speUed Mayorque) I territory, great Q. I An Reg I SO
C.R. 33-23 I Before the shock, the
villages damaged.
[Reverse side) air was charged with
electricity. Some days before, torren- ISSI Aug 22 I 4 p.m. I West Cambridge, Mass I Tornado I Finley's
tial rains had ended a long drought.
IS51 May IS I-Spain 116- W.lndies I 17 - Cent Amer I Q's I B.A. IS51 Aug 24 I (Fr) I Q I Besancon I
C.R. 33/272.
[Reverse side) Sim Q's, Feb IS, ISS9.
IS51 Aug I [clipping from newspaper)
ISS I May 17 I (Liv) I Bushels of snails I Eruption of Mount Pelee. I Port of
fell at Bradford, abo 12 miles from Spain Gazette, 29th August, 1851.

IS51 Ap. 17 I (F) I Gutersloh, Westphalia I metite I BA 60.

[Reverse side) Stroud Free Press,.May

ISSI Ap. 19. I Ac to Dr Buist investigation, this of 19th was a mistake for
20th. I See other note.


ISS1 Sep. 1 I Light Sky I Minnesota I

Smithson Rept IS55/281.

1851 Sept. 4 I S I bodies I Read I

[Reverse side) See Herschel, Objs and
Magnetic disturbances, Oct, 1870.
[BCF, pp. 21S-219)
size of ISSI Sept 3, 6, 291 Ext auroae I Am
J. Sci 2/12/442 I 13/128, 152.

ISS I May 221 at Ennore, near Madras

I Brilliant meteor left a streak that
lasted 2 minutes.
[Reverse side] BA 52-22S.

IS51 April I Lyrids abundantI Nature

IS51 Ap. 19th lab. 10:30 p.m. I at ISSI May 22 I India I Ice Kolapore I "The entire sky in the pumpkins I (0-176).
north was seen in a perfect blaze
i~CF, pp. 184-185 I See May 12,
[Reverse side) with meteors shooting
from east to west. I BA 51-48 lab. 5
IS51 May 241 See [LT), June 16-S-d.
1851 Ap 19 and 20 I In Rept BA, I Q. I Chili.
52-226, Editor of Bombay Times IS51 May 241 Chili I Andes I "Large
Quoted that from other evidence he fireball; earthquake about the same
had concluded that there were displays time." I BA '60-91 I See Ap. 2. "

IS51 Sept 13 I [LT), 7-{; I Met.

IS51 Sept 24 I [LT), 6-b I Met.
IS51 Sept 29 I Aurora I A.J. Sci
2/121442 I 13/128, 152.
ISSI Oct 21 Aurora I Proc Roy Irish
Acad 5/222.
ISSI Oct. 5 I Met "beneath the

Pursuit 47

moon". I near Oxford I B. Assoc


apart, travelling with immense velocity, human beings and cattle raised in
1851 Oct 5 I 5:30 p.m. I Great whirl- vonex - fall of cataracts of water and
wind at Limerick I An Reg 1851-163. . masseS of ice. I
[Front side] an Reg '51-199.
1851 Oct 17 I Cut 19p.m. lat Stone I
Met from one degree under Saturn I 1851 Dec 15 I Stratford, Conn, phe
about 1-\12 0 I E to W./B Assoc ceased. I not Oct.


1851 Dec. 221 Moths I W.B. Oarke,

camping upon a mountain in the
Australian Alps I bet 6 and 7000 feet
his camp . .
[Reverse side] "About sundown an im1851 Oct 2i I (q) I Gelos, Basses- mense flight of moths came down
Pyrenees I C.R. 33/464.
from the granite peaks and nearly ex1851 Oct about 20th? I Shock in Ohio tinguished the fire. I H.C. Russell and same night a great
Climate of N.S. Wales, p. 28.
[Reverse side] meteor that left a [BCF, pp. 132-1341 See 184511.]
2O-minute train in eastern states. I
Strykers Amer Register, 1851.
1851 Feb 20, about, to March 26 I 3
red rains in China in this period I
Chambers' Joumap], N.S., 17/230.

1852 I Sleeper, Susan C. Godsey, !852 Feb 3 and 4 I Red snow I

near Hickman, Ky. I See Oct 27, Switzerland I N. Italy I Am J. Sci


1852, ab I Lum obj I Elec Intelligence I Eng Mec. 16-363, R. Packenham Williams of the Dunsink Observatory near Dublin, writes that about
the year 1872 (P writes 20 years later)
a young man was experimenting with
a telegraph wire and so he accounts
for a luminous phe he saw.
[Reverse side] He thinks that it was an
electric charge that left this wire. But
his own first view of it was when high
in the air. It had picked up a cravat
that was bleaching on a lawn and high
in the air carried it half a mile, then
dropping it. The cravat was not even

1852 Feb. 17 I Mauna Loa I See

June, '32.

1852 or 1853 I Cor to Daily Mail, Dec

13, 1922, writes that at Cotswolds he
saw in snow
[1852]1 [newspaper clipping] I More [Reverse side] strange tracks, even on
Frogs From the Sky. I Nonhern roofs. See Feb., 1855 I also ab this
News, Vryburg, Transvaal, March 21, time.
[BCF, pp. 159-1601
1851 Nov. 41 Meteor I near Braincoto
(1852)1 [A letter from] C.J. Grewar, 1852 Jan I Pol! and flames I Russia.
I 5:30 p.m. I "from just N. of
K1einpoon~ Uitenhage District, C.P., . 1852 Jan 10 I Feb 11 I Apr 30 I June
Jupiter" I B Assoc. 18521202.
South Afnca, [addressed to) Charles 30 I Aug 2, II I Nov 27 I q's I New
1851 Nov. 4 I (Cut) I 7:35 p.m. I at Fort, Esq., 39a Marchmont Street, Eng! d I Se N v 9 1810
Stone I Met from Saturn to Beta Ceti Russell Square, London. I
Dear Sir,
1852 Jan. 23 I Nellore, Madras, India
I B Assoc 18521214.
I was much interested in reading I (F).
1851 Nov. 4 I (moon) I near Aylesbury I Met as if from below and a little your letter anent "Frogs from the sky" 1852 Jan 241 q I India I Upper Sind,
to the right of the moon I B Assoc '52- which appeared in the "Rand Daily Murree HiUs I BA 'II.
Mail" of the 5th last, and it brings to 1852 Jan 241 Feb 221 July 7 I Nov.
my mind an occurrence of a similar
1851 Nov 5 I Tarragona, Spain I nature, which took place in 1852.
20 I Sim q's.
Metite I BA '60 I (F).
In that year I was travelling with [Reverse side) Sim q's, Feb 18, 1889.
lkeverse side] (F) = Nulles, Catalonia. others of my family across what is 1852 Jan 24 I - Sind, India I 241851 Nov. 11 I Met listed by Lowe as known as the SprioSbok flats, in the Mexico I 25 - Spain 126 - France I
"Curious". I Cast. Donington I Rec division of Uitenhage, and about fifty q's I BA 'II.
miles from the town of Uitenhage. At [Reverse side] Sim q's, Feb. 18, 1889.
Sci 11137.
1851 Nov. 161 Highfield House I Met a point quite close to the Cockscomb 1852 Jan 24 I India I Upper Sind I
listed by Lowe as "Curious" . I Rec Sci mountain, the highest peak of the Murree Hills I q 11111 [great] I BA
Groot Winterhoek range, we noticed 'II.
11137 I Seen by Lowe.
that the springboks in the distance 1852 Jan 24 I Op Mars I (A I).
1851 Nov 18 I Fr I Meteor at Cher- were behaving in a most extraordinary
bourg I C.R. 33/581.
manner, jumping from side to side as 1852 Jan 25 I Gardeners' Chronicle,
1851 Nov. 2D? I Singular tide I L.T., though being tickled. On closer ap- Feb. 141 Cor sends tracings he made
1851, Nov 20/3/c.
proach, we were amazed to find that around lumps of ice that fell from sky
cause was numbers of frogs and at [Car]clew, Jan. 25.
1851 end of Nov, to early in Aug.,
[Reverse side] It was a th. storm. Ice
18521 Very few meteors, ac to an ob- small fresh water fish commonly fell abo 3 p.m.
server's records, in Rept BA 1852-215. known as "Kirpers" pouring from the
skies. At the time, and for some hours 1852 Jan 25 I [illustration] I [Fon's
1851 Nov. 24 - 30 I Livomo I (It) I previously, a strong westerly wind was free-hand copy of tracing made
Sound I Rumblings II Dec 161 rumb- blowing. Some of the old people in the around lump of ice) I [original note
lings and rise and fall of the sea I See neighborhood informed me that a missing I copied from The Forteon,
similar occurrence had previously no. 25, p. 391, c. I).
1851 Nov. I Harry Phelps, Stratford,
Conn., polt boy, sent to a boarding
school in Philadelphia.
[Reverse side] Here, school disturbed
by loud raps, and his clothes were tom
to ribbons.

185 I Nov 291 Ext. spots on sun I Am

J. Sci 2113/442.
ISSI Dec. 1 I Beeston Observatory. I
Met seen by Lowe listed by him as
"Curious". I Rec Sci 1/137.
1851 Dec 8 I Prof. DeGaspari, of
Naples, discovered very faint star
"near Saturn, which he considered a
new planet. I Am J. Sci 2/13/28. I
[Reverse side] P. 42 I Prof Challi I
must have bee[n] Japetus, one of the
sats of Satur[n] - if so -.

18521 Have Friend of India this year


taken place.
The vehicle we were using was what
is today known as a Voonrekkers
wagon, and this was the only type of
vehicle in use in those days. I may
mention I made a model of this vehicle, and it is now to be seen in the
South African exhibit at Wembley.
Yours faithfully,
sl c.J. Grewar.
[BCF, pp. S44-545]

1851 Dec. 8 I Waterspout? I Two

enormous waterspouts swept over Sicily - 2 "immense spherical bodies of

1852 I White hairs said been found

after a q, in China I Nature 34-86.

[Reverse side] their cones nearly touching the earth, at a quarter of a mile

1852, ab I Dunsink, near Dublin I

obj and the necktie I See Lum Objs.

Pursuit 48

1852 and 1885 and 1897, Dec 3 I

Moodus Sounds.

1852 Jan. 25 I [illustration] I [Fort's

free-hand copy of tracing made
around lump of ice] I [original note
missing I copied from The FOr/ean,
no. 25, p. 391, c. 2).
1852 Jan 25 I [illustration) I [Fort's
free-hand copy of tracing made
around lump of ice] I [original note
missing I copied from The Forteon,
no. 25, p. 391, c. 3).
1852 Jan 26 I 2 a.m. I q I Castillonsur-Dordogne I NMI C.R.341218/q.
1852 Jan 261 (q and sky) I (Gironde,
etc.) 12:15 a.m. I Detonation and q I
Bordeaux I "The sky at the time was
of a dark reddish color as if from the
effects of a luminous fire at a
distance. I Sc. Am., 7-208.

1852 Feb 191 Ext. aurora I Am J. Sci

1852 Feb 19 I At Delaware College,
at 10:05 p.m., a column of the aurora
passed precisely over Mars. I Am J.
Sci 2-13-430.
1852 Feb 21 I [L T], S-f I Spon.
1852 Feb. 22 I France and Central
Asia I qs I BA 'II.
[Reverse side] Sim q's, Feb 18, 1889.
1852 Feb 23 I [LTJ, 8-f I Aurora.
1852 Feb. 29 I Observations at Santiago de Chili, 7:40 p.m., of an
unknown star
[Reverse side) - one that could not
afterward be recognized. I Sid Mess
1852 March 11 17:56 p.m. I Dieppe I
Met. I C.R. 34-772.
1851 Mar 18 lAp. 30 I Sept. 25 I 3
aerolites in tho storm in India I Brit
Assoc 18521239.
[BCF, pp. 101-102]
1852 March 24 - 25 I See Aug., 1890.
I Spain I Prussia I La Belgique Hortico1e 21319.
IBCF, p. 4091 See July 17, 1822.]
1852 March 30 I Red Rain I Lyons I
R - May 26, '46.
1852 Ap. 1 15:30 a.m. I Winscombe,
Axbridge I q I LT 12-7-f.
1852 Ap. 2 I Bolide I France I C.R.
1852 Ap. 8 I ab 7 p.m. I A pillar of
fire, vertical, western sky, extending
abo 15 degrees from horizon at a
point near intersection of the ecleptic
with the horizon. - lasted ab 20
minutes - appeared to follow the
[Reverse side] LT,Ap. 10-6-b/l2-7-f
I 14-5-c I 15-8-e I 28-8-f.
1852 Ap 10 I [LT] , 5-f I 15-8-e I
21-8-c I Atmospheric phe in London.
1852 Ap. 10 I [LT] , 5-f I 15-8-e I
21-8-c I Atmospheric phe I London.
1852 April 9 I ab I a.m. I London I
Heaven seemed aflame. "Messenger
after messenger arrived
[Reverse side] at Brigade, West of
Englan[d] fire engine station, requesting the aid of the firemen to subdue wha[t] was supposed to be a terrible fire."
[Front side] L.T. - April 10.
1852 Ap 91 London I Sky fire I LT
10-5-f, etc.
[Reverse side] See Met and A L in index. I A column had been seen from
1852 April I Auroras I See Aug 21. I
1852 April I Auroral (beam) I Am J.
Sci 21141130.
(1"0 be contiDUed)

First Quarter 1988

The Society For The Investigation of The Unexplained

Mail: SITU/PURSUIT, P.O. Box 265, Little Silver, NJ 07739-0265 USA Tel: (201) 842-5229
Robert C. Warth President; Gregory Arend, Vice-President; Nancy L. Warth, Secretary
and Treasurer; Trustees: Gregory Arend, Marie Cox, Nancy Warth, Robert C. Warth,
Martin Wiegler, Albena Zwerver.
Dr. George A. Agoglno, Distinguished Director of Anthropology Museums and
Director, Paleo-Indian Institute, Eastern New Mexico University (Archaeology)
Dr. Carl H. Delacato, Director, The Institute for the Rehabilitation of the Brain InJured, Morton, Pa. (Mentalogy)
Dr. Stuart W. Greenwood, Operations Manager. University Research Foundation,
University of Maryland (Aerospace Engineering)
Dr_ Martin Kruskal, Program In Applied Mathematics and Computational
Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
Dr. Samuel B. McDowell, Professor of Biology, Rutgers the State University,
Newark, New Jersey (General Biology)
Dr. Vladimir Markotlc, Professor of Anthropology, Department of Archaeology,
University of Alberta, Canada (Ethnosociology and Ethnology)
Dr. Michael A. Persinger, Professor, Department of Psychology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario. Canada (Psychology)
Dr. Frank B. Salisbury, Plant Science Department, College of Agriculture, Utah
State University (Plant Physiology)
Dr. Berthold Eric Schwarz, Consultant, National Institute for Rehabilitation
Engineering, Vero Beach, Florida (Mental Sciences)
Dr. Michael D. Swords, Professor, Department of General Studies Science,
Western Michigan University (Natural Science)
Dr. Roger W. Wescott, Professor and Chairman, Department of Anthropology,
Drew UniverSity, Madison, N.J. (Cultural Anthropology and LingUistics)
Dr. A. Joseph Wralght, Chief Geographer, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey,
Washington, D.C. (Geography and Oceanography)
Dr_ Robert K. Zuck, Professor and Chairman, Department of Botany, Drew University, Madison, N.J. (Botany)
Zoologist, biologist, botanist and geologist Ivan T. Sanderson, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., in association with a number of other distinguished authors, established in 1965 a "foundation" for the exposition and research of the paranormal - those "disquieting mysteries of the natural world" to which
they had devoted much of their investigative lifetimes.
As a means. of persuading other professionals, and non-professionals haVing interests similar to
their own, to enlist in an uncommon cause, the steering group decided to publish a newsletter. The
first issue came out in May 1967. The response, though not overwhelming, was sufficient to reassure
the founding fathers that public interest in the what, why and where of their work would indeed survive them.
Newsletter No.2, dated March 1968, announced new plans for the Sanderson foundation: a structure larger than its architects had first envisioned was to be built upon it, the whole to be called the
Society for the Investigation of The Unexplained, as set forth in documents filed with the New Jersey
Secretary of State. The choice of name was prophetic, for Dr. Sanderson titled one of the last of his
two-dozen books "Investigating the Unexplained," published in 1972 and dedicated to the Society.
Another publication was issued in June 1968, but "newsletter" was now a subtitle; above it the
name PURSUIT was displayed for the first time. Vol. I, No.4 in September 1968 ("Incorporating
the fourth SOciety newsletter") noted that "the abbreviation SITU has now been formally adopted as
the designation of our Society." Issue number 4 moreover introduced the Scientific Advisory Board,
listing the names and affiliations of the advisors. Administrative matters no longer dominated the
contents; these were relegated to the last four of the twenty pages. Most of the issue was given over
to investigative reporting on phenomena such as "a great armadillo (6 feet long, 3 feet high) said to
have been captured in Argentina" - the instant transportation of solid objects "from one place to
another and even through solids" - the attack on the famed University of Colorado UFO Project headed
by Dr. Edward U. Condon - and some updated information about "ringing rocks" and "stone spheres."
Thus SITU was born, and thus PURSUIT began to chronicle our Investigation of The Unexplained.

Printed in U.S.A.

ISSN 0033-4685

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Journal of SITU
Society for the
Investigation of
The Unexplained


A new quatrain written through Katie, an illiterate, in a

trance state by Nostradamus, physician and prophet of the
sixteenth century (see article on page 50).

Volume 21
Number 2
Whole No. 82
Second Quarter

The Society For The Investigation Of The Unexplained

Mail: SITU/PURSUIT, P.O. Box 265, Little Silver, NJ 07739-0265 USA Tel: (201) 842-5229
SITU (pronounced sit you) is a Latin word meaning "place." SITU is also an acronym referring
SITU exists for the purpose of collecting data on une~plaineds, promoting proper investigation of individual reports and general subjects, and reporting significant data to its members.
The Society studies unexplained events and "things" of a tangible nature that orthodox science,
for one reason or another, does not or will not study.
You don't have to be a professional or even an amateur ;cientist to join SITU.
Membership is for the calendar year, January-December: in the United States, $12 for one year; $23
for two years; $33 for three years. Membership in other countries is subject to surcharge, to cover higher
cost of mailing. Amount of surcharge, which varies according to region, will be quoted in response to
individual request. Members receive the Society's quarterly journal PURSUIT plus any special SITU
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prior to the current publishing year) are available for all past years. Send check or money order for total
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SITU welcomes members' participation. Articles, photographs, newspaper and magazine clips, book
reviews and other contents including " the editors" should be sent to SITU/PURSUIT at the
above address if they are to be considered for publication in PURSUIT. The Society assumes no responsibility for unsolicited material and will not return unaccepted manuscripts unless provided with an
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All mail, inc.luding changes of address, library orders, postal errors, back-issue requests, renewals, :
gift memberships and.donations, should be sent to SITU/PURSUIT at the post office box address at
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SITU has reference files which include original reports, newspaper and magazine clippings, correspondence, audio tapes, films, photographs, drawings and maps, and actual specimens. Reasonable
research requests will be answered by mail, but because of the steadily increasing demands upon staff
time, a fee for research will be charged. Members requesting information should enclose an addressed,
stamped envelope with the inquiry so that they may be advised of the charge in advance.
The legal affairs of the Society are managed by a Board of Trustees in accordance with the laws of
the State of New Jersey. The Society is c9unselled by a panel of prominent scientists designated the
Scientific Advisory Board (see inside bac~ cover).
The Society is unable to offer and is not obligated to render any services to non-members.
The Society does not hold any political, religiOUS corporate or social views. Opinions expressed
in PURSUIT concerning such matters, and any aspect of human medicine or psychology, the social
sciences or law, religion or ethics, are those of the individual member or author and not necessarily
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The Society's membership list is restricted to mailing the journal PURSUITand special SITU publications, and as necessary to the administration of SITU's internal affairs. Names and addresses on this
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Contributions to SITU, but not membership dues, are tax deductible to the extent permitted by
the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, and in some states as their taxing authorities may permit.
The Society's journal PURSUIT is published quarterly. In each year the issues are numbered respectively from 1 through 4 and const.tute a volume, Volume I being for 1968 and before, Volume 2 for
1969, and so on. Redu~ed-rate subscriptions to PURSUIT without membership benefits, are available
to public libraries and.libraries of colleges, universities and high schools at $10 for the calendar year.
The contents of PURSUIT is fully protected by international copyright. Permission to reprint articles
or portions thereof may be granted, at the direction of SITU and the author, upon written request and
statement of proposed use, directed to SITU /PURSUIT at the post office address printed at the top
of this page.







Katie: Nostradamus Automatic Writing, Possible Direct Writing and
Psychic Nexus of an llliterate (Part I of II Parts)

by Berthold E. Schwarz, M.D.


The UFO Impact (Part II of a IV -Part Series)

by Jean-Pierre Petit. Ph.D.


Sky Anomalies - Oceanic My&teries

by Gary S. Mangiacopra
'Big Creature' Hoaxes




The Psychic Connection

by R. Perry Collins


What If Scientists Accepted Psi?

by John Thomas Richards, Ph.D.


Will the 'Real' Stonehenge Please Stand Up

The Greene County Films -

An Approach to Seeing U.F.O.s

by Gary Levine, Ph.D.

Our Gods Were Physical Beings -

or 100 Trillion Gods

by Pasqual Sebastian Schievella. Ph.D.


Conference Reports

Michael D. Swords. Ph.D. and Robert C. Warth

Letters to the Editor
The Notes of Charles Fort

Deciphered by Carl J. Pabst



On Invisibility
In the study of nature's unexplaineds
there is one factor that often plays a major part in stiffling the efforts of investigators, namely, invisibility. And, yet, it
almost seems to be accepted as being so
obvious that there is no purpose in looking for it.
It does not necessarily mean that invisibility - if I may use that word - has
one, simple explanation that is the same in
each case or category where it "appears."
It may be multifaceted, vary in wavelength or intensity, be related to time or
some physical variable of energy, or as
some claim is a particular state of molecular vibration.
Dr. Schwarz tells us, here, that not only
does "Nostradamus" appear to Katie but
apparently he may not appear to others in
the same room. Dr. Levine and Perry
Collins, in their articles, describe UFOs
that can be seen and/or recorded on film
that also may be invisible to others in their
methods of examination. And, Dr. Richards is well aware, as he says, of psi events
that occur but that are limited in study by
their unseen properties.
Some Forteans will argue among themselves that ghosts and parapsychological
subjects are not in the realm of Forteana,
yet they will discuss UFOs, Bigfoot, Nessie, mysterious big cats and vanishing
kangaroos, etc., as if invisibility were not
a factor in many or all of these sightings.
Is invisibility an "aether" that permeates all realities or a force that protects
those in other dimensions from us - perhaps an inseparable variable of that "fifth
force" that scientists and philosophers
have for centuries alluded to but have
never gotten close enough to catch?
Whatever invisibility is, perhaps we
should consider giving this "matter"
more attention.

Pursuit Vol. 21. No.2, Whole No. 82 Second Quarter 1988. Copyright 1988 by The Society for the Investigation of the Unexplained. ISSN 0033-4685.
No part of this periodical may be reproduced without the written consent of the Society. Robert C. Warth, Publisher and Editor. Nancy Warth. Production
Editor. Martin Wiegler. Consulting Editor, Charles Berlitz, Research Editor and Oceanographic Consultant.

Second Quarter 1988

Pursuit 49

Katie: Nostradalilus AutoBlatic Writing,

Possible Direct Writing and Psychic Nexus
of .an Illiterate (Part I of II Parts)
by Berthold E. Schwan,: M.D.
Automatic writing occurs': in a dissociative state and is
related to the psychopathology of everyday life and trancelikestate behavior; viz. doodling, daydreaming, slips of the
tongue, use of the ouija board and dowsing. Automatic
writing can be a useful psychiatric tool in probing the unconscious and in helping to resolve conflicts. Occasionally,
the contents of the messages are apparently paranormal.
When so, they are most commonly telepathic and rarely
precognitive. Although there are often claims for sometimes
fanciful discarnate communications, the evidence for that is
usually thin. However, there are exceptions to this.
A famous example is Oahspe, automatically typed by Dr.
John B. Newbrough/ an entranced New York dentist, a century ago. It was purportedly undertaken by the agency of
spirits who, through Dr. Newbrough, produced a scholarly,
detailed work that drew from various ancient and modern
languages that Dr. Newbrough did not know and which foretold, in some instances, events far in the future. There is one
aspect of the NewbroughlOahspe case I've often wondered
about, which may not be relevant to the present discussion.
However, at the time that Newbrough was sitting up all night
writing Oahspe, then working all day as a dentist, cocaine and
nitrous oxide were part of the standard equipment in any dentist's office. Was Dr. Newbrough sniffing cocaine and inhaling laughing gas more or less -simultaneously during the
period that he wrote the long Oahspe manuscript at such extraordinary speed? Dr. Newbrough could also paint with
both hands in darkness.
Another example of alleged paranormal automatic writing
are the poems, prose (and talk with guests), in the works of
the entity, Patience Worth,4 who wrote in archaic English of
two to three centuries ago and who communicated through
Mrs. John H. Curran of St. Louis, Missouri, at first through
the ouija board, and later through automatic writing, about
the time of the first World War and in the 1920's. In both
cases, neither Dr. Newbrough nor Mrs. Curran had the previous'scholarship and knowledge to produce what they did,
. however, they could both read and write, and they held responsible positions in their society.
Direct writing can be traced back to the Biblical example of
the Writing on the Wall (Daniel, Chapter V, verse 5). In
direct writing, script is produced with a pen or other instrument, or presumably, directiy materializes but with no known
human agency holding the pen. Some modern examples of
this are the controlled, automatically filmed studies provided
by the SORRAT!" group.
Also, Matthew Manning has repeatedly written messages in
"Italian, German, Greek, Latin, Arabic and various Eastern
tongu~s as well as old English or,Saxon.'" Both the SORRAT material, Manning and other datal could be profitably
Recently, Montague Ullman, 9 eminent psychiatrist and researcher of psi, wrote about his personal, extraordinary experiences of direct writing when he was about sixteen and participated with a group of other teenagers from 1932 to 1934.
Pursuit 50

At that time, six young men had a series of Saturday night

seances for almost two years, from which communications
were received from an alleged dead physician, Dr. Bindelof,
who contacted the young men by direct writing and other
paranormal means. Thirty-three years later, five of the surviving "core group" were reassembled by Dr. Ullman and
they reviewed and confirmed the previous events and data.
Needless to say, the impact on the young men and, in particular, on Dr. Ullman's later outstanding career, was farreaching.
My personal experiences with automatic writing beyond
the common everyday variety includes hypnotizing a young
woman who was suffering from chronic, intractable hiccuping and who, when entranced, in addition to relief from her
symptoms, could write disparate thoughts with both hands
simultaneously while I was talking to her. The other possibly
related example pertains to Jacques Romano, '0 the nonagenarian paragnost,' and his "spirit reading." He would
telepathically perceive specific, significant events, including
dates and physical symptoms, about the deceased person,
who was well known to the subject over a long period of time.
At the conclusion of Romano's trance-like state and his
sometimes associated transfiguration, he would have the subject take the rolled-up piece of cigarette paper that the subject
held between his thumb and forefinger, and which was opposed to a pencil point, open the paper, and look inside. For
proper identification, the subject had previously torn off a
corner of the paper. The subject invariably found the signature of the Christian name of the one about whom he was
thinking on the torn piece of paper. The subjects frequently
said that the signatures were good fascimilies. Romano confided to me that he telepathically got the name but that he, in
fact, wrote the signature earlier and switched the roll of paper
in the subject's hands when no one, including' myself, ever
saw him do this; Romano was proud that no magician or
"psychic" had ever duplicated his feat. Finally, a personal instance of purported direct writing pertains to Peter Sugleris
who, according to his teenage male cousin, was seen to be
painting in oils while entranced and "then Peter stepped back
and the brush kept going by itsel f.""

In two previous studies,':'" Katie, a Vero Beach, Florida,
housewife, while being videotaped under good lighting conditions and often in the presence of multiple witnesses, produced various mental and physical paranormal phenomena including forty-four instances of apparent "gold" (actually
copper foil) which materialized on her body and, rarely, on
the bodies of other people and even in sealed containers. The
foil never dematerialized. Also during the study Katie has; on
occasion, produced; (while entranced), writings in what appeared to be old French. Sometimes the writings just turned
up on papers which were found around her home or she said
that the writings happened by themselves: direct writing by
unaided, capped pen while she watched in amazement, or
materialization of writing ~ithout any pen or pencil. On three
Second Quarter 1988

occasions, two of which were witnessed by others than

myself, automatic writings in old French were videotaped
while they were being produced. The communications were
attributed to an "Old Guy" ... Nostradamus. Aside from the
curiosity about how this could happen, there is the question
about the possible meanings of the communication; both for
Katie and her family; those present at the research room sessions and, on a wider scale, for society and the world at large.
Katie was the tenth of twelve children born in Copperhill,
Tennessee, a mountain hamlet on the border of Georgia and
North Carolina. Because of her mother's acute paralytic illness "from her waist down," which happened shortly after
one of her older children had unexpectedly left home and
taken her baby, which Katie's mother had been raising, Katie
had to discontinue her schooling in the ~econd grade and
assume care for her mother and the home (cooking, cleaning,
washing, hauling water), and performing physical therapy of
her mothe;. Consequently, she never learned to read and
write. Although she write her name, and she knows the
letters of the alphabet, she cannot synthesize them into
words. And while she knows 1lumbers, she is hardly able to
perform simple arithmetic. Katie is an intelligent woman
who, from early childhood, has always had to struggle and
work hard in order to survive. She has an excellent reputation
as a mother and worker. There has never been any question
of sociopathic traits such as lying or dishonesty. She does not
use excessive amounts of alcohol, nor does she used unprescribed drugs. She has been smoking cigarettes since thirteen
years of age.
Furthermore, now that we are into the fifth year of our
studies, she has always been truthful during formal research
sessions, home visits and later psychotherapeutic meetings.
She is not a professional medium and she has no zeal to proselytize or promote any particular viewpoint. She has not
been filled with ideas and notions by any organized group. In
view of her illiteracy, it seemed that Katie's inbuilt psychobiological-cognitive controls give added significance to the alleged Nostradamus writings. For if their production is a fact,
how then can the fragmented verses in old French be explained when Katie and her family do not speak, have knowledge
of, or ready access to any other language than English? There
is sparse reading material in the home and the family does not
get a local newspaper. When Katie and her husband are not
working seven days and nights a week, they catch glimpses of
television on the limited three channels available on aerial
(non-cable) television. Once, a few years ago, when the fami:"
ly had cable television and after her Nostradamus writing had
already begun, Katie saw a special program, Orson Welles'
TV docudrama on Nostradamus.
In this report, various background factors that might relate
to the production of the old French writings are described.
Then the actual communications and how they might have
taken place are detailed. Katie's old French and accompanying translations by George Andrews, a French scholar, .are
then presented. Also, Mr. Andrews' insightful comments and
possible alternative meanings are supplied in footnotes with
subsequent, serial verses. At the conclusion of the examples,
there is a brief discussion of Katie's possible physical and psychophysiological factors and their correlations with her
trancelike, emotional status.

References and Notes

I. Fodor, Nandor: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. University

Books, Inc., New Hyde Park, N.Y., 1966.

2. Muhl, Anita M.: Automatic Writing. Theodor Steinkopff,

Second Quarter 1988

Dresden and Leipzig, 1930.

3. Newbrough, John Ballou: Oahspe. (PP), 1882. Reprinted in 1960
by the Amherst Press, Amherst, Wisconsin.
4. Yost, Casper W.: Patience Worth. Patience Worth Publishing
_Company, New York, 1925.
5. Richards, J.: SORRAT - A History of the Neihardt Psychokinesis Experiments, /96/-/98/. Scarecrow Press, Inc.,
Metuchen, NJ, 1982.
6. Cox, William Edward: unpublished manuscript on SORRAT.
7. Manning, Matthew: The Link. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New
8. One of the most enigmatic trance writings that I have ever come
across was reported by a leading inventor-engineer at a Hollywood, Florida, Psychic Society meeting February 2, 1985. In
1957, the inventor's nine-year-old daughter suddenly interrupted
her playing at home and asked her parents for a piece of paper.
"I have to write something," she said. She took the only thing
available, her father's paycheck envelope, and proceeded to fill it
with peculiar, unrecognizable script. The father told me that it
looked like shorthand. He took the envelope upstairs and put it in
a drawer, where it stayed until 1967. One day he came home and
threw a magazine (No.1 edition of Flying Saucer UFO Reports.
Dell, 1967) on the table. Shortly afterward, when looking at the
magazine, he was shocked to note an article featuring pictures of
glyphs obtained by a sixty-five-year-old florida UFO contactee
on thin tissue paper in the sand dunes of Weeki-Wachi Springs on
March 2, 1965 (also see Schwarz, B.E.: UFO-Dynamics, Book II,
Rainbow Books, Moore Haven, florida, 1983, p. 351). The
father rushed upstairs and found his daughter's original writings.
. He noted that the first thirteen characters of the message were
identical to his daughter's glyphs. Therefore, a nine-year-old girl
had wriuen the exact message eight years before the florida UFO
contactee discovered his message at an alleged UFO landing site
and ten years before the magazine article was published. Inspection of the scripts revealed so many intricate pauerns that it is
hard to imagine how under any circumstances, including coincidence, the precise configurations could have been so perfectly
matched. The father wondered if the message that his daughter
had received was a hoax by an entity "not of this planet." In
1952, the father "was giving lectures on UFOs and 1957 was an
active year for UFO reports." In a letter to me years later, he
wondered if "someone from outer space was trying to 'con' me
through my daughter. As usual, I am long on questions and short
on answers." In my interview of the researcher and his wif~, it
was apparent that they both had lifetimes of high-quality psi.
However, they never directly related this to their interests in closely allied UFO material. On the contrary, the man felt that the
UFO data was independent of psi. Both the adoptive daughter
and adoptive son had many later possible psychic experiences. A
more recent twist to these symbols can be found in William S.
Steinman'S and Wendelle C. Stevens' book, UFO Crash al Aztec
(UFO Photo Archives, P.O. Box 17206, Tucson, Arizona 85710).
A generous sample of "Sanscrit-like" script found on an alleged
UFO that crashed at Aztec, New Mexico, March 25, 1948, was.
"turned over to this nation's two topmost experts in cryptology. "
There were symbols which resembled the above mentioned
daughter's (opus cit. pp. 40-42; also see Gordon S.: "The
Military UFO Retrieval at Kecksburg, Pennsylvania," PURSUIT, Volume 20, Number 4, 1987: p. 177).
9. Pilkington, Rosemarie ed .. Ullman, M. in Men and Women of
ParapSYChology: Personal Reflections. McFarland & Company,
Jefferson, NC, 1987.
10. Schwarz, B.E.: The Jacques Romano Story. University Books,
Inc., New Hyde Park, NY, 1968.
11. Schwarz, B.E.: "The Miracles of Peter Sugleris," unpublished
12. Schwarz, B.E.: "Presumed Physical Mediumship and UFO's,"
Flying Soucer Review, Vol. 31, No.6, October, 1986: pp. 18-21.
13. Schwarz, B.E.: "Apparent Materialization pf Copper Foil, Case
Report: Katie." PURSUIT, Volume 20, November 4, 1987: pp.

Pursuit 51

.: .:... :........ .
. .: : . .
. .
... ..:. :~.: .. ;" .
. :.. ::;. ::


:.: :. : ..


Figure I-Propped pool cues with note below.

Figure l-With note removed billiard balls spell oul "OK."

Example 1
At 3:35 p.m., November 14, 1985, Katie telephoned me
after returning home from picking her daughter up at o;~hool.
Earlier in the day, she discovered that her dining room
chandelier wa~ turned on its side, experimental spccimeno; of
bovine aonic rings in a sealed bottle were "minced," four
psychic (?) apponed (?) photographs of her dcceascu
(murdered?) brOlher in his coftin were again mis'iing, and thc
deformed stray cat that her son had recently .brought home
wac; pacing the floor .. Katie said that in the family room. two
cue sticks on the pool table were propped up against ea~h
other like a church steeple. The billiard balls, which were
formerly in their triangular frame, were then in the middle of
the table and arranged so that they' spelled out the lettcrs "0
K." There was a page from her daughter's notebook on thc
table, with a pencil inscribed "Heather" that I' had rcccntly
given her, pointing at the paper which had penciled printing
in what appeared to be old French (see Figures 1 & 2).
Katie's husband and son were away from home. Although
ther~ were no ostensible immediate precipitating events, Katic
had been recently split by a series of life-threatening trauma~.
She had been repeatedly abused on the t<;lephone by a strangc
male voice and presumably this person was the one who had,
three weeks previously, broken into her house and beatcn her
up. The sheriff was called and, despite numerous crimes and
repeated warnings, they were never able to apprehend the
assailant. Katie's domestic situation was also strained. Thc
message read:
A son haul! pris
pi usia lerme Sabee,
D humaine chair par
Mon en cendres
Alisle Pharas Par
Croisars penubec,
Alors qua Rodes parols
tra dun espectne.
Mr. Andrews wrote about "espectre," "It was not clear in
the original script whether this was an 'N' or an 'R.' I interpreted it as an 'R.'''
Taken from above
no more Sabaean tears
human flesh by death burned into ashes
at the island of Pharos disturbed by Crusaders
while at Rhodes words camc from a ghml.

If the message ha'i any meaning that is applicable to h:.uic

and her situation, it should lirst be admiued that therc are no
controls that mil.' out collusion or some trick. Thc cvcnt hap
pened during dangerous times and brought the 'ihcrin"o; 'ofIke, the telephone company and neighbors onto the o;cenc. II"
'iOme religious fanatic or deranged person cOlllrivcu the
beating and threats to Katie and her family and also pointedly
indicated his awareness of her involvement in our paranormal
psychiatric researchers, then questions arise abolll how thi~
message was accomplished under the time frame and houo;e
hold circumstan~:es. What pt.irpose did it serve? 'If the ao;o;ail
ant, for example, had broken into Katie\ housc a o;ccond
time and left the old French message and other clTccts, how
did he do this without leaving additional clues? Why SLOp at
this harmless intervention? Why the eSOleric motifo;? It iii
unlikely that Katie, who is illiterate, could have donc thio; by
herself, and equally so for her husband and childrc'n, who
were either at work or in elementary school when the CVCnto;
took plal.'e. The family has limited reading material available
and no one in the home is familiar with old French. It can be
speculated that the pool table cue sticks arrangcd in a .church
'iteeple-like pattern and the "Heather" inscribed pcncil, pointing to the billiard balls arranged in an "0 h: ,:. arc rCHo;suring:
i.e. calm, sanctity, and religion. (Nostradamus wao; a dcvout
Roman Catholic, at least superlicially. As a converh..><.i .lew
practicing medicine, it wac; the only possible way to survivc
during that historical period in France.) A message from the
distant pa'it' and steeped in scholarship symbolizing the
psychic tracer of Nostradamus, referring to the Sabacan~
with a reputation for magic and astrology mctamorphizing
with science,. and .concluding with the built-in allu'iion LO a
ghost, might give comfon to the family by the possible implications of the end of the death -threats, dangers and their
current ordeal but it is so general and vague' ~hat t hc samc
reasoning could be applicable .and symbolic of the horror~
associated with the space shuttle Challenger dis..1.ster on
.Ianuary 28, 1986, which happened and I witnessed at the exact juncture when I picked up and read Mr. Andrcws' translation from the morning mail. In Katie's traumatized condition and during .perilous times, something new and powerful
had entered her life and experimental situalion.

Pursuit 52

References and Notes

I. When this writing wa~ sent to George Andrews, he rcs[lOnded a~
follows: "The communication is in anciem French, whkh make~

Second Quarter 1988

it diflk:-ult. Roughly thc medieval period. which i~ in al\."Ord with

the tcxt of thc mcso;,u!.c. Thc Sabaeans were one of tho'>C ob~urc
minor o;ects like the- Mandeans and the Druo;c. inhabiting thc
general area of Ninevch. though in deep antiquity thcy lived further o;oUlh in thc Arabian peninsula. The s..1baeano; maintained
pagan beliefs long after ~urrounding population~ had been con
vcned to \O;lam or Christianity. They were l"Ono;idered hcathen
o;tarworshipers by both Moslems and Christiano;. and were
suspected of pral1icing forbidden magic. induding human
sacrilicc. Thev were famous for their ability a ... ao;trologcrs. Thcy
produced a brilliant sUl,:ession of scholars and scicnti~to;. and wcrc
highly rcspel1ed at the l"Oun of Harun al-Rao;hid. after which thcy
fade from historical records. Pharos wa~ thc in thc bay of
Akxandria <ramou, for it;; library. destroYl'(\ by both Chri ...tian
and and Moo;lcm fanatics} on which Ptolemy II built a tower of
whitc marble 135 meters high. with mirror... on its top to rcl1Cl1 thc
lire which wao; kept burning there at night ao; a light-houo;e lor
navigation. My dk1ionary says that this tower l"OUapsed in 1302.
but does not give any cause tor its coUapo;e. Thc io;land of Rhodes
was invaded and conquered by Crusaders in 13!JJ. It io; pos~iblc
that theo;c o;ame Crusaders also invaded the ncarby io;land of
Pharos. and destroyed what to them was a heathcn monumcnt.
These days act"Ord wcll with the medieval Frcnch in which thc
l"Ommunication is cxpressed."

parently, Katie and the family were unaware of the existence

of the message, and they were all agitated and frightened. Apparently the one (assailant) who made the threats was not too
careful in protecting his own identity or risk of apprehension.
He seemed to be asking for it.
Perhaps the translation' of the message might have given
Katie reason to have faith because, no matter how great her
perturbation and the danger of her present predicament, as
past events have been, the present ones will still be finally accounted for by Jove (Jehovah) who is disgusted with such
goings-on, perhaps brought about by the misguided zeal of
religious fanatics (possibly her assailant). This serial message
could be an indication to Katie that she is not alone and that
her tormentor, who seemingly continues to get away with his
stunts and make a mockery of law enforcement (the world is
retarded), disgusts the Jovialiste and the perversion of his
teachings by the zealots (eccleasticallawyers). If an alter personality of Katie's, for example, the entity Nostradamus, had
actually written the message for which she could have had
complete amnesia, the modus operandi would still be inexplicable, in view of her illiteracy.
References and Notes

Example 2,.
Upon my return to my office at 4:00 p.m. on February S,
1986, there were three taped messages, presumably from
Katie, on the telephone answering machine: shrill, intermittent blipping and whistling and Katie's alter-personality, muffled, unintelligibl~ voice. Later, when I sPoke to Katie on the
telephone, she said that she had received more menacing calls
from her assailant and that he had come to her door, looked
in and said "Hi." He also wrote obscenities and left numerous fingerprints on her glass, locked panel door. I jumped in
the car with my former roommate and scientific collaborator
from Mayo Foundation days, B.A. Ruggieri, M.D., who was
then visiting me. We drove to Katie's house and interviewed
her, her son and daughter, and two friends or'lhe son. While
there, I noticed a yellowed piece of paper on the pool table. It
had old French penciled printing which Dr. Ruggieri attempted to translate. The detectives were called and Katie's
husband returned from work. Katie was extremely upset over
the threats and perhaps equally so by specific tumultuous
domestic developments beyond her control. The message
Le tern pes present
avecques Ie passe
sera juge par grand
Ie monda tard
lui sera lasse
et desloyal par
Ie clerge juriste
Present time
with the past
will be judged by the great
the world is retarded
it will disgust him
and the betrayal by
ecclesiastical lawyers
This message also happened at a time of crisis and perceived threat to Katie's and her children's lives. I discovered
the message on the pool table where the previous one was,
and it can be conjectured that this development might have
been related to the author's purpose: i.e. a "set up." Ap-

1. In his translation notes, George Andrews wrote: "The word

Jovialiste is interesting. Some of its associations: jovial, Jove,
Jupiter and Jehovah. As I translated this, one thing that came
strongly to mind was something from a quatrain of Nostradamus,
in which he referred to Judgement day as 'the day the sun takes
back its days.' Also one of the Mazdean prayers: 'May we be
among those who bring about the transformation of the earth.' "

Second Quarter 1988

Example 3: February 2.2, 1986

The police and telephone company were frantically trying
to solve the case of Katie's assault, telephone harassment, and
continuous threats to Katie and her children. The assailant
again told her that he knew about her visits to my office.
Finally, through their own sleuthing, Katie and her husband
visited two young. suspect men whom they learned about
through questioning, and one of the men conformed to
Katie's description and the police composite drawing, allowing for a wig and moustache.
In the research session on February 20, 1986, one of the
guests was my condominium neighbor, Ernest Gervais, who
has a French surname' and who is chiefly of French descent. Although Katie produced no physical phenomena, one
of her trance entities, who refused to be identified, said that
there would soon be more French writing, either in my office
or in her house. Later that same day, while visiting my other
immediate condominium neighbor, an accomplished pianist,
she volunteered the information that her protege from her
university hometown had become a medieval French scholar.
Something seemed to be happening.
On February 20, 1986, I.gave Katie a typed query directed
to "respected entities" which was modeled on the format that
was successfully used in the SORRAT mini-lab experiments
in Rolla, Missouri, where direct writing had been recorded on
film under controlled conditions: "Respected Entities: Are
you aware of the work and the communications of Dr. John
G. Neihardt; John King, Rector: Imperator and the others?
Who has written the beautiful, ancient French quatrains?
How can we help Katie to become a better channel for you to
give information?"
Katie telephoned me at 4:45 p.m. February 22, 1986, to
state that her in-laws had arrived one hour ago for an extended visit. Approximately forty-five minutes after they left
Katie's house to visit their other son, Katie said, "my house
shook ... whole place like an earthquake. A man appeared. I
Pursuit 53

don't know who he is. [A phantom?] I don't know. what you

call him ... dark hair, bald in front ... hair along the sides. He

looks different .. .in his sixties .. a dark robe.[A priest?]In my

living room. I was sitting there and the house started to
vibrate. He went toward my bedroom [where the in-laws were
to stay]. I watched. I went back [to the bedroom] ... folded
paper has writing on it. 2 But the pen wasn't opened ....lwrote]
all by itself. I'm stunned because I can't fIgure out who this
guy is. It's (paper) sitting there in front her "(mothc:r-in-law's
deceased] husband's photo." When I asked if I could come out
right away to survey the situation and obtain the paper, Katie
agreed since her in-laws, who were of an antipatttetic religious
persuasion compared to Katie's more tolerant outlook, were
still visiting their other son's family. However, she cautioned
me to be circumspect should my arrival coincide with the
return of her in-laws. She said that she would put the folded
message in a sealed envelope so that she could hand it to me
When I arrived at Katie's house, she gave me the envelope
with the message and I immediately noticed a bulge, so I
opened it in her presence to see what it contained. The writing
appeared to be old French, and there also was a small, light,
gilded candy dove inside. Although the bird was a mystery, I
later learned that the dove was similar to a candy bird that was
on top of Katie's wedding cake years ago. Katie was stunned
and would not touch the envelope. She reca1Ied that she was.
straightening out ornamental vases and dishes on top of her
coffee table, and they became disarranged during the "housequake." I took the message and apport when leaving Katie's
house and gave my wife my leather eyeglass case containing
my "astronaut" ball point pen. I drove to a nearby restaurant
where we could have supper and I could write an account of
the preceding events. Needless to say, I was shocked and annoyed that I could not find the case and special pen that was
designed to write under adverse circumstances, even though I
searched the car then and on several subsequent occasions.
Finally, two days later, my wife found the case and the pen
wedged between the lap strap and seat - an area that had
formerly been checked and rechecked. J
In view of the strangeness of Katie's old French writings
and possibly analogous writings which happened in several
instances under controlled conditions, this latest message was
sent to the "Isolation Room" in Rolla, Missouri, for a possible uncontrolled SORRAT translation and opinion on
February 23, 1986. Although the hoped for translation was
not done, I received an answer on April 8, 1986: "The person
.who wrote these lines was a French man who sees parallels
between your world today and his former earthly existence.
He is not actually the seer Nostradamus, any more than he is
Andrew Jackson. He feels that Katie would pay more attention to a celebrity than to an obscure, disaffected person. He
says he wishes to help her; we shall try to help him, if he is
willing to raise his level." Shanti - Rector IJ .K. This is the
Dans deux logis Ie
feu prendra,
Plusieurs dedans estouffes
Et rostis: Pres de deux F1euves
pour seul il adviendra:
Sol, I' Arg et caper tous
Seront amortis.
Two dwellings will catch on fire.
Several of those within suffocated
and roasted: near two rivers
it will happen by itself
Pursuit 54

Land and coast of Normandy covered as by a cape

All will be struck dead.
Hardly had the horrors of the possible assailant been quelled, largely by Katie's and her husband's efforts, When a new
crisis arose. The arrival of importunate relatives who had
neither sympathy nor understanding for Katie and her unique
abilities coincided with the appearance of" the phantom
author of the old French writings who directed the traumatized, split and dissociated Katie to her bedroom while the
house shook and where she found the folded paper with
writing on it, in front of her deceased father-in-Iaw's World
War II photo~aph. Although she had never met her fatherin-law, he has figured in many of the previous and ongoing
possible paranormal events which developed at the approximate time of her marriage eleven years before.
Katie's concern that her secret - the writings - would
become known to her in-laws, led her to take preventative
steps. However, the forces, whatever they might be, could
have signaled their knowledge of her innocent subterfuge by
enclosing a small candy bird that was only later recognized as
being similar to the ornament that she had on her wedding
cake years ago. Her immediate response to the bird - a symbol of her marital vows - was reflex repulsion and shock, as
if indicating her emotional recognition of the uncomfortable
nature of her actions: i.e. having to comply with her
husband's relatives' wishes and lifestyle in her own home.
The contents of the translated message might have graphically portrayed her thinly veiled feelings.

References and Notes

1. One of the apparently silly coincidences or synchronicities that
pop up in this research happened when I was typing this material
and was undecided whether to use the French. surname, and
received Professor M. Rojcewicz's Signals 0/ Transcendence: the
Human-UFO Equation, which he presented at the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration 2-4 June
1988, at C0I11e11 University, Ithaca, New York;. Under the heading
"Traditional Proof," he wrote, "Human abductions did not
originate with the modern age of 'flying saucers.' All cultures
possess narrative and beliefs concerning people being kidnapped.
For example, the devil of tradition, who can transport people
through the air over vast distances (an ability shared by the loup
garou - i.e. werewolO, lures, abducts and murders children. Gervaise of Tilbury, who dedicated a work on prodigies to Emperor
Otto IV around 1214, points out the abduction tendencies of witches, incubi, sylphs, and other enigmatic entities .. Gervaise found
eyewitnesses to the flight of witches over land and sea and was
himself confident that they could fly effortlessly across the
2. Although old French scripts made up the bulk of Katie's
automatic and presumed direct writings, there were other communications and drawings, one of which was purportedly from
Andrew Jackson, and another from Katie's deceased father-inlaw, whom she had never met. Also, early in the investigations,
Katie once had the word "no" appear on a calling card that was
contained in a sealed jar with a crayon stub and three keys. At
that time, one key was separated at the neck and two other keys
were bent approximately 20 0 and 85 ~ respectively. On another occasion, in addition to metal-bending and glass shattering,
mayhem in her bedroom with various sealed specimens, a basket
of yarns was turned over and the yarn spelled out the word "yes"
on the floor and then extended upward without any visible. support to the ceiling nine feet above where, on inspection, there was
no apparent attachment or g1ueing. It remained there for two
days, even though it was near a ceiling fan which, despite its motion, did not seem to interrupt the extension (see figures 3 & 4).
3. Although mal-observation on my part is the most likely explanation for the disappearance and later reappearance of the necessary
eyeglass case and special pen, the experimenter is often part of the

Second Quarter 1988

Figure 3-Tipped basket with word yes (retouched from original

experiment and he should not be spared scrutiny. Even if an cecurence is odd and inexplicable. it should not be omitted for it
could conceivably be part of the psychic nexus. and whatever the
cause of the disturbance. it could possibly extend beyond the immediate and affect those who are intimately involved in studying
(revealing) its sources: e.g. possible unconscious. unrepentant
4. On February 27, 1986, George Andrews wrote: "I think I've
found the meaning of that puzzling line: 'sol. l' Arg et caper tous.'
In two other places in the two communications. he uses a 'g'
where a 'q' would normally beused ('monargue,' 'pargue). so I
decided to check out my dictionaries for some sort of proper noun
or name for which Arq might be an abbreviation. I found that an
obsolete designation for the coast of Normandie is 'I' Arques. So
the puzzling line translates as: 'Land and coast of Normandie
covered as by a cape ... Mr. Andrews modestly continued: "I
know a bit about Nostradamus. but am not an expert. I hope you
are sharing this information with someone who is an expert on the
quatrains. who could tell us if the odd spelling and punctuation
that characterize these communications correlate with the spelling
and punctuation of the original Nostradamus quatrains."

Example 4: February 12, 1986

At 6:40 p.m., February 22, 1986. after SlOpping off at the
office to check the telephone tape answering machine, there
were three messages from Katie: (l) "Doc, this is Katie. It ...
happening all over again. The pen is absolutely standing up
by itself and writing. I know you didn't have time to get back
to the oflice but the whole place is shaking ... its writing!" (2)
"Mine and (my son's) picture (polaroid) is stuck to the
wall ... when the pen started writing ... the picture, ... whooshed
to the wall. It's just hanging there. [My son) is standing there
waiting for it to fall." (3) The son called. "Come back, Doc,
other stuff is going on. After you left, the mOlOrcycle that I
have and which would nOl run .. .l jumped on it and now it
runs." (4) Katie: "this person keeps mentioning 'BellY Hill'. I
Said I already met her. I can't remember. 'BellY Hill saw
this ... BellY Hill saw thal. .. '
Upon my return to Katie's house at 7:25 p.m., her son and
two of his friends repeated the slOry that Katie had told
them. One of them, B.N., age fourteen, recounted two recent
experiences with Katie. In one instance, a tifty-cent piece bent
in her hand and, on another occasion, Katie held out her
hands and "when I saw the spoon appear, it first was just an
outline. Then it looked like it had a yellowish tint to il. Then.

Second Quarter 1988

Figure 4-Yam from basket to ceiHng.

all of a sudden, it filled with the color of silver."

The three boys and. later, Katie confirmed the directwriting account and said that the Flair nylon-tipped soft pen
was capped during the writing. In response lo specilic questions, Katie felt that the capped pen touched the paper. She
wa" in Iier dining room, standing approximately twelve feet
away, observing the action on the round glass lOp table in her
family room. They all recalled that the house shook, the German shepherd went wild and barked ferociously, the guinea
pig squeaked, and birds chirped. I photographed the Polaroid
that was stuck on the wall and which I had originally taken
and given to Katie, but when I gently touched it. it fell off.
There were no visible or tactile means of adhesion on either
the Polaroid or the wall. Katie and her house guests were out
to dinner, so the son gave me the paper with the allegedly
direct writing and I hopped in the car to drive home. To add
to the macabre merriment (synchronicity? coincidence?),
when I nicked the radio on, I first heard a serene song by the
Mills Brothers, which was followed by an advertisement from
a nearby funeral parlor. and featured a message about Jack
Romano "who was compassionate and good at consoling."
Perhaps the most amazing paragnost I ever studied was the
nonagenarian Jacques Romano. 2 The next song was by Frank
Sinatra: "Th~ final curtain .. .l did it my way."
Plui, faim, guerre en
Perse non cessee,
Le foi trop grand
trahira Ie monargue:
par la Finie en Gaule
secret augure pour a un
estre pargue.
Rain, hunger, no end to war in Persia,
Over-confidence will betray the monarch:
it will end in Gaul where it began,
secret omen for a fated being.
On March 3, 1986, my wife. Ardis, walked into the office
and said that she had found the missing pen and handcrafted
leather eyeglass case stuck between the driver's seat and lap
bell. Later in the day, Katie called lo say that, while high on a
stepladder and painting ceiling decorations in the same room
Pursuit 55

Figure 5(a)-Rough sketch of Nostradamus by Katie.

Figure 5(b)-Copy of old print of Nostradamus.

as other employees, she ~uddenly saw "an old guy' with while
hair and baggy trousers. He presented me with a wooden box
with leather hinges and brass pins. (Inside) was a ~tag alllier
handled carving knife and fork. A stag's head, mountain,
and a fir tree was carved on the outside"of the box." In our
discussions, it appeared that Katie was smoldering in rage all
day because her mother-in-law had unilaterally invited eleven
guests for a turkey dinner that night, whkh Katie wa~ expected to prepare and se"rve after returning from a day's hard
physical labor . When Katie showed "the alleged carving ~et apports to her husband, he quipped, "What good is it if it isn'l
money (gold?)?" Within two days, Katie materialized her
first "gold" on her body! The carving set might be considered as a telekinetk psychic complement to the dreaded
turkey, with the doubfe meaning of her feelings abolll the
source (her mother-in-law) and fantasied solution of this difficulty, and her own savaged self esteem. If psychodynami"
cally plausible, psi can be an effective compen.,atory
On April 26, 1986, G.S., one of Katie's co-workers, in a
videotaped interview, confirmed the "old guy" carving set sequence, since ,he \\"<1" in an adjacent room when the event hap- "
pened. G.S. did not see the "old guy"," but ~he recalled ~eeing
the carving set for the first time, and Katie's astonishment. In
a telephone interview on March 7, 1986, Stewart Robb,'" an
authority on Nostradamus, identitiedKatie's quatrains ( pIes I and 2) from an earlier ediJion of Nostradal11u.,.
Their precise locations and meaning were not defined. On .IuIy 7, 1987, after much tangential negotiating, the o"wner of the
house where the "old guy" and the car:ving set fir ... t arpeared
agreed to come to a research se~sion .. Although the owner had
told Katie that she was highly interested in some of the thing.;
that Katie did or had happen around her, ~he did not keep her
Pursuit 56

word and come.

With liberties, the translation might be applicable to the"
domestic "i'ront" analogous 10 quasi-wartime conditions of
extreme emotional ~tress and with no seeming end in sight
unless the "ource of the suffering (monarch) was 'iet back by
his or her own overconfidence and miscalculation.;. "They
have gone too far" would be a logical interpretation.
"Although speculative, this verse of presumed direct writing
also could pertain 10 the current war between Iran (Persia)
and Iraq, the do\vnfall of the late Shah or a prophecy of the
ruler Khomeini's; downfall, from over-confidence and the
end of his career (by a counter-revolution?). Khomeini lived
in France, where he was exiled for years before returning 10
Persia and the revolution.

References and Notes

I. Schwarz; B.E.: UF.O-Dynamics. Rainbow Books, Moore Haven,

Flori<;la, 1983.
2. Schwarz, B.E.: The Jacques Romano Story. University Books,
Inc., New Hyde Park, New York, 1968.
3. In the videotaped and witnessed session on February 27, 1986,
Katie apported a siver locket from her left ear, which was closely
followed by the stigmatization of a cross on her left forearm. She
refused" to touch the locket for fear of being burned as she had
been in similar previous situations. Others, including myself,
could touch the apport without harm. L~ter in her session, Katie
described the recent old French writing experi~nces which coiJ:tcided with her past accounts. She then drew a picture of the "old
guy: bald on top, fringe of hair, no hat, couldn't see too much of
his beck; didn't see any arms, dark hair, could see his teeth; com-"
fortable smile ... friendly .. .Iittle beard; material under the V area
of his neck; a red shiny ornament (or pin in the V area); robes
were dark. I stood there trying to watch the pen and the guy came
right alongside me. I was tongue tied and couldn't talk. Pen
wasn't even open yet, it was writing ..... See Figure 5 and 6 for
Katie's drawing of the "old guy" and a picture of Nostradamus.

Second Quarter 1988

The association of heat with psychic metal bending ("warm fonningot) and paranonnallinkage of paper rings that burst into flame
(akin to a friction effect) in the SORRAT data is similar to a situation reported to me on June 30, 1988, by M., a Swedish nurse,
who was told of a first-hand experience by a ufologist silent contactee whom she knew well. He had a hot gold ring allegedly apport onto the palm of his hand. Although'his researchers were
widely known, among his peers, only I!- few close friends were
privy to his personal UFO-psi experiences.
4. Schwarz, D.E.: "Apparent Materialization of Copper Foil, Case
Report, Katie." PURSUIT, Volume 20, Number 4, 1987; pp.
5. Robb, Stewart: Prophecies On World Events By Nostradamus.
The Oracle Press, New York, 1961.
6. Robb, Stewart: Nostradamus On Napoleon. The Oracle Press,
New York, 1961.

Example 5: September 3, 1987

During my' vacation in New Jersey, Katie telephoned my

Florida office on August 21, 1987, and left a message on the
telephone answering machine that she. had passed three
kidney stones. "Watu," an alleged female UFO emity, had
recently visited Katie when she had back pain and advised her
to take cod-liver oil and cranberry juice for her kidney stones,
which might have been effective in Katie's instance but which
would not usually be recommended. I returned to Florida on
September 3, 1987, and had just walked into my apartment
when Katie telephoned because Watu said that I was back at
that precise time. Katie had no prior knowledge of my return.
The next day, Friday, September 4, 1987, Katie called my
apartment at 7:30 a.m., which was a rare time for her to call.
She reported that "last night when [my husband) was figuring
costs for jobs, I asked for his pencil. I was in the bedroom lying on the bed." Apparently Katie became entranced, took
the pencil and wrote a page in old French.
Ie grand un jourapre
son songe,
interprete au rebovur
ds son sens: de la gasogne lui
surviendra un
monge qui ferao
lire Ie grand
prelb pde sens.
On the day following his premonitory dream or vision.
the great man will interpret it in the opposite way from
its meaning.
From Gascony will lInexpectedly come to him a (monk?)
(monarch?) (world?) (inhabitant of. Monaco?) (member
of the Monge family, which was of the minor nobility?)
who will make the great man un~erstand it<; correct
This communication heralded my return after a long
absence from our sessions. Katie said that she learned of my
return from a UFO entity who was helping her and who had
credited Katie for prescribing the novel remedy that freed her
of painful kidney stones. Therefore, this exchange might have
indicated Katie's desire to continue with the researches. In a
personal way, it might also symbolize Katie'~ rebuking me for
failing to diagnose or help her via long distance telephone. In
addition to possibly expressing her need to resume our contacts, the message might have been informing me that some
other source, someone <;marter and more capable, will correct
my understanding of her condition. Nostradamu<;, the physician, is the sine qua '1011 of precognition and, consequently, \
his appearance might imply possible wider meanings for Katie
personally. and extensiom of this to the world. As<;uming
Second Quarter 1988

Figure 6-Katie with a 3-4 inch cross on abdomen (see page 56).
that some or all of the communications might have serial
significance, any future writings and events must be carefully
watched. Although most of the verses are obscure, they do
happen and there should be some meaning for them.

References and Notes

I. George Andrews wrote: "This is definilely coming through

scrambled. probably due to static from Katie's subconscious. My

gue~s as to its unscrambled meaning is as follows:
Ie grand, un jour apres son songe,
I'interprete au rebours de son sens:
de la Gascogne ui surviendra un
(moine?) (monarque?) (monde?) (monegasque?)
qui fera lire Ie grand
(par Ie bon?) sens.'
After his translation, he continued by saying, "Gascony
is at the western end of southern France, next to Spain, the
Atlantic, and the Pyrenees. MO!1aco is at the eastern end of
southern France, but did not exist at the time of Nostradamus. I do not recall any verse like this in the quatrains of
Nostradamus.' ,

Example 6: September 10, 1987

Katie came to the office on September 10, 1987, and I gave
her chits for various laboratory tests and an appointment
.with a lIrologi~t in reference to her kidney stones. She was
concerned about her husband's maternal grandmother, who
was terminally ill in Pennsylvania. Katie knew the grandmother and was fond of her. Katie told me that, while concerned and making plans 10 travel north to visit, she noticed
that the photograph of the grandmother, which was usually
in the living room photo album, was now all ached 'to the
wooden kitchen cabinet next 10 the refrigerator, As in the
previous experience with the adherent Polaroid of her son
and herself, there was no ready explanation for the photograph's sticking to the cabinet. The grandmother died shortly
afterward and Katie had a possibly telepathic dream of this.
She ~aid that, in her dream, '.'clear to the end ... they recited
the Lord's Prayer."
In her session, Katie then requested a photocopy of a pic'ture which I had once shown her in my von Schrenck-Notzing's book on materialization~ When she returned home al
2:40 p.m., her telephone rang. She picked up the receiver, but
since there was no voice on the other'end, she hung up. She
then, while apparemly entranced, took a pencil in hand and
Pursuit 57

applied it to a sheet of paper, which was soon filled with old

French. She then left home topick up her daughter at school.
While these events were going on in her life, my wife came to
the office to tell me that our daughter was seriously ill and
had to be admitted to the University Hospital at once. While
. my wife was leaving for Miami, a two-and-a-half hour drive
away, I was visited by Detective G., who had previously
worked on the Katie assault case and who now wanted to
refer a woman for psychiatric consultation. The proo;pectivc
patient was allegedly involved with a haunting. In our o;mall
talk, the detective said that his sister was a nurse in the samc
hospital where my daughter was going. I told him of Katie\;
latest old French writing and how she might have come close
to the solution of her harassment of months ago. Within
minutes of his leaving, Katie called with the ncwo; of the latc';t
writing, as reported above:
Ie grande Arabe maralvera 2
bien avant,
trahis sera par les
L 'antique Rodes lui
viendra au devant,
Et plus grand mal
par autre Pannonois.
The great Arab will see the Virgin Mary
well before,
betrayed by the
Byzantines; .
ancient Rhodes
will come against him,
and even greater harm
from another one from central Europe (region of the
middle Danube).
At 4:00 p.m., I drove to Katie's to pick up the writing
specimen and photograph the photo of her husband's grandmother. When I arrived, Katie said that when she returned
home from picking up her daughter at school, the telephone
answering machine was playing. Katie said: "the 'phone
didn't ring ... something foreign ... Chinese sounding male
voice that ended with a loud and distinct, high-pitched voice
saying: 'Nostradamus.' "I later re-recorded this eight-second
message, which followed two previously recorded business
At 4:50 p.m., Katie telephoned to say that the Minolta-copy
of the von Schrenck-Notzing picture I had given her was
developing a brown-yellow hue to Martha's (the medium's)
face. Katie again called at 6:45 p.m. to say that the facial coloring was then more pronounced and also, while she was watching the Pope's visit to Miami on television, she was
developing a (three-to-four inch) cross on her abdomen (see
Figure 6). The next day, she came to the office at noon and
gave me the colored von Schrenck-Notzing illustration and
also let me photograph the abdominal cross stigmatization,
which then had a blister at the inferior pole of the vertical
This setting for Katie's direct writing in old French might
have been catalyzed .by her concern over her recent passage of
painful kidney stones and her forthcoming medical studies, as
well ,as her preoccupation with her husband's grandmother's
impending demise. These two anxiety-laden matters might
have been condensed and telekinetically acted out by the
photograph of the grandmother apparently transferring from
the album in the living room to the side of the kitchen cabinet
and by Katie's later dream monition: i.e. the concern for her
Pursuit 58

husband's grandmother arid fear for her own health. The

previous Nostradamus writings could have alluded to these
developments in Katie's life..
On the other side of the coin, Katie might have been telepathically affected by crisis situations in my life (a paradigm for
separation anxiety: i.e. Katie's physician might have to leave
when she needed him) with the sudden illness .of my daughter
in Miami and the unanticipated visit.from the detective who
(I) had a sister who was a nurse in the hospital that ,was affiliated with the unit where my nurse-daughter was going; (2)
who was formerly in charge of the investigation into the
repeated harassment and violence that victimized Katie an.d
her family; (3) and who wanted to refer me a woman patient
who was involved in a local spectacular haunting. These overdetermined events for both researcher and subject could have
influenced Katie's outpouring .of automatic writing, the
grandmother-psi events, the "spontaneous" materializations,
coloring of a picture of a famous materialization medium of
long ago, the electronic voice phenomenon on the tape
answering machine of "Nostradamus," and finally
culminated in the abdominal stigmatization of a cross and
blisteF while watching the Pope on television in Miami.
The contents of the translated message are inscrutable
unless it might be conjectured that Katie's faith in what she
does, symbolized by the all-loving Virgin Mary, or Christianity, will sustain her and those who are in contact with her. Or,
as the writing states, although the Virgin Mary is betrayed by
sources that should be steadfast, the Byzantines will see the
forces of the infidel (the great Arab, evil, the crises?) opposed
by the forces of good (Crusader from Rhodes? Knights
Hospitalers? the hospital?) and, if thatis not enough, he (the
dangerous situations) will suffer greater harm from afar (an
unsuspected source of strength or an ally symbolized by
"Pannonia," perhaps central Europe). The religi~tis motifs
are interesting because K~tie and her family are of old
American Protestant stock. Although she has never been absorbed in ritual, ceremony and talismans, she has apparently
become the channel for communications with heavy traditional Roman Catholic allusions, and in several instances
throughout the past four years, with apports of various
religious medals, including the Virgin Mary. There could be
some parallel between Katie's highly personal predicaments
and crises, those of the researcher on oecasion (psychically ex-
trapolated transference-countertransference situations) and,
on a wider stage, the ongoing struggles in the world. For, as
in the times of Nostradamus, when Christianity struggled to
survive in the conflicts with the Arabs and provide an ethical
framework for living and the mysteries of the hereafter, in
contrast to the Catholics' opinions of those with a different
belief system - its adversaries, the current and modern
counterparts to these past conflicts might be echoed in the
translations of the quatrains. This is striking because, in
many other sessions, Katie, who ordinarily had a provincial
view to what was happening in the world, would not infrequently utter trance pronouncements warning against nuclear
war, global conflict and catastrophes. All of this is contrary
to Katie's cognitive awareness and general knowledge, as I
understand it to be. This is similar to the trance declarations
of many UFO contactees. The mechanics or' the possible
paranormal events that happen around Katie are no less striking than the possible meanings of these strange and sometimes incongruous events.

References. and Notes

I. von Schrenck-Notzing: Phenomena 0/ Materialization. Kegan,

Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. London, 1923.

Second Quarter 1988

2. George Andrews wrote: "There is only one word I am not completely sure of. I list the various possibilities for 'maralvera:'
Marial verra, will see the Virgin Mary
maraudera,. will commit piracy or theft
maravedis, ancient Spanish penny
merveillera, will marvel
mourra en verite, will truly die
Maree verra, will see the turning of the tide
marelle verra, will see a children's game."

Example 7: October 7, 1987

On October 7, 1987, at 4:10 p.m. Katie telephoned my office: "Waldo just came in and sat down. He's saying, 'Look
in the bird.' I got three (ceramic ornaments) birds in the
house. That must be cuz he's shaking his head. I'll go and
look. Hang on the 'phone ... OK: here's another writing; liken
before. OK. Ha ... There's some more writing appearing on it
now. N... O ... S ... T ... R... D... A ... M ... I can't get the rest of
it. [What does it spell?] I have no idea ... U ... S. I can't make it
out Doc, [Nostradamus, Katie] You're kidding me. [How is it
writing? Pencil or ink?] No, nothing. I just have the paper in
front of me. Things ran out on the end of the paper. Looks
like ink. [Holding it in your hand?] Yuh, I got it out in front
of me and the other hand on the 'phone. Ha. He [Nostradamus] is standing here next to Waldo. Seems to be talking to
one another. [Invite them to the office tomorrow, Miss Katie,
I have a surprise for Waldo.] He says he knows. This is pretty
neat. I never had that. Slopped up on the paper there. Waldo
is smiling. [What does the old guy look like?] He's got long
hair to his shoulders. Moustache, a goatee: dark with gray in
it. [Thin or fat?] Medium build. Not as tall as Waldo [about
five feet nine] Not talking. Waldo said he is taking the ring
back (his wife's black pearl ring that he' once gave Katie).
[How is his brother Walter doing?] No, he said, 'Carl' Ha,
ha, I guess he can hear you. [Have the Viking ship and blue
sapphire ring (apports) ,helped his ailing brother?] No. Apparently he still has them. [Will they materialize back in the
office?] He didn't say. [Do you have any tests, Waldo, that
you would like to do?] He said something he had talked 'to
you about. [About the paper he wrote (his self-written
eulogy, "A Memorial Service That Can Be Read By Any
Volunteer, Friend on Survival and Psi," read by BES at
Waldo's funeral March 23, 1987.)] [Is the old guy still with
him?] ... [Nostradamus, could you come to the office, too?]
He's just looking. Waldo hears it. [What time will you come
tomorrow?] Me or them? Hopefully II :30."
One week before these writings, ,Kafie was visited by her
niece from Tennessee. She brought along her father, Katie's
brother, to visit their hemiplegic," aphasic father, who was
hospitalized and 'frail. Katie's brother had been seriously ill
himself with recent congestive heart failure. The niece recalled
the appearance of a phantom child in association with the
death of Katie's oldest brother in Tennessee, and this experience corresponded with a similar alleged apparition
perceived by Katie's mother in Florida. Although the niece
had once seen the "gold" on Katie during a visit to Tennessee, she was pleasantly surprised to learn more about her
aunt and to visit the office and peruse some of Katie's
multituc!e of apport specimens, experimental evidence and
videotapes. Perhaps these push-pull life experiences contributed, to the precipitation' or genesis of Katie's psi. She
might have been pushed by splitting, traumatic personal
events that were loaded with psi tracers at the same time that
she was pulled towards psi by the positive attraction of need,
interest, respect and recognition from s<;>me members of her
family and circle of friends.
Second Quarter 1988

This is the message which Katie said that she saw as it appeared:
Soldat barbare Ie
grand Roi Frappera In justement non'
esloioigne de mort,
L'avare mere du Fait
cause fera
conjuratenr es regne
en grand remort.
NOSTRADAM U (off paper)
The barbarian soldier will strike the great king,
unjustly not removed from death,
The miserly mother of the deed will make a deal with
conspirators and reign in great remorse.
This episode of old French writing is interesting because
there were no immediate, severe or potential crises in Katie's
(or her researcher's) lives. Her father was hospitalized one
week before for a chronic condition, for which he had many
previous admissions, treatment and management. However,
the visit by a family member, Katie's niece, who knew
something about and approved of Katie's abilities was a
departure. Why there was circumlocution with Waldo,
leading up to discovering the writing inside an ornamental
bird, is impossible to fathom. Perhaps, like a game-playing
ritual, it creates an atmosphere of heightened attention for
the message and for the unique, subsequent development of
alleged inked direct writing occurring on the page without any
pen or pencil as Katie was holding it in her hands. She could
read the letters out over the telephone but could not understand what they said: "Nostradam(us)." The attention and
tension was further increased by the almost ridiculous Laurel
and Hardy interplay between Waldo and Nostradamus and,
in particular, Waldo's correction of my calling his brother
"Walter" instead of "Carl." If Katie might have heard
Waldo or myself use the name "Carl" in the past, that name
was not easy for her to recall, for she apparently had difficulty in remembering people's names who attended the research
The symbolism of the message does not seem to fit into any
discernable framework with events in Katie's life or, for that
matter, any current specific world events. There was nothing
ne~ 'about her father's precarious health, and no authority
figure or famous personage was killed by some barbarian hit
man via a scheme concocted with confederates, and then having to rule in contrition. In general, this comment might be
applicable to many political situations throughout history,
but without more information in this particular instance the
meaning is too obscure to understand. However, if this
proves to be a precognitive flash, this all-too-general message
should be born in mind.
Form F~te: January 14, 1988
Domestic discord and highly stressful situational problems
contributed to Katie's development of a severe depressive
reaction with excessive rapid weight loss and somatizations.
However, Katie kept her promised appointment with Professor Stephen E. Braude, I a visiting distinguished
philosopher-parapsychologist. Unfortunately, there was no
positive demonstration of possible physical psi.
At times, Katie's clinical progress was touch and go; but
with her psychotherapy and appropriate medication
(trimipramine [Surmontil]) the fluctuating depression, furors
and fugue-like dissociative states were contained. ~
Pursuit 59

On January 14, 1988, at 1:40 p.m., Katie called 10 say that

she had experienced an episode of automatic writing by her
telephone and that she had also drawna picture, perhaps of
Nostradamus. Oddly, for reasons described below, I still had
two of my own Nostradamus books on top of my desk when
Katie called. She was not aware of this. With her assent, I immediately drove to her house with the TV camcorder and
thirty-five millimeter camera to record the evidence. When I
arrived, I saw Katie and her husband,.both of whom looked
grim. Katie said that she had had nightmares" of her Tennessee brother crying for help in the hospital. In her dream,
he was dying of a heart attack. Katie vyas expecting to hear
from her niece who had recently visited Florida. When I asked Katie ~bout the "French writing," she went to get it, but
she was obviously surprised, for it had disappeared. Her husband, who was aware these developments, was also unable
to account for this. In the middle of this, Katie's telephone
rang and when she picked up the receiver, there was no one
on the other end. The writings and picture were associated
with Nostradamus.
After returning to my office, Katie called at 3:30 p.m. to
say that her dream might have been explained, for she had
Just learned that her older sister in Vero Beach was "rushed
to the hospital lim night with.!l ruptured appendix (with
peritonitis) and she had surgery." For highly palpable
reasons, Katie had much ambivalence toward. this sister,
whom she felt could be mischievous and, on occasion, would
foment trouble. In addition to these family push-pull psychic
nexus stresses, there might have been other physician-researcher/patient-subject factors. On the night of Katie's displaced veridical nightmare, and unknown to her, I was visited
~y Professor and Mrs. W. G-L of Dartmouth College,
Hanover, New Hampshire. I never anticipateq that Professor
of Spanish G-Lwould have high-quality personal experiences
or interest in psychic matters. However, he surprised me by
telling me of two softcover books that his mother had just
given him and which he brought to Florida to read on the
night. They wer~ about Nostradamus and had his portrait on
the covers. The professor showed me his books at 9:02 p.m.
and I, in turn, shared with him my two books on Nostradamlls by Stewart Robb. Professor G-L seemed. curious.
In view of the Katie material and the Professor's.forthcoming trip to St. Louis, where he would be a guest. teacher for
several months, l,lpon learning about the SORRAT 4 .; experiments, he wanted to visit the knowledgeable people there Imd
in Rolla, Missouri. Earlier in the day of Professor and Mrs.
W. G-L'~ visit, I had been editing the K'atie research session
videotape.; numbers I and 2 and my mind flashed back'to the
disappearances of the.sea,Ied bottles prepared by William Edward Cox. The contents had supposedly twisted and shifted
from one bottle to the other and they were seen by Katie's
family. Although it is impossible to know what happened to
her Nostradamus writings and drawing, the overdetermined
synchronistic constellation of psychic tracers, including the
earlier frustrating disappearances of the Cox bottles, could
have served as plausible speculative factors in accounting for
Katie's vanishing Nostradamus material.
As in many previous examples, the production of the Nostradamus writings happened at times of turmoil and stress.
Why the Nostradamus evidence allegedly disappeared this
time and never before or since - other than its being related
to my musing about an earlier time when the Cox experimen- .
tal bottles disappeared - might be an interesting due, but it
does not answer the question: i.e. the events to some degree
are programmable or can be subtly suggested, but why they


Pursuit 60

come about sometimes,' and' not at other times, 'is unexplainable. .

References and Notes

I. Braude, S.E.: ESP und Psychokinesis. Temple University Pres~,
Philadelphia, 1979; The Limits of Inj7uence. Psychokinesis ulI(l
rile Philosophy of Science. Routledge and Kegan; Paul, New
York, and London, 1986.
2. Perhaps the psi was through preconscious factor~ "stored" and
not disclosed in the research sessions. In Katie's sessions, she was
more OUI of a trance-like state than in one, a~ many other psi patients ordinarily would.behave in their psychotherapy, However, .
on June 6, 1988; the session that was dealing with particularly
frustrating and repressed angry material was interrupted with
loud, hammer-like banging on the therapy room roof. I fully
opened the vertical blinds, but could see nothing that could ac
count for ihis. Arter. the session, I went outside and checked the
building and 'found a loose ceiling air vent but it was' difficult to
see how a squirreJ or other animal could account for the sounds.
There was no breeze or other physical force. For those who are
not informed about psychotherapy, real creativity is seldom, if
ever, in my experience, compromised or lost. To the contrary, it is
either untouched or augmented, as might be the case with Katie,
who continues to develop and expand her paranormal abilities.
Aside from relief of her symptoms and weight loss, Katie showed improvement' in other areas; she could integrate some of the
~plits and beller cope wi~h the events of life. The frequent
"entity" phone calls'tQ my office diminished. She also could better stand on her own and, perhaps because of this, her episodes of
asthmatic bronchitis almost completely disappeared. Once, after a
conjoint session with her husband, February 19, 1988, I found a
presumed apport of a religious medal (the Virgin Mary) on the
reception room table. I saw Katie and her husband come directly
into the office from the outside, and they had no knowledge of
this event. Otherwise, in individual sessions, psi was sparse, dis
counting paradoxically, in my experience, uncommon patient~
physician telepathy.
3. In her sessions, Katie reported few dreams, and those which she
'did mention might have been paranormal. Perhaps because 01' her
frequent spontaneous entrancements, her need for dreaming
might be different from the average person's; her conflicts or problems might be resolved or acted out in her entity messages,
trarice state personifications and fugues. In an analogous fashion,
. ~ome have asked if I hypnotize her. I do not. Katie goes in and
out of trance-like states spontaneously and, to some extent, she
has le~rned how to throw herself into a trance. Th!! laller might be
expedited by psychodynamically adjusting to the circumstance~
and reali~y, that is, selling the stage and sparingly using judiciou~
4. Richards, John Thomas: SORRA T: A Hi.5fOl:I' (~ll"e Neihardr
P~:vchokinesis .\periments,
1961-1981. Scarecrow Pres~,
Metuchen, NJ, 1982.
5. Cox, William Edward: unpublished manu~cripl.

Example 8: January 22, 1988

On Friday, January 22',1988, at 1:10 p.m., Katie telephoned me between my seeing patients, as I was editing the first
Waldo videotape.' Katie asked: "Are you free? Waldo has
been talking to me all morning. He says, 'Go. Go. Go.' Told
me'to get the' bottles (glass bottle of sealed human aortic rings
prepared December II, 1986, for possible linkage and a
plastic sealed bottle prepared January 7, 1985, cotllaining a
fork and colored waier) ... under my eyes gold on the rings
bottle." I hung up' and rushed to Kalie's hou.;e with the
equipment to record, on videotape and with the Ihirty-live
millimeter camera, the materialization from a freckle''iized
speck on the aortic rings bottle to a swathe approximalely the
size of a quarter that adhered to the oUlside and covered the
area where the aortic rings inside were bathed in seventy percent isopropyl alcohol. Three "gold" !lecks developed on the
cap of the aortic ring bottles.:
Second Quarter 1988

.p(L,~ t~l~ \0..

?\-(\..'-) f"e. :((L
) \
1 r \ <)0

\\){'J \ G \)

e .Jo--t"G \'' c:..

d~-lc \"'e ) ~e....


Figure 7-Katie's old French writing.

Soon the "gold" materialization occurred on the plastic

boule with the colored water and fork. A brownish-red double pagoda-like structure with an internal skeieton formed on
the bonom of the plastic bottle. It had yeast-like buds on the
pointed ends of the extrusions. I also noticed, on the counter
next to the bottles, a button with the legend "BURN POT,
NOT PEOPLE." I wrapped the bunon in plastic without
touching it for possible later fingerprint study.
Katie was smiling and exhilarated. When entranced and
while being videotaped, she grabbed a ball-point pen with her
right hand and wrote several words in apparent old French on
a counter pad (Figure 7). This was the first time that
automatic writing in old French was videotaped from beginning to end. Katie also developed "gold" on the medial canthus of the infra-orbital region of her right eye. She said that
her husband had been with her aJ:1d witnessed the beginning
of the events. I videotaped these happenings without stopping
the Camcorder except when I took photographs of Katie, and
when she had to go to work. She said, "I got a lot of energy
in my hands. My whole body is exhilarated."
After I had returned to the office, Katie telephoned at 3:30
p.m. and was frantic. "Waldo was telling me to go for it.
That's what I'm going to do." She said that the "gold" increased on the bottles. At 5:50 p.m., my wife and I drove to
Katie's house and examined the specimens, which appeared
unchanged from the last telephone call description. I interviewed Katie's husband and daughter, who confirmed those
events which they observed and which Katie had told them
Second Quarter 1988

about. My wife carefully held the sealed bottles in a cardboard box on her lap and we returned to the office and placed
them on top of the Cox-Calvin mini-lab in the research room,
in accordance with Katie's wishes. Katie wondered if the ongoing materialization process could be extended to or teleported into the locked and sealed mini-lab. She was still
buoyant and declared her intention, if agreeable with her
family, to spend the night with the specimens in the research
room for the first time.
With her family's concurrence, Katie arrived at the office
at 7:45 p.m. prepared to spend the night. When she came, I
was finishing a telephone call from Joe Nuzum' of Washington, Pennsylvania. He is an excellent telekinetic paragnost.
He had not called in months and he was annoyed at all the attention a self-confessed fraudulent metal bender-mentalist he
knew was getting from the media whereas he, who was genuine, was barely surviving, and none' of the cognoscenti
seemed to care. Perhaps Joe was telepathically aware of the
goings on with Katie, whom he had once met under usual circumstances, and whom he resented unconsciollsly (telepathically) for the attention she was receiving from me in the researches and, also on an unconscious level, this serendipitous
communication might have .prompted Katie to even greater
psychic exertions.
The following message was written by the entranced Katie
while being videotaped:
Par faim la
Pray~ Fera
The (inhabitant of Prayssas?) will take the wolf prisoner
by hunger, extreme distress, the ...
The translated fragment is insufficient for far reaching
speculation but as in the previous examples it called attention
to privation and distress, two conditions which might be applicable to Katie. a caricature of the wolf imprisoned by harsh
reality ... her circumstances (hunger) from which she might
have been e~erging; from the depths of despair to the exalted
state of supreme conlidence and contagious euphoria.
References and Notes
I. Schwarz, B.E.: "Apparent Materialization of Copper Foil, Case
Report: Katie:' PURSUIT, Volume 20, Number 4, 1987: pp.
2. The "gold," which, upon analysis, was found to be actually
about 80070 copper and 20070 zinc, does not grossly tarnish with
time. 11 would be helpful to have studies of Katie's blood, hair,
and nails for copper content and zinc before, during and after a
"gold" materialization research meeting. In view of the rarity of
this process, it would also be interesting to see if there could be
any changes in Katie or an experimental subject with Wilson's
disease, a genetic malfunction of copper metabolism causing
hepato-Ienticular degeneration. (See Shore, D.; Potkin, S.e.;
Weinberger, D.R.; Torrey, E.F.; Henkin. R.I.; Agarwal, R.P.;
Gillin, .I.e.; and Wyatt, R.J.: "CSF Copper Concentrations in
Chronic Schizophrenia," American JOllrnal of Psychimry 140:
pp. 754-757,1983.)
3. Schwarz, B.E.: "K: A Presumed Case of Telekinesis." Interna
tional Journal of Psychosomatics, Vol. 32, No. I, pp. 3-21, 1985.
[Also see PURSUIT, Vol. 18 No.2, pp. 5().61, 1985).
4. George Andrews wrote: '''Pray,' which does not exist in French
('to pray' is 'prier'), might mean an inhabitant of the small town
of Prayssas in the region that used to be known as Gascony:'

Pursuit 61

The, UFO Impact

P..-t II of a IV-Part Series
('[be aspects of fluid mechanics)

by .......Plerre Petit
Introduction ,
I showed in the preceding paper how some matters with
fluid mechanics got me involved in the world, of UFOs.
Again, a young French engineer, Bertrand Lebrun, graduate
from a technical school, asked me in 1983 to do a Ph.D.
thesis with him. I gave him the initial idea, which was the
Consider what is involvef,l with a two-dimensional gas flow
with some sort of wire perpendicular to this flow. In figure I
this wire is represented by a point, since its direction is
perpendicular to the paper.


, Characteristic lines
Fig. 1 (a)

sonic waves

FIg. 1 (b)

The wire is a pertubating object and it creates sonic waves

that propagate in the medium at a velocity Vs, so that:
(1) If the fluid velocity V is smaller than the velocity of
sound (subsonic conditions) 'the sonic waves do not intersect.
(See fIgure la)
(2) If V = Vs (sonic conditions) the waves accumulate in the
vicinity of the pertubating object. (See figure Ib)
(3) If V is larger than Vs (supersonic conditions) the sound
perturbation accumulates on two surfaces represented in figure
, Ic by two "characteristic lines," or Mach ,lines. These two
surfaces form a dihedral. Outside of this dihedral the
observer cannot receive any sound wave emitted by the object. The characteristic surface makes an angle e' with the
direction of the velocity. A very simple calculation shows that
the tangent of this angle is nothing but the inverse 11M of the
Mach number M=V/Vs.
We could put a large'iiumber of such thiri wires in a'twodimensional flow and define the characteristic net associated
to the flow. Given this net we can derive t,he Oow parameters.
In effect, the direction and the' length of the velocity vector
comes directly from the two characteristic' crossings at each
point of the flow. (See figure 2) .



Fil. 1 Sonic waves In (a) subsonic, (b) soDic and (c)

supersonic conditions.
Pursuit 62

Fig. :1 The characteristics net of a two dimension flow.

Second Quarter 1988

In a' three-dimensional flow the characteristic surfaces

should form a family of cones, whose angle should be equal
to the Mach angle, as dermed earlier. '
A wall can be considered as a succession of wires, so close
to each that the flow' cannot go through it. Then the velocity
vector becomes tangent to the wall's direction. (See figure 3)

If light rays are focused with a lens in a refracting medium,

and if the electromagnetic energy deposit, corresponding to
the absorption phenomena, is large enough, the local refractive index will be changed. (See figure 5)

IIttUmuiation of electron energy

Fig. 5 Accumulation of electromagnetic energy.

Scientists call it nonlinear optics. It occurs in powerful laser
experiments. This refractive index change is nothing but a
change of the velocity of light in the medium. If we call c o'the
velocity of light in a vacuum (300,000 km per second), in a
refracting medium the light velocity is smaller and the refractive index is n = cole. The energy' absorption rises c and
changes the ambient or local light velocity .
.In a supersonic flow the accumulation of sonic energy
changes the local velocity of sound. This increases the energy
absorption in this area and the result is It strong nonlinear
phenomenon called a shock wave, which can be considered as
an, effect of nonlinear acoustics.
Fig. 3 Boundary conditions of the wall.
If the wall is convex the characteristics coming from the
wall diverge like a fan. As the velocity increases, the pressure
and temperature fall. If the wall is concave the characteristics
coming from it tend to focus exactly like light rays after their
passage through a glass lens.

Fig. 4 Convergent and divergent flows.

Second Quarter 1988

Fig. 6 The birth of a sbock wave.

Pursuit 63

Of course a shock wave takes place near converging sections of a flow. Consider a flat ~ing where we have two converging areas, precisely at the leading edge and at the end of
the profile. Thus, two systems of shock waves occur when
this wing moves at a supersonic velocity in a gas.

In theoreticai fluid mechanics it is easier, in supersonic conditions, to compute a characteristic system than to compute a
velocity pattern. We can make a numerical computation of
the characteristic sy~tem witha. compQter. It is classical.
Remember that before the second world war, around 1930,
when the characteristic theory was. not yet born the
aerodynamician used to "compute" the characteristic system
through water simulation. A free surface water flow was then
considered as some sort of analogical computer.


Fig. 9 Analogic simulator

Free ~urface MHD Water Flow Experiments

Following this idea, in 1975, Viton and I tried to approach
Fig. 7 Shocks associated to a nat wing.
This can illustrate the close similarity to free surface liquid
flow. There the critical velocity becomes the velocity of surface waves. For example: In your bath you may rebuild the
characteristic phenomena by moving aneedle penetrating vertically the surface of the water. If you move the needle at a
velocity V smaller than the velocity of the surface waves Vs
you wiD get a pattern very similar to figure I, and so on.
Near my house is a water fall. The water accelerates when
falling. The next figure shows the characteristic lines at different points of the flow, showing how the characteristic
angle measurement gives the direction and intensity of the

the impact of Lorentz forces on a flow through free surfaCe

water flows. All that is described in my book, entitled The
Silence Barrier and issued by William Kauffman Editions .
We put a small cylinder, 8mPl diameter, made of insulating
material, in a free surface water flow. The velocity of the liquid (water plus 2070 hydrochloric acid) was 8em/s. Thus, the
flow pattern is very similar to the shock wave system in a
supersonic gas experiment.

front wave


Fig. 10 Shock s~stem around a cyUndricai object.

Fig. 8 The water fall.

Pursuit 64

Upon checking William Kauffman. publisher al 95 Firsl SI.. Los AliOS. CA

94022 has a Iimiled supply of "1'he Silence Barrier" al $7.95 each. plus poslage.

Second Quarter 1988

We introduced a strong magnetic field (one tesla) perpendicular to the surface and two small carl:!on electrodes located
at the wall of the cylinder, as shown on figure 8, and connected to a constant voltage electrical supply. The current
density had to be limited to one ampere per square centimeter
to avoid producing bubbles as a result of electrolysis.
The liquid flow corresponded to the following characteristic force:
pV2F _~


In these 1976 experiments the backward shock was not suppressed, but reinforced. Later we did other experiments with
objects similar to a ship. It showed to us that we had to accelerate the fluid in the converging sections and to slow it
down in the diverging sections. In fact, we had to minimize all
the variation of the flow parameters. Around a small ship a
shockless system, with flat water everywhere, was obtained
with a multielectrode design and constant water velocity.
Around a ship figure 9 shows velocity variation and in figure
10 we show how the force field should be shaped in order to
keep this velocity almost constant along a profile.

where p is the volumetric mass of water, V the water velocity

and d the diameter of the cylinder. V2 pVz is insignificant to
the dynamical pressure associated to the water flow. The electromagnetic force is JB where J is the current density in
amperes per square centimeter and B the magnetic field.
If one wants to act efficiently on the fluid, in such conditions, the electromagnetic parameters must obey:


Fig. 11 Velocity along tbe profile of a sbip.

Our experimental constraints required a one tesla magnetic
field. Then the front wave disappeared immediately. If the
current intensity was exactly the critical one the level of the
water, corresponding to the pressure distribution, was
unaltered with respect to its upstream value. But if we insisted, the level was depressed, as shown on figure 8.



Front Wave



Fig. 13 The adequate force field for wave ClneeUation.

This analogical result shows a very interesting aspect of
wave cancellation, that we discovered later. When you accelerate a flui4 by Lorentz force, you release energy. But inversely when you slow it down, it brings energy to you. The
decelerating sections of such a converter behave like a MHO
generator. As such, -the energy expense represents the difference between the two. Does it mean tha~ wave cancellation
would need zero energy? Certainly not. The cost lies in the
Joule effect. If the electrical conductivity is poor the efficiency will be bad and the energy cost large.
In water experiments the electrical conductivity, due to the
additional 2070 HCI was close to one mho per meter. In such
-a condition we can define the MHO efficiency as:

electric current

Propulsive power
= ------~~~~~~~---Propulsive power

JBV + pJ2

+ Joule power


force field

Fig. 11 MHO experimental results.

It showed that a depression could be controlled at the front
part of a vessel cruising at supersonic, or even hypersonic,
velocity in a gas. We called it a MHO aerodyne and suggested
such a flying machine could fly in air like an aerial mole "digging" the air in front by Lorentz force -action.

Second Quarter 1988

with B = 1 tesla, V = 8'IO-z mis, J = 10" Almz, p = 1()3

kg/ml, notice how small the efficiency is. For submarine
nuclear propulsion, in salt water this MHO efficiency would
require at least a 20 teslas supraconducting magnetic field.
Notice that this MHO efficiency grows with B.
It is perfectly possible to reproduce such simple experiments in a technical school if you own the magnet. But
the readers can produce a slow MHO flow, just using the

Pursuit 65

Fig. 14 The MHO "kitchen experiment ..

Put salt in water up to the point of saturation. Fix two copper electrodes on a pencil and connect it to a battery. The current will flow immediately in salt water and you can visualize
the flow pattern with ink. After ten seconds an oxide deposit
on the copper will reduce the current, so. clean the electrodes.
Low Pressure Gas Experiments
In 1977 we tried to conduct gas experiments in a glass bell
jar under vacuum, but it did not work well. A friend of mine
made spectroscopic measurements of the gas temperature in
the discharge. -It was found very' high: something like a thousand degrees. Then, we discovered another very important
feature of MHO acceleration in gas. The Joule effect caused a
strong energy deposit in the gas, so tltat the gas temperature
rose as well as ambient pressure, too. Then we got a negative
pressure gradient that tended to slow down tl:.te gas. In our
low-density experiments the computation showed that the
slowing-down effect due to the pressure gradient (thermal
-blocking) was larger than the accelerating force!'
Our low-density experiments showed a lot of additional
things and it would take too many pages to report on it here.
For an example, we ionized the gas (10-1 torr air) with a highfrequency electric field as provided by a simple Rhumkorff
coil. The frequency was around one megahertz. We tried different aluminum shapes. We expected to create just a glow
discharge around the object, but the sharp edges of a discshaped body reinforced the field, thus, we got high-frequency
sparks, as shown in figure 12. The similarity to the so-called
truncated rays, as reported by the witnesses, was evident.


Fig. 15 High frequency sParks, lib "tnmcated rays"

,1. Metal electrodes, llke copper, will .oppose a quick polarization with an
oxide deposit.

P.ursuit 66

Lebrun Ph.D. Thesis

In 1983 Bertrand Lebrun, a young engineer, started his
Ph.D.. thesis under my direction .. I recommended the use of
~ ~~~ c;:haracteristic theory. Lebrun started with a simple Macintosh computer and the complete simulation of a twodimensional steady flow took two days for each run. Later,
we shifted to a much faster VAX. Lebrun started with the
"int~ problem." Given a converging nozzle with a supersonic flow, was it possible to avoid any shock?
We were supposed to provide information in order to
define the experiments that the CNRS (Centre National de la
Recherche Scientifique) was preparing in the fluid mechanics
laboratory at Rouen. They had a shock tube giving an argon
flow at 10,OOOOJ(, one bar and 2750 mls with the electrical
conductivity of 3500 mhos/m. The people at Rouen started to
build a two-teslas coil.
The positive answer came at the end of 1985. Lebrun showed that, under such conditions, thermal blocking could be
avoided. The computer gave the flow pattern and all the
desirable information about fluid parameters. One month
later Lebrun produced shockless configurations around a flat
We sent that to the board of the ninth international MHO
meeting that was to be held in Tsukuba the next october
(1986) and the paper was accepted by the selection committee.
In February 1987, Lebrun presented his Ph.D. thesis at the
University of Marseille, to the applied mathematics department. Then he ;wrote his "state thesis," whose level is
somewhat higher than the US Ph.D. This work was finished
in December 1987. In addition we got another paper accepted
by a top-level French journal: Le Journal de Mecanique. In
his second thesis Lebrun showed that drag could be
eliminated and even reversed, as was shown in water experiments ten years ago.
He has,for the past eight months;been paid by a friend of
mine, who has offered to be his sponsor. Frankly, I don't
know how long he will be able to continue his work. Nevertheless, there are a lot of fascinating results to be gotten by
t~ese exciting MHO aerodynes. It isa shame for France, as I
said in the flfst paper. But let's not return to this sad reality.
After directing Lebrun's work during those five years, [
realized MHO had no future in France and that our team was
condemned to disappear so'oner or later, so that I shifted
towards cosmology, and this will be the subject of the next
paper [Part III].

Second Quarter 1988

Sky Anomalies - Oceanic Mysteries



s. Mangiacopra

Mankind, throughout his history, has always been fascinated with the unreachable sky and the unfathomable depths
of the oceans - two regions that, for millenniums, were explained away by superstition and folktales to account for the
many strange phenomena observed therein. Now, in this present, 20th century after man has been able to better penetrate
these two dynamically opposed regions, many of the observed .'
anomalous events have been assigned more logical or prac-'
tical explanations by earth-study scientists.
St. Elmos fire, an eerie phenomenon seen by seamen for!
centuries as an omen of disaster, is now recognized for what it i
is: An electrical phenomenon that manifests itself during'
periods of violent atmospheric stress, as in oceanic storms.
Though harmless, its appearance throughout the centuries
had given rise to many superstitious meanjngs among
mariners and others.
Another electrical anomaly, though not so harmless; i~ ball
lightning, which has been known to cause serious physical
damage. Not until the early 1960's was this phenomenon
recognized in the earth sciences as a rare and unusual - but
tangible - anomaly.
The ultimate of sky anomalies, determined to originate
from beyond the earth's atmosphere, are meteors. Once considered by learned men of science of the early 19th century as
nothing more than peasants tales of stones falling from the
skies, it has since been proved that these stones do actually
fall through the heavens. In today's astronomy, this is accepted as an everyday occurrence. In fact, everyday our earth
is bombarded by an unknown number of meteors, the majority of which are small and minute, and burn up in our atmosphere before reaching t:he earth. Only the larger ones survive a rite of passage to actually strike our earth's surface, but
rare are their journeys viewed by the eyes of man - especially
at sea.
Today, meteors per se, are not considered mysterious unexplainable anomalies, that is, no longer to be catagorized as
Fortean events. But there are a few instances in which. events
surrounding some 'meteor" occurrences can be classified as
"unexplainable" including 'strange noises, odd smells, explosions, too long in flight and near or actual collisions with
ocean-going ships.
To the average person schooled in the conventional
sciences, such near disasters with ships can be accounted as
mere coincidences or chance, by which the laws of averaging
would allow such events to occur over several decades. But to
an investigator of Fortean anomalies such a simplified explanation may not seem so logical, when events that occurred
in relationship to the meteors are considered.
Like many unexplainable phenomena, all that is left of
such an occurrence after nearly a century is some obscure
published record. The following cases were located in "v!lrious
newspapers, and for the most part, were buried on som~ back
page as column fillers. Taken separately, these cases appear
insignificant; but taken together over several decades of time,
a possible pattern may be obvious.
I have taken each of the following cases and broken them
down into pertinent constitutent parts and placed them in a
chronological order as they occurred in either the Atlantic or
Second Quarter 1988

Pacific Oceans.

. Case I
Vessel: Scandinavian (Allan Line) I
Date: 22 January 1890 (at night)
Location: Latitude 41 46 " longitude 65"06 '.
Weather: High seas, dense snowstorms and blowing winds,
occasional squalls of hail and rain.
Observations: Enroute during her passage from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Glasgow, Scotland, Chief Officer
Miller was on watch when a twinkling ball of fire descended
with 'a hissing sound and exploded on the decks between the
main and mizzen masts. The explosion caused sparks to be
scattered all over the ship, with hundreds of pieces of metal
flying in all directions. Holes were burned in the decks, and
seVeral of the crew were burned.
Comments: This anomaly is what we now call balilightning, as indicated by the then occurring adverse weather conditions. What is interesting is the amount of damage that was
Case II
Vessel: Yemassee (Line unknown)Z
Date: Several days prior to 16 January 1894.
(Just about dawn)
Location: 15 miles south of Charleston Bar, South
Observations: Arriving at New York City, Captain McKee
and Chief Officer Catherine reported that they were the only
officers on deck at the time. Officer Catherine gave the
following details of the event:
"The meteor was dead ahead and far up in the
. heavens when we first saw it, and seemed to be coming
straight for the ship. I thought judgement day had
come for sure and that some planet was about to strike
.the earth. It was as big as six full moons and burned like
the sun.
"Suddenly it shot off to the east, followed by a great
streak of fire. When I saw it was not going to strike the
ship, I felt some relief. It frightened me badly, I admit.
After going about 50 degrees to the east it began to take
a zigzag course. It darted about the heavens at great
speed, just as a bolt of lightning would. It continued to
go about in that way for a long time.
"At last it burst into more than 100 pieces like a skyrocket. The small fireballs were shot allover the
heavens in every direction and gradually died away as
the fire does from an exploded rocket.
"I pulled out my watch when the meteor, or whatever it was, began its zigzag course, and the display
lasted more than half an hour. The captain and I both
watched the thing from the time it started until the great
streaks of fire it left in its wake gradually died out."
Comments: A meteor that "shot off to the east," taking a
"zigzag course" and lasted "half an hour," certainly is not
characteristic of any known type of behavior for a meteor.
Though the' explosion of this anomaly is typical of the ending
of some meteors that do enter the atmosphere, this is a most
peculiar sky phenomenon leaving much unanswered as to just
what was seen.
Pursuit 67

Case III
Vessel: Brooklyn City (Bristol Une)]
Date: 12 February 1896 (3:05 a.m.)
Weather: Howling gale, cold
Location: One-fourth distance from New York City to
Swansea, England.
Observation: Laden with tin, the vessel left Swansea on
January 28th and during its 2O-day voyage met all kinds of
adverse weather. Chief Officer Ellis and Second Officer
Deehle watched as a blinding flash of light blazed upon the
truck of the foremast. Then, with a sharp crack of lightning
and the sound of splintering wood, the truck split in two and .
fell on the deck, and a big splinter of the foretopmaSt came
clattering after. A globe of fire, high, hot ball, two feet .in
diameter ran down the foremast-quickly and gleamed with an
intense white light, as though metal heated to its highest
point. It illuminated the mast and rigging with a' strange
ghostly light and then struck the deck, bursting into a thousand brilliant fragments like a big rocket. Splinters were
strewed on deck, with the ruins of the highly ornamental
Comments: This is clearly an incident of ball lightning that
occurred during adverse weather conditions ..

Case IV
Vessel: Willkommen (German oil tank steamer) 4.5
Date: 17 November 1896 (after midnight)
Weather: Heavy seas
Location: Latitude 48 10 'N, longitude 44 OW
Observations: Arriving at New York City from Danzig,
Poland, with 6,000 bags of beet sugar, Captain Schaeffer
reported that a huge meteor shot across the sky from the
southeast to the northwest plunging, hissing into "the sea some
distance ahead of the steamer. Almost immediately afterwards, a huge sea, like a tidal wave, broke over the vessel's
bow and swept aft, doing but slight damage ..
Comments: This close encounter with a meteor at sea by
the Willkommen, may have been a straggler belonging to the
Leonid meteor shower that was due on the morning of the
13th of that month, arriving several days later after the main
stream had passed the earth-a consideration that has some
merit to explain its appearance.
Case V
Vessel: Cawdor (British)6
Date: 20 August 1897
Weather: Electrical storm
Location: Coast of Chile
Observations: Arriving in San Francisco, California from
Swansea, England, on Nov. 20th after crossing Cape' Horn
on August 12th. All hands were on deck when a huge meteor
flashed across the heavens and plunged into the sea close to
the vessel to the concern of the crew over this near collision.
Water was churned up and swept over the deck with a strong
sulphurous odor hanging around the vessel.
Comments: A meteor having an odor that may have been
generated during its passage through the atmosphere is' itself a
rare event. But that it had come so close' to causing a disaster
at sea keeps butting the statistical odds for such possible coincidences.
Case VI
Vessel: Supply (United States)' .
Date: 28 February 1904 (6:10 a.m.)
Weather: Clouds, less than a mile high
Pursuit 68 .

. Location: Latitude 3558'N, longitude 12836'W.

Observations: Lieutenant Frank H. Schofield, commander
of the vessel enroute from Guam to San Francisco, California, and two others reported three meteors appearing near the
horizon below the clouds traveling in a grolip from the northwest by north directly towards the ship. His detailed account
is as follows:
"At first their angular motion was rapid and color a
rather bright red. As they approached the ship they appeared to soar, passing above the clouds at an elevation
of about forty-five degrees.
"After rising above the clouds their angular motion
became less and less until it ceased, when they appeared
to be moving direCtly away from the earth at an elevation of about seventy-five degrees .and in a direction
west-northwest. It was noted that the color became less
pronounced as the meteors gained in angular
Schofield added' to' his comments about the most
remarkable size and how in formation these meteors flew.
The largest meteor had an apparent area of about six suns
and was egg shaped, with the sharper end forward. This end
was'jagged: The second appeared to be twice the size of the
sun; the third about sun size and both these were round.
Comments: Meteors' do occasionally fly parallel with the
earth and sometimes skim the earth's atmosphere to fly back
into outer space again. But meteors, if Schofield's description
is correct, do not fly upwards! Whether this was some
unusual atmospheric anomaly' is debatable, but it should be
taken into consideration.

. Case VII
Vessel: St. Andrew (Phoenix Line)8.9
Date: 30 October 1906 (Half an hour before sunset)
Weather: Cloudy
Location: 60 miles eastward of Cape Race.
Observations: First Officer V. Spencer, on board the vessel
enroute from Antwerp, Belgium, to Hoboken, New Jersey,
told in detail of his observation of four meteors:
". was standing on the bridge at half-past five, when
I saw three meteors ahead about three miles away, flash
. as they fell, although it was before sundown: The'sky
was clouded and I had hardly not.iced the fall of the
meteors when the chief engineer cried out from below
on deck, 'Look at that.'
"There, off to the south on our port beam, was a big
meteor falling plainly less than a mile away; It appeared
to be saucer 'shaped and showed like a white hot coal
streamed a shower of reddish fire fully a mile long.
While we were looking the meteor zigzagged, I supposed on account of its shape, and plunged into the sea. Up
rose clouds of steam and the sea boiled for a space fully
five or six hundred feet in diameter for several minutes.
"While the flight lasted only a few seconds, it seemed
an hour, we saw it so plainly, and had it struck our ship
it would have melted its way down through the steel .
hull and sent us without a moment's warning to the bottom."
Comments: A zigzagging meteor that was saucer shaped, is
indeed, an unusal celestial anomaly. That it was able to boil.
the sea where it had struck for a considerable area and amount
of time is also interesting. Though in this instance, the vessel
was a safe distance away and was not, fortunately, placed in
any immediate danger. As there were also three other meteors
seen to fall" before its appearance, it can be .safely concluded
Seco. -:I Quarter 1988

that this phenomenon was a meteor seen as it made its way

through the atmosphere and hitting the ocean's surface.
Vessel: Brazilia (Hamburg-American Line)8.9
Date: 30 October 1906 (7:30 p.m.)
Location: 150 miles further eastward of St. Andrew's position.
Observations: Captain Russ, as noted in the logbook of his
vessel saw a monster meteor drop into the sea.
Comments: As neither the Brazilia nor the St. Andrew
could have known of the other's observations of falling
meteors that had occurred two hours apart, there is independent confirmation of what was seen by each vessel. It can be
speculated, that perhaps the earth was going through a small
meteor storm whose focal point was this portion of the Atlan.
tic ocean on this date.
Case IX
Vessel: American (Line unknown)'O
Date: 27 November 1906 (at night)
Location: Between Dungeness and Port Angeles, Washington.
Observations: Captain McWilliams commented:
"I saw the meteor some time before it fell~ I thought
at first it was a shooting star, but it seemed to come
dangerously near. It passed and fell into the water
about a hundred feet or less, astern of us. It glowed as
though white hot. It cut the air with a hissing sound,
and went down with a great plunk and sizzle."
Comments: Of the cases so far, this was the closest encounter by which a vessel could actually have been destroyed,
or at least severely damaged. Unfortunately, its accurate size
was not given by the captain.
Case X
Vessel: Antelope (British bark)"
Date: Uncertain, but prior to May 1907
Location: Latitude 9, longitude 123 OW.
Observations: The Antelope was sailing between San Francisco, California and Liverpool, England. An unnamed crew
member commented as to the events that had happened during her voyage:
... was leaning over the rail looking at a brigantine
becalmed about three miles away. We hadn't spoken
her and didn't know what she was or where she was
from. I could ten from the taper of her masts that she
was American built, but that was all.
She was a trim little craft and it was enough to break
a seaman's heart the way she was wiped off the face of
the earth that night. ..
" .. .1 was leaning on the rail at about six bells, with
my cheek in my palm, looking away where the brigantine lay in the moonlight. The motion of the bark on the
swell was slow and kind of soothing, and I had got sort
of half dreaming with the lazy roll of her, when I was
startled broad awake by a bright light in the sky.
"Looking up, I saw a great ball of fire rushing down
through the air on a slant, and there was a dark cloud
above. By the time I had hauled in the slack of my mind
enough to know that it was a shooting star the glare of
it got so bright that the light of the moon was of no
more account than a slush lamp, and the stars were put
out altogether.
Second Quarter 1988

"There was a rushing, hissing sound in the air as the

thing came down. When it got pretty near the light
almost blinded me, and I could see nothing but the fiery
gleam of it on the water. It wasn't as long from the time
it hove in sight until it struck as I've been telling how it
looked. It must have been traveling like a cannon ball,
of maybe a good many more knots a minute. In the
glare I lost sight of the brigantine, I heard a crashing
sound, and the ball of fire disappeared, leaving
everything black before me eyes for a moment.
"When I blinked the right sight back into my eyes
and got used to the moonlight, that seemed pale and
sickly, I glanced over the starboard quarter, to where
the brigantine had been, but there wasn't a trace of her
to be seen. I could. hardly believe my own eyes,
although they were a good pair in those days ... 1 must
. have been a bit dazed by what had happened and got
confused in my bearings. But in no direction was so
much as a spar in sight, and off there, on the quarter
there was a rising and falling of short waves, their tops
reaching the glint of the moonbeam, that showed where
the shooting star had gone down into the sea. That was
where the brigantine had been.
".The flash and roar of the falling star had aroused
the watch on deck, and the men were gathered in a
group by the foremast, blinking their eyes and wondering what had happened. They had seen all that I had
and didn't know what had made the great glare of light.
I told them to look for the brigantine, and sent a man
aloft to see if anything could be made out where she
had been .. They were just about struck dumb when they
. saw the sea clear of all craft but our own, and asked me
if the brigantine had blown up. The man aloft reported
that he could not make out anything ...
"Thinking some poor fellow might be floating about
where the brigantine went down, I caned up the Captain and all hands, and the old man sent out a boat to
search. The second mate went in the boat, and when he
came back, he brought only a bit of scorched deck
planking that he picked up adrift where he calculated
the brigantine had been. That was all the trace of her
that was left, and we never knew her name or anything
more about her."
Comments: This alleged account was originally published
in the Chicago Inter-Ocean newspaper as a probable Sundaysupplement article, and therefore, must be viewed with
serious consideration as being a fabrication, as presently there
is no confirmation with regard to the vessel named. Also,
that the crew member who is alleged to have seen the nearby
ship disaster was unnamed in the article, leaving more suspicion about the validity of this account.
Case XI
Vessel: Cambrian (Line unknown)12
Date: 17 August 1907 (noon)
Weather: Sky cloudless, ocean smooth, no haze.
Location: Latitude 42 5 'N, and longitude 51 10 'W.
Observations: This 6,OOO-ton cargo vessel was enroute
from London, England and had departed thereon August
7th for its American destination of New York City or Boston.
It was not clearly identified by the writer who was the second
officer and gave the following lengthy account:
..... Mr. Thomas Hughes, the first officer, mounted
the ladder to the bridge to relieve me, my watch on deck
being over. After some minutes conversation with him I
Pursuit 69

. ,

was about to leave the bridge and go below, when our

attention was attracted to an unusual number of stars
which were falling from the heavens away over the starboard quarter ...
"The stars continued falling for about two minutes
and we remarked that they all traveled in very nearly the
same direction across the sky, from northeast to southwest. Some of them left trails as they soared over our
heads, and the ship's rigging dropped a traCery of
shadows along the deck; the effect being the same as if
a big fireworks display was in progress. .
Indeed, the stars looked for all the world like the
rockets which are used at sea as signals of distress to attract the attention of passing vessels; By and by,
however, they grew fainter and less numerous, and
presently ceased altogether.
"While Hughes and I were standing talking and
wondering at the meaning of this unusual stellar activity
another shower took place, even more striking than the
first, and soon the display got quite alarming, passing
as nearly all the stars did, directly over the ship ... AlI the
time the stars were becoming more and more luminous.
..... from the sky to the northeast, there flared up
something that looked like a rocket, save that it was
. much larger, and the train of fire that followed its glowing head trailed away behind like a horse's tail, while
fragments of fiery matter fell away from it like a shower
. of spray, and now and then a larger piece dropped off
into the sea. We had no time to ponder on the glowing
apparition before it had reached the zenith of its bow. like flight, and the light from the incandescent mass fell
. like the break of day on the deck of the Cambrian,
flooding her wake, and apparently heading directly for
the ship...
"In less time than it takes to tell we were confident
that a meteor of enormous size was after us.;. The great
luminous shape seemed to pause awhile in its flight, and
then drop toward the sea, heading directly for us as it
came. Its light transformed the night into day, and the
bright stars that had been whizzing and zigzagging here
and there were lost sight of in the brilliancy of this
newer light. The phenomenon was taking place so
quickly that it would have been useless to alter our
course in an effort to avoid the onrushing meteor: there
was nothing to be done but stand on and take our
"~s the meteor began to plunge downward in its flight
through the atmosphere we heard a strange roaring
sound - faint at first, but growing louder and louder
as the glowing sphere came nearer. The whole sea and
sky were now bathed in a blinding bluish-white light,
such as is produced by a calcium burner, and the electric bulbs on the ship became dimmed and turned a
sickly yenow.
" ...The meteor was now quite close, and such was its
brilliance that it was almost impossible to tum our eyes
toward it. The hissing and roaring noise which accom.panied its progress was sufficient to strike terror into
the.head of the most hardened of seamen. In'the fraction of a second, as it seemed, its glowing head had expanded to the size of a balloon, against which the funnel and aftermasts were sharply silhouetted.
" ... Nothing could shut out the dazzling glare of the
meteor which pierced through our closed fingers,
Pursuit 70


clasped tight over our faces to protect our eyes. The air
was filled with a deafening din, such as a dozen railway
trains in a tunnel might create, while the hiss of the fiery
fragments as they struck the water gave me the impression of a ship's boilers leaking in every plate. Then,
with a crash that shook the ship, tfie meteor struck the
sea not 50 feet away. The upheaval was terrific, but we
paid little attention to it, for. the peril was past.
"The Cambrian had escaped, but by an exceedingly
narrow margin. Not a top or a spar was touched when
the meteor, literally as big as a house, passed close over
our mastheads and fell into the sea. The vessel soon ran
out of the commotion caused by the aerial monster,
though not before she had slipped some water along the
after-deck, caused by the first wave which rushed from
the spot where the monster had disappeared."
Comments: Of all the reported near-collisions, the Cambrian is claimed to have the closest encounter. However, this
report was published in Wide- World Magazine, that makes
this account, like the one 'before it, .a possible fabrication on
the part of the writer. Though, as the speCific name of the
vesS'a:was given and one of the officers, the possibility of this
being nothing more than a "seamen's tale" is less likely. Until
further confimtation can be acquired, this case be best viewed
with reservations as to its veracity.

Vessel: Ocean (Dutch)1l ..., ' ,
Date: 4 March 1908 (3 a.m.). :
Location: 3959 'N. and 71 27 'W.
Observations: Arriving in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on
March 17th, Captain Benkert and the. crew of his vessel
reported that a descending meteor struck the sea, resulting in
huge waves to sweep over the vessel, after. which the sea settled, the atmosphere became filled with a suffocating gas so
strong that the crew had to remain on deck - the deck itself
covered with a peculiar brownish powder. After which, a
shower of blazing meteors fall about the vessel,
lasting several minutes.,
The sea about the vessel became phosphorescent, with
the sky having dazzling clouds of every color dancing about.
Comments: This meteor had several interesting characteristics: that it left a trail of brownish powder on the vessel; a
smell that was either directly or indirectly caused by the
meteor striking the sea; and that it was close enough to the
vessel to cause waves to be swept over the deck.
As there was afterwards a show of metecirs falling about
the vessel for several minutes duration, it may be concluded
that this was a small swarm of meteors that was hitting this
specific focal point on the ocean.
Vessel: Bostonian (Leyland Line)''
.Date: 24 February 1912 (5 a.m.)
Location:Three days out from Boston coming froni Manchester, England.
Observations: Arriving in Boston on Februa.ry 26th, CaP7
tain Perry reported seeing a meteor flashing brilliantly and
falling to the southwest of the vessel. A loud hissing sdunq
was heard as it approached the water, then fell into the ocean
a few ships lengths from the bow. Water was dashed over the
decks of the.steamer~
Comments: A sound was associated with the meteOr fall,
with the vessel coming within close distance to where the
meteor had struck the water.

Second Quarter 1988

Case XIV
Vessel: Bohemian (Leyland Line)"
Date: Prior to 29 March 1913 (night?)
Weather: Snowstorm
Location: Between Boston, Massachusetts, and Halifax,
Nova Scotia.
Observations: Arriving at Boston on March 29th, from
Liverpool, England, after towing the disabled British steamer
Cayo Rimano to Halifax, the crew and passengers reported a
meteor that appeared on the steamer's port side in a heavy
snowstorm. Crossing her bows at a great speed, it exploded
with a deafening report and blinding glare about 40 feet from
the surface of the ocean. Causing all parts of the steamer to
be lighted.
Comments: Again, a meteor that exploded near the vessel.

Case XV
Vessel: Lapland (Red Star Line)16
Date: 13 February 1914 (night)
Weather: Snowy sky
Location: Seven days out from New York City.
Observations: Captain J. Bradshaw reported a giant
meteor appearing and swept in a great downward ..curve
straight for his ship. The falling mass of fire was directly over
the ship when it exploded in the air with a shock that shook
the plates of the vessel.
Comments: This is another description given in which the
meteor took a curved path, as though specifically attracted to
the vessel.
Of the IS cases, each can be placed into one of the following three catagories of aerial phenomena.
St. Elmos Fire/Ball lightning: Cases 1 and 3
Sky Anomalies: Cases 2 and 6
Meteors: Cases 4,5,7,8,9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, IS.
As plotted on the map, the first and second categories due to a lack of a sufficient number of cases - can be referred to as random encounters that occurred in the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans. However, it is the third category that may
show a possible pattern emerging. As shown on the map, the
majority of the cases occurred along the northeastern portion
of the Atlantic along the North American continent. But
whether this pattern is definite or just sheer coincidence is
conjecturable. It must be pointed out that New York City or
Boston were the main destinations of these ocean crossing
steamers. And, that the steamers fonowed set sea routes in
order to cross the Atlantic in the fastest amount of time by
traveling the least amount of sea miles. Thereby, anomalies
that may have occurred on the voyage would have happened
along this set sea route, and since literally tens of thousands
of vessels would have traveled this route over a period of
several decades, statistically this should produce the largest
number of sightings of anomalies. Yet, in actuality, the newspaper columns were almost totally void of such reports for
the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After World War I, .
such reports were totally neglected by the newspapers.
One unmistakable fact can be deduced: that several near
disasters had almost occurred to sea-going vessels by the
bombardment of meteors from outer space. And that only by
the most fortunate of circumstances did the vessels survive
such encounters and by which the ship's crews were able to
report wha~ had occurred. But what of the possible cases in
Second Quarter 1988

which both the ships and the passengers were not so fortunate? Such disasters at
would leave no witnesses to tell
these tales. It may be concluded, that possibly a minute few
vessels throughout the centuries were destroyed by the chance
encounters of meteors at sea and thereby account for the
disappearances of some vessels now long forgotten in some
insurance company's record/log book. Though of all of the
hundred of thousands of vessels constructed, by far more
were lost to bad weather than by meteors from space.
The odds of such a loss by a meteor is like hitting the head
of a pin on a dartboard at 100 feet with a grain of sand. Toss
the grain enough times, and ultimately you will hit the pin's
Perhaps nature is having a cosmic joke at our Fortean expense, and that we are looking for some ominous pattern
when there really is none. And that these anomalies are just
sheer coincidence that happen over a set period of time.
I leave it to the reader to decide.


I. Ball of Fire At Sea, Hartford Courant, Hartford, Connecticut, 18
February 1890, p. I, col. I.
2. Sighted a Big Meteor, The Evening Leader, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, 16 January 1894, p. I, col. 4.
3. Hit by a Meteorite, New Haven Evening Register, New Haven,
Connecticut, 18 February 1896, p. 3.
4. A Large Meteor Falls on the Atlantic, New York Herald, New
York, 2 December 1896, p. 10.
S. Huge Meteor at Sea, Wilkes-Barre Weekly News Dealer, WilkesBarre, Pennsylvania, 2 December 1896, p. 2, col. 2.
6. A Meteor's Fall, Hartford Courant, Hanford, Connecticut, 22
November 1897, p. 7, col. 7.
7. Meteors Fly Upward; New York Herald, New York, 9 March
1904, p. 7, col. I.
8. Meteor Roars Down Near Ocean Liner, Los Angeles Times, Los
. Angeles, California,S November 1906, p. 4, col. 2, 3.
9. Meteor Grazes Ship in Mid-Ocean, New York Herald, New
York, S November 1906.
10. Meteor Falls Near Boat, Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles,
California, 3 December 1906, p. 3, col. 2.
II. Ship Was Sunk by Meteor, Washington Post, Washington, D.C.
S May 1907.
12. Ship's Remarkable Escape From Fiery Monster That Fell From
Heavens, Washington Post, Washington, D.C. 26 April 1908,
mi~c. section, p. 2, col. I.
13. Ship Has Narrow Escape From Meteor Falling At Sea, Chicago
Tribune, Chicago, Illinois, 18 March 1908, p. 4, col. 3.
14. Meteor Almost Hit Liner, New York Tribune, New York, 27
February 1912, p. I, col. 2.
IS. Meteor Explodes At Sea, New York Tribune, New York, 30
March 1913, p. 11, col. 3.
16. Meteor Bursts Over Ship, New York Tribune, New York, 19
February 1914.

*Editor's Note: Gary Mangiacopra, avid collector of Fortean

articles, covers a span of exactly 24 years ending about 75
years ago. These old newsclips could have easily been passed
over by ufologists but, put together here, give us a new
perspective on "meteors."
Particularly interesting is the sailor's description of a
"meteor" being "saucer shaped" more than 40 years before
Kenneth Arp.old's now famous "flying saucer" quote.
If we are to speculate that some of these ''meteors" might
have been intelligently controlled craft from outer space, we
may likewise speculate that fewer such reports, fonowing
World War I, may have been due to the easier detection of
newer, steel-hulled, ocean-going vessels and electric generator-lighted ships that were not as prevalent when these reports
were made around the century up until 1914.
Pursuit 71





Florida's 'Giant Pengaln'

H0811 Unmasked
The year was 1948.
In Clearwater, Fla., a town of about
15,000, crazy things were happening. On a
morning in February, a resident out for a
walk on Clearwater Beach discovered what
looked like the footprints of a monster and
ran home to call the police.
The tracks were large - 14 inches long, 11
inches wide. They had three long toes with
claws. Whatever had made them apparently
had come out of the Gulf of Mexico at the
south end of the beach and, taking 4-foot to
6-foot strides, had walked for more than two
miles in the soft sand before returning to t~e
The police didn't know what had made the
tracks, but an official with the Pinellas County Sheriff's Department said he had "studied
the footprints carefully and was persoRlilly
assured that, if a prank, it was one of"the
most masterful ever Perpetrated in Pinellas."
Over the next 10 years, the footprints of the
"Clearwater Monster" appeared frequently:
on Clearwater Beach, on Indian Rocks Beach,
on .the Courtney Campbell Parkway, on St.
Petersburg Beach, on the beach at Sarasota."
The "monster" also left its prints on Honeymoon Island off the coast at Dunedin, along
the banks .of the Andote River north of .Tarpon Sprin~s and on the banks of the Suwannee River, where U.S. 19 crosses the river, five
miles east of Old Town in Dixie County.
'In July 1948, four fliers from the Dunedin
Flying School said that they had seen the
creature off Clearwater Beach and that it
. ::', ',' " ,:~; ..... ':~"::',;::: . :.. ',: '.'=-:" "......' ; .:,
looked like a furry log with a head shaped like
. (upper left) 'Penguin' print in sand; (upper right) I.T. Sanderson holding plaster cast of
a hog's.
Because of the: "monster" sightings, the print in 1948; and (bottom) Tony Signorini wearing both hoax feet.
"little town on Florida's West Coast" made fire department, he set off flares in his
All these years, the "monster" was tucked
headlines and news broadcasts nationwide.
business, Auto Electric. The fire department away in' its cardboard box under a workbench
Ivan T. Sanderson, noted zoologist and showed up all right, and the flares provided at Auto Electric. The real "monster" is a pair
science commentator for WNBC in New quite a show, but as a result the building was of cast iron "feet wi'th high top black sneakers.
York as well as the science writer for the New badly damaged.
Signorini lifted the feet, each weighing 30
Signorini, who was Williams' partner at pounds, out of the box and put them on.
York Herald Tribune and WNBC's special
events director, visited Florida in November Auto Electric and, with his son and daughter,
"You see, I would just swing my left back
1948 to study the tracks along the Suwannee. still runs the business on Greenwood Avenue and forth like this and then give a big hop,
Sanderson, who died in 1973, determined in Clearwater, said Williams came up with the. and the weight of the feet would carry me that
after months of study that the tracks had been idea for the "monster" tracks. it seemed an . far," Signorini said, explaining the 6-foot
made by some form of giant penguin. He call- appropriate prank: The Loch Ness monster strike of the creature. "The shoes were heavy
was still making news (its photograph was enough to sink down in the sand."
ed the creatured "Florida Three-Toes."
A number of local people, including the first published in 1934), and dinosaur remains
Signorini said the idea for the big three-toed
police, believed the whole thing was a hoax. had been dug up near Albuquerque, N.M., in footprints came from a picture of dinosaur
But they had no way to prove it, and no one July 1947. During the World War II years, tracks. After several tries at making the feet,
ever came forward to admit to it.
Gulf residents were constantly watching the Williams and Signorini decided concrete was
water for signs of German submarines.
Until now.
not heavy enough, so the molds for the tracks
Tony Signorini' still chuckles when he
When Williams died in 1969, he left the were taken to a foundry in St. Petersburg. The
thinks about the stories that sprang up to ex- secret of the "Clearwater Monster" to resulting cast iron feet were ideal.
Holes were drilled into the tops of the feet
plain the footprints that he and the late AI Signorini for safekeeping.
Williams stamped into the sand.
Encouraged 'by his friends Bud and Joanne and the sneakers set in place with screws.
Williams was a notorious prankster. in Lobaugh of Largo (Bud learned the true story When the inner soles. of the shoes were glued
Clearwater in the 19405 and 19505. Just for about the "monster" from'Signorini in 1965), back in place, the "monster" was ready.
A rowboat supplied by a friend brought the
fun, he once sneaked a horse into the holding Signorini agreed to bring the "monster" out
area at the Clearwater police station. Another of hiding, 40 years after the tracks were first creature to shore.
"We would go on nights with not too many
tim,e, because he loved to play tricks on the seen.

Pursuit 72

Second Quarter 1988

Southeast Washington last year, showed derWhatever it was, it left .big tracks.
waves or beach walkers around. Of course,
Tom Henson said he had the answer. Hen- mal ridges clearly. But some other things
not many people were on the beach then,"
son, an animal expert, said it was not an about the prints made him suspect they were
Signorini said.
animal but a prankster.
The "monster" came out only at night.
Back home in Pullman, Bodley decided to
Alexander said he spotted some tracks
"I put the shoes on in the water and then
walked a long way, maybe two miles up the Saturday morning. "The sun was just peeping see if he could fake dermal ridges. He began
beach and then got back in the boat," Signor up," he said, when he saw some bent grass by fashioning a clay mold of an oversized
foot. Then he rolled his bare big toe in the soft
ini said, grinning. "I had ... to be careful the while he was walking through a field.
He looked around and found what looked clay to leave impressions of dermal ridges. He
water wasn't too deep when I had them on.
"Other times, we would take them (the like tracks in a plowed area. They were nearly did the same with his heel. Then he pressed his
feet) in the car and carry them to where we round, about eight inches across and 11 inches forehead into the center of the clay footprint.
Bodley's son, Brett, 16, spread glue on the
wanted to make the tracks. Then we'd take a long. Each had what appeared to be six claw
skin of his fingers and feet, peeled it off and
palm frond and brush away all the footprints marks.
Alexander said the trail was about 75 yards then pressed the dried glue into the clay to
we'd made while we were doing it."
leave still more impressions of skin patterns.
At the Suwannee River site, "we stayed on long.
Bodley poured plaster of Paris into the
There are bears around Alexander's farm,
property belonging to a friend named AI
Spears," Signorini said. "After we found which is near the Dismal Swamp, but these mold and let it harden into a cast of a Sasquatch foot. Then he pressed the cast into soft
some good places along the river, we waded in weren't bear tracks.
Neighbors who looked at the tracks ground. The dermal ridges were clearly visible
the water and carried the feet. Then I'd put
them on where we wanted to make the couldn't agree on what might have put them in the "footprint." And they were still visible
there. Alexander consulted the Beaufort in a plaster cast he made of the print.
Bodley wasn't trying to fool anyone, and
Clearwater police were skeptical about the County Sheriff's Department and the N.C.
his fake print didn't. He showed the cast to
existence of the monster from the beginning Wildlife Resources Committee.
Henson, an animal specialist for the wild- Grover Krantz, a WSU anthropologist who
and suspected that AI Williams might be the
culprit, said Frank Daniels, who retired in life commission, inspected the prints. His con- has investigated reported Sasquatch sightings.
1981 after 32 years on the Clearwater police clusion: "Somebody's having them a little Krantz pointed out that the crudely shaped
toes were a giveaway. And at Bodley's rejoke."
force, the last 13 years as chief of police.
He said no animal had such a print and that quest, Kr;mtz showed the fake footprint cast
"I don't think any of the Clearwater cops
took it seriously," Daniels said. "We sus- an animal could have left indentations from with dermal ridges to six fingerprint experts.
"I showed them two casts and told them
pected Williams because he usually called in paw pads. These prints were flat, leading
the reports of the monster and was such a Henson to think they were made from one was a fabrication and the other was of
unknown origin," Krantz said. "Each one
local prankster, but we could never prove it. boards.
He said the steps were regular-sized steps picked the fake immediately. They said the
"When a pilot flying over the beaches reported seeing something furry with a head for a person. "They made sure they walked in dermal ridges were not oriented correctly on
shaped like a hog's in the Gulf, we suspected a plowed field and not in the road," he said. the foot."
The experiment did now shake Krantz's
Besides that, he said, he detected some
Williams because he flew his own plane,"
snickers and some sidelong glances among the conviction that Sasquatches do exist, even
Daniels said.
though no bones of the legendary animal ever
"You know, that's a funny thing," Signor- people who watched him inspect the tracks.
"I think that some of those folks knew have been found.
ini recalled with a smile, "because we never
"It would be extremely difficult to fake
knew who was flying that plane and made the more than they were telling," Henson said.
Henson said he did not take any plaster dermal ridges well enough to fool the
report. It wasn't us."
casts. But at least one Pinetown resident did, experts," Krantz said. "It would take someSOlJRCE: J. Kirby, Times,
one well versed in the arrangement of ridges
. according to Alexander.
St. Petersburg, FL 6/11/88
Alexander plowed over some of the prints, on the feet, as well as skillful in the technique
CKEDrr: Ada Fagg and Betty Dickson
but some 51 ill barely remain in a small field Bodley used."
[Editor's Note: It must be said that Ivan San- beside his house. And neighbors have been
Krantz cited one supposed Sasquatch print
derson was fairly convinced shortly after he
spreading the word, drawing some Beaufort seven inches wide with dermal ridges running
arrived in Clearwater that the "Florida three- County residents to the farm.
the entire width. "No human foot is that
toe's" prints were part of a hoax. Upon
Whatever their source, the prints definitely wide," he said, "and there was no patching of
reviewing Ivan's report, as part of SITU's made an impression.
the ridges. It would have been impossible to
files, it becomes obvious that in correspon- SOlJRCE: C. Spivey, Daily News,
dence between AI Williams, perpetrator of the
Bodley says he is "not a disbeliever" in the
Washington, NC 6/9/88
hoax, and Ivan, the media coverage gave Mr. CREOrr: Forteana News, Lou Farish
Sasquatch, given the persistence of the legend
Williams a distinct advantage when, by giving
in history.
him Ivan's daily progress report, hesimply inBigfoot Easy to Fake.
"But it's possible hoaxers are a lot more
vented a new trick to confuse and confound
Anthropologist Clal...
sophisticated than I thought and we're going
A Washington State University anthropo- to have to be more careful in examining footFor the record, Ivan said on WNBC radio, logist has found that it's relatively easy to fake prints," he said.
Nov. 15, 1948, "I think I've caught a fish in one of the more impressive bits of evidence in
The footprints Bodley found last year
one of my traps. I think the trap for hoaxers so-called footprints of the Sasquatch.
didn't appear more than 30 minutes old.
has sprung." And, "if a hoax it be ... no crime
Although the prints were spread out over a
The Sasquatch, or Bigfoot, is a legendary
has been committed, it's just a good joke."
humanlike creature that has been reported in quarter mile of trail, only one sequence of
Ivan the investigator could also masterfully moun~ains of the Northwest for generations. left-right prints was found. And Bodley was
play the role of ent.repeneur of mysteries.
Some of the better preserved footprints puzzled why there were so few tracks on so
Nearly two decades after the hoax made head- have shown dermal ridges, the tiny whorls much available soft soil. Still, he felt he needlines Ivan revived the story in chapter 3 of his that appear in the skin on the bottoms of toes ed to account for the presence of the dermal
now-out-of-print book, More Things in 1967.] and feet, similar to fingerprints. The feature ridges.
Mon.t... 1n N. CaroUna?
occurs in humans and apes but not other ani"Now I think it's even more likely they
Pl'ob.bly Print ....nk
were fake," he said.
SOlJRCE: H. Williams, Union Bulletin,
In fact, some apparently fresh footprints John Alexander was wondering what it was
Walla, Walla, WA 6127/88
that went through his fields near Pinetown 17 inches long and 6 inches wide - that John
Bodley found in the Blue Mountains of CREOrr: Forteana News, Lou Farish last weekend.

Second Quarter 1988

Pursuit 73

The Psychic Connection

by R. Perry CoUins
Two fields of research which have become more accepted
in recent years are those involving psychic events and UFOrelated events. They seem to be entirely separate.' At first
glance they seem related only by the fact that they. are both
unusual areas of investigation. By this it is meant that both
UFO ~nd psychic questions deal with non-ordinary realities,
realities we do not experience on a daily basis. The research,
done on the paranormal aspects of the mind seems more acceptable to the scientific establishment, but both fields have
abundant amounts of case-history evidence that open them
up to investigation.
. Upon examination of case-history evidence found in the
UFO field, a perhaps surprising discovery can be made. There
are numerous accounts of UFO incidents, especially closeencounter incidents, that involve a large interplay of psychicor,paranormal mental experience. People who have had no
previous experience with psychic phenomena have found
themselves psychically aware and participants, too, in the
world of the paranormal both' during and after their first
UFO experience.
Why are such effects reported? How and why are UFOs
and the paranormal related? What tentative conclusions can
. we draw about reality from these events? To understand these
questions and their. answers we need some background of
knowledge about both fields. Only then can we determine
what role the paranormal plays in conjunction with the UFO
phenomenon. To get a brief look at some overt examples of
psychic/UFO interplay, these next few cases are presented.
There are numerous other examples, some of which have
been recounted in the present UFO literature. They all show
various aspects of psychic events experienced with close UFO
encounters and giv~ us a background for the exploration of
the reasons and meanings inherent in them.

Two of four photographs laken by Helio Aguiar over a beach near

Piala, Brazil on April 24, 1959.. '

April 24, 1959 - Piata, Brazil:- Helio.Aguiar, a thirty-yearold accountant was riding a motorcycle when.he observed a
silvery, domed disc with windows, moving slowly overhead.
He stopped and took three photographs of the object and was
winding his camera for the fourth. picture when he began to
feel "a pressure in his brain," and a state of progressive confusion overtook him. He felt vaguely as if he were being
ordered by someone to write something down. It was as
though he were being hypnotized.' He passed out~ Upon
awakening he found himself slumped over his cycle, a piece
of paper in his hand. On it, in his own handwriting, was a
message: "Put an absolute stop to all atomic tests for warlike
purposes. The balance of the universe is threatened. We shall
remain vigilant and ready to intervene." The photographs
were developed and clearly show a detailed, domed disc
hovering low over the nearby Atlantic Ocean.
Pursuit 74

November?, 1966 - Parkersberg, West Virginia - William

Deren berger , salesman, was dr.iving when he came upon a
strange vehicle hovering just above the road. He stopped his
. car and was approached by a man of dark complexion dressed in ~hat appeared to be blue vinyl shirt and pants. The man
smiled at Derenberger and, although no words were spoken,
the witness telepathically received a message describing
another world and was told to report. the meeting to
authorities. Several people driving by reported seeing the man
speaking to Derenberger.
September 1,1965 - Huanaco, Peru -:- A foreigner to Peru
who desires anonymity made the following report.' Early in
the morning, for no apparent reason, this man felt overcome
with a strange sensation which seemed to impel him to go to a
certain spot on an airstrip belonging to a large, private esta~e.
As he arrived at the spot he saw an oval UFO descend and
land very near to him. A small, human-like being with an
enlarged cranium and about three "feet tall, emerged from the
vehicle and began making: gestures or signs as if trying to
communicate. The being then re-entered the machine which
began to glow and then ascended vertically into the sky. .
March 13, 1963 - Richards Bay, South Africa - Fred
White, a fisherman, had ~een a UFO a year before with
Harry O'Dank, while nigh~ fishing ne,ar North Beach, Durban, approximately 150 miles from Richards Bay. On this
night he was ashore and had just finished dinner and decided
to take a stroll along the beach. It was about '10:30 p.m.
While walking, he became aware of a high-pitched whining
sound and saw a very bright light moving south about 200
feet above the water. It changed direction and descended to
the beach, stopping about 100 feet from him. White saw it
was a dome<;l saucer and through a porthole he saw a faircomplexioned, well-built man wearing a "crash" helmet. The
craft began humming and displayed a pulsating green light. It
suddenly ascended into the sky, scattering sand on the beach
in the process. Several years later, in September of 1966,
White was hospitalized with a collapsed lung. He reported
that the same man "walked into my room, pulled up a chair
and repeated my name." He was wearing a glowing, pulsating wristwatch and while smiling and engaging White in conversation he reached over and touched White's arm and
chest. He told White not to be alarmed and to be prepared for
beneficial changes and more 'contacts.' He did not elaborate.
After his visitor had left, White reported that his chest was
free of pain and he was able to breathe freely. Medical examination showed his lung to be completely normal, i.e. to
have been re-inflated and the hole that caused the puncture
was completely healed. The doctor treating White stated: "I
have never seen anything like it."
August 13, 1975 - Tucson, Arizona - Mr. Lewis (a pseudonym), thirty years old, a serviceman and preferring complete anonymity, recounts this'story in several interviews wit.h
members of the Aerial Phenomenon Research Organization.
After getting off work at II :30 p.m. on August 12th, Lewis
decided to drive out and watch the Perseid meteor shower of
August 13th'. At 12:30 he drove for fifteen minutes into the
country and stopped, exiting his car to watch the sky: At 1:20
a.m. a large, dull grey metal disc 'dropped' out of the sky and
Second Quarter 1988

hovered about twenty feet above the ground. To the right

center of the disc a rectangular lighted window was visible.
Human-shaped forms could be seen moving about inside and
the object began emitting a strange buzzing sound. Lewis
became frightened and got back into his car, but he could not
start the engine. He remembers being very frightened at this
point. The buzzing noise then stopped and he felt a calmness
coming over him, "like I was floating on a cloud." The disc
then began to rise into the sky and his fear returned. Now his
car started and, as he began to drive for home, he noticed that
his wristwatch read 2:45 a.m. Lewis was certain that he had
watched the disc for no more than a few minutes and had no
idea what had occurred between 1:20 and 2:45 a.m.
November 1966 - Owatonna, Minnesota - Mrs. Ralph
Butler and another woman were watching the night sky,
observing "little flashers," a name they used for the nocturnallights that had become commonplace around Owatonna. Suddenly one of the lights descended rapidly and hovered
a few feet above the ground near them. It had multicolored
lights flickering around a disc-shaped rim. Mrs. Butler's
friend fell to her knees with her head bowed, seemingly in
some kind of trance. She abruptly began speaking in a
strange, high-pitched voice: "What is your time cycle?," she
asked. Mrs. Butler, surprised, tried to explain about days,
hours, minutes. A few more seemingly trivial questions about
time followed and then the other woman came out of the
trance. "Boy, I'm sure glad that's over," she remarked.
Later, both women came down with intense headaches whenever they tried to discuss the incident. Mrs. Butler wrote to
John Keel, a UFO investigator, and for some reason did not
experience a headache when he called to ask about the incident. She told him the details of the experience as well as
about unusual poltergeist activity that she and her husband
had noticed around their home immediately after the incident.
November 24, 1964 - New Berlin, Connecticut - Mrs.
Mary Williams (a pseudonym) and her mother-in-law were
staying at the older woman's house when they witnessed the
landing and apparent repair of two unusual vehicles which
resembled "flying saucers." Mrs. Williams had stepped out
onto the porch for some fresh air at about 12:30 a.m. when
she saw an unusually bright light descend rapidly from the
sky. It leveled off and began moving slowly, parallel to a
creek bed across the road from the house. Several cars went
by as the object drifted back and forth and the drivers seemed
to see the object as they, at first, slowed and then drove off at
a high speed. Mrs. Williams then called her mother-in-law's
attention to the object. At this point it moved in one direction
along the creek bed and up the side of a nearby hill to a point
later determined to be 3800 hundred feet from the witnesses.
The women got a pair of binoculars and observed the object
land. She also saw five or six men get out and walk about it.
They were dressed in tight-fitting "diver's suits" that were
darker than their skin and they seemed to be six feet or more
in height. Soon, a second object arrived and landed next to
the first and it, also, discharged a number of men. Both sets
of men then seemed to become busy in efforts to repair the
first object by moving a section out from its underside, working on it and then replacing it. They did this several times until about 5:00 a.m., when both objects rose into the air and
moved off in the direction from which they had arrived.
When asked why she didn't call anyone to report the incident
or to get more witnesses, Mrs. Williams indicated that she felt
as if the men on the hill did not wish her to do so. When the
Second Quarter 1988

object had first hovered near her house, she had received the
distinct impression that she was being watched by several peo~
pie, that they were friendly and that they only wanted to get
their machine fixed and leave. She knew, by some sort of
telepathic process, that they did not want her to call anyone,
as they might come with guns and bother them. She stated
that she was aware of the occupants' thoughts somehow and
that they knew she would not call attention to their presence.
What are we dealing with here? Well, certainly the existence of a UFO reality cannot be denied - there are, on
record, thousands of detailed reports of close encounters with
unusual, structured and intelligently controlled vehicles crewed by beings of various natures and appearances. Physical
evidence exists in abundance, including photographs, radar
returns, ground traces, electromagnetic effects and even
metal fragments. In most of the more extensive reports,
events of a psychic nature have repeatedly surfaced.
If psychic or paranormal events interest us, and by seeking
to understand them we may find it. more complete awareness
of. ourselves, then it would be informative for us to have a
clear picture of their intricate relationship with the UFO
phenomenon. This is one reason why an understanding of the
real nature of the UFO is attractive.
From the early fifties to the present' time UFOs have been
considered to be visitors from outer space. Other ways of
viewing them have also become popular. UFOs represent
mankind's 'collective unconscious,' relates one school of
thought. They are 'psychic projections' and 'manifestations
of psychokinetic energy.' Before we discuss the nature of
these views let's review why the idea of UFOs as visitors from
outer space has begun to fade.
One of the primary drawbacks of the extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs is the large magnitude and diversity of the
phenomenon. There are numbers of UFO incidents on a daily
basis on our planet and only about twenty percent can be fit
into correlative patterns. The majority of events are unique,
having characteristics of vehicle structure and occupant
description that are seldom reported more than once. This
large number of unique UFO incidents is a strong argument
against their existence as interstellar visitors.
Carl Sagan and other scientists have shown, by mathematical deduction, it can be demonstrated that, to account for the
large number of UFO incidents, especially the unique incidents implying separate origins, our galaxy would have to
be literally overrun by advanced civilizations. They claim that
by taking into view such factors as the number of stars in the
galaxy,: the probable number of such stars having planetary
systems, the number of such planets where life has been initiated, the probability of civilized Iifeforms, etc., it can be
shown that there should be approximately ten million advanced civilizations capable of visiting Earth. Considering the
vastness of our galaxy (one hundred billion stars within an
area of one hundred thousand light years), each one of these
civilizations would have to launch ten thousand interstellar
expeditions per year for Earth to be visited only once every
twelve months. UFO activity of a confirmed, investigated
nature sustains itself at approximately three incidents per
week. I feel, logically speaking, they cannot all be interstellar
It is this sort of reasoning that has led many researchers to
the view that UFOs are manifestations of some sort of human
frustration with an imperfect world. This view, however, is
also difficult to maintain in light of practical considerations.
Pursuit 75

First, there is little or no evidence for the reality of such a

'collective psyche.' There is a great deal of evidence for the
physical reality of UFOs. The concept of UFOs as products
of the 'human unconscious' cannot explain that physical
reality. If an entity called 'the collective psyche' did exist,
why are there manifestations of UFOs? As a function of the
human unconscious would not the manifestations be of a
much more diverse and miscellaneous nature? There is
evidence of a greater whole of which we are a part. This
evidence seems to indicate that many paranormal events are
perceived as such because of our cultural (and resultant individual) split from this whole. This concept, however, encompasses much more than a simple postulation of a 'collective human unconscious' that manifests itself through UFOs.
Another approach to the psychic explanation for UFOs involves the individual manifestations of UFO events by means
of psychokinetic, projections. It is well known that poltergeist
phenomena take place usually in the presence of an agent,
often a pre-adolescent child experiencing an unusually difficult transition into our cultural reality. It is speculated that
UFO activity could be similar, the incident taking place
through a psychic projection of one of the witnesses. This explanation, although more secured in reality than the 'collective psyche' view, is inadequate. While studies, especially in
the USSR, show definite evidence for psychokinetic abilities
in certain individuals, they are nowhere near the magnitude
implied in the UFO phenomenon. To project by p~ychokine
sis (PK) a structured, metallic v~hicle that demonstt:ates
strong electromagnetic effects and which can be photographed, seen and detected by radar is far beyond what has been
observed in psychic demonstrations: Such psychic projections
would imply almost limitless psychic powers inherent in individuals, powers which they use without being aware of
them as such. This seems very unlikely.
From what. has been observed of the UFO phenomenon
over the past forty years, the most tenable hypothesis is that
they represent a reality outside of our psyches, but an extremely diverse and almost inexplicable ~>ne. There seem to be
two or three different groups of visitors to our planet and
many others of a unique and numerous nature. The majority
of cases fall into this last category; implying that our planet is
being visited by various types of beings. This (loes not mean
that they are projections of our minds. There is the possibility
of alternate realities, other dimensions, other places of which
we are at present totally unaware. Considering these concepts,
we also notice that these "visitors" display strong psychic
abilities not limited to one type or group. Tpe psychic
manifestations seem to be a common denominator in all types
of close-encounter incidents. This has tremendous significance for our world and culture.
What does this common denominator suggest to our view
of the paranormal? Let us consider what has been shown.
UFOs seem to represent many types of intelligent visitors to
our planet. They may come from many different places or
realities, in fact, they must do so in order. to explain their
presence. There are logical considerations that. points to a
common mechanism or agency behind a great deal of UFO
activity, but along with this there seem to be large numbers of
other, more random visitors to our world. How is it that they
have such easy access to the paranormal? Is it because they
are technologically advanced and their psychic senses are also
advanced proportionately? Or is there some other reason or
First of all, it does not seem logical that because a race of
Pursuit 76

The photographs shown on this page H1ustrate the variety of models

of UFOs reported around the world. Each of these photos have been
the subject of considerable attention and, in each case, no evidence
has surfaced which would show it to have been faked. In three of
these cases, evidence blJS1i!d on details of backgrounds in relation to
shadows and time of day are elltremely difficult to explain without
admitting to the reality of the incidents. The high "uniqueness
factor" represented by t~e many different types of UFOs and. occupants is, surprisingly, evidence that they do not originate in 'outer

Secon9 Quarter 1988

intelligent beings is technologically advanced they would

necessarily by psychically advanced. Our human race has
made tremendous technological advances in the last two hundred years yet we are no more psychically aware now than we
were in 1788. Let's look at this from a different viewpoint.
Many sensitives or psychically gifted people have stated that it
is their feeling that all people have psychic abilities. It seems
that most people just do not have access to these abilities or
do not know how to use them. Could it be that all human beings, especially the more intelligent ones, have a psychic component in their make-ups and that we earthlings, for some
reason, are not fully aware of this?
There is some solid evidence in this direction. Charles Tart,
a parapsychologist at the University of California, relates an
experiment in which a subject was placed in a sensory
deprivation environment. He was told of another subject
down the hall who was to be given electrical shocks at random intervals and was asked to signify those moments when
he felt, by psychic means, that the other subject was being
shocked. The first man, in addition to his condition of sensory deprivation, was monitored physiologically to determine
such things as heart rate, breathing rate, amount of perspiration, etc. The experiment proceeded, with the second man being shocked at random intervals and the first man pushing a
button whenever he thought that the other was getting "zapped." The experiment mechanically demonstrated that the
first subject's physiological response peaked noticeably each
time the other testee received "a shock. His conscious guesses,
however, were consistently incorrect. In other words, the ma"n
knew at some level" exactly when the other man was being
"shocked and subconciously his body's responses expressed
that knowledge, whereas at a conscious level he simply did
not know when the shock occurred.
This and other similar data point to an important concept
in parapsychology. The paranormal is not unusual at all. Indeed, it is normal, and for some reason most of us are not
usually consciously aware that it is. For whatever reason, we
are not fully whole in our awareness and therefore do not
make full use of this component of our nature. There could
be many reasons for this but it seems to be a fact as indicated
by research in various parapsychological laboratories. If our
other-worldly visitors come from cultures that do not share
this psychic inhibiting factor, then use of psychic abilities
would be a natural adjunct of their appearance. In case after
case, this turns out to be exactly what occurs. With this in
mind, we must ask ourselves an important question. What" is
it about our culture that inhibits our development in this
direction? What is it that prevents us from making use of a
natural part of our make-up, the so-called extra-sensory perceptions?
To truly appreciate how we may not be seeing the full picture in many UFO reports, we should return to the 'collective
unconscious' concept and admit that there are certain signs
that some sort of collective knowledge may exist, or that, at
least in small groups, human beings can show evidence for
unconsciously shared concepts.
There is evidence that we may, in small populations, shiue
an unconscious consensus reality which transcends ordinary
knowledge in a psychic manner. Two relatively recent experiments stand out as examples of this. A.R.G. Owen, a mathematician and parapsychologist, initiated one of these. He
assembled a group of eight people who, working together.
made up the story of a ghost. They gave the ghost the name
of 'Phillip' and cast him as an aristocrat from the time of
King Charles of England. Phillip, as the story went, had

Second Quarter 1988

"fallen in love with a Gypsy girl. His wife found out about the
affair and brought charges of witchcraft against the girl,
resulting in her trial and the sentence of death. Phillip, afraid
to come forth with the truth, became despondent and committed suicide." Once they had created the personality of
Phillip, the group began to hold regular seances in an effort
to contact his 'lost spirit.' Soon Phillip arrived on cue, began
communicating to the group and produced audible raps and
table tilting in full view of audio-visual equipment set up to
record events.
The other example involved an experiment conducted by
Alvin H. Lawson, a professor of English at California State
University; John DeHerrera, an APRO investigator; and Dr.
W.c. McCall of Anaheim, "California. These researchers
selected a screened group of eight volunteers who had read little or no UFO literature and knew almost nothing about the
subject. The volunteers were separately hypnotized and asked
to imagine themselves abducted by a UFO. The results were
very important to any consideration of UFO abduction
reports retrieved by hypnosis, and tend to show that we may
all share some hidden 'UFO archetypes.' What surfaced were
richly detailed accounts which conformed closely with details
of supposedly 'real' abductions also brought out by hypnosis.
The fact that the imaginary reports were virtually indistiguishable from actual reports has caused many investigators to take hypnotically recalled abduction reports
with skepticism.
Without completely defining the real nature of UFO
events, we can still perceive that psychic influence is exerted
upon witnesses on a repeated basis. There have been
numerous cases where this influence has been evident at a
conscious level. (We may omit cases made up largely of information retrieved by hypnosis. Lawson's experiment and the
inherently unreliable nature of hypnosis indicate that these
cases may not be real or at least should not be taken at face
value. In every UFO incident where missing memories are
brought back by hypnosis, it should be noted that the missing
material could very well be only a screen, a cover story
planted precisely so that investigators would retrieve it and
consider it reaL) UFO agencies involved in interactions with
humans are known to be presenting information in various
ways and at different levels. Part of this presentation, (a
significant part), involves the use of psychic abilities. If so,
events of a psychic nature, then, are admittedly a consistent
part of the UFO phenomenon and occupants of UFOs seem"
to possess a much greater mastery of psychic abilities than do
most humans.
One alternative way of viewing psychic events is to" see
them not as Interactions between minds or as mind over matter but as the direct influence of mind upon reality. In this
sense, psychic results that seem to show telepathy, precognition, psychokinesis and other examples of psi are seen in a
very different light than is currently entertained. Psychic
events are generally thought of as being the result of some, as
yet, unidentified mental force or energy. For instance, if a
person rolling dice comes up with sevens ten times out of ten
(while concentrating on rolling sevens), he is considered to be
'influencing the dice' in some unknown way. The problem
with this is that the amount of energy required to actually
move the dice into alignments showing sevens can be
measured; it turns out that the entire electrical output of the
brain is only an extremely small fraction of this measure of
energy. There is no known way, no mechanism, no force, no
energy that can explain "how the unaided" human brain could
possibly affect the movement of the dice. The alternative
Pursuit 77

Three original witnesses to Marian vision of Fatima in 1916. "

Other chUdren viewing apparition al Garabandal

in 1961.

theory is that he is not, in fact, influencing. the dice at all but

is, by for~e of will, moving himselfinto that 'series of worlds'
where sevens happen to come up. This theory is much more
compatible with the facts of physics and even provides a surprisingly coherent proof of the 'many universes' concept of
quantum mechanics.
This concept basically postulates that the universe is in the
process of being created from moment to moment and that at
each' moment it branches out into many alternate 'probability
states,' each 'existing as a reality which becomes manifest only
when we actually choose to move into one or the other. There.
is a very secure basis for this concept in the study of small
particle physics. Simply. put, you face a choice of many.
worlds at each moment and the world of your reality is th.e
one you choose to believe in, act upon, create and enter. As
an example of this, each morning you face a choice between
getting up and going to work or calliI:1g in sick and going to
the beach. Before your cqoice, each of these .probable worlds
exists. Upon your choice you enter into one or the other. Your
choice actually determines reality, for your. movement into
one or the other probability states coalesces that state into the
reality of your experience .
.Telepathy, perhaps, then be'comes the process of moving,
by will, into that world where your though,ts exactly match
Pursuit 78

those of others. Precognition is the process of moving into

that world where, your ideas coincide with actual future
events. Psychokinesis becomes the process of moving into
that world where the effect you want is actually taking place.
This theory presupposes an extremely intimate link between
our ininds and the universe, but recent research in pl:tysics
leads to exactly the same conclusion. [n this theory we need
not find a mechanical link or causative factor, a mysterious
ether or any. type of unmeasureable 'mental force.' In this
theory we find that t.he universe consists of a consciousness
and we are local nodes or foci for this consciousness. In this
sense, we find a ready explanation. for many 'paranormal'
events. '
The miracles of Christ, for instance, become explainable in'
a straightforward manner. Christ, being unusually well aware
of his real place in the universe (" I am the son of the father"),
is easily able to move into his choice of universes, coalescing
or creating that reality he desires most. As a human being endowed with an unusually great awareness and an indomitable
will, he is able to move into a very wide choice of possible
worlds, simply by wishing it. [n his ch,oice of possible worlds,
he feeds the multitudes, walks on water and heals the sick. It
should be noted' that, as far as Christians can tell, he not only
has moved himself into the worlds of his choice, he has also
created that same world for us.
The consideration to be made here is, that the choice of
worlds we collectively make is the one in which we collectively
live. Those individuals and groups who can and do exercise a
greater choice through their greater ability likewise have a
greater influence upon the collective reality. It is a fact that
the. agencies of the UFO phenomenon have clearly shown a
much .greater ability to influence reality in this manner than
have we, the human race in general. The implication here is
clear. Our pa,th, our world, our history - in fact much of our
reality could be a construct, largely formed by more advanced
others. This construct, without a doubt, has a rationale. We
are being guided in a certain direction, for a certain reason.

Second Quarter 1988

What If Scientists Accepted Psi?

by dohn Richards
Suppose that the scientific establishment came to accept the
reality of ESP and PK, in the same way that orthodox scientists accept the reality of neutrons and positrons, although
only a relatively small number of scientists deal directly (or indirectly) with these subatomic particles. This is an .unlikely
supposition, on the order of supposing that the Inquisitors of
the Church would accept the reality visible through Galileo's
telescope. For any established body of thinkers to change
their minds about unorthodox concepts, we must as~ume t~at
conviction has come through necessity, not through logi~al
processes. In order for a country to navigate the globe, its.
thinkers must painfully reject the flat-earth .and
consider that Columbus might be right; in order to explore,
conquer, and exploit this globe, Renaissance thinkers did
have to abandon medieval concepts about nature. The alternative meant being dominated rather than dominating so, of
necessity, the thinkers of the western world changed their
minds. But the real change came when new theories were
given practical applications, not when scientific thinkers always the vast minority - accepted the reality of new ideas.
Just now, by analogy, psi research is in the kite-and-key
stage of development. There are many theories; journals are
replete with them, and nobody much cares, outside of the
narrow field of psi research. It is fairly easy to suppose that
enough experiments in enough psi laboratories may someday
be conducted to overcome the resistance of a majority of
reasonable, fair-minded orthodox scientists. While James
McClenon's studies have shown that elite scientists tend to
oppose the reality of psi, this is largely because the elite
minority in any field tend to protect their high reputations by
remaining away from controversial concepts. While a Haldane might have championed psychical research in his day, a
Wheeler cannot afford to do so now. An establishment of
any kind defers largely to the body of opinions of its members; it is only nominally ruled from the top, down. With sufficient evidence, the majority of scientists will eventually, perhaps reluctantly, accept the reality of psi and go on to other
business. However, when "psionics" is itself an orthodox sci. entific discipline, I suspect that it will still be in the Ben
Franklin kite-and-key stage of usefulness.
From a pragmatic standpoint, in order for a field of scientific experimentation to matter in the slightest to anyone outside its own boundaries, it must "do work." The scientific establishment of Franklin's day, the "amateurs," might have
found his discovery about electricity fascinating; there is
every historical evidence that many did become excited. However, work with electricity had to go on beyond that point, or
Franklin's discovery would be only an historical oddity, not
even worthy of a footnote today. If we had to wait for a
thunderstorm for our electric lights to work, the manufacturers of oil lamps and candles would be very happy. We are
currently in this position in psi research. If everyone in the
scientific community agreed that electricity exists and, under
the right natural conditions, can be proven, but that the same
electricity could not be controlled and made to do work, it
would be as "useful" as the reality of black holes in space,
i.e. it would not affect our lives at all.
This is the position that I foresee for psi research. I have
worked with the SORRAT* experiments since 1961. I know,
from personal observation, that ESP exists, and that PK
somehow moves target objects - and a vast number of ranSecond Quarter 1988

dom objects, also. I know that W.E. Cox's mini-lab films of

PK in sealed, transparent containers are quite genuine. Experience has taught me this during the last twenty-six years.
Any person capable of objective observation and common
reason would learn the same lessons, and, if enough people
replicate the SORRAT experiments, particularly Cox's minilab experiments, they will realize that PK is a real force in the
physical world. Having learned this, they will be better people, for it' is always an improvement in character to learn a
truth, eveJ;l an unwelcome truth. However, after the first wild
flush of realization passes, they will learn something else, too;
the e~istence of ESP imd PK does not alter the world at all, if
these forces cannot be regularized and used at will by the
average person under normal conditions, and every shred of
evidence indicates that the psi force, whatever it is, operates
erratically. It is as unreliable - and potentially as dangerous
- as lightning. It is not a constant, like gravity; it does not
manifest itself all of the time. Even the finest psychic cannot
produce a manifestation of psi at will, on demand. Even if
such a psychic existed, he or she would still be the "one white
crow." If only one person in a city could turn on a switch and
get electricity to make a lightbulb glow, everyone else would
still use candles, and consider the light-maker an interesting
freak of nature.
It would be pleasant - or frightening - to think that,
someday, long-distance communication will normally be
done by telepathy. However, the telephone companies are
unlikely to lose customers because of this. Whether the scientific community thinks telepathy possible or not is quite irrelevant. If they did think so, this manifestation of psi would
still work only part of the time, and quite unreliably. If a
telepath regularly scored seventy per cent hits with an ESP
card deck, he would still be wrong thirty per cent of the time,
and that could not be tolerated in the business world, or in
any other area of communication outside the parapsychology
laboratory. The same is true with precognition. If someone
could accurately guess the stock market, or the gaming tables,
two things would happen. First, validated by a scientific establishment which believed in ESP, legislators would put the
use of precognition in the same category as all other Insider
trading, and the proven prognosticator would go to prison if
he did make money on the stock market. Already, it is commonly known, people who win too frequently at Las Vegas
are "gently" urged not to gamble there again. Although military intelligence has looked into remote viewing as a means
of gathering information, little has been learned, and nothing
that a spy satellite could not photograph better, (as far as I
In the area of PK research, while anyone who is not a dyedin-the-wool CSICOP member would have to agree that
there is ample evidence that PK exists, there is no real
evidence that PK can do practical tasks more efficiently than
ordinary physical force can achieve. If you want a light to
blink, you. do not need a Schmitt machine; you can hook up
an ordinary electrical circuit and operate the light by pushing
a button, and this method will work every time, not just 53%
of the time. As for target-object movements, if you want a
cube to leave traces in a coffee tray, you can take the tray out
"Society jor Research on Rapport and Telekinesis - see article in
PURSUIT Volume 18, #4.

Pursuit 79

of a mini-lab box and push the cube about by hand. In the

SORRAT experiments I have seen table levitation. However,
it would be far easier to pick up the table and lift it into the
air, if that is what one desires, rather than going to Skyrim
Farm and sitting with a group around the table fo.r over an
hour and watching the table finally move - or sit there; even
at Skyrim, only approximately one third of the experin:tents
have been at all successful and, then, only a few have been
As a member of SORRAT, I am pleased when we do get
positive results, and am patient when we do not, but for practical application of psi energy to perform physical work, I.
must conclude that PK is quite an inefficient method. Those
businessmen who hoped that Dr. Peter Phillips would find a
way to make PK work every time, on earth or in space shuttles, simply did not understand the .willful, erratic natur~ of
the beast. It was this ultimate failure that doomed the
McDonnell Laboratory for Psychical Research, rather than

the ridicule which CSICOP heaped upon this worthwhile project. If PK works only sometimes, at best, it is of no practical
value to industry.
Sadly, then, I must conclude that, even if the scientific esta!?li~.bment Cllm'>-t~-~--,-,t the reality of ESP and PK, the
mge is that The Amazing Randi
. to learn how to make his living

otes: Answers 10 Frequently Asked

'ology and Psychic Phenomena, San

,ce Foundation, 1981.

k in Progress, 20 South brook Drive,


'cience: The Case of Parapsychology,




wm the'Real' Stonehenge
Please Stand Up
. Newly Foaad Slab Ha....
Que.tloas About Stoaeheage
A recently discovered stone slab, apparently intended for use at Stonehenge, could be
crucial in proving a remarkable new theory
about the monument's origin.
The slab might show that a Stonehenge ring
of distinctive "blue stones" was actu8ny once
part of. another stone circle elsewhere in Britain that was completely dismantled, tninsported and incorporated in the great
This theory suggests that construction of
one of the world's most extraordinary edifices
was less a matter of religious self-sacrifice by
Stone Age Britons, as has been supposed, and
more a maUer of colonial exploitation. of
other tribes.
The discovery of the new stone slab believed to be a blue stone - in the Daugleddau River is therefore very important because
it might provide the information needed to
prove or disprove the blue stone theory.
"If the stone is found to be dressed and
carefully shaped when it is eventually taken
out of the river, that will suggest it had
already been part of another stone ring,;'
Richards said. "Of course, if it is relatively
rough and only crudely cut, then that would
tend to disprove the theory.
"Everyone assumes the blue stones were
moved from a Welsh quarry in a rough form
before being carefully shaped and incorporated at Stonehenge," said archaeologist
Julian Richards, who has just completed a
major survey of Stone Age settlements near
the monument. "But it is equally possible the
stones were transported in completed form,
from a ring that had already beeiJ. built. I t
The Welsh connection with Stonehenge
was discovered in 1923 when a geologist
discovered that the blue-spotted dolomite
stones at the circle were the same as those
Pursuit 80

found at Carn Meini on the Preseli Hills 135

miles away.
.t is now generally accepted that Preseli is
the original source of the blue stones.
Whether they went directly to Stonehenge is
an open question.
The idea that the blue stones, which form
two of the four main rings at Stonehenge,
were taken from another monument heips explain one of archaeology's major puzzles:
Why go to the extraordinary trouble of moving stones, so~e weighing more than 50 tons,
from a site so far distant?
Taking already dressed stones would have
meant far less work for its builders. In addition, it is now known there existed a great deal
of trade between the regions.
"Nor do you have to suppose that
Stonehenge's builders simply invaded 'that
part of Wales, subjugated the locals and forced them to take their stones to Wiltshire,"
said Richards. "It is quite conceivable that
Stonehenge was considered to be such an important religious project that the original
blue-stone owners gladly gave them away and
h~ped in its construction."
The discovery of the new blue stone has
kindled new interest in Stonehenge at a time
when seasonal interest in the monument is
already growing. Police and militarY security
officers from nearby army bases have already
started - watching for groups of hippies
reported moving into the area for the summer'
solstice festivities.
SOURCE: The Wilmington
News-Journal, DE 6/11/88
CREOrr: H. Hollander

An:haeologlsts BeHeve Fiad

May Be Indlaa Stoaeheage
Archaeologists believe a circle of boulders
found on Beaver Island in Michigan may have
been a primitive calendar, akin to Englimd's

Press, 1984.
in Progress, 1001 Jones Avenue,


famous Stonehenge, which enabled Indians to

track the movement of the sun and determine
the seasons.
And some American Indian leaders said
there may have been spiritual significance to
. the. 1,000-year-oid rocks, arranged in a
397-foot-diameter circle in an' overgrown
brushy area that once was a clearing near the
shore of the island.
If it is verified that the boulders are astronomically aligned, the B~ver Island site could
represent one of the major discoveries of
prehistoric landmarks in North America, experts said. Donald Heldman, archaeologist
for the Michilimackinac State Park in Mackinaw City, said he is convinced the rocks were
placed in their positions by humans but stressed more research is needed to determine the
purpose of the arrangement.
SOURCE: (UPI) Philadelphia Inquirer, PA
CREDrr: H. Hollander

Amedca'. 'Stoaeheage'
America's Stonehenge is the name given to
what is believed to be a megalithic calendar
site at Salem, about 20 miles southeast of
Manchester, N.H. In the center of the main
site, on a hilltop, are 22 structures - walls
and chambers - and in the area around it are
large standing granite slabs set among more
walls, Th~se sl~lJs !ire astronomically aligned,
supporting. the theory that the area was laid
out 4,000 years ago by an advanced civilization that studied the movement of the sun,
moon and stars. Some of the monoliths are
aligned with sunrise and sunset on the solstices
and equinoxes on March 22, June 21, Sept. 22
and Dec. 21.
Casts of inscriptions found on the site are
among eXhibits in the museum at the entrance
lodge on state Route III in ~em. From there
it is about a five-minute walk to the hilltop.
The privately owned site is open daily through
October from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. and in
November on weekends only.
SOuilCE: Sun, Baltimore, MD
. 6/~/88
CREDrr: H. Hollander

Second Quarter 1988

The 'Greene County Films

An Approach to Seeing U.F.O.s
by Gary Levine, Ph.D.
: Gary Levine 1988
There i" a notion thai UFOs cannol be photographed. and
WilhOlIi photographs or moving piclUres lillie can be done 10
e"labli"h Iheir existence, During the past four decade~ there
have been few photographic examples Ihat have remained in
an undao;sified or unknown category, and these usually depici'
barely discernable. amorphous shapes which, it ,was hoped,.
might be capable of explanation at some future date when information about the circumstances of their filming became
The o;hort strips of 16mm motion-picture film called the
Tremonton. Utah film and the Mont'ana IiIm were reviewed
Triangular IbeUl-shaped UFO. Color photo showed red corona.
periodicall~' in the hope they could be explained as shots of
Ihal I workcd with over the years in an efforl to obtain UF( I
"nme natural occurrence or conventional aircraft. Nothing
phOlographs. For one reason or another I was unablc 10 pronew. though, ha..; vet been found to explain them. A more reduce acceptable results. BUI now I had another chance to pro,
~:cnt New Zealand film adds to the mystery by giving us a
ve that these elusive UFOs can be photographed. I loaned
glimpse of a still unidentified UFO. Other single photograph..;
have also raised que..;tiono; and have been subjected to careful
Mrs. Baldwin a compact Rollei 35mm camera loaded with
high-o;peed black and white film and awaited the results.
'crtlliny. Hut a few of Iheo;e have also defied scientitic analysi\
and have resisted attempts to identify them as something
After several months and many spent rolls of film I believed
other than what they are purported to be.
that this method, too, was a failure. Mrs. Baldwin completcd
Ihe last roll of film on August 19, 1986 and it was proee..;"cd
\l\ihy ha..; il been ,0 dilTiculi 10 oblain clear. sharply delined
through an outlet I frequently used_ The results were heartenphOlograph\ or movieo; of UFOs'? The answer lies with the
ing for after many years of research my work paid olT. The
picture laker and Ihe picture-laking process existing in a
phOiographs showed the broken light streaks associated with
"pedal communion. UFOo; arc a unique phenomenon which
UHh and IWO triangles - one above the other.
must be viewcd in a \pel,:ial \\'ay_ In fact. Ihey are so unique
I gave Mrs. Baldwin a Minolla XL-400 super-8 movic
that the communicali(ln\ gap between parapsychologist~ and
~amera and a Ricoh FF-I 3Smm camera and monitored her
ufologists and al..;o between phy..;icio;to; and ufologists has to be
pk-lUre-laking activilies more closely. She always had Ihe
narrowed with the hope of beller under'tanding their charac,
~ameru, at hand and. depending upon atmospheric conditeristics.
liom. waited for the UFOs she fell she could easily identify_
To qualify for taking UFO photographs. particularly those
AnOlher nine rolls of film were taken by Mrs. Baldwin.
outside the range of human vi,ion. the photographer should
and a few by myself. which show UFOs OFvarious shapes and
poo;sess above average ahility 10 distinguish between natural
form". The rolls vary in contem as follows:
and abnormal aerial object'. Undcr certain circumstances he
I. Several ~econds of a blinking light.
or she could ..;ense Iheir preo;ence illluitively. This special
2_ Two large "needles" which emit a very bright light.
awareness mighl resull from contact in an area of high UFO
3_ A large ellipsoidal-shaped object leaving a shady imagc
activity. Experience in simply,idelllifying the objects is not a
of itselL
..;uffident explanation by il..;elf. An area of high UFO activity,
4_ An ellipsoidal light that was blinking and moving in
however. mu..;t he located before these factoro; are relevant.
various directions.
Certain UFO photographs arc paranormal because they
S. Two brightly colored orange-red triangles moving in
depict UFOo; which arc invisible to Ihe naked (or unaided) eye
various directions_
when photographed. They are also paranormal when they ap6_ One white light: then IWO white lights which divide:
pear in an area of Ihc photo's negalivc where they should not
and then three white light~ appear.
be or where Ihe normal photographic processes are in-.
7. An unidentifit:d helicopter. One white light. in the
operable. They fit Ihi..; definition when they assume a certain
center of film. which is blinking_
,hape for the piclUJ'c laker. in defiance of natural laws. It
8. A blinking white light: two triangles; and three whitc
..;eems UFO, are. allime..;. aware of Ihe picture-laking activity
lights in a straight line.
and make movemelllo; indicating recognition they are being
9. Two triangles which are on the IiIm several seconds_
There are also red and white lights and two very small
When Ihe "peed of the motion-picture film of UFOs is
cylinders which are barely diseernable_
,lowed certain aspects of-.the phenomenon become apparent
The second roll of lilm is particularly interesting becau..;~
which are nOI vio;ible when the film i\ projected at normal
Mr,,_ Baldwin was only able 10 see a -number of red and whitc
"peed. Single frames of film can reveal millllle detail..; and are
ball, tloming in the night sky with her unaided eye_ She did
nncn an imporlant pari of Ihe analy..;i"
not o;ce the very bright "needles" which the camera picked
In Ihe "ummer of 19R5. I wa..; approachcd by a woman who
lip. The third roll depicts a bright object n:-aking tlullering
claimed that she observed UFO..; in variou\ place,_ After a
movement~ as it approaches Ihe camera. Rolls five. eight and
careful ~creening I decided ,10 IN Ihe validity of her c1aims_
ninc ~ho\\' bright triangle, which divide after being in COlli act
!\1r~, Pat rida Baldwin. who re,ided in a rural area of Greene
wilh cach other.
('ollnt\'. Ncw York. \\'a\ the latc\t of a numher or ~\Ihjech




Pursuit 81

One of many needle-shaped UFOs

Almost all of the UFOs were filmed in the early or latl'

evening when the sky was unlimited by clouds or haze and the
~tars dearly visible. There was nothing unusual abolll wind
velocity or the relative humidity. Reel number two was filmed
at intervals during the night of September I; 1986 between
R:OO and 10:00 p.m. (it was common; when filming, that the
UFO a~tivity continued for several hours); while the visibility
wa~ unlimited and the outdoor temperature kept near 60F.
Immediately after processing, each film was examined
frame by frame lIsing a Cambridge Copy-Tube R, a de\"ke
u'ied for making photographic prints from frames of 'iuper-H
motion-picture film. This is an extensive and time-consuming
I1rO~e'i'i since there are 4,050 frames in a .,ingle tifty-foOl roll
of Kodak Type-G Ektachrome color-movie film.
Mr'i. Baldwin filmed the UFOs when she believed that .. he
'iaw them and when .,he felt an inclination to IiIm. I witnessed
Mr'i. Baldwin film these UFOs on a number of occasion'i. AI
timc'i here husband and two of her four children were prescnt. I was also able to film a dark cigar-shaped UFO and a
doud-like ~ylindrically shaped UFO in the same general area
using another movie camera. These UFOs could be filmed 1". ing a variety of super-8 or 35mm cameras.
For the record, the Baldwim. arc a devout church-going
family and respected members of the community. Mr'i.
Baldwin is a li~en'ied practical nur.,e and a part-time ~ollegc
student; her husband i., a state employee. They are bOlh comdellllous hard-working people whom I consider to be of
good character arid who have cooperated fully in the inve'itigation of this phenomenon.
Mrs. Baldwin has an unusual aptitude enabling her to recognize and see UFOs in the day and evening sky. Such a tal
cnt can be termed "an acute and unusual visual perception"
whkh is the ability to photograph UFOs beyond the range of
"normal" human vision. One possibility as to why she ~an do
this involves her receptivity to images in the electromagnetic
spe~trum with the aid of a camera. This area of radiation
con'ii'its of light rays which continue from the violet end of a
band. where cosmic and gamma rays exist to the red end.
where microwaves and radiowaves are found. Most likely it i~
here that she filmed the two "needles" visible in reel two and
it i'i here the triangles and saucer-shaped objects go when the~
pas'i from the range of vision.
Light in the spectrum travels irregularly as though it i'i jum
ping from poim to point - the distance between these point ~
i~ termed wavelengths. The wavelength is measured in nano
meter.,. and humans can only "see" in the 400-700mm range.
whi~h is in the center of the spectrum. All other waveh!ngth~
l'an only be viewed by lIsing visual-assistance equipment.
Bee'i are the only animals that use all light in the 'ipectrllm
for their ,urvival, a fact established by the German biologi"l
Karl von Frisch. His c.'<periments prove that bees can U'ie lighl
from the 'ipe~trum to determine both direction and 10 di'ilin
gui,h between the colors of flowers. They can, for exampk.
be amacted to red poppies which appear blue-green 10 them
Pursuit 82


they see rellected ultraviolet light absorbed by the

flowers. Humans can see only the red color and would have
difticulty in distinguishing "between these Ilowers and other
red tlowers.'
A clue to the unusual use of light and unseen images may
have been found by the eminent psychiatrist, Dr. Berthold E.
Schwarz who wasable to analyze and record- "paranormal"
photographs takenby such a gifted individual as Stella Lansing, a Massachusetts woman who possesses these most unusual abilities. She was able to make movies of UFOs which, in
some cases, were similar. to those taken by Mrs. Baldwin. Of
particular interest are the needle shapes which appear in films
taken by both individuals. A witness to Mrs. Lansing's talents
stated that her "speciaUsm seems to be her ability both to experience UFO sightings of fairly orthodox kinds (whatever
that orthodoxy might be) and also to impress images, especially the 'clocklike' formations, onto photographic film after
the manner of the psychic photographers."2
Mrs. Baldwin i~ able to sustain tilming of the UFOs for
almost a whole reel, as in the case of reel two; in other reel.;
she rickcd up or attracted the UFOs in the middle of, or just
at the end Qf. the reel. In several instances she filmed UFO'i
moving directly at her in large, brilliantly colored orange-red
balls. or as triangles separating from each other. The UFO'i
'iccmed 10 be aware of our. presence and, as in the case of reel
three. fluttered right up to the camera.
There still are mysteries to Mrs. Baldwin's abilities. Somc
time'i 'ihe ~an see UFOs without the camera, which could be
tho'ie pa'i'iing through the range of normal vision. She is able
to orient hcrself well, in relation to these UFOs knowing
wliere they are in the sky. She would say "look over there.
that''i one of them." Her ability to sense or be aware is al
lime, duc to experience and at times due to something elsc
aliogclher. whi~h could pO'isibly be intuition.
A careful examination of UFO reports indicates others also
havc had 'iimilar experiences. In the spring of 1978 a New
~a'itle. England YOUlh named Gary Colgate observed a mov-
ing light in the 'ky oUl'iide his bedroom window and filmed it
with hi, ,urer-8 movie camera. The developed movie film
.. howed a bright, ellipsoidal light followed by a smaller grecn
light whidl Gary ,aid wa' not visible to his unaided eye. At
thc timc the film wa'i taken no 'iensible explanation for Ihl'
ohjcct, ~ould be given.'
In a 19RI ca~c a woman from Vancouver Island, Briti'h
Columhia. lOok a rhotograph of a classic !lying saucer whkh
appeared ill a ,in!!lc frame of" ~5mm ~olornegative 'it rip. Thl'
anaIY'ii'i 'ihowed the di'ic was "a three-dimensional object 01
al lc,N ~() feet from t he camera whose surface, albeit. \\.",
dilhl'ic andior of lower-light lumines~ence like that of it
'iunlil doud. '" The picture taker was surprised when .. he
found the di'ic on Ihe negative and had no idea ho\\ il gOI
there. The invc'itigation showed the woman and her ramil~' 10
be quitc normal and of "high credibility." Did thi .. woman
PO"C'i'i a~ute vi,ual per~eption?

Second Quarter 1988

Single frame from a fdm of various UFO photos

Within the past year I have been able to monitor films and
photographs of Sharon Tompkins, a schoolteacher living in
rural Oneida County, in Upstate New York. Using cameras
similar to those used by Mrs. Baldwin, she was able to obtain
UFO images on motion-picture film and 35mm negatives.
Most of these UFOs were invisible to her unaided eye.
Following specific instructions given to her she panned the
empty night sky or aimed the cameras at undefinable lights;
the objects would then appear on the film.
The work of the successful nineteenth-century spirit photographers has never been satisfactorily explained. Nor has the
photography of Gary Colgate of a Canadian woman. It seems
that certain forces or energy emanations operate between the
picture taker and UFOs. A few believe that the process may initiate directly in the mind of the photographer. Psychiatrist Dr.
Jules Eisenbud, who has had considerable experiences with
photographic phenomena, believes that "whatever is involved
in paranormal photographic ability ...does not appear to be
related to any particular type of personality structure." 5
Dr. S~hwarz suggests the possibility of a mediumship fa~-
tor in seeing UFOs. For him "the study of documented gifted
~ensalion ~an yield a wealth of high quality psi that is cer
tainly analogous to many UFO experiences."6
The UFOs on the Greene County Films have been confirmed as phenomena. After being transferred to videotape
they were examined by technician Ken Walter of the Image
Pro~essing Laboratory of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, who estahlished that the objects were unknown and
uncla ... si fiable. Photographs taken from film were subjected to
digital analysis and indicated that something quite unusual
was present; many of the shapes observed were "typical"
Throughout the examination the UFOs showed an ability
to ~hange shape easily and assume an identifiable form by
amassing energy or particles of some unknown substance.
Triangles, needles, sau~ers and large balls of light are clearly
vi~ible emiuing white, golden-white, orange or red colors.
They moved with great ~peed, were stationary in the sky,
demonstrated erratic movements, separated from each other
or tloated ~asually.
Police investigator Richard Powell, an Assistant Professor
of Criminal .lusti~e with many years experience in criminal inwo;tigmion, was asked to examine the reels. Using laboratory
mil:ro~wpe~ he found no evidence of alteration or irregularity
on the film,. He was able to observe the needle-shaped obje~t
in reel two: ~eeing an extremely bright light with radial arms
extending in a north-south dire~tion. It is this object which
demon~trated a cycling ~hara~teristic, changing position a~ it
hlinked on and ofr.
Second Quarter 1988

Film of this UFO showed smaU spheres being released.

Needle-shaped UFO at unknown distance

There is still mu~h to be learned about taking movies or of

... ingle photographs of UFOs. Which areas of the brain are involved when photographing the phenomenon? Does the rapid
movem.ent of the mm in the camera and the elevated psychic
mind affect the film? What new laws must be learned to
understand the transmission of light beyond the range of
human vision into the eye and brain? Do specially ground
lenses and certain photographic filters facilitate the picturetaking process?
The Greene County Films clearly show defined shapes and
dcpil:t movements which defy some physical laws as we know
them. And, they reveal images which are not visible to the
unaided eye.
My work with Mrs. Baldwin and others is continuing with
...everal new experiments being planned. To my best knowledge the~e nine rolls of tiIm are the best ever taken of UFOs.
More movies are being planned and, hopefully, there will be a
breach in the unknown.


Karl von Frisch, A Biologist Remembers (London: Pergamon
Press, 1967), p. 152.
Berthold E. Schwarz, M.D., U.F.O. Dynamics, 2 vols., (Winter
Haven, Florida: Rainbow Books, 1977), p. 467.
John Wardle, "Gary's Film.Bames Astronomy Experts,"' SlInday SIlII (England) April 16, 1978, p. 6.
Richard Haines, A Scientilic Based Analysis of an Alleged
U.F.O. Photograph," in U.F.O.s Beyond The Mainstream of
Science (Seguin, Texas: Mutual UFO Network, 1980), p. 112.
Jules Eisenbud, o;Paranormal Photography," in Benjamin Wolman (ed.) Handbook oj Parapsychology (New York: Van Nostrand. 1977), p. 428.
Berthold E. Schwarz, M.D., "Presumed Physical Mediumship
and U.F.O.~," in F(I'illg Sallcer Review Vol. 31, No.6 (Ocl..
1986). p. 17,

Pursuit 83

Our Gods We..e Physical Being~.

or 100 Trillion Gods
by Pasqual Sebastian SchieveUa
A central thesis of Erich von Daniken's ancient-astronaut
hypothesis is that religions on Earth have evolved from our
worship of physical entities from outer space. Much of the
evidence for our gods having been ancient astronauts is the
same as the evidence that our gods cannot have been other
than physical beings.
. Biblical, legendary, and epic accounts depict gods empirically. It is not difficult to reconstruct inferentially the
changes in concepts wrought by the minds' and languages of
prescientilic man. Descriptions of power, characteristics, and
behavior, originating presumably from visits by ancient
astronauts, were amplified into concepts of perfection: power
became infinite power; the sky became heaven; and scientific
technology became miracles."
. Because of man's need to idealize, to seek immortality,
protection, and comfort, he was moved to express those
needs in the limited concepts possible in his prescientilic early.
evolutionary stage. After tho.usands of years all that remain
are conflicting legends and stories. They have become part of
the permanent furniture of our language, continually reinforced in a church-dominatedand religiously-saturated society, for most of two millennia, by the. clerics 'whose dogged
authority and irrationality continue to feed supernatural and
theistic language into it. 'They do this despite the fact, as von
Daniken clearly shows, thanhe literature gives actual descriptions of physical entities coming to Earth in what can be accepted rationally as extraterrestrial vehicles.
We can try to counter these forces of dogmatism and
thoughtcontrol only by clarifying how abilities, values, and
characteristics emerged in physical creatures and were later
:transformed into hypostatized entities. Ultimately, the reified
gods were carefully defined as unknowable. Finally, we were
persuaded to accept these so-called nonphysical gods through
blind faith.
Faith is no pathway to truth and knowledge. Certainly it is
not, as Pope John Paul said, " ... the highest form of reason."
It is rather, a physiological, neuron-conditioned syndrome. In
the absence of some physical life form, therds no evidence in
the history of man of the existence of such fU!1ctions as
"knowing," "seeing," "tasting," "smelling," or "hearing."
They are all neuron-directed activities. This is especially demonstrable by an examination of the emergence of life in
man, and of his mental, perceptual, and conceptual faculties.
All these are dependent upon a physical substratum. Such
characteristics as speculation, reflection, self-awarene'ss, etc.,
separate us from inanimate objects, and to an enormous
degree, lower animals. They separate us, as well, from immaterial gods which by definition cannot exist. Thus, our gods,
as man defines them, are best described as having been
physical creatures of our universe, intelligent beings far
superior to those then on Earth.
Have those intelligences achieved mental capacities beyond
our comprehension? Have they developed means of communication which makes ours as primitive by ~omparisot:l as that
of our primitive ancestors beating tom-toms? If so, then
100,000 years difference in the evolutionary progress of
knowledge can make gods of us all. Scientific knowledge of
the universe is not much more than 300-years-old on Earth,
and we have already been accepted as gods by the Cargo
Pursuit 84


Culls of Worid'War II.

What makes an intelligent entity a god? The answer to this
quco;tion depends upon the rational and intellectual de:velopment and the. psychologiCal needs of those seeking a god.
Mo-;t young children,. for instance,. think of their fathers a,
all-powerful and all-knbwing.
' . : .:
How, then, are we to interpret such statements as "God i~
pure. acl." (SI. Thomas Acquinasj .. ... God permeates the
univero;e," "God created the," "God 'is in all of us, ..
"God is the unmoved mover," "God "is the energy thai
underlies and permeates the universe," etc.?
The vacuity of these statements, can be exposed if we approach them through an analysis of the language and knowledge of philosophy.and the ~ciences. Terms like 'knowledge:
'goodne~s,' 'intelligence,' 'seeing,' 'hearing,' and so on have
acquired their meanings in relation to man.'s interaction with
hi~ environment.
To apply them to cosmic or supernatural "intelligences"
gives the illusi(m of understanding, utters sheer nonsense, and
fails to recognize that the conditions under which they could
apply would have no communicative value for us. Supernatural gods, being beyond nature and hence immaterial cannot, contrary to common but unfounded belief, talk without
tongues, see without eyes, hear without ears, or talk without
brains. Though gods. may exist, communication between
them and !.Is depends on their nature.
In the case of some gods, personal contact is possible. Witness the Cargo Cull as reported in The National Geographic
magazine of May 1974. Such contact is no longer possible.
however. because John Frum (their god) cannot. be found.
Their god, therefore. has achieved somewhat the status of the
Christian god, Christ - who has not been seen for almost
twO thousand years. The return of both of them is now
As von Daniken has pointed out so well in his Chariots (~r
The Oods?, the transcendental, supernatural characteristics.
ofman's gods have always been the end product of a proces~
beginning either in awe of superior inteIligences, in hero worship of superior human beings, in myths, legends, political
and personal needs, or in fear of what lies beyond the light of
the campfire. The gods of ancient Greece and Rome were
linely honed and propagated by the poetic genius of Hesiod
and Homer.; and, later, commissioned by the popes, nonphysical Christian gods were depicted in human form by the
creative genius of such artists as Michaelangelo, EI Greco,
and Raphael. They offered up heros as gods and theistic concepts as reality for the popes and the church. This was done
so superbly that the former have become an indestructible
mosaic in the societies of the world. .
But one irrevocable fact remains as a fault in the mosaic.
The great religious books such as the Bible, the Talmud, the
KOI"fJII, the Mahabbarata; and the great mythologies: Teutonic, Roman, Greek, Egyptian, Babylonian, Chinese; etc.,
bear witness to the countless mysterious and enigmatic
physical facts, records, stories, anifacts, ancient descriptions
in physical terms, of tlying ships, gods from space, descriptions of Earth from the sky, and empirical descriptions of the
gods' activities, etc. Such facts, though not evidence as compared to the ruins of a spaceship, at the very least unquesSecond Quarter 1988

tionably point to a coherent body of data explainable by von

Daniken's ancient astronaut theory. The superabundance and
consistency of such empirical descriptions attest to their
nature. These are the ,gods who, according to written testaments of their physical existence, lorded with power. inIluence. and authority over man, loved him, wedded him,
and gave birth to children seeded in and by human beings.
It is important that we examine the nature of gods that can
exist and the predicated nature of those that cannot. To accomplish this task requires reason, facts, and knOWledge.
Unlike blind acceptance and illusion, clear understanding requires patient analysis of the language with which we cloth
our gods.
Many theologians allempt to show, logically, that past socalled "proofs" for the existence of immaterial Gods are not
faulty. They then claim that since it is logical(v possible that
God exists. He does. However, we can logically prove, also.
that cats are dogs. What is logically possible, i.e., provable by
logic. is often not existentially possible. Linle, if any.
philosophy of language existed two thousand years ago, and
no progress beyond ArislOtelian logic was made until many
centuries later. We know, now, that it is logically possible ~o
prove numerous claims that cannot be existentially proven.
i.e . veri lied. One such claim, that is blindly accepted, is that
God as cosmic mind is constantly aware of everything in the
universe. He knows not only our every thought and action.
every event in the universe such as colliding galaxies, the tlutter of a particular bunertly's wings, but even the jump of an
electron to another orbit due to an energy input.
All this notwithstanding, I am willing to concede to the
possibility of cosmic intelligence. Bear in mind that the term
'cosmic' involves a physical not a supernatural world. This
admission entails the probability that there are many more
than one. Let us, therefore, first consider minds that might be
the result of a hundred thousand'or more years of evolution.
To develop this further, however, we must momentarily
Consider this: according to present estimates there are
about a billion trillion stars in our universe. We have here. ali
von Daniken points out, the basis for a rough computation of
the number of planets that might have intelligent life on
As you know, one out of ten planets (10 per cent) in our
solar system supports intelligent life. If out of everyone hundred thousand stars (one one hundred thousandth - .00001
- per cent) only one of their planets supports intelligent life,
there are left one hundred thousand trillion (100,000,000,000,000,000) planets supporting intelligent life. If only one
out of everyone hundred thousand of these supports intelligent life superior to us, then one thousand billion (1,000,000000,000) support intelligence superior to us. If only one out of
every hundred thousand of these supports life/or superior to
us (as a result of hundreds of thousands of years of evolution
and scientific progress), there remain one hund~ed million
(100,000,000) planets supporting life with/ar superior intelligence to ours. This figure represents one one hundred trillionths per cent of all the planets, assuming intelligent life on
one planet out of everyone hundred thousand (100,000)
Considering the mathematical probability that this is the
case, such intelligences would possess the basic characteristics
and abilities with which we define our gods. If each of these
planets supports a population of a mere one million
(1.000.000) adults, there are at least 100 trillion gods. us return, then, to the nature of our gods. Even the
Second Quarter 1988

eminent Carl Sagan, when he is not at his arrogant best - attacking von Daniken for saying what he, Sagan himself,
holds as a possibility - even he refers to the Oannes legend as
deserving of "critical studies" interpretable as "direct contact
with an extraterrestrial civilization."
But a concept of gods who have evolved over many hundreds of thousands of years is not what theologians have in
mind. Such gods, if they are in our presence, are accessible to
the sense faculties. And in the history of man that presence
has been described in no uncertain terms. Surely a nonphysical. i.e., spiritual, god could not have wrought the physical
cataclysm that, according to the Bible was predicted and
visited upon Sodom and Gomarrah. Any reputable scientist
would deny the possibility of physical effects being caused by
other than a physical agent or event. By "physical" here we
include all forms of energy.
Von Daniken's gods exist on the same physical dimension
as do we. We no not mean here that they will transform
themselves from non-corporeal into physical form for our
convenience as in the story of Christ and His immaterial
Father. Most of man's gods,like the Christian god, are defined as transcendent, supernatural, permeative, nonmaterial,
i.e., spiritual and inaccessible to men's sense faculties. Except
as contlicting concepts allover the world, such gods are
defined as unknowable even though the language gives the
false impression that they can be known. That is the language'
that popes, priests, ministers, rabbis, and theologians use as
they pr:esume to be able to describe their gods in remarkable
detail and to know specifically what those gods demand of us.
They guide our actions, see, hear, and know every good or
evil act of every inhabitant and creature in the universe - all
at one given moment. And ~ore remarkable still, even as we
are maimed, murdered, tortured, or brutalized, such nonphysical gods are said to protect us.
Now as lO cosmic intelligence, we must embark upon what
for some is a viable possibility while for others it is a flight of
fancy. It is, however, less fanciful than is an immaterial or
spiritual god. Let us fantasize that we are standing on a rock
in the open, enjoying the brilliance of the stars. Suddenly we
perceive ourselves becoming smaller. Our diminution continues. We must assume for our purposes that our life functions will not terminate. Eventually we find ourselves
suspended between the rock's molecules. As our diminution
continues the inner space of the rock takes on astronomical
proportions. Finally, we have "landed" on a "world" which
in proportion to our siZe would be the size of Earth. As we
look up at the "sky," we see little difference between it and
the one we formerly enjoyed except of course that the outlines
of familiar constellations are missing. We are accustomed to
thi'nking of the vastness of space. We ignore the fact that the
distances between galaxies, stars, and planets relative to their
sizes are little different from the distances between atoms,
electrons, protons, etc., relative to their sizes. There is one
crucial difference in our perception, however. We know the
"universe" we now experience is a finite rock. Past experience tells us there are other "universes," i.e., rocks, like it.
If, now, we substitute for our rock, an intelligent, physical,
sentient being, that entity becomes our physical universe; and
its "mind," "intelligence," "consciousness," etc., constitute
our "cosmic" intelligence. It is indeed conceivable that our
suns, galaxies, and planets could very well be the physical
substratum of the brain, body, leg, or toe, or some other ob~
ject as is the case with our bodies that are the universe of the
trillions of life entities which thrive within each of us. Let us
postulate that our universe; is the brain structure of a giant enPursuit 85

lily on another dimensional plane. We are forced, lhen,lo a~

cepl the further thesis that were this a brain capable of
reasoning on at least the order of human beings (for after all
iI may be a giant amoeba, dog, ape, or creature unknown to
us), il would in no way be capable of communicating with us.
Such an intelligence could hardly be aware of us except
possibly in the aggregate, or unless he put 0I1e of us on the
slide of his microscope. BlIt there are more serious reasons
why there would be no communication between him and us.
There are radical diffe~ences in the .spectrum of the
physicalcomposition of. the billions of. different sentient entities on Earth, and elsewhere in the universe, such as variou~
insects, animals, children, criminals, insane peop.le, or underachievers (as.woody Allen described God in one of his films),
etc. Any on~ of these might be our cosmic "intelligence." It is
obvious then that there are radical differences in the spectrum
of minds - both human and cosmic.
As long ago as the 17th century, the philosopher, John
Locke, and others before and after him concerned themselves
with the source of knowledge. Locke postulated that mind is
but a.labula rasa (a blank slate) on which is written all O!lr experience and that this experience is derived totally through
our sense faculties .. There is no need here to go into the
hi~tory of the philosophical dialogue that followed him.
.However,. the important outcOJl1e of that dialogue was the
recognition that without the sense faculties, anthropomorphk
knowledge, such as we attribute to non-physical gods, is not
possible. We can surely recognize the validity of this thesis if
~e envision babies born wjthout eyes (i.e., optic nerves). The
content of their minds would be devoid of knowledge of color. Extend this perceptual deficiency to include all the sense
faculties and it should become apparent that such babies
would never be able to develop minds. They would forever remain in a. "vegetable" state, i.e., Locke's "blank slate."
At no time in the history of man has there been an iota of
evidence that mind or knowledge is possible in the. absence of
a physical structure. Recent developments in biology clearly
demonstrate that minds in those senses of the word that entail
consciousness, knowledge, human or animal experience, etc.,
or any of the functions of animal life such as seeing, hearing,
tasting, feeling, smelling, thinking require a physical substratum. Particular substances give rise to particular qualities:
eyes to "seeing," ears to "hearing," noses to "smelling,"'
brains to "thinking," etc. Eyes do not hear; ears do not .\cc.
A brain thinks according to past input from thc sen~c
faculties. If our gods are not physical, they surely cannot
possess the qualities and attributes which are possible only as
emergents from physical interactions.
Hence, life and mind, as von Daniken shows in his Gods
From allier Space, emerge from physical structures sensitive
to; i.e., rea~ting to, other physical substances (light, sound,
electricity, chemicals, or matter). Life and mind are qualities
of physical substances just as liquidity, transparancy, and the
ability to smother fire are qualities of water emerging from
the gases hydrogen and oxygen interacting with each other.
The only minds knowledgeable people accept are those
which are a complex of neuron activity, electrochemical interactions of approximately 10 billion neurons in the brain.
There is no act performed by the human structure which occurs without instructions from the brain. Even if an act is erratic or abnormal, it is ultimately a physical malfunction of
the brain which causes it. If we realize the validity of the
thesis that these activities are "caused" by the brain, we must
include, also, all the qualities we attribute to gods such a~
knowing, believing, thinking, seeing, touching, tasting, ~melIPursuit 86

ing, hcaring, etc. Therefore, concepts that we have of mind,

of intelligence, of thought, of ideas are always giveri in tcrm~
wh,ch were acquired through observation and explanation of
physkal events and behavior. Surely rational people cannot
ignore Ezekiel's description of a spaceship and its occupants,
observed and described with such clarity and coherence that it
~an bear the critical SlZrUliny and technological knowledge of
an cngineer of the caliber and proficiency of Josef Blumrich.
In this paper I have offered philosophical and scientitic
arguments in support of von Dliniken's thesis. Through his
prodigious efforts, he has laid before the world mountains of
herctofore little known facts; he has brought to light much
literature relating to the physical nature of our gods which has
becn available but conveniently ignored; he has culled oUl of
hi~torkal documents and the writings of other adherents to
thc ancient astronaut theory a body of data which viewed as a
coherent whole attests undeniably to the physical nature of
our gods. A study of these data will show any rational person
who holds the thesis that all facts and hypotheses should be
subjected to the cold light of reason or empirical evidence that
he will never again be able to close his mind to the viability of
thc ancient astronaut hypothesis and the physical nature of
our god\.
Dr. Schievella has a Ph.D. in Philosophy, founder of the National
Council for Critical Analysis and author of Hey! Is That You God?

An OpeD Letter to S.I.T.lJ. Me.b....

And AU Read.... of PURSUIT
The -ArehITETl" Program
It's obvious there is a growing audience interested in
the mysterious cosmic phenom~na such as the
"Sphynx" and "pyramids" seen on neighboring Mars,
as well as the eternal magic of the numerous pyramids
in Egypt, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Australia, the "Bermuda Triangle," etc., here on Earth.
Having found no satisfactory explanations, some
scientists connect these phenomena with the activities of .
cosmic civilizations. To check up on these daring hypotheses of universal importance I suggest that we should
. work out an international program which could be called "ArchiTETI" (or. we can choose another title) - the
search for the traces of ancient civilizations' architecture on the planets of.the Solar System and the revision
of our view to the origin and functions of the Earth's.
I'll. soon be ready to present my' preliminary considerations on the "ArchiTETI" program, including severiil
concrete projects of ground an~ cosmic investigations.
.Would you like to take part in working out this kind of
program? .
I'd be very grateful if you find the time to think over.
this idea and let me know your opinion.
.. .. Sincerely yours,
Vladimir Avinsky
Cando Sc. (Geology & Mining)
100, PO Box 541
#5100, Kuibyshev, USSR
[Editor's Note: Dr. Avinsky is a leading proponent in the Soviet
Union for the study of the "face" and other curious features (\!l the
surface of Mars. He attended the Ancient Astronaut.conference in
Noyi Vinodolski, Yugoslavia in 1987 and the latest word is that he's
making plans to attend the upcoming Ancient Astronaut Society
conference to be held at the Schaumburg Marriott Hotel near Chicago's O'Hare Airpon, Aug. 25-27 '89. For further info call (312) 2958899.) Europeans may contact Erich von Diiniken for a special flijtht
fare from Frankfurt, W.G.

Second Quarter 1988

Conference Reports
MUFON UFO SYDlposium in Nebraska, dune 1988
by Michael D. Swords
The nation's big UFO meeting took place at the University
of Nebraska for 1988 and some of the "stars" of ufology
were there: Budd Hopkins, Bruce Maccabee, David Jacobs,
Philip Klass, Jerome Clark, and many of the active researchers of the Mutual UFO Network, headed by Walter Andrus.
Many well-known UFO figures were not there, most particularly Whitley Strieber. And his absence was probably not
coincidental, as a rift seems opening between "scientific ufologists" and the quasi-cultish and spiritist versions of ufology
which Strieber seems to be encouraging. It is a rift which
seems to be welcomed by a number of veteran UFO researchers.
.MUFON conventions consists of formal talks (ten of them
this time), questions and answers, photographic displays,
some book materials, talks in the foyer, talks over meals,
talks in rooms, and talks late into the night. You often learn
more "informally" than you do formally. The best way to
learn what's happening regarding UFO phenomena, other
than researching cases yourself, is to go to a MUFON convention and sit in on as many ad hoc discussions as you can.
So what is going on? I'll limit the discussion to just a couple
of the more intriguing topics.
The "big news" was the report on the Gulf Breeze, Florida
case. The case went on from early November, 1987 to first of
May, 1988. It is one of the very few "repeater photographic
cases" in ufology. One witness, who served as the focus for
the events, took 41 pictures with a variety of cameras, some
personal, some "rigged up" by the MUFON research team.
Another anonymous photographer took a series of 9 photos.
A third took another five. Fifty-five photos in all (including a
videotape), and over 100 witnesses of "something odd" in the
The "objects" were of at least five different types: three
were varieties of a single design, one a similar but noticeably
different object, and the fifth a totally different conformation. Photos were taken with twinned cameras to get
measurable distances, and, thereby, sizes. A small elongated
object was between 3 and 5 feet long. A mid-sized object had
a circular lightzone in the base 7 feet in diameter, and was 14
feet at its circular diameter best, and 14 feet from base lightring to top light "turret." The larger varieties resembled the
midsized version in shape, but were 14 feet in the base lightzone, 28 feet in diameter, and about 28 feet high. It may be
that the focus witness has been ~bducted by one of these latter
objects, and hypnotic regression work is proceeding.
The measurement work on the photos has been done, and
is still being pursued, by ufology's "best in the business," Dr.
Bruce Maccabee. Bruce is quite impressed so far, both as to
the evidence and the quality of the witness. Most ufologists
feel the same, though there is still debate and the Center for
UFO Studies (CUFOS) in Chicago has been particularly vocal
in urging caution. Caution is always an appropriate mental
stance in investigations-in-progress, and caution derives in
this case from contrary statements about the character of the
main witness, and the irrational but strong intuition that
everything is just too convenient, too pat and too strange.
For example, photos never happen when investigators are present or even when they are "staked out" out of sight.
This case is one we'll probably hear about for a while
unless it is a hoax and soon revealed. Archskeptic Phil Klass

Quarter 1988

hasn't finished his analysis yet either, but apparently will

argue against the case on the following grounds: a) unreliable
character of primary claimant; b) model-making; c) doubleexposures, and, perhaps, although he didn't mention this one
to me, d) the general "impressionability" of people to see and
talk about things that they hear are going on.
The primary UFO researchers on-site will doubtless rate
Mr. Klass' explanation low on the following grounds: a)
involvement of multiple witnesses including direct involvement by the prime witness' own family; b) independent
separate sighting of an object while main witness was getting
a picture; c) difficulty in hoaxing the twinned polaroids by
double exposure; and probably, d) a general rejection of any
researcher's opinions if that researcher has not gotten directly
involved with the witnesses, the sites and the "leftover"
evidence (photos and a ground-trace).
Explanations are few and hard to come by. What's your
1. Real ET or paranormal experiences requiring almost
total control over the witness' location and the presence
of "wanted" or "unwanted" parties;
2. Elaborate hoax involving witness, witness' whole family,
and several other people intimately; plus elaborate
model-building and picture-taking and logistics; plus
'normal" citizen excitability, impressionability, and
3. Some equally, probably greater, elaborate game being
played out by a government project residing at the large
local air base; a game almost certainly requiring some
cooperation by the main witness.
Take your choice. Maybe you can come up with better options.
A second interesting case was an older one reported on by
Walter Webb, Assistant Director of the Hayden Planetarium.
Walt, like Bruce Maccabee, brings to the investigation great
skill, discipline, and an impeccable reputation for honesty.
The case was the Buff ledge case and took place in an upper
NY State summer camp several years ago. Walt researched
the case for 5 Y2 years and left most of the convention shaking
their heads at his tenacity and probably embarrassed at the
comparison of his dedication with the UFO "norm."
Very briefly, the incident involved the camp at a "break"
time with few employees around. The two primary witnesses,
a 19-year-old female counsellor and a 16-year-old male
laborer (who barely knew one another due to their different
"status," backgrounds, and age differential), were at the end
of a loading dock 'at the camp's beach. A large "cigarshaped" object appeared fairly far away over the lake. Out of
it emerged three lights which did a dance and 2 shot off up
and down the lake. The third approached. It was a "typical"
disk. It hovered, moved right over them, shone a light, and
they blanked out. The next memory was of the boy lying on
the dock, his arm over "protecting" the unconscious girl.
They staggered back across the beach, up the stairs, as a few
others arrived on the scene. They went separately to their
rooms and conked out. Later, in a variety of misconnections,
they never were able to sit down with one another to try to
discuss it (the boy remembered more than the girl, consciously). They left camp shortly and went separate ways.
Pursuit 87

Over the years the boy was bothered by this experience and
ultimately linked up with Walt Webb, who, most people do
not realize, was the first person to investigate the Betty and
Barney Hill case. Walt gathered data, set ground rules, and
did hypnosis. The now-adult man told a consistent tale which.
included an abduction and an examination of the girl, which
he witnessed from an across-the-room distance. With persistent sleuthing Walt traced down the girl who had moved
several times about the country, married, and with children.
She was interested and told a vaguer. but supportive story.
Under hypnosis, she also told of the abduction, her own examination (though not precisely the same in detail), and her
seeing the young man on board. The stories .. although over a
decade old, matched surprisingly well. If the witnesses are as
independent as they seem, it is a remarkable case ind~ed.
Walt dug out other people from the camp in those years,
and even found the two campers who arrived on the scene
just after the UFO event. Their memories could not link the
young man and woman to it, but they did remember a UFOlike experience that summer, of lights or something leaving
the area. Several other possible witnesses turned out to be
"dry holes" but Walt Webb's efforts do demand applause.
Overall, it is a remarkable case which is not easily disposed
of. Any mundane explanation would require close cooperation between two witnesses who show no signs of any such
alliance (they lived States apart in different regions of the
country, had wildly different lifestyles, and showed no signs
of any familiarity with one another than the haunting intuition that they had shared some particularly special experience). I am slow to "buy in" on alleged anomalies. This
one interests me. Perhaps it is a "keeper."
These were the highlights. The "corridor conversations"
dwelt on things like the need for professionalism in ufology,
the fascinating "face on Mars" and all its neighboring (possible correlated) "monuments," UFO abductions and whether
the researchers are helping or harming the witnesses, the
MJ-12 document and whether it's all hooey, the fascinating
parallels between fairy story phenomena and abduction
phenomena, and whether some UFO phenomena are angelic
or demonic in character. The interesting Australian "car
levitation" case was much talked about, and if you weren't
lucky you had to take time out for TV interviews when you'd
rather be listening to someone else. And then there was Gulf
Breeze, and Gulf Breeze and Gulf Breeze.
It was fun, interesting, occasionally even exciting. Maybe
I'll see you next year at the MUFON symposium in Las
Vegas .. .Iots of strange encounters there.

Other Conferences
by Robert C. Warth

The 1988 International Seth and Metaphysical Conference

was held in Clarksville, Indiana just across the river from
Louisville, Kentucky, March 24-28. While many of the lecturers at this gathering discussed matters that were other thah
Fonean, there seemed a good opportunity to learn more
about subjects that interest readers of PURSUIT.
Psychic phenomena is a part of Forteana and Prof. Walter
Uphoff, participant at this meeting wrote, '.'When phenomena are poorly, or only partially understood, the temptation to
perpetrate fraud exists - to the detriment and denigration of
the genuine."
Hosts Peter Moscow and Joyce Kevelman brought
together an interesting assortment of various talents.
Speakers familiar to PURSUIT readers included Dr. Walter
Uphoff, demonstrating possible contacts with beings "onPursuit 88

the-otherside" via television communication being developed

in Luxemburg and West Germany; Dr. Lee Pulos spoke on
various experiments including an update on Thomas of Brazil
and Uri Geller, visiting the United States for shows and TV
commercials, gave his usual entertaining demonstrations.
There were also numerous demonstrations of channeling
by trance mediums including one by Luis Gasparetto who
very rapidly, while in a trance state, painted several scenes
and signed them with the signature of one of some 30 past artists he allegedly reproduces with the guidance of each nowdeceased master such as Rembrant, van Gogh; ToulouseLautrec, etc.
While attendance was good, it could have been better for,
as the hosts stated, the local media seemed constrained in
their enthusiasm of covering such controversial subjects of
psychic investigation or display. The '89 meeting should be
equally interesting (see below).
Six weeks later it was off to California to visit friends and
relations but specifically to attend the Whole Life Expo at the
Pasadena Convention Center, May 13-15.
There was no way anyone person could possibly have
covered or attended more than a fraction of the more than
two hundred guest lecturers and workshops that were crammed into a three-day stint. Naturally, the biggest names got the
biggest audiences with holistic health, spiritual healing, channeling, UFO contactees and cases, psychic performances,
reincarnation and meditation as some of the major themes
and attractions.
There were at least a dozen speakers or shows going on at
anyone time. Schedule delays, changes in meeting areas to
accommodate overflow crowds and drop-outs or substitutions made nearly impossible situations even more frustrating. Those members of the professional media really suffered, and there were times I wished I could have substituted
my pen and notebook for a chair and whip entering a lion's
den overcrowded with "humans" fighting for front-row
There were talks by Dr. Andrija Puharich,.Budd Hopkins,
Tom Bearden, Whitley Strieber, Linda Goodman, Ralph
Blum, Timothy Leary, Jess Stearn, Elizabeth Clare Prophet,
Charles Thomas Cayce, Stanton Friedman, Bill Moore, Edith
Fiore, Jack Houck, Brad Steiger, etc., etc. But, be prepared,
if you attend a future such Expo, don't expect to see all the
One big plus for me was to watch .Uri Geller again but who,
this time, unwittingly erased any doubt I had regarding !tis
psychic ability. And while no one else in the audience of some
eight hundred people (which included Peter Hurkos at his last
public appearance before his death a few days later) appreciated this "proof,".I can only hope what happened did not
seriously offend Uri because he really got mad at me, though
he denied that when we talked about it later.
Some Upcoming 1989 Conferences
1989 International Seth and Metaphysical Conference, April 6-12
(tentative) in Louisville, Ky. Contact Peter Moscow (502) 423-1188
for details. Featured will be Anna Mitchell-Hedges witli "The Crystal
SkUll" and Carol Davis; Budd Hopkins, Dr. Bruce Upton, psychics
Coral Polge and Bill Landis from England, several channelers arid
2nd International Conference on Paranormal Research, June 1-4 at
Colorado State University in Fort Collins, CO. Contact Dr. Maurice
Albertson (303) 491-0633. Not to be missed by the serious student of
paranormal research. Featuring: parapsychology, paranormal info,
mediumship, prophecies, reincarnation and past-life regressions,
UFOs, alternate healing modalities and more.

Second Quarter 1988

Letters to the Editors

Dear Editor:
Since the astrology story about the Reagans broke and
hearing some of the comments by the political and scientific
communities, I as a student of astrology for some eighteen
years would also like to voice some comments about the
whole affair.
It is safe to say that astrology has been with us in one form
or another since 2697 B.C. when the Chinese developed their
calendar and every cultural "race of any literate means
independantly evolved its own astrology since that time. Our
present form of astrology used in the Western world is a
hand-me-down from the ancient Greeks and Romans "except
for one thing: around the mid-1930's a handful of serious
astrologers, the likes of Dane Rudhyar and Mark Edmond
Jones researched and incorporated the recently devised field
of psychology into the workings of. astrology with excellent
success. Since then, astrology itself has been transformed into
a complex and mind-expariding marriage of ancient
astrology, modern astronomy, (in the "form of celestial
mechanics), physics, metaphysics, computer science,
psychology and even Quantum physics, all in the name of
"science" and for the betterment of mankind.
The bottom line of all this is; that after all these centuries,
astrology still works and even better than before, (because the
tools at our access are more scientific than ever before ...even
the human mind). And I see the day when a "New Age
Astrology" is regularly taught in the science departments of
our nation's high schools because the present popularity, (to
the tune of $6 billion a year business) and ~he innate quest for
inner knowledge of the human species will necessitate such
changes, even at the expense of the ridicule now being experienced by the White House, of all places. The truth is some
of the greatest scientific minds of history were astrologers:
witness Hippocrates, Nostradamus, Sir Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Benjamin Franklin and Carl Gustav Jung, (before
I have the Committee for "the Scientific Investigation of the
Paranormal or Carl Sagan down my throat, let me qualify
what I just said by saying that all of these men at least did
some research into astrology, which is more than I can say"for
Carl Sagan or the Committee or most of the rest of those of
reputation who would rather debunk something than do their
homework. Witness Dr. Paul Michel Gauquelin, a French
scientist who over thirty years ago set out to debunk astrology
by scientific method only to provide enough valid data from
thousands of researched horoscopes to the scientific community which does in fact support the reality that there exists
varifiable facts about astrology which if actually studied
would bring astrology to its rightful place in the scientific
community. His research leaves much room for very serious
consideration here.
It is important to realize that throughout history most of
the ruling families of Europe, China and India consulted
astrologers on a regular basis regarding state affairs, coronations and marriages. Today, Members of Parliament and
Members of Congress also consult astrologers. To have it
broadcast around the world that our President and his First
Lady do the same should not be a surprise to any student of
astrology. Even church officials should not be surprised since
the largest astrological library in the world lies in the Vatican
archives. Wall Street should not be surprised either since
many stockbrokers consult astrologers before buying or sellSecond Quarter 1988

So the issue is not whether astrology is a pseudo-science or
whether its belivers or those who apply its principles are
superstitious or quacks, the issue is how long are the scientific
and political communities going to try to maintain their
stranglehold of controls over the public by maintaining their
closed minds?
-Ronald Bartlett Jones
Dear Editor:
I liked reading the article about possible paranormal events
between animals and humans ("Possible Human-Animal
Paranormal Events" by Dr. B. Schwarz, PURSUIT Volume
21, #1). It made me think of an incident that happened two
summers ago. I had two box turtles I kept in an outdoor pen.
One was a female who sometimes ended up on her back and
could not right herself. Occasionally I worried about her getting into an inverted position while in the shallow pool but I
wasn't unduly worried about it. Then one day while I was in
my room, I suddenly thought of the turtle being in the water
on her back. I went outside to check and she was in that position! (She was okay)
The psychic ability in animals and between animals and
humans interests me even more than psychic ability in
hum"ans alone. I'd like to see more on this subject. Perhaps
SITU could invite readers to ~hare their experiences.
-Adrianne Barker
Dear Editor:
Due to a number of anecdotes I've collected, including personal experiences, I have concluded that 1969 was a banner
yer for truly WEIRD anomalies. Science News, May 10,
1988, "Earth's Magnetic Hiccup: Something strange happened to the geomagnetic field in 1969. It jerked." We are all
aware of Dr. Michael Persinger's work on psi/UFO geomagnetic correlations. In any case, a private conversation with a
fellow anomalist netted an unusual report of a cyclopean octopoid of presumably extradimensional origin appearing
briefly in Malaysia in 1969. Regrettably, this gentleman could
not recall the exact citation. (It was recalled to be a "Bermuda
Triangle" type book.) Perhaps one of you out there recalls it
and could send me a hard copy (with suitable postage
"remunertion) c/o SITU to me. I will gladly compensate the
cost. This also would alleviate extra strain on the superb
SITU research staff.
Also, perhaps, this data should be brought to the attention
of Dr. Persinger, a SITU scientific advisor.
Thanks to all of you and to SITU.
-Keith L. Partain

Dear Editor:
I want to advise PURSUITs readers of a soon-to-be nonprofit Cryptozoology Museum that will publish a Cryptozoology Bulletin. See all the articles that the other groups will not
print. Learn the very latest from Loch Ness, the truth about
Lizard Man of the SC swamps, and the New Guinea Mermaid debacle! Join today!
For more information write: The National Cryptozoological Society, Box 6534, Zuma Beach, CA 90264.
-Erik Beckjord

Dear Editor:
In his letter, (PURSUIT Volume 20, #4) Mr. Robert L.
cook referenced U.S. Patent #4,238,968. I therefore obtained
a copy of the patent.
The problem with the invention, as I see it, remains essentially as I discussed it in my earlier letter (PURSUIT Volume
20, Ifl). The engine mechanism is different from the car wheel
example presented by Mr. Cook in his article, but it remains
essentially a mechanical oscillator unable (in my opinion)" to
develop a sustained motion in a given direction when
operated in space.
When operated on rails in a laboratory, different amounts
and direction of frictional force between the rails and the
engine resulting from the engine's internal oscillatory motions
could result in unsteady motion of the engine along the rails.
The engine is then dependent for its resultant motion on the
presence of the Earth which will experience minute motion
changes opposite in direction to those of the engine. In space
. these friction forces will be absent and the engine will simply
oscillate. I'll stake my reputation on it.
-Stuart W. Greenwood
Dear Editor:
I was glad to see your review of The Ashby Guidebook for
Study of the Paranormal (pURSUIT Volume 20, #4) ~d was
very pleased by your favorable. comments on it. However, I
was chagrinned that my name as reviser/editor was not
referenced at all. Updating a fifteen-year-old book is quite a
chore when the heart of the volume is its bibliographies. The
original edition listed 268 titles with summaries for 83 of the
comprising 68 of the 190 pages, or 301170. In this revised edition, 113 titles were added of recent books with summaries
for 44 of them, covering 831170 of the 215 pages, or 401170. I also
added, to the original six categories, "Self-Help and Development" and "Textbooks."
Chapter Two was a neW "how-to" chapter of eight sections never before published, five of which were written expressly for this book, as was my Appendix on Survival. And,
of course, the chapters on "Resources" and on "Important
Figures" had to be extensively revised. The two-year effort
was an uncompensated labor of love for the late Bob Ashby
and for SFF whose journal I edit, but I do like to get credit!
-Frank C. Tribbe

Dear Editor:
I have read your article, "00 Ghosts Barrier Oscillate?" in
PURSUIT Vol. 21, #1 and note the cbnfusion that occurs
when investigators attempt to explain the paranormal. All
clairvoyants can explain what you have photographed as the
unbilical-like cord. You are photographing spirit beings but
these are from this plane and not from the after-death-planes
of life. These are the out-of-body experiences of people.
Perhaps the following story can best dispel the confusion:
A husband and wife had saved for years to buy a house in
the country. Each had dreamed of their home in detail and
could describe even the placement of furniture and various
plants in the yard. When the day arrived to buy this house
they met with a realtor who showed them the picture of the
exact house they had dreamed about and feared didnot exist.
They looked over the house while the owners remained in the
garden so they could have free access. The owners were summoned in when the buyers indicated that they would buy the
house. The owner stated, "I must warn you. Thishouse is
haunted!" "Reallyl." the woman buyer said, "By whom?"
Pursuit 90

"By you," he replied!

. These out-of-body experiences account for the event of deja vu and should not be confused with reincarnation .. Most
people have these experiences while they sleep; however, there
are a number of people who can use out-of-body for other
purposes. We have a friend who survived hazardous encounters in Vietnam by leaving his body, surveying the surrounding countryside for the enemy and by avoiding contact.
In fact, he was able to displace or be displaced intime. When
he was fired at, the bullet would slow "own and suspend in
space, allowing him to step to one side very easily. The movement of the bullet was no more than slow motion in speed.
One cannot truly know an experience until one experiences ..
Too many books are written onhealing by non-healers which
bear gross errors and hypotheses; too much is written on the
paranormal by people who have never had a paranormal experience!
-Virginia Light
Dear Editor:
On reading Robert Cook's (to my miJ;ld, ungracious) reply
to Stuart Greenwood's letter r.e. Cook's alleged new means
of propulsion, I was sufficiently intrigued to go back and
read the preceding material listed by our editor.
Mr. Cook rightly suggests we should obtain a copy of U.S.
Patent 4,238,968 and study it. I have a copy on order and
may. comment further after I've. received it.
In the interim, however, a few observations based on the
writings in PURSUIT to date.
As described therein, Mr. Cook's device puts me in mind
of the so-called 'Dean Drive' invented by one Norman Dean
and first widely reported in Astounding Science Fiction
magazine in late 1960. I believe there were a couple more articles plus the usual letters-to-the-editor but unfortunately my
copies of ASF are in storage, else I could be more specific.
The initial ASF article - with photos - aroused a furor
. that eventually led to the USAF issuing a contract to have
Dean's device tested by an independent laboratory. The test
results regrettably did not substantiate Dcim's claims to have
discovered a means of converting rotary motion into unidirectional thrust. Two articles (one a report on the test results)
and a number of letters-to-the-editor appeared in "Missiles
and Rockets" magazine during May-Sept. 1961. One of the
telling points against Dean's machine was that while it did
lurch jerkily across the floor under the impulse of its engine,
it moved not at all when suspended. By Dean's theory (and
claims) it should have moved. to one side, standing out
straight at 90 degrees from. vertical.
It appears to me that Mr. Cook has re-invented the Dean
Drive. After all, according to the report by th~ United Airlines engineers, "~ok's crudely built rig moved spasmodically across the floor." As with the Dean Drive, the motor
impulse acting against the friction between rig ~d floor
would account for this motion. Let Mr. Cook suspend his
model from a wire - if it then moves substantially off vertical, I'll believe.
. The burden is on Mr. Cook to prove his claims - until he
does so, his cranky objections to Dr. Greenwood's analysis
are valueless.
-George Earley
[Ed. Note: Jim Murray received patent #4,780.632 titled "Alternator With Improv~d Efficiency" for his power generator.]

Second Quarter 1988

mostly contemporary curious and unexplained events

ChIDe. . Seek 'WUd Man'

Who Laag'"
The search for China's laughing versiQn of
the Abominable Snowman has been taken up
once again as more than 100 Chinese researchers headed for the mountain forests of central Hubei Province to track down what they
call "the wild man," a news report said Saturday.
The expedition, divided into 12 teams, is set
to search the Shennongjia Mountains in order
to solve the 3,OOO-year-old mystery of what's
declared to be a creature who's half man, half
ape. Many peasants in the area claim to have
seen the creature, the overseas edition of the
People's Daily said.
Peasant witnesses speak of a man-beast at
least seven feet tall, with reddish hair and
long, swinging arms. A number have claimed
they heard the "wild man" emit a laugh that
sounded almost human.
Nicknamed "Fei Fei" by Chinese scientists,
the creature is described as resembling North
America's Big Foot and the Abominable
Snowman of the Himalayas.
More than 600 anthropologists, biologists
and ecologists have been engaged in research
on the existence of the beast since the China
Wild Man Research Association was set up in
the early 19805.
In 1985, the association held an exhibition
in the southern city of Guangzhou featuring
plaster footprints, hair samples and droppings
alleged to be from "the wild man."
A year earlier, the Shennongjia Mountain
forest was declared a nature preserve for the
creature because of persistent sightings in the
area. The beast has also been reported seen in
the provinces of Sichuan, Shaanxi, Henan,
the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in
the far south and in the Himalayan region of
Records of sightings date back as far as
3,000 years in China. During the 19505 and
19605, Chinese scientists searched for the
Abominable Snowman in the Himalayas and
for "the wild man" in the Chinese forests.
SOURCE: (UPI) Stars & Stripes
CREOrr: James R. Bryce

The Yeti is Oat There.

Says MoaotalD Man
Yeti hunter and mountaineer Chris Bonington today revealed the discoveries he made as
he searched the Himalayas for the Abominable Snowman.
But the legendary half-man half-ape crea
ture, if it exists, can breathe a sigh of relief
along with bookmakers William Hill who faced paying ,out U million if the Yeti was
Second Quarter 1988

For there was no conclusive evidence just one possible sighting, an unusual set of
footprints in the snow and unidentified
animal droppings.
Mr. Bonington, who spent ten weeks
climbing the remote 23,000 ft. Menlung Tse
peak, said: "There certainly isn't any conclusive evidence one way or another, but there
are a lot of unanswered questions.
"I personally am convinced there is something there, but just what it is who knows,
and I rather hope the Yeti manages to remain
as elusive as it has to the present times." .
Evidence produced by the team, which is
being examined by Natural History Museum
experts, includes:
-Two sheepskins cleanly severed from their
carcasses, as if by a creature using a cutting
tool. The mountaineers were assured that if
Tibetans had removed the valuable skins they
would have used them for clothing or bedding.
-Photographs of footprints measuring 12
inches by 34 inches lying 4 inches deep in the
snow thought to have been made by a creature walking upright on two legs.
-A sighting by BBC film producer John
Paul-Davidson who accompanied the mountaineering team. As he was climbing he felt
the sensation of being watched and through
the blizzard saw the dark shape of a creature
standing on two legs watching him.
-The curious disappearance of two ski
sticks left by the mountaineers at a height of
19,000 feet.
-Unidentified "sizeable~' animal droppings
found in a secluded valley.
Natural History Museum scientist lain
Bishop has examined the sheepskins and
found "nothing unusual."
"We have seen no pieces of Yeti, nor any
pieces claimed to be Yeti," he said.
SOURCE: Lesley Yarranton, Evening
Standard, England 6/8/88
CREOrr: Forteana News, T. Good

7-Week Seal'Ch for yeti FIa...

Only Footpdatll. Dead Sheep
A seven-week search for the Abominable
Snowman in the Himalayas turned up footprints and the carcasses of two sheep, but not
the legendary beast itself, a member of the expedition said yesterday.
Alan Hinkes, 34, of the six-member British
team, said the climbers uncovered more clues
- including footprints slightly smaller than a
man's boot and the skinned remains of the
sheep - but no conclusive evidence that the
hairy, manlike beast also known as the Yeti
exists. Expedition leader Chris Bonington, 53,
planned to present the team's findings at a
news conference today.

"It would have been nice to fmd the actual

Yeti," Hinkes said. "In Nepal, all believe in
it, which is quite st.artling - there must be
something there."
SOURCE: (AP) The Philadelphia Inquirer,
PA 6/8/88
CREOrr: H. Hollander

Big Maddy MoDStel' Seen

Bob Reiman says he doesn't want to be the
laughingstock of his tiny Southern DIinois
town, but he's standing by a story that he and
family members saw a Bigfoot - type creature
in his junk yard.
"I am convinced I saw something," said
Reiman, who claims to have sighted what
locals call the Big Muddy Monster, a stinking,
dirty hulk with matted hair and huge feet.
"Right now," he .said Tuesday, "I really
wish it was a big hoax or something. But I'll
be right frank with you, what we seen is
Reiman, the owner of an auto service and
salvage business about six miles west of Carbondale, said he got a call on Friday from his
security guard, Charles Straub.
Straub, who was keeping watch at the salvage yard, told Reiman he'd heard some commotion out back. Reiman said when he arrived they started investigating. He recalled "a
very pungent odor in the air."
"It wasn't anything like a skunk or a sewer,
but it was very distracting. It would even
make your eyes water."
Reiman said he and Straub heard rustling
and in the light of the full moon they saw
something standing about 30 feet from them.
The creature "let out a piercing-type
scream" when they shone light on its face,
Reiman said.
"All we could see was red eyes and yellow
teeth," said Reiman, 34.
"There isn't any
man who could stand that tall.
"There's no man that can travel that fast
on all fours. And I don't know a man who
can make that noise."
The initial encounter lasted only seconds,
but was time enough to make out an 8- to
100foot frame and lots of long, silver, matted
hair, Reiman said.
It was not the first time the Big Muddy
Monster has been spotted in Southern Illinois.
At least 21 other people reponed seeing the
Bigfoot-type creature in the 19705.
But until last weekend, it had not been seen
since 1976.
Paul McRoy, a police dispatcher at the
Murphysboro Police Department, said they
received no repons of the creature and fust
learned of the latest encounter from a newspaper article published Tuesday. He said they
were not investigating.
Pursuit 91

". was very scared and it didn't take me

The creature was furious at my invasion of
long to make the decision to get away from his privacy and its intentions were to attack
it," said Reiman, noting they failed to contact . me. Its intentions were obviously clear. This
the authorities "for the simple fact of being happened Tuesday night, May 17th, 1988 at
hauled off in white coats.
exactly 11 :30 p.m. When the creature started
"I was afraid of being ridiculed, '.' Reiman coming toward me in an unfriendly manner, I
said. "And I'll be quite honest with you, still hastily made a run for the safety of my car. I
turned my car around and I plainly saw the
But Reiman and Straub, a part-time Ava. creature at very close range in the bright headpoliceman, did call family members to witness . lights of my. car.
.the Big Muddy Monster, so called because of
I am 67 years of age, I do not drink and I
the nearby Big Muddy River.
am of sound mind. I am an experienced
Joyce Tindall, Reiman's sister, said she hunter, tracker and live trapper, with 50' years
thought the summons was a joke - until she experience.
saw it for herself.
This creature was very, very big and very,
"We knew it wasn't a person from its size very strange and dangerous looking. It
and height," she said.
definitely was not a bear or a gorilla. It was
SOURCE: (AP) Daily Chronicle, IL
too big. The size was unbelievably enormous.
Samuel J. Sherry Sr.
CREOrr: Member #432
Ligonier RD I

Bigfoot In AIka....

(A leiter to the editor)

All Smith knows is that a gray animal, a little under 2 feet tall, was in her back yard on
~ngwood Avenue about 5:30 a.m. on June
The first-grade teacher was looking out
through her screen door when she saw it.
It stood still for more than a minute and'
then jumped up and disappeared into the
shrubs .
. She said she told friends, "Maybe it was a
baby kangaroo," and' they said, "Who
Peggy Brennan, 25, should know. She was
one. of those who reported seeing the
kangaroo in Hohokus.
"A lot of people question the story," she
says. "They ask me, 'Did you make that
CREOrr: Ronald Rosenblatt .

S9URCE: EC;ho, Ligonier, PA

Joe Cagle of Leachville knew that the crea5/25/88
Rock Mi.takeD for Foreign Subs,
ture he saw on the night of Thursday, May 5, CREOrr: Stan Gordon (PASU)
Swed. . Say
was not just a cow that had gotten loose. "It
After an intense search for unidentified
was about 9:30-10:00 p.m., and lwas driving
California Police Search
submarines in Swedish waters, the military
doWn Highway 226 near the 63 Bypass outside
for Big Cat
conceded yesterday that two of the eight inof Jonesboro when I saw a creature about
Police and state Fish and Game Depart- trusions it had reported during the last two
seven feet tall, weighing probably 300 pounds
ment officials with tranquilizer guns searched weeks might have been rocks rather than
and having thick fur.
foreign subs.
"The creature was running down the road- Sunday for a huge cat, possibly a panther,
"We've had divers down and evaluated all
side ditch, and then it came out of the ditch that was spotted near the city of Fairfield,
the evidence in the eight different incidents
and ran upright across the highway and disap- Calif.
The cat was seen several times in recent
and in two of them we think cliffs caused the
peared into a patch of woods on the other
days in the hills at the edge of Fairfield, about
scare," said H.G. Wessberg, spokesman for
side," Cagle explained.
"It took only three strides to cross the high- 35 miles north of San Francisco. Police also Sweden's defense staff.
"But in the siX other cases we've had
way!" Mr. Cagle also stated, "I don't believe found a paw print measuring 3 inches long.
. it was a bear or a human because bears usual- Witnesses estimated the big black cat weighed recently we've been down there with divers
ly run on all fours, and this creature ran up- about 150 pounds and was 2 feet high and 3 too and have indications of foreign
. intrusion. "
right with its knees slightly bent, unlike feet long.
SOlJRCE: Register, New Haven, CT
"It may seem funny that two of the inhumans.
cidents have turned out to be underwater
-'The whole thing has been blown out of
cliffs - but then cliffs and submarines look
proportion," Cagle stated. "I have never be- CREDrr: Jon Singer
alike too ... [sonar] .... You can't tell until you
lieved in anything such as a Bigfoot; however,
More KaDga-na_OI'II
get down and inspect the area," Wessberg
saw something that night that ] have riever
seen before."
In the last two weeks, the Swedish navy has
The Hohokus kangaroos are still hop-hopIn spite of this remark; the interview was
detonated an unprecedented number of anticoncluded by Cagle saying, "There is definite- hopping around. Or so it seems.
A school teacher 10 miles away in Pompton subamrine mines and lobbed depth charges
ly something out there."
N.J., thinks she saw a baby kangaroo and anti-submarine grenades liberally into
SOURCE: R. Henry, Town Crier,
coastal areas off Stockholm and Gothenburg,
last week.
Manila, AR, 5/24/88
the west coast, after submarine intrusions
CREOrr: Forteana News, Lou Farish
up. It was very stiU. Then it hopped up, like 3 were reported.
For years, the Swedes have reported
feet. I thought, 'This is strange,'" said
Bigfoot In Peall8Wlvanla
unidentified foreign subs snooping in Swedish
Last week I experienced a closeup sighting Audrey Smith.
territorial waters, especially near naval bases.
Strange indeed.
of a large strange foul-smelling creature that
No intruders have actually been' caught,
The jumpy marsupials were last sighted in
in comparison to an extra large gorilla would
Hohokus a month ago.' Five residents. there although a Soviet sub ran aground outside a
make the gorilla look like a chimpanzee.
I was at Sleepy Hollow where the ramp reported seeing something large that hopped. naval base in southern Sweden in 198\. The
Soviets said the incident was caused by a
Police think people are seeing things.
bridge goes across Loyalhanna Cree~ with the
Pompton Lakes Police Chief Albert Ekkers navigation error.
intention of doing some lantern fishing. I
A Swedish government report has idenparked my car and I was in the process of had his doubts about the latest kangaroo
tified the ihtruders as Soviet submarines.
lighting my lantern whenl he~d a scuffling report.
"I don't doubt that the woman saw some- Sweden - which is officially neutral - has
racket up on the hillside in .the woods only 25
feet away from me. It also sounded like burst- thing, but if you see a beaver or groundhog lodged diplomatic protests with Moscow,
standing on its hind legs, you might mistake it which has denied all of the accusations.
ing wood.
This year, the Swedes have vowed to sink
I got my three-cell spotlight. I studied the for something else," says Ekkers.
Then again, Pompton Lakes is only \0 intruding subs, rather than simply force them
large creature in every detail. It had reddish
brown fur, extra large fiery eyes that glowed miles from the old Jungle Habitat Game Park to the surface..
SOURCE: The Philadelphia Inquirer, PA
orange color like a bear's eyes. I also noticed that went out of business in 1976.
6/8/88 .
"Maybe some of them escaped," Ekker
that the eyes were constricting due to the
CREDIT: H. Hollander
bright light at close range.
Pursuit 92

Second Quarter 1988

SwedellD Says it MIlY Have Hit

Intruding Submarine
The Swedish navy said yesterday that it
jolted and possibly damaged an intruding
submarine in a depth-charge attack off the
coastal town of Oxelosund on May 31, but
that the submarine managed to escape.
"We have strong indications that the depth
charges were so close that they jolted the submarine, and there is a chance that it was
damaged," a defense staff spokesman told
Swedish television. ". can not recall us ever
having been so close to hitting an intruder."

SOIJRCE: The Philadelphia Inquirer, PA

CREDIT: H. Hollander
{Ed. Note: Before World War II, Sweden saw
mysterious planes and rocke/so After World
War II, Sweden has heard mysterious submarines in their waters - but nothing caught.}

Bu.ed to Heaven

"There is absolutely no way Aunt Rachel

could have known that Mom had died,"
Ruth's son, Richard, of Fairfield, said Tuesday. "We hadn't called her family yet."
Like other twins, the sisters often thought
alike. One would say, ". just knew," when
she received news of the other one, family
members recalled.
". visited Mom at the Brethren Home in
Greenville on Friday and she seemed real
good," said Donna Denlinger of Brookville,
Rachel's daughter-in-law. "But she was concerned about her sister and said she didn't
think Ruth would pull through."
Ruth Stanton had been in the hospital nearly three weeks, her son said. A diabetes s1,lfferer, she had had an emergency appendectomy, then a stroke and apparent heart
Rachel had had a heart condition practically all her life. "We knew sometime it would
come but we just weren't expecting it right
now," Mrs. Denlinger said.
The sisters' 94-year-old mother, Saloma
Clawson, also resides at the Brethren Home.
She plans to attend both funerals.
The women were born June 13, 1913, to
Edward and Saloma Clawson in rural Preble
County. They arrived some two hours apart,
family members said.
SOIJRCE: (AP) Circleville Herald, OH
CREDIT: John Fry via COUD-I

A white-robbed "messiah" appeared

before swooning attendees of a prayer
meeting in Nairobi, Kenya. Then he vanished
at the No. 56 bus stop down the road, according to a reponer's eyewitness account in the
official newspaper Kenya Times.
The robed man had been preceded by a
bright, shining star that appeared June 4 over
the poor, shanty township of Kawangware in
west Nairobi.
A week later, evangelist Mary Akatsa announced to her prayer meeting the appearance
Coaple Driven Oat by Spoob
of "a very imponant guest." The crowd
A couple who say they fled from their Notchanted "Jesus, Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth," tingham council home because of bizarre
and dozens collapsed as the robed man stroll- ghostly happenings yesterday won the next
ed through the throng with Akatsa.
stage in their fight to be housed as a homeless
"Strange sporadic light wafted on top of family.
his turbaned head, his feet and his entire
A judge gave them permission to seek a
body," reponer Job Mutungi wrote of the in- High Court ruling on their rights.
cident. Mutungi said the man then spoke in
John and Helen Costello, who are in temclear, unaccented Swahili.
porary bed and breakfast accommodation,
The man promised to return and bring the allege that they left their home last May
devotees "a bucket ful of blessings."
because they could no longer stand the
Then he accepted a ride from an Indian frightening supernatural occurrences.
named Singh and asked to be dropped at the
The city council refused their application to
No. 56 bus stop "to alight and head for be re-housed on the ground that it would have
been reasonable for the couple and their
In a spread that included a picture of the children to continue to occupy the house.
swanhy visitor - a bearded, intense-looking
The council said Mr. and Mrs. Costello,
man in a white robe - the paper asked, "Did who are now being temporarily housed, were
Jesus Christ Come To Nairobi?" It carried homeless intentionally and it was under no
Mutungi's account.
legal duty to house them.
The newspaper also happens to be conductYesterday Mr. David Watkinson, for the
ing a circulation drive under the tutelage of a couple, accused the council of failing to comteam of British tabloid expens.
ply with its duty under the Housing (HomeSOURCE: The Philadelphia /1Il/lIil"I'I". PA
less Persons) make all the necessary in6/23/88
quiries in order to discover whether there was
CREDIT: H. Hollander
any supporting evidence for their "very
remarkable account" of why they had been
Twin. Die Within Houn
forced on to the streets.
of Each Other
Mr. Justice Nolan described the circumIn Dayton, Ohio, twin sisters Ruth Standon stances of the case as "highly unusual" and
and Rachel Garber, born hours apart 74 years said that, though he had some misgivings, he
ago, died within hours of each other.
would give leave so that Mr. Watkinson could
Mrs. Stanton of Trotwood died at Good argue his case at a full hearing.
Samaritan Hospital in Dayton on Sunday at
At the heart of the family's case is a claim
7:16 p.m. Mrs. Garber, died in the emergency that others also witnessed the spooky goingsroom at Wayne Memorial Hospital in Green- on at their home but were not seen by council
ville at 10:25 p.m.
housing officials.

Second Quarter 1988

Mr. Costello, 52, who is unemployed, and

his 51-year-old wife told the council how they
had returned home one day last May with
their daughter Sharon, who is severely disabled with autism and now in a special home,
when they heard the sound of "heart beats"
which brought Sharon to her knees.
The couple, who have two other daughters,
Suzie, 18, and Rosie, 13, say they witnessed
over a period of time power plugs mysteriously pulled from their sockets, a guitar being
played apparently by no one, a typewriter activated and paper ripped from the machine,
furniture unexplainably moved and bedclothes in Sharon's bedroom mysteriously
removed from the bed.
The council was not represented at yesterday's brief hearing.
The couple claimed they could communicate with the "spirit" and the response
was a series of knockings.
SOIJRCE: John Ason, Doily Post, England
CREOrr: J. & C. Bord via COUD I of May.. Deciphered

The secret of the writing of the ancient
Central American Maya people has been uncovered after baffling archeologists for
generations, the West German news magazine
Stern said yesterday.
Stern, in a report released ahead of publication, said West Germany archeologist
Wolfgang Gockel had deciphered the Mayan
writing system, one of the world's most
significant after Egyptian hieroglyphics and
Babylonian cuneiform.
The writings, scratched into soft limestone
with stone tools, look like a series of square
pictures, depicting figures of men, animals,
birds and abstract patterns.
Stem said they described power struggles
and sexual intrigues at court, wars and natural
disasters, giving a picture of a highly
sophisticated and structured society.
Archeologists had believed for decades that
the writings were secret messages sent between
priests and could probably never be
Gockel's researches, the magazine said,
reveal that when a blood sacrifice was due,
Maya men and women purified themselves
beforehand by fasting and abstaining from
sex for several days.
Most of the writings were concerned with
the lives of individual rulers, who had titles
like "Lord of Time" and "Holder of True
Power." Birthdates and rulers' dates of accession were painstakingly noted.
The writings Gockel unraveled come from
the south Mexican town of Palenque, which
1,300 years ago was one of the most powerful
city states in Central America.
Gockel, who lives on a remote Finnish
island, could not be reached for comment.
SODBCE: Star-Ledger, Newark, NJ
CREDrr: Nancy Warth

Pursuit 93

The Notes of Charles Fort

Dedphered by Carl". Pab.t
(extended from Vol.2/, .#1)
An Soc Met De France

Bull Ac Sci Brux
Bull Seis Soc Amer

C-211 +


Annales de la Societe Meteorologique

de France
[1 British Museum)

[1 Bulletin o/the Scientific Academy 0/

Bulletin 0/ the Seismographic Society 0/
America .
Choas, p. 21 i and more
Celestial Objects

English Mechanic
E. Mee.
. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine
Ent Mo. Mag
Ghst .
hour .
I, II, or III
slight, moderate or great earthquake
Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal Jc.urnal 0/ the Asiatic Society 0/ Bengal

(Continued from PURSUIT Vol. 21; Darjiling I Jour. Asiatic Soc Bengal
#1, page 48.)
1852 May 29 I Spon Comb of the
1852 Ap. 91 LT, Ap. 10 I Cor writes Carter I See July 29.
that at 7 p.m. a fiery column had
been seen as if up from the sun. I of 1852 before July ;" Black rain /
Kilkenny. I (Kilkenny Moderator I
B.M:) I Sc. Am 7-3361 (See May 23,
1852 Ap. 17 I Metite I Giitersloh I '54.)
A.J. Sci 2/1.51290.
1852 Ap. 19 I ab 7 p.m. I Chatham I 1852 June I I q - polt I.ab 7:30 a.m.
I q. I South Wales' I Windows
another sky fire I LT 21-8-c.
shaken violently and bells ring. I LT
. 1852 Ap. 20 I Met I Oxford I Ac to 8-8-d.
Lowe "Curious. Repulsed by
1852 June I A I Am J. Sci 21141131/
Aurora. / Rec. Sci, 1/137.
1852 Ap. 26/ Aurora - sun-coll!mn
1852 summer I Unknown insects in
I 7:22 p.m . .I The sun column again
great numbers found on mountains in
seen - by E.J. Lowe, Beeston. I near
Yorkshire, near Settle - fly, someNottingham I L.T: 28/8/f.
what shorter than the honey bee, dark
1852 April 30 I 5 p.m. I New Har- thorax, abdomen marked with altermony, Ind I Tornado. I Finley's nate .
[Reverse side) rings of black and red;
1852 Ap. 30 I Th. stone I India I See wings grey, marked with a black,
transverse line nc;ar the tips - forceps
March 18.
1852 May 2 I 9 p.m. / Rain at Paris, like jaws of caterpillar, but at the tail.
1852 summer 1.1 Unknown insect I from cloudless sky I C.R. 44-786.
1852 May I qs I India ( Darjiling I The Naturalist, N.S., 8-93 I See Ent
Mo. Mag, Dec., 1881, p. 1591 jan.,
1883, p. 188 I Jan., 1882, p .. 189.
1852 May 2 I bet. 8 and 9 p.m . .I
1852 July, Aug, Sept I LT index I
Large meteor detonated like cannon
Great thunderstorms.
fire. I Alsace.
[Reverse side) Le Moniteur, May 20. 1857 July 7 I Italy and Jamaica I q's
I BA 'II 18th - Asia Minor.
1852 May 23 I Freshford is 8 miles
[Reverse side) Sim q's, Feb. 18, 1889.
N.W. of Kilkenny.
1852 May 23 I Fresh ford , Kilkenny,
Ireland I ac to Rev. James Meave, of
Freshford I Nat. Hist Rev 1/247 I
Several years before,
[Reverse side) a peculiar black cloud
and fall in th storm of black rain. I
Year of Tuesday - May 23.
1852 May 291 noon I Waterspout at

Pursuit 94

1852 July 7 I 7:30 a.m. I Rumbling

sound and q. I Jamaica I Timb's

L 'Astronomic
Living Age

Liv. Age
M. Post
Myst. dth
Nat. Hist. Rev.
N (op)
Proc. Eng.
Proc. S.P.R.

. minutes

Morning Post [1 London)

Mysterious death

Natural History Review

No more

New Series

Proceedings o/the Society lor

Psycnica/ Research

Smithson Misc. Collee.
Smithson Rept.
Sup. Ext.

Right Ascension
Royal Navy

Smithsonian Miscellaneous
Annual Report 0/ the Smithsonian
Extraordinary Superstition
[library call letters)

1852 July II and Dec 41 Livorno lit

I Sounds I Rumblings I Feb I, Jan
27, Nov 10 I rise and fall of sea I See
1852 July 13 I Carlisle I Met I BA
[Reverse side) Y 5.
1852 July 16 I evening I q and tho
storm I Athens I The Geologist
1852 July 20 I - 21 h I Venus Inf
Conjunction Sun I (A I).
[BCF, pp. 400-401)

French Academy. Examined by M.

[Reverse side) who said it was colored
by minute organisms - spores of
mushrooms or of a fungus and of
minute organisms of the class of
1852 Aug 20 - 25 I [newspaper clipping) / Destruction of Santiago de
Cuba by an Earthquake. I Port of
Spain Gazette, 24th September, 1852.
1852 Aug20 I [L T), 6-d I Spiritual

[Great) I q I

1852 Aug 21/ one of greatest recorded lEtna -last 9 months

I Rodwell.

1852 July 24 I [LT), 4-e I Singular

Chase at sea.

1852 Aug 28 I 5:15 I Crieff I q and

loud rumbling noise like distant
thunder I Timbs 1853-249.

1852 July 24 I III

Armenia I BA 'II.

1852 July 24 I [LT), 6-b I Myst. dth.

1852 July 29 / Spon Comb I the
Carter I See May 29.

1852 Aug 3 I Poonah, India / Fish. I

Liv. Age 52/186.

1852 Aug 7 I M. Chacornac saw a

star of 7th or 8th magnitude. 121 h
- 36 m R.A. I - 14,33' Declination I On 20th, looked for it and it
had disappeared. I C.R. 40-836.
1852 Aug 7 I List of other disap. stars

IDec 30,18521 July 5,18531 Oct 5,

1853 I Dec 27, 1853 ('53) I Dec 30,
1853 I Jan 10, 1854 I Jan 26, 1854 I
Jan., 1854 I Oct 26, 1854 I last Dec.
1854 I Jan 25, 1855 ..

1852 July 8 I Rhodes, etc. I q I II

[Light) I BA 'III July 7 - W. Indies
I and Italy.

1852 Aug. II I Ext. hail at Thourout

I Bull Ac Sci Brux 19 - pt 3 - 28.

1852 July 8 I Wedde, Holland. I

Stone I BA 60-104.

1852 abo Aug 15 I (Bid) I Cr-35-832 I

At Reims, red rain. Sample sent to

1852 first week in Sept I D-1121 Th.

stone of Andover, Hams I L.T.,
Sept. 16, '52.
[BCF, p. 117)
1852 Sept 2 / [LT), 8-f I 3-3-f / Ext
story I a fasting girl.
1852 Sept I Va I Severe q I Bull Seis
Soc Amer '13/129.
1852 Sept 4 I Metite I MezoMadaras, Siebenburg. I A.J. Sci
1852 Sept 4 I Transylvania I Met
stones closely resembling those of
May 13, 1855 I See. I (F).
. :


1852 Sept 9 I (moon) I Brilliant ~tar

like meteor from 4:45 I
varied remarkably I "Venus and the
moon were curiously in the same
regio!1. IE Mec 90/188 I (See 11.) I
(wrong date).
1852 Sept II I B Assoc 1853/8,35 -

Second Quarter 1988

said that after the disap. one observer

saw Venus in nearly the same place.
[Reverse side) Lord W. says that a
drawing that he had received, giving
lilts position rei to moon, makes me
doubt whether lilt could be Venus at
all." Seems was widely [o)bserved.
He mentions [end of note).

thunder and lightning / California /

[Smi)thson Misc. Collec. 37139. /
[pro)bably a met.
1852 Nov. 26 / Moluccas and Cuba /
qs / BA 'II.
[Reverse side) Sim q's Feb 18, 1889.

1853 March 4 / [L T), 6-g / q / Inverness.

1853 March 6 / 17 miles east of Bettiah (Bet.) / Segowlee / metite / J.
As. Soc Ben.30/132 / See Aug 25,

1852 Nov 27 / II p.m. / (Mass). / q.

sound of explosion and roar / An Sci
[BCF, pp. 400-401 / See July 20, D 1854-326.
1852 Dec. 2 / Jena / Large met / BA
[BCF, pp. 520-521)
1852 Sept 16/7 p.m. / q. / Manilla / 1852 Dec 2 / Bustee / N.W. Prothen volcs at Albay and Taal / A.J. vinces, India / (F).
Sci 21171135 [235?).
1852 Dec 6 / See Aug 15. / Meeting
1852 Sept 16 / q. / Manilla nearly of French Acad / (C.R. 35-833) /
destroyed / others to 22nd / then Oct Was discussed a fall at Rheims of liII - 13/ An. Reg.
quid like blood or of highly colored
1852 Sept 20 -21 / night / Etna starts iron rust.
long duration. / Cosmos 2/55 / See [Reverse side) A chemist had found in
stone, Feb 10, '53. / several months. it little globules of organic matter.
1852 Sept 24 / [LT), 8-f / Etna / They appeared to be "sporules of a
fungus. However, a commission apNov. 15-8-e.
pointed to examine the substance.
1852 Sept. 25 / St. Ives / Met listed
by Lowe as "Large and Curious". / 1852 Dec 6 / Substance / Reims / See
Rec. Sci., 11137 / 8-35 / BA 53-14. Aug IS, 1852.

1853 Mar 6 / Segowlee, India / and

1861, May 12/ Butsura / neighboring
sta[te) / CR 85/678.
[Reverse side) Wedge-stone / D-118.
[BCF, pp. 123-124)
1853 March 12 / Lowville, N.Y. /
bet. 2 and 3 a.m. / shock and great
explosive sound / not known whether
q or meteor /
[Reverse side) A. J. Sci 2116/294 /
1853 March 13/ ab 5 a.m. / or twice?
/ q / Niagara and Toronto / Timbs

1852 Sept. 25 / Th. stone / India /

See March 18.
1852 Sept 25 / q / Philippines / BA
1852 Sept 28 / 8:45 a.m. / Met seen
all over Silesia. / BA 60-92.
1852 Oct 5 / Namur, Belgium / Met
streak lasted for a long time. / BA

1852 Dec II / 8 a.m. / Silesia and

Germany / det met / BA 60-104.
1852 Dec 17 / California / q / BA
1852 Dec 17 / Met cloud in storm /
Gt. Brit / D-97.

[BCF, pp. 101-102 / See March 18,


1852 Oct II / A nebula discovered in 1852 Dec 17 / from the report of

Taurus. Toward end of 1861, an- Lieut Higginson, R.N., of the Coast
nounced by Prof d' Arrest, of guard service / 5:30 a.m. / That
Copenhagen, that it had vanished. / [Reverse side) he saw the main body
fall in the sea near Dover, and,
A. J. Sci 2133/437 / 2135/108.
1852 Oct 13 / q. / Manilla / See Sept searching on the beach, found several
hot meteoric stones. / L.T., Dec 29,
8, e, 1863.
1852 Oct 13 / (F) / 3 p.m. / Metite of
Borkut, Hungary / A. J. Sci 1852 Dec 18 / Yellowish dust in
China / Ref - May 16, 1846.
1852 Dec 30 / See Aug 7, 1852. / star
[Reverse side) BA '60.
1852 Oct 25 / Times of, 6-e / At of 9th magnitude / 8 h, 47 m / + 17
(Hull) "haunted house" sounds -

1853 March 16 / Lowville, N.Y. /

loud explosive sound and shock /
Am. J. Sci 2116/294.
1853 March 20 / ab 5 a.m. /4 shocks
and rumbling sounds / Niagara /
Timbs '54-268.
1853 March 24 / [LT), 8-f / Met.
1853 March, late in / March 28? /
Shock at Haiford / Times, Ap. 4,
1853 March 30 . [L T), 5-e / q. /
Wales .
1853 Ap. I / (Fr) / Fr / Sh-res and
Avranges / (q / C.R., 36/661) / Rennes and Laval / (699 / 748 / 800).
1853 Ap. I / 10:45 p.m. / Jersey and
Guernsey /'q and rumbling / LT, Ap.
5-7-e. / Also Havre, 5~-b.
1853 Ap 8 / Rain as black as ink near
Croyden /
[Reverse side) GardEner's Chronicle,
Ap 16.
1853 Ap. 12/ [LT), 8-d / Sun phe.
1853 Ap. 21-22 / Persia / great q /
20,000 lives lost / [BA) 'II.

after a rainstorm appeared enormous

numbers of "vers" four to five
"pouces' long. Of several hundred
examined, all were
[Reverse side) females, full of eggs all very lively. In 1841, worms of the
species had been named Mermi's
1853 June I / (obj) / 4:30 a.m. / sun
rise / Obj or spot N of sun like small
new moon. Other abo liz degree
beyond first. Like a large star.
Reported by Prof. A.C. Carnes, of
[Reverse side) Burritt College, Te(ln.
/ Sci Amer 8/333.
1853 June 22 / CI. burst at Ahmedabad / Times of India, Aug 26, 1868.
1853 July 5 / Star 9th mag /16 h, 8 m
/ - 22 0 8 m / Looked for, May next
year. Had disappeared. / See Aug 7,
1853 July 8 / [L T), 8-a / Spon Comb.
1853 July 9 / (Augs) / "Little suns"
in sky 1 An. Soc Met de France
1853/227 /
[Reverse side) Like little suns - great
number of red points in sky at Urrugne. / / / A 75 [stamped).
[BCF, p. 416:
A great number of red points in the
sky of Urrugne, July 9, 1853 (An.
Soc. Met. de France, 1853-227).
Astro. Reg., 5-179- C.L. Prince, of
Uckfield, writes that, upon June II,
1867, he saw objects crossing the field
of his telescope.
They were seeds, in his opinion.)
1853 July 9 / Hail / Rouen / C.R.
1853 July 9 or 5 / Ice / Rowen, Fr. /
[BCF, p. 189)
1853 July II/Persia / great q /
10,000 lives lost / [BA) 'II.

1853 July 13 / Mayon vole / Philip

pines / Ref, Feb I, 1814.
1853 May 24 / (It) / Det met / 1853 July 15 / q - darkness /
Ragusa / See 1805. / had been pre- Cumana, Venezuela / "on the
Spanish Main" / q and "frightful
ceding phe.
dull heavy sound and sometimes a
noise and deep darkness / Timbs
scratching sound. For 4 weeks.
1853/ Norfolk, Va. / fishes / D-175. 1853 May 24-25 / aurora and atmos- '54-269/
phere / L.T., May 27-7-d / 11:20 [Reverse side) An Reg, 1853.
1852 Oct 31 / Nov I / detonations / [BCF, p. 183:
-1:22 a.m. / Nottingham / AuroraEtna / LT, Nov. 15-8-e.
Cosmos, 13-120, quotes a Virginia
red haze on horizon all night. 2 mock 1853 Aug. 6 / Eruption of mountain
[BCF, pp. 603-604)
newspaper, that fishes said to have
moons. / Streamers moved easterly. of Korabelott, near Taman, in the
1852 Nov. 9 /4:30 a.m. / q. / Liver- been catfishes, a foot long, some of
On Feb 21, '52, they moved westerly. Crimea /
pool/etc. / A. Reg.
them, had fallen, in 1853, at Norfolk,
[Reverse side) Whole time a patch of [Reverse side) Timbs '54-267.
1852 Nov. 9 / q. / Manchester / M.
orange light in Leo.
1853 Aug 9 / Eng / mets mostly from
Post, Oct 9, 1863.
1853 about / Light like Coggia's at 1853 May 25 / bet 10 and II a.m. / Cassiopeia / BA 53126. / / /
1852 Nov 9 / North Wales / morning Paris / C Rendus 73/755.
Croydon / Sun appeared to be partly [Reverse side) 2 / 16 / 24.
/ q and a sound "more fearful than
obscured by a dark cloud of almost 1853 Aug II / A / Am J. Sci
the most violent thunder (?) / Timbs 1853/ Sleeper Susan C. Godsey, near circular form with prismatic outlines. 2116/288.
Hickman. Ky / See Oct 27, 1873.
'53-248 - from letter in Times.
/ LT. May 28-4-f; 30-8<; June 3-3-f. 1853 Aug 12/ ab 8 p.m. / Cornwall /
p. 134)
1852 Nov 9 / Arirona / Fort Yuma /
1853 May 28 / between 9 - 10 p.m. / Liskeard to TavislOck / q and sound
began qs that continued almost daily 1853 Feb 10 / Girgenti, Sicily / A Weld. Maine / great numbers of vivid like thunder / Times, Aug 20-7-a.
drawing of it in L'Astro 21131, with nashes of lightning / sky slightly
[Reverse side) many months / BA "veinules noires" traversing the pate smoky or dingy at horiron / 1853 Aug 16/ Waterspout over Leghorn / Timbs '54-280.
/ See Dec 5, 1846.
Smithson Inst Rept, 1855-280.
1853 Aug 18, etc. / 29, etc. / qs /
Sici1852Nov. 10/ [LT),4-f /Sup. Ext. /
[BCF, p. 413:
Greece / C.R. 42-24 / Timbs ly / L'Astro 2-131.
About May 30, 1853 - a black '54-270/
1852 Nov. 20/ France and Java / q's 1853 Feb. 10/ Stone / Sicily / See Et- point that was seen against the sun, [Reverse side) There had been no volc
by Jaennicke (Cosmos. 20-64).)
na, Sept 20 - 21.
/ BA 'II.
activity. Denied that. as said by Paris
[Reverse side) Sim qs Feb 18, 1889.
papers, had been fire and smoke.
1853 Feb 26 / [LT), 5< / Singular 1853 May 31 . June I / night /
(Larvae) / In gardens of Louvain, 1853 ab Aug 20, etc. / New Comet
1852 Nov. 23 / abo midnight / q and Meteor at Lincoln.


Second Quarter 1988

Pursuit 95


bet Leo and Ursa Major I LT 23-7-1'/

24-S-g I 26-7-1' I 30-9-c.
IS53 Aug 23 I Met "Curious" I by
Lowe! Highfield House i Rec Sci


1853 Oct 31 1
CR 371746.



1 Aurora /

1853 Nov. 2/ IL T), 8-e / Rara Avis.

IS53 Aug 26 ! 7:51 p.m. i bolide /

Constantine. Algeria I C.R. 37-431.

1853 Nov 7. / 6 p.m. / Pembrokedock (London?) / luminous band in

sky I stationary 20 minutels) ! from 5
principle stars of Cassiopeia to lOla
and Kappa Ursae Majoris I LT,.Nov ..

1853 Aug 26 I Mazzow 1 me! train /

10 minutes I BA 60-17.

1853 Nov. 25 I Comet in Cassiopeiai

An Sci D 1854-360.

IS53 August 30 / Vulcan; (3) / M.

Jaennicke. of Frankrort on the Main.
had seen - not sure of date - black
point on sun.
[Reverse side) Round, well defined,
and no penumbra - next day nOI
seen. / Cosmos 20/64 / Webb, Cel.
Objs . p. 44.

1853 Dec 10 I LT - o-7-f / 4:45

p.m. / Rev. N. Straton'writes from
Aylestone Rectory for information of
comet he had seen near Venus. There
was a new telescopic comet at the

IS53 Aug 26 I Mazzow 1 met train I

10 minute I BA 60 / N.M.

IS53 Sept / Hurricane in Atlantic /

Am J. Sci 6S-I, 176.
IS53 Sept 2 I

A / Am. J. Sci

1853 Dec. 21 IGermanyl det met!

BA 60-92.
1853 Dec 27 / See Aug 7, IS52. / Star
10th mag I 4 h, 14 m / + 23 58' !
looked for, following March - had

1854 Jan 29 / Woman found. Ban- 1854 July 4 / great q. / Japan / BA

try, Ireland / Devoured by dogs - . '1 L
supposed have fallen and injured 'self IS54 July 17 / Germany / det met /
! L.T., Feb 6/5/e.
. BA '60.
IS54 Feb 7 ! IL T). IO-c ! Supposed
1854 Feb II and 12 !(It")/phe and qs /
Italy i See 1805.
1854 Feb 12 / (It) 1 Consenza / q
preceded by explosion in the sky
which was clear / See 1805.
1854 Feb. 15/ Hurricane / Gibraltar
I Field, March 4. Ill

[Reverse side) 349 / 732 / 900.

1854 Feb. 14/ Harrison, Ohio ITor"
nado / Finley's Rept.
1854 Feb 25 I Turin i 7:20 p.m. I
great met / seemed to fall from Canis
Major 1 C.R. 3S-511.


Pursuit 96

1854 July 18 / Davenport. Iowa /

Tornado! Finley's Rept.
1854 July 19 / See July 19, 1868. /
3:30 a.m. / Violent q. / Argeles.
HaUles' Pyrenees / L.T . July 28.
1854 July 20 / (night) / Sound like
that 'of an explosion and q in Vienne,
15 kilometres south of Poitiers / CR

lIi54 July 20 / 2:45 a.m. / in the

Pyrenees / shock / Timbs '55-277.
1854 Feb 26 ! Op Mars / (A I).
1854 Aug / Whirl/Roslin / L.T.,
1854 Feb. 26. 27 I Heavy rain .! Aug 25/10-a, 1854..
Hobart Town 1 Proc Roy Soc Van 1854 Aug I 1 Gottingen / met train /
Dieman's Land 1855-1. .
BA 60-16.
1854 Feb 2S / - I - 45/ Venus Inf con- IS54 Aug 51 Fr / [LT), 12-e / q /
junction with Sun i (A I).

IS53 Sept. 3 / mel 1 ab I a.m. I 1853 Dec 30 1 star 11th mag / See
Maidenhead I Mel like Slar thai ex- Aug7,1852./3h,33ml + 20051!
panded to size of moon was seen in It disappeared.
1854 March I 1 Switzerland and
Londo[n). / Times. Sepl 4-6-7-8 /
Tyrol / det met / BA '60-104.
detonaled at Cardiff and Dolgelly. .
IS54 II Sleeper Susan C. Godsey, 1854 March 1 Disap i City of
1853 Sepl / Times bound wilh Oct near Hickman, Ky. / See Oct 27, Glasgow / O'Donnell, Strange Sea
Mysteries, p. 12 / VXCE.
1853 Sepl. / (invader) I Ab 8 p.m. 1854 (?) / / Village of Swanland, near
one evening on Loch Seavig, Hull. / Proc. S. P.R., vol8/ Accord- 1854 March 7 1 [L T), 8-d / Sup. Ext /
Scotland, told by Mr T.K. Edwards ing to t:Jotes dated in the year 1854, by Devonshire.
[R'everse side) 10 Dr Phipson,' Mr John Bristow,
1854 March 16/ Paris i psychO-lUbe
"Familiar Lellers," p. 21, he in a [Reverse side) a master joiner, of like town ghosl / Owen, "Footfalls,"
boat, a luminous obj Ihat moved Manchester, who was then working in p.282.
loward him, bUI then curved away, a joiner's shop in Swan land - and
IS54 March 16 / Ap. 6, II 1 (It) !
visible 2 minutes.
told in the year 1891 - pieces of Sounds / Strangle) Sounds i Cosenza
1853 Sept 9 I [LT), 7-c / Ghst ! wood nying about the shop. No girl / See 1816.
Chelsea I 12-5-r.
IS54 March 30 / IL T), 7-d / New
1853 Sept 10 I IL T), 9-a I New Com- ISecond page) Pieces of wood cut off, Comet! Ap. I-II-d I 14-S-b.
and falling tonoor would leap up on
bench and dance among tools. Move 1854 Ap. 4 ! Fr. I Falling stars in a
IS53 Sept II -II/Comet - nebula in as if borne along on
fog I morning of 5th, odorous fog i
Great Bear I An Sci D 1854-360.
Cosmos 15-36.
[Reverse side) gently heaving waves.
1853 Sepl 30! Ascend mel I Gl. Brit. 1854 Jan 3 ! Wels / Large Met / BA 1854 Ap 5 ! dry f9g / Paris / odorous
fog / Cosmos 15/36.
69-282 .
1853 OCI 5 / See Aug 7, 1852. I Slar 1854 Jan / See Aug 7, 1852. i star 9th 1854 Ap. 16, etc. 1 City of San Salva12thmag/Oh,33m/ + 846'/ mag / 21 h, 28 m / - 12 53' / In dor destroyed by a q. / A.J. Sci
2/181277 1 Rumbling sounds from
Star not catalogued. It disappeared. following July, had disappeared.
IS53 Oct 7 I New comet near B Virgo 1854 Jan. 5 / [LT), 7-f / Aurora.
1854 Ap. 25 1 q. / Lake Ontario i
on 7th i LT, Oct 7.
1854 Jan 10 1 See Aug 7, 1852. / star
doubtful / 'Canadian Jour 2/27S.
11th mag /4 h, 26 m / + 21 24' / It
1853 Oct 18/ [LT), 7-e 1 Ext.
1854 May II / [L T), 12-b / IS'-9-f /
1853 Oct 26 / Large met, in disappeared.
Pomerania, left a spiral train that 1854 Jan 13 / Spain and Mexico /
1854 May 15 / Horbourg. near Colcontracted into a ball and then passed Sim qs / 14th - Chile / BA 'II /
[Reverse side) Sim qs, Feb 18, 1889. mar (Haul-Rhin) 1 Red rain. I Ref into a Z. / BA 60-16.
Mav 16 - '46 /
1853 Oct. 28 / Det met / Eng / stones 1854 Jan. 20 / Brandon, Ohio / Tor'IRe~erse side) See March, 18621 Ap .
nado ! Finley's Repl.
1 Hanover! BA 60-92.
IS53 Oct 28/ Dedernstraart, Holland 1854 Jan 20 / Holmes Chapel / Mac1854 May 22! (Ch) / a Vulcan /
clesfield, etc. / Athenaelum), Jan 28,
/ Metite fell. 1 LT, Nov 5-7-<1.
(various objects) / reported by Greg
1853 Oct 28 / Sound! det met / 3:57
by "a friend of his". 1 B. Assoc
p.m. / Great daylight met I Beeston / 1854 Jan 22 / Aerial soldiers / 1855/94/ (N) op I C-2~+.
Buderich / C-211 +.
BA 541414.
[BCF, p. 413)
IS53 Oct 28/ Beeston! 3:57 p.lm.) ! [BCF, p. 422:
"Phantom soldiers" that were seen 1854 June 23 / Manteno, III. / Tormet seen and det like dista[nt)
thunder I L.T., Nov 1-5-1' ! Nov at Buderich, Jan. 22, 1854 (NOles and nado / Finley's Rept.
Queries, 1-9-267).)
1854 July 2 / Fr 1 Eaux-Bonnes ! q /
IS53 Oct 29 ! Violent eruption and 1854 Jan 26 / See Aug 7, 1852. /2
a new island off coast of Formosa. ! stars 123 h, 27 m I - 4 15' / LookTrans China Branch Roy Asiatic Soc ed for in July following, had disappeared.

1854 July 18/ Weld, Maine / Sounds

allrib to distant tho storm / Rept
Smithson. Insl. 1855-282.

C.R. 39/204, 205.

1854 July 4 / Slrehla, Germany!
stone fall / ac to Wolf's Catalogue /
BA 60-92.

1854 Aug 10 / aflernoon / Bradford

Co., Pa / Tornado / Finley's Rept_
IS54 Aug 27 / 6 p.m. / Louisville,
Ky. I Tornado / Finley's Rept.
1854 Sept I / 10 a.m. / Paris / fogsulphurous odor / Cosmos 15/37.
1854 Sept 5 / Fehrbellin, Potsdam /
Metite I BA '60 /
IReverse side) Brandenburg, Prussia
/ (F).

1854 Sept 5 ! metite / Linum, near

Fehrbellin '/ rattling or hissing / no
great detonation i
IReverse side) A.J. Sci 21321140.
1854 Sept II /7 p.m. / Stirling, Scotland I Perthshire I dense mass copper
colored vapor. / no thunder / no rain
I L.T., Sept 14-12-d.
1854 Sept 22 I [L T), 9-c / 26-8-f /
29-10-1' i Tidal phe.
IS54 Sept 24 / Herefordshire /
Sounds like Cardiganshire / several
hours. 1 Proc. Eng. 19/144 / 7441
[BCF, pp. 406-409)
1854 Sept 26 / Aurora / Paris / C.R.
1854 Oct IS / Durham / Derby / 9
p.m. ! met larger than moon / BA
1854 fall / Lights like signals / Scioto
Co., Ohio / See Lum Objs.
1854 Oct 17 / IL T), 8-b / Remarkable
if true.
1854 Oct 18 I Siderite said to have
been seen by a sh'epherd to fall. /
(Fletcher) / Tabarz, near Gotha, Germany / BA 60-92.
1854 Oct 26./ See Aug 7,1852. / star
at 7 h. 30 m I + 23 54' / Looked
for later, disappeared.
1854 Oct 30 I [LT), 5-b / Rare birds.

(To be continued)

Second Quarter 1988

The Society For The Investigation of The Unexplained

Mail: SITU/PURSUIT, P.O. Box 265, Little Silver, NJ 07739-0265 USA Tel: (201) 842-5229
Robert C. Warth President; Gregory Arend, Vice-President; NancyL. Warth. Secretary
and Tre~surer; Trustees: Gre~orv Arend, Marie Cox, Nancy Warth, Robert C. Warth.
Martin Wiegler, Alb"ena Zwerver.
Dr. George A. Agogino, Distinguished Director of Anthropology Museums and
Director, Paleo-ln~lan Institute, Eastern New Mexico University (Archaeology)
Dr. Carl H. Delacato, Director, The Institute for the Rehabilitation of the Brain InJured, Morton, Pa. (Mentalogy)
Dr. Stuart W. Greenwood, Operations Manager, University Research Foundation,
University of Maryland (Aerospace Engineering)
Dr. Martin Kruskal, Program In Applied Mathematics and Computational
Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
Dr. Samuel B. McDowell, Professor of Biology, Rutgers the State University,
Newark, New Jersey (General Biology)
Dr. Vladimir Markotlc, Professor of Anthropology, Department of Archaeology,
University of Alberta, Canada (Ethnosoclology and Ethnology)
Dr. Michael A. PerSinger, Professor, Department of Psychology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada (Psychology)
Dr. Frank B. Salisbury, Plant Science Department, College of Agriculture, Utah
State University (Plant PhYSiology)
Dr. Berthold Eric Schwarz, Consultant, National Institute for Rehabilitation
Engineering, Vero Beach, Florida (Mental Sciences)
Dr. Michael D. Swords, Professor, Department of General Studies Science,
Western Michigan University (Natural Science)
Dr. Roger W. Wescott, Professor and Chairman, Department of Anthropology,
Drew University, Madison, N.J. (Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics)
Dr. A. Joseph Wralght, Chief Geographer, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey,
Washington, D.C. (Geography and Oceanography)
Dr. Robert K. Zuck, Professor and Chairman, Department of Botany, Drew University, Madison, N.J. (Botany)
Zoologist. biologist. botanist and geologist Ivan T. Sanderson, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S . in assllciation with a number of other distinguished authors, established in 1965 a "foundation" for the exposition and research of the paranormal - those "disquieting mysteries of the natural world" to which
they had devoted much of their investigative lifetimes.
As a means of persuading other professionals. and non-professionals having interests similar to
"their own. to enlist in an uncommon cause. the steering group decided to publish a newsletter. The
first issue came out in May 1967. The response, though not overwhelming, was sufficient to reassure
the founding fathers that public interest in the what, why and where of their work would indeed survive them.
"" ..
Newsletter No.2. dated March'1968, announced new plans for the Sanderson foundation: a structure larger than its architects had first envisioned was to be built upon it. the whole to be called the
SOciety for the Investigation of The Unexplained. as set forth in documents filed with the New Jersey
Secretary of State. The choice of name was prophetic. for Dr. Sanderson titled one of the last of his
two-dozen books "Investigating the Unexplained." published in 1972 and dedicated to the Society.
Another publication was issued in June 1968. but "newsletter" was now a subtitle; above it the
name PURSUIT was displayed for the first time. Vol. 1. No.4 in September 1968 ("incorporating
the fourth Society newsletter") noted that "the abbreviation SITU has now been formally adopted as
the designation of our SOciety." Issue number 4 moreover introduced the Scientific Advisory Board.
listing the names and affiliations of the advisors. Administrative matters no longer dominated the
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to investigative reporting on phenomena such as "a great armadillo (6 feet long. 3 feet high) said to
have been captured in Argentina" - the instant transportation of solid objects "from one place to
another and even through solids" - the attack on the famed University of Colorado UFO Project headed
by Dr. Edward U. Condon - and some updated information about "ringing rocks" and "stone spheres."
Thus SITU was born. and thus PURSUIT began to chronicle our Investigation of The Unexplained.

Printed in U.S.A.

ISSN 0033-4685



.. :",

IScience is the Parsait 01 the Unexplained'


Journal of SITU
Society for the
Investigation of
The Unexplained

How to glue a ribbon on itself without folding it.

See article "Tbe UFO Impact - Part m" on page 109.

Volume 21
Number 3
Whole No. 83
Third Quarter

The Society For The Investigation Of The Unexplained

Mail: SITU/PURSUIT, P.O. Box 265, Little Silver, NJ 077390265 USA Tel: (201) 8425229
SITU (pronounced sit'you) Is a Latin word meaning "place." SITU Is also an acronym referring
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Pa. .


Lyonesse: The Lost Land of Cornwall (Part I of II Parts)

by Jon D. Singer, M.A.


Shaksper's Werwolves: A Lycanthropic Reading of

King Lear and The Winter's Tale
by David E. Robson, M.A.


The UFO Impact (part III of a IV-Part Series)

by Jean-Pierre Petit, Ph.D.


Katie: Nostradamus Automatic Writing, Possible Direct Writing

and Psychic Nexus of an Illiterate (Part II of II Parts)
by Berthold E. Schwarz, M.D.


A Radio Technical Device in the Ancient World?

by R. Furduy, Ph.D.


Ancient Engimas


Some Further Considerations of the Mars-Venus Cycle and

Natural Constants in Relation to UFO Waves
by Keith L. Partain, M.Sc.




SITUations (Lizardman)


Cryptozoological Comments
by Jon E. Beckjord, M.BA ..


Letters to the Editor


The Notes of Charles Fort

Deciphered by Carl J. Pabst


What are the 6mits and potentials of

human vision?
A housewife claims she sees, with her
unaided eyes, the major moons of the
planet Jupiter when it is visible in a night
sky. Her drawings of each moon's location is confirmed repeatedly by astronomers. A person sees the electrical field
(aura) of another person and 'reads' that
person's physical condition. A man
awakes and sees a young boy sitting at
the foot of his bed. When asked what he
is doing there, the boy replies, "I live
here" and instantly vanishes. Later,
upon telling a neighbor of his experience,
he is told that a boy of that exact description died in that house three decades
But, if these are rare physical vision.s,
what about other types of sightings (and
these should, 1 imagine, be of particular
interest to Forteans)? For instance, a
person falls from a high place and unexpectedly survives. Upon recovery, he or
she tells of watching their entire life in
precise, reverse-sequence detail as it occurred. 1 asked one such survivor if she
only saw the highlights, to which she
replied, "I saw everything - every kindness, every touch, every hurt I had caused. It was all there. Everything, including
things 1 had long forgotten or wanted to
forget. Everything was there."
And what about the out-of-body experience (OBE) where people describe
events in time and place never visited
before but their descriptions verified to
the minutist detail by others. Or the vast
variety of "hallucination" and "apparation" visions that are claimed but are unverifiable?
(see 'visions' on p.


Pursuit Vol. 21, No.3, Whole No. 83 Third Quaner 1988. Copyright 1988 by The Society for the Investigation of the Unexplained. ISSN 0033-4685.
No pan of this periodical may be reproduced without the written consent of the Society. Roben C. Warth, Publisher and Editor, Nancy Wanh, Production
Editor, Manin Wiegler, Consulting Editor, Charles Berlitz, Research Editor and Oceanographic Consultant.

Third Quarter 1988

Pursuit 97

The Lost Land of CornwaU
Its Connection 110 Atlantis and Mega8th Mysteries


Dou..... Singer, M.A.

(Part I of II Parts)

SeWy Isles

"Between Land's End and Scilly Rocks

Sunk lies a town that ocean mocks."
-From Historical Records of Cornwall
by Thomas Hogg, quoted by Robert Hunt 22
In this article we will examine the evidence for Lyonesse,
the various theories about. it conc~ved by a number of
scholars and we will look at sightings of ruins beneath the sea.
I believe that there is, in fact, some evidence for Lyonesse but
its story is quite complicated and the search for clues leads.
one down a labyrinth of reports, rumors and legends.
The submerged kingdom of Lyonesse is familiaiar to
readers of Arthurian epics. It is a fabled land mentioned, for
example, by Tennyson in Idylls of the King. Yet it is odd that,
while Lyonesse is best known as the homeland of the famous
knight Sir Tristan (or Tristram), little has been written about
it. Much, indeed, has been written about the romance of
Tristan and his lady Iseult but little has been published about
the doomed knight's mysterious country.
The lost kingdom, believed located somewhere west of
Cornwall, England, was supposed to be the seat of many
cities, towns and splendid churches. In a night of horror, it
sank beneath the stormy waves of the Atlantic - a British
Atlantis. To this day, Cornish fishermen and a few tourists
occasionaily claim they have seen submerged ruins when the
waters are calm. A few even insisted that they have retrieved
artifacts from the depths. It is also claimed that two noble
families of England are descended from those lords of
Lyonesse who escaped from the surging waves of the deluge
by riding their horses to the safety of the Cornish mainland ..

The Origin of the Name "Lyonesse"

The very meaning and origin of. the name, Lyonesse, appears to be lost in mystery. The name seems Celtic but its age
and meaning are unknown. The name resembles the English
word lion but the resemblance is only coincidental. Incidentally, the spelling itself varies greatly. Some books add an extra n or change the y to an i. In several texts, the fmal e is occasionally dropped. The variety of spellings has led to the rise
of a number theories about the location of Lyonesse itself. I
use the form Lyonesse, which is one of the more popular
modern forms. It is the spelling used by O.G.S. Crawford,
founder of Antiquity magazine, and one of the first modern
investigators of the enigma of the sunken land of Tristan.
Thomas Westropp spelled the name as Lyoriesse, Lyoness
or Lennoys.36 Westropp wrote that it, " ... was never placed
on early maps and there is no evidence that it affected either
the Irish or Iberian beliefs, though it secured a place in
English literature through Tennyson and Swinburne." I
checked Swinburne's Tristram of Lyoness and learned that it
was primarily a retelling of the Tristan and Iseult love story
but added no interesting details on the lost land itself.
Pursuit 98


A.D.H. Bivar reported that the fabulous region's name

was sometimes spelled Leoneys, Leonoys, Leones, among
other variations. 4 Thomas Malory's Morte d'Arthur referred
to Lyonesse as Lyones, Lyonas or Lyonesse. Richard Carew
in 1602 wrote it as Lioness.
E. Brugger wrote in 1924' that Lyonesse could be traced to
several old French spellings such as Lohenois (or Leoneis)
and Loenois ..
A couple of investigators have traced the old medieval
(Middle English or Old French) forms of the name back to
putative Latin original forms. If the Latin forms of the name
could be accepted, one could, perhaps, pinpoint the sunken
land's location and trace not only old Roman accounts of it
but one could then locate sunken ruins. Brugger traced. the
name Lyonesse back to Loudonia or Loudonesia, an old
Latinized name of Lothian, a region of Scotland! The problem with that identification is that Lothian is still dry land
whereas Lyonesse sank beneath the sea. The theory re~ts on
complicated linguistic athletics whereby Brugger had
endeavored to twist various early forms of the name of
Lothian to get a spelling resembling the name Lyonesse. He
sidestepped the issue of the submersion of the homeland of
Tristran by picking up the country from its traditional location off Cornwall and by depositing it hundrec:Is of miles
away in the unlikely glens of Caledonia. This is a pretty good
howler of a hypothesis. .
Brittany has been suggested as another source of the name
of the sunken realm. As I noted in my article on the lost cities
of France,3' that land has its share of sunken-city tales, such
as Ker Ys, which date from the time of King Arthur or just
after. Robin Palmer traced the name back to an older Celtic
(actually Latinized Celtic) named Lugdunensis. That
awesome name means something like Fort of Lug Country,
being named after the god Lug. John Morris noted in. The
Age of Arthur that Lyonesse was in Brittany,France and its
name was derived from the Latin original, pagus Leonensis,
a place in northwest Brittany. It is still known today as Leon.
One can find a map of the latter Roman Empire in the Fourth
and Fifth centuries A.D. which has several provinces in Gaul
(France) named Lugunensis (Lugdunensis in Latin).6 Places
named after the god Lug, one of the most powerful Celtic
gods, were common in western Europe so if Lyonesse was not
in Brittany, it could have been named after Lug or Lud
(however sPelled). Indeed, it is likely that the Breton theory is
erroneous because in sever8J. versions of the epic of Tristan,
the knight goes from Lyonesse to Brittany, a fact often
downplayed by those linguistic athletes who wish to chafige

Third Quarter 1988

the traditional location of the lost realm to some other locality. In fact, Robin Palmer wrote that while an early form of
the name was Lugdunensis, she located the country of
Lyonesse off the Cornish coast. The problem of the submerged land's location is made more complex by the fact that there
was a British kingdom in Brittany called Cornouaille but it
appears that Tristan's home was in the British Isles, not

The Appearance of Lyonesse

Now that we have traced the origin of the name to a CeltoRoman form, we can discuss the appearance of the country
itself. What did it look like? Did it have towns and cities? Do
we have tales giving the names of those drowned towns?
Two early English historians whCJitscribed Lyonesse were
the Sixteenth century scholar William Camden and the Seventeenth century historian Richard Carew. I will refer to
Camden's report later but here are a few notes. 1 This is
Carew's description of Lyonesse, which he spelled Lioness,
"Lastly, the encroaching sea hath ravined from it the whole
country of Lioness, together with divers other parcels of no
little circuit; and that such a Lioness there was, these proofs
are yet remaining. The space between the Land's End and the
Isles of Scilly, being about thirty miles, to this day retaineth
the name, in Cornish Lethowsow, and carrieth continually an
equal depth of forty or sixty fathoms (a thing not usual in the
sea's proper dominion), save that at midway there liveth a
rock, which at low water discovereth his head. They term it
the Gulf, suiting thereby the other name of Scilla. tt
In the Eighteenth century, the scholar Rev. Mr. William
Borlase wrote, Of the Great Alterations which the Islands of
Scilly have undergone since the time of the Ancients (1753). I
do not have the complete text but here is a quote from O.G.S.
Crawford's article,' "The flats ... which stretch from one
island to another, are plain evidence of a former union subsisting between many many distinct islands. The flats between
Trescaw, Brehar and Samson are quite dry at a spring tide,
and men easily pass dry-shod from one island to another,
over sand-banks (where, on the shifting of the sands, walls
and ruins are frequently discovered) on which at full sea,
there are 10 and 12 feet of water!' Trescaw and Brehar are the
older names of two of the Scilly Isles - Tresco and Bryher
In 1871, Robert Hunt, Fellow of the Royal Society, summarized accounts of Lyonesse based on earlier research
dating from the Nineteenth century and earlier times. 22 He
stated, "A region of extreme fertility, we are told, once
united the Scilly Islands with We!!tern Cornwall. A people,
known as the Silures, inhabited this tract - which has been
called the Lyonesse, or sometimes Lethowsow - who were
remarkable for their industry and their piety. No less than 140
churches stood over that region, which is now a waste of
waters; and the rocks called the Seven Stones are said to mark
the place of a large city. tt
At the beginning of the Twentieth century C. Lewis Hind's
travelogue 20 discussed the mystery of Lyonesse and reported
on a converation he had with a couple of unnamed coastguardsmen at the Longships Lighthouse near Cape Cornwall.
It is curious that they, native Cornishmen, apparently knew
less about the lost land than the English visitor! Nevertheless,
they did shed some light upon the el~sive land. Hind spoke
with them saying, "They say that the lost land of Lyonesse
lies between. tt He was referring to the area of water between
Cape Cornwall and the Scillies, thirty-four-and-a-half miles
Third Quarter 1988

Hind reported, "The coastguards were dubious, 'There's

deep sea there,' said the bearded one, 'though the Seven
Stones between here and Scilly be land sure enough,' tt and
"'We call the sea out yonder the Lioness,' said the shaven
one. That sounds like Lyonesse. tt
Hind continued, "I told them that the land of Lyonesse is
supposed to have stretched from the Longships Lighthouse to
the Scilly Isles, and thence northeastward to Lizard Point,
and that some suppose that the lost Cassiterides once formed
part of Lyonesse. tt
It seems that at that point, there was a "scholarly folklore
corpus," to coin a phrase, about Lyonesse which was far
more detailed than the simple tales of the local people. The
Cassiterides were either the Greek name for Britain or else a
separate island group. I will discuss the Cassi~erides mystery
in a later monograph as they ultimately proved to be a
separate, albeit related, tale.
Archaeologist Lucille Taylor Hansen developed an
elaborate theory about Lyonesse. \8 She included a rough map
of her concept of Lyonesse, and depicted it as a huge, irregularly shaped landmass curving far to the north and west
of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly. In fact, she asserted that portions of the ancient country extended as far north as an area
northwest of the western coast of Ireland. She mentioned
several Roman accounts of the Isles of Scilly, which were called Sulina, Syllian or Silis in Latin, among other forms. The
Isles were named after the southern British tribe of Silures. It
seems that after the fall of Rome, the name was changed
from Sulina to Lyonesse. The Roman accounts dated from
the Third to the-Fourth centuries A.D.
Furthermore, Hansen insisted, evidence for Lyonesse
could be found in E.K. Bowley's book, The Fortunate Isles.
Bowley was certain that the present Scilly Isles were the
hilltops of a single, partially submerged land. The large island
had a jutting peninsula which stuck out into the Atlantic. At
its end was the city of Ys. As I noted in my report on lost
cities of France, Ys is usually located in the Bay of
Douarnenez, Brittany, France, not off Cornwall. Hansen
thOUght that some portions of the ancient landmass were still
dry land during the Bronze Age of the Second Millenium
B.C. She added that beyopd the Isles of Scilly there was a
land at the edge of the continental shelf (which was then not
submerged). On that land, which was called the Cassiterides,
was the lost city of Cassidies north of the Scillies and south of
Ireland. This larger land would be part of what I would like
to call "Greater Lyonesse. tt Cassidies would be a second city
beside the capital located at the Seven Stones in the Scillies
themselves. Unfortunately, she did not give the source of the
name Cassidies, and she did not describe that city in any
detail. This greater country existed, she said, at the time of
Atlantis and sank in stages as the sea levels increased while the
great iceflows melted.
It is clear that Lyonesse was at least thirty miles in extent
during the Dark Ages of King Arthur's time (c. 500 A.D.) but
in earlier ages, in the Bronze Age and the last Ice Age, it may
have been of much greater extent, being part of the nowsubmerged region which once connected the British Isles to
each other and to mainland Europe.

The Sunken Cities of Lyonesse

In 1871 the writer Robert Hunt wrote about the rocks and
reefs which the people of Scilly called the Seven Stones. 22 He
quoted Borlase's early story, _"The Cornish call the place
within the stones Tregva; i.e., a dwelling; and it has been
reported that windows and other stuff have been fished up,
Pursuit 99



... 4 wouhl be if the land __ ,.iMd &Or..t above
III preNnl ,_,.

......r.. ./; ( ..
"."._,' "."""If
,.' . . . )
, T'NS ... .r



TN \., f.lhoo:- ................. _





Map taken from "Lyonesse" by O.G.S. Crawford, Antiquity, Vol. 1, No.1, 1m.

and that fishermen still see the tops of houses under water."
From a single dwelling, we learn, the concept of undersea
ruins has been expanded to include evidence, including sightings, of a sunken town. In the 1920's, Crawford added further data on this mystery. He said, " ... The rocks called the
Seven Stones, seven miles west of Land's End, are said to
mark the site of a large city." Unfortunately, Crawford did
not give the name of the city.
Geoffrey Ashe, however, was Qne of the few writers who
did give the enigmatic metropolis a name, the City of Lions. I
Again, though, we have no detailed description of the city nor
did Ashe give the source of his data.
Hansen told us that off a place on Tresco Island in the
Scillies, called Cornish, people have found artifacts from the
sunken city when storms washed up antiquities onto the
beach. The city was called simply "the town" or by the more
exotic name, "city of the lions." Alas, no description of the
city was given and skeptics can argue that the flotsam was
from sunken ships, not a lost city.
Hansen did note that the esoteric City of the Lions had an
acropolis but did not cite any source nor did she reveal further details about the city's appearance. From the name, we
might guess that City of the Lions is derived either from a
mistranslation of the name Lyonesse or else, perhaps, there
were monumental sculptures of lions decorating the city's
public buildings and plazas, like the sphinxes of ancient
Egypt. It is curious that we have here the recurring number
seven which often appears in connection with sunken-city or
Pursuit 100

lost-city legends. For example, I may remind readers about

our own American legend of the lost Seven Cities of Cibola.
One wonders ifthe name is simply a description of seven large
rocks or could there be a wider implication, perhaps a
reference to such things as the Pleiades or Seven Sisters, the
star cluster which was important to ancient mariners.
One wonders why most authors do not give the names of
the sunken cities. Nevertheless, there have been a few cracks
in the vells of time and the names of a few of the lost cities of
Lyonesse have been discovered beside the phantasmal City of
Hunt gathered together a few more medieval reports of
sunken towns and cited Whitaker's Supplement to Powhele's
History 0/ Cornwall, which I have not yet been able to obtain. Whitaker accepted the idea of the lost land of Lyonesse
but was skeptical of the large number of destroyed churches.
Two medieval writers, William and Florence of Worcester
(England), claimed that Lyonesse had had 140 churches but
Whitaker said, "The number of parish churches lost is so
astonishingly great as to baffle the power of evi~ence, to
preclude the possibility of conviction. I, therefore, take upon
me to reduce the number from 140 to 40, - to cut off what
any dash of Worcester's pen niight have casually created, the
first "figure." The number of 40 is still so impressive that one
gets the idea that there was a large population on Lyonesse.
The legend of the churches must date from Worcester's time
(the Middle Ages) althOugh Christianity reached western Britain during the Third, Fourth and Fifth centuries - i.e., durThird Quarter 1988


ing the last centuries of Roman rule and the beginning of the
Dark Ages just before the Anglo-Saxon invasions; Alas,
Hunt did not give any lengthy accounts of Lyonesse
geography. He did quote an 1854 translation of The Chronicle oj Florence oj Worcester which reported that in 1099
" ... the sea overflowed the shore, destroying towns .... " The
names of the towns were not printed but it is obvious that
there were more than just the enigmatic City of Lions.
Hunt then told a folktale about an unidentified lord of
Goonhilly whose ancestor had escaped from Lyonesse on the
eve of its cataclysmic doom. Hunt told us that that nobleman
had founded Chapel Idne or the Narrow Chapel which had
been an ancient chapel in Sennen Cove village in Cornwall.
Goonhilly itself is in southwest Cornwall between Mullion
and St. Reverne, and southeast of;Mount;s Bay. Tradition
reported that this lord, " ...owned a portion of the
Lyonesse ... " and escaped from the deluge but, " ... by this
war of waters several large towns were destroyed, and an immense number of the inhabitants perished." Again, names of
the large towns are not revealed, either because records were
lost or the authors who recorded the story were simply not interested in what must have seemed like "mythical
geography." There is also at least one tale of a sunken town
in Sennen Cove, which I will refer to later on in this artiCle.
Sir Galahad, one of King Arthur's most famous knights,
was said to have come from Lyonesse. In fact, he allegedly
ruled a part of that land. Ashe reported' that Galahad's province was a district named Surluse but he did not say in what
part of the sunken realm that land was located. He did not cite
any sources of data on Surluse other than vague references to
certain Arthurian epics. Perhaps the name was derived from
Old French or Middle English. E. Brugger wrote that old
forms of the name of South Wales were Surgalois, Surgales,
Sorgales and Sugales. These sound like Surluse. Since the
Silures lived in southern Wales and since they gave their name.
to the archipelago now called the Scilly Isles, it could be that
Surluse is a garbled form of Siluria. Indeed, as we will see
later, Siluria was in fact one of the Roman forms of the name
of the Scilly Isles. It is not improbable that certain Silures colonized the islands. Perhaps Surluse was in northern Lyonesse
since people could sail quickly from southern Wales to the
legendary land's north coast.
Brugger added that there were at least two towns in
Loenois, as he spelled Lyonesse, using an Old French spelling. One was Albine while the other was Lusin or Luisin. He
was unable to identify them with any place in Cornwall or
mainland Europe. He assumed that they were mythical.
These towns are mentioned in the medieval epic called the
Prose Tristan.
Two more cities in Lyonesse were named by Joseph BEdier,
in his modern retelling of medieval tales composed by BEroul
and Gottfried von Strassburg, among other early bards.
He says Tristan's father, King Rivalen, had a castle named
Kanoel. There are no footnotes or explanations of the name
and there were no maps of Lyonesse locating it but the text
explained that it was somewhere on the seacoast. A second
castle in Lyonesse was Lidan, castle of the royal seneschal
Denis of Lidan. There, also, are no clues to its location and
descriptions of it and Kanoel are very scanty. Robin Palmer
. noted Z6 that Lyonesse had castles but did not describe its
geography in any detail. Perhaps she was referring to Lidan
and Kanoel.
Another city of Lyonesse was mentioned by a poet named
Francis Brett Young. According to A. Bivar, Young's 1944.
poem, "The Island," referred to the tombs of Tristan and

Third Quarter 1988

"Isolt" as he spelled"Iseult, in a place in Lyonesse which was

called Careol. If Careol was not the City of Lions it could be
some other place, a city where the royal necropolis was
situated. If that name is not imaginary but derived from an
old chronicle, then if Lyonesse is ever found Careol may be a
Dark Age British equivalent of King Tut's tomb. It could
have been a sacred city inhabited by the living but nearby, or
within it, were the crypts which held the sarcophagi of the
rulers of the doomed country, but that is only speculation until some fortunate archaeologist manages to discover

.. .it may here be noted that in the Scilly Islands (which the
Greeks entitled Hesperides) is a monument thus described:
"Oose to the edge of the cliff is a curious enclosure called
Troy Town, taking its name from the Troy of ancient history;
the streets of ancient Troy were so constructed that an enemy,
once within the gates, could not find his way out again. The
enclosure has an outer circle of white pebbles placed on the
turf, with an opening at one point, supposed to represent the
walls and gate of Troy. Within this there are several rows of
stones; the spaces between them represent the streets. It
presents quite a maze, and but few who enter can find their
way out again without crossing one of the boundary lines. It is
now known when or by whom it was constructed; but it has
from time to time been restored by the islanders. '"
This Troy Town is situated on Camperdizil Point.
'Lyonesse, a Handbook for the Isles of SciUy, p" 70"
from Archaic England by Harold Bailey, pub. by Chapman
and Hall, London, 1919, pp. 585-586.

Theories about Lyonesse

I have already mentioned a couple of unlikely suggestions
locating Lyonesse in Scotland and Brittany. Other researchers
link Lyonesse to Atlantis.
One of the most popular theories about Lyonesse would
have us believe that it was a Dark Age kingdom that existed
around 500 A.D. and sank in 1099, as I noted earlier. First, I
would point out the fact that an obelisk-shaped standing
stone was actually found a few years ago in Cornwall. This
standing stone bore both the names, in Dark Age Latin, of
Tristan and King Mark! Thus, even though nobody, to date, has
found an inscription with the name of King Arthur on it (at leaSt
no authentic Dark Age inscriptions bearing that monarch's
name have been unearthed despite on dubious fmd at Glastonbury) we can accept the idea that Tristan was a real person,
albeit a different individual from the medieval romances. He
was more likely a half-barbarian, half-Celtic and half-Roman
warlord, and he probably resembled the fictional hero Conan
more than the chivalrous knight of later romances. But since he
was of royal blood, he may have had some Oassical education,
and may not have been as crude as some of the barbarian invaders or lower-class natives. Perhaps he was somewhat noble in
bearing although the idea of chivalry was not invented until
some 550 or 600 years after his time.
L. Sprague de Camp reported ,0 that an ancient standing
stone was found a few miles from Fowey, Cornwall, near the
south coast. The stone was found adjacent to a highway. It
had fallen over (or had been toppled over) but local history
buffs Set it upright atop a modern plinth, to which they attached a plaque with a transliteration and translation of the
inscription on the stone's side, and can be seen today at the
intersection of Routes A3802 and B3269.
The stone is seven feel tall. One side of it is a cross while on
Pursuit 101


I 2






5 6



~ I!J ~.,

..... 5TONI! AOW














Map laken from The ArclIaeology of Cornwall and SciUy, Methuen aod Co., London, 1931.

the other side is an inscription, barely legible due to its great

age. The awesome inscription says that Drustanus, son of
Cunomorus, is buried at the spot, or rather, at the original
find-site a short distance away. I do not know if anyone has
searched for the tomb. Drustanus is an old form of the name
Tristan. Because some scholars point out that Drust or
Drustans was a Pictish name, then perhaps Tristan was a
Pict, which would be evidence for "the Lothians are
Lyonesse" theory. However, Fowey is a long way from the
Lothian region so it is possible that Tristan was named after a
Pict, possibly someone who had intermarried with his family.
Cunomorus is also known from other sources. His name is
the "Latinized" name of a Cornish king Cunomor or Cynvawr, to give the Dark Age and later Welsh forms. Cunomor
ruled territories in both southwest Britain (Cornwall and
Devon) as well as the British colony in Gaul which became
known as Brittany. Actually, he ruled parts of Brittany, not
all of it but he was one of the most powerful kings of Dark
Age Britain. He even had a fleet, the restored RomanoBritish fleet which the monarch Ambrosius Aurelianus, older
brother (or so it said in some legends) of King Uther Pendragon, had restored, or else, the fleet was a separate creation
of Cunomor's dynasty. In the inscription, Cunomorus is
named as Drustanus' father although in the epic, he was
Tristan's uncle. Cunomor was sometimes called March Cynvawr in Welsh.
The next clue can be found on the north coast of Cornwall.
Pursuit 102

A Celtic folklore expert, Sir John Rhys, reported that

Lyonesse had a nort.hem extension which stretched from,
' north Cornwall to Lundy Island. Hunt revealed that on the
north shore of Cornwall there once stood a great city called
Langarrow or Langona. It is far obscurer than Lyonesse but
its tale is similar. Since Rhys suggested that a now-sunken
land may have extended north of Cornwall and that it was
part of Lyonesse, then Langarrow may have been one of the
cities of Lyonesse. Hunt stated that Langarrow was located
between the Gannell and Perranporth. It was ruined about
before his time or around 900 A.D. The city was
very large and had seven Cia rches (here is that, recurring
number again). Its people fished, hunted, farmed and mined
metals. Mining was their chief industry. The city flourished
for a long time until a change occurred. Convicts were sent to
construct harbor works at the mouth of the Gannell River. At
first they lived outside the city but later they persuaded
their masters to let them live inside it as servants in wealthy
mansions. Intermarriage took place in still later times so that
these "eyil" ways began to spread among, the populace. God
lost patience with the "evil," fallen nation and decided to
puriish it with an "old-fashioned" deluge.
As Hunt recounted the tale, ..... the anger of the Lord fell
upon them. A. storm of unusual violence arose, and continued blowing, without intermitting its violence for one moment, for three days and nights. In that period the hills of
blown sand, extending, with few intervals, from Cran~ock to


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Perran were formed, burying the city, its churches, and its inhabitants in a common grave. To the present time those sand- .
hills stand as a monument to God's wrath; and in several
places we certainly find considerable Quantities of bleached
human bones, which are to many strong evidence of the correctness of the tradition."
If this was not just a Christian horror story, perhaps the
bones were from shipwrecks and were washed up, or else the
skeletal fragments were from prehistoric or later burials. Or
they could really be the last remains of the doomed inhabitants of the buried city. If Langarrow ever existed, it could
have been the Pompeii of Dark Age Cornwall. Hunt claimed
that in his time (c. 1871) heaps of woodashes mixed with
shells were found beneath the sand. These were, he thought,
traces of the convicts' campfires. He added that the shells
were from shellfish which the convicts ate. Legend reported
that the convicts lived in caves or huts so excavators may yet
find ruins of their dwellings and their artifacts, as well. The
Gannell River itself has been gradually mling up, ruining the
trade of a town called Crantock. Perhaps somebody should
search for the lost harbor works of Langarrow. In fact, in
1835 a buried church was found near the traditional location
of Langarrow. Local lore said that the church had been
founded by St. Pirran, a contemporary and follower of St.
Indeed, Dean and Shaw9 said that two churches of St.
Piran were submerged near Perranporth and one was excavated but they gave no details. Thus if sunken and buried
churches could be found, then we have hope that archaeologists could locate and excavate far more fascinating ruins of
buried or sunken cities in the area. One of the elusive buried
towns, which is nameless, was said by author Arthur Norway
to have been buried beneath Gwithian Sands near Gwithian
on the northeastern shore of St. Ives Bay. Now that we have
found circumstantial clues for the Dark Age land of
Lyonesse, we can move backwards in time to examine the
Roman theory.
"~eral authors such as Crawford and Hansen pointed out
the fact that the few Roman writers who mentioned the Scilly
Isles often used the Latin form of their name in the singular.
That means that the Romans knew that the Scillies were one
large island which broke up into the present archipelago as
portions sank or else there was a very large main island surrounded by smaller isles. This large island was usually called
the Siluram Insulam in Latin, which meant Silura Island, apparently named after the Silures tribe of southern Wales.
Crawford Quoted a Roman schola:r named Solinus (c. 240
A.D.) who spoke of them as being one large island. A second
Roman writer was Sulpicius Severus (c. 400 A.D.) who also
used the singular fOIm of the n~e when discussing the Scilly
Isles. Solinus, however, had more details on the inhabitants
of the isles than Severus. Crawford Quoted Solinus' passage
about the Silurians, who, at least in the Cornish archipelago,
were more primitive than the rather advanced Celts of the
British mainland. Perhaps they were mixed with more
primitive aboriginals who "had adopted the Celtic language
after Silures had arrived from Wales." To continue with
Solinus, we learn that, "A tempestuous channel separates the
island of Silura from the coast of the British tribe of the
Dumnonii. Its inhabitants even to-day (sic. - J.S.) have
primitive customs; they do not recognize money; they give
and exchange goods; they obtain the necessaries of life by
barter instead of by purchase; they worship gods and men
and women alike claim to foretell the future."
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Crawford claimed that Severus and Solinus were the only

Roman authors who mentioned the Scillies by name but
Hansen reported that the" Romans in the Third century
A.D. helped the natives build dikes which held back the encroaching sea. II Unfortunately, she did not name her source.
The Romans also banished political prisoners to the SciUies.
For example, the Emperor Maximus (c. 383-388 A.D.)
banished prisoners there. Earlier emperors sent prisoners
there in 280 A.D. One Tiberianus was sent to the islands
which were called Insula Syllian. He was a convict who lived
around 380 A.D. Hansen added that an emperor named Marcus (Marcus Aurelius? - J.S.) banished a false prophet to Insula Silis but gave neither source nor more data.
Many ancient megalithic, Iron Age and Roman Age sites as
well as Celtic sites have been found on dry land throughout
Cornwall and the Scilly Islands. Have any been found underwater? Two eminent British archaeologists named Peter
Fowler and Charles Thomas reported in 1979 that a stone cist
(grave) off the southeast coast of Bryher Island in the Scillies
yielded Romano-British artifacts dating from 75 A.D. to 350
A.D. This site dated from pagan times and may confirm
Solinus' text. The site is located on Brow Beach. Nobody has
found a sunken Roman city off the coasts of the Scilly Isles,
however, Fowler and Thomas noted that certain ruins at
Nornour in the Eastern Isles of the Scillies suggested that
there may have been a Celto-Roman temple complex whose
main site has not yet been found.
Fowler and Thomas added that the Romans knew of the
Scillies as Silina or Sillina. They thought that the isles were
one large island about the size of Guernsey of the Channel
Islands in the English Channel or Barra Island in the
Hebrides (off west Scotland). They suggested that the island's
name in Celtic was not only Silina (the Celto-Roman name)
but En-noer, meaning The Land in Old Cornish. That name
is reconstructed" from similiar sounding names in medieval
documents. Those documents date from between 1193 to
1380 and use the forms Ennor, Enor, Inoer and Enoer. St.
Mary's was then used as the name of the island of the same
name. It was first the name of a church in the town of Old
Town but then the name was given to the whole island in
place of the old Celtic name. Thomas and Fowler reported
that the old, large island had had forests of deciduous
trees as well as herds of feral Red and Roe deer. Feral pig
remains were excavated at archaeological sites. Thus the ancient land had ample supplies of timber and animals although
the landscape was rather different in appearance from the
present Scillies.
The feral herds must have been descended from animals
brought over in Celtic or Roman times and then turned wild
after ttie decline in population following the fall of Rome.
Fowler and Thomas mentioned the Roman accounts of
Solinus and Severus who referred to the Scillies in the
singular. In fact, they thOUght that the present or older Celtic
names of individual islands were originally names of regions
of the larger Silina. For instance, Breghiek was the name of
St. Martin's and Tean Islands. Goenhely (Briny Wasteland)
was the name of the Eastern Isles but now it survives as the
islet of Ganilly. Bryher, meaning "Place of HiUs" included
Bryher and Samson Islands. Tresco Island was Trescaw,
meaning "Homestead of the Elder Trees."
The Search for Lyoneise and complete bibliography will appear in
Part 1/ of this article.

Pursuit 103

A LYC8nthropic Reading
King Lear and The Winter's Tale


by David E. RobsOn,
This paper conitects werewolf folklore and the mental illness of lycanthropy 2 to readings of King Lear and The
Winter's Tale. Werewolves within the plays are identified by
legal, medical, dramatic, and etymological relationships to lycanthropy.
As Anthony Burgess put it, "the Elizabethans were a
healthily superstitious race. "] I think it is going too far to say,
as Robert Graves once did, that Shakespeare "knew and
feared'" the moon goddess but it is certainly fair to say he
knew and wasn't above using the traditions, superstitions,
and beliefs which handed themselves down to him. Sir James
Frazer asserts that Falstaff dies "between twelve and one,
e'en at the turning of the tides" because people all along the
east coast of England believed that a man could not die until
the tide was nearly out. S Significantly, they believed it well into the 19th Century and may still. The Sunday sermon seems
a more plausible origin for the belief than lunar myth, 6 but
does it really matter if people believe it? For a writer, the issue
is belief. Such beliefs carry automatic credibility (i.e., they
seem right); if they are theatrical, so much the better.
Shakespeare liked to work from sources. Perhaps it made
him feel a scholar, as well as a play botcher (to botch something once meant to mend it). People working from sources
quickly learned tp distrust their own powers of invention; instead, they gain a knack for fabrication as large "artistic"
problems are reduced to small "technical" ones. 7,S Shakesp~are was perfectly well aware of shapeshifting lore (or lycanthropy)' and wrote it into his plays if he needed a laugh. 10
This happens literally in The Winter's Tale, with the entry of
a singing werewolf - Autolycus. He was also aware of lycanthropy as a mental illness, or delusion, and wrote it announcedly into King Lear, first when Edgar was driven into
hiding (II,iii), and again when Lear chose to be "a comrade
of the wolf and owl" (II,iv). And so, gentlefolk, follow me
into the plays but beware: We be stalking werewolves there.

Contention 1: Autolycus is a werewolf

Granting a premise of magic by illusion, I' the rest is simple
sleight of hand. The Winter's Tale is a romance and therefore
carries a magical premise. 12 Northrop Frye divides romances
into'''and then' stories, in which B follows A, and 'hence'
stories, in which B is presented as a credible effect of A," so
that the story incorporates a sense of logic. J3 Sometimes, he
asserts, the effect is to reverse the action up to that point."
All Leontes' actions were headed for unrelieved tragedy, then
the action became comic "with two recognition scenes," Frye
observed.IS,16 The point at which the action changes is distincly marked at the end of Act III: Antigonus exits pursued by a
bear, Perdita is found, the Time Chorus spans sixteen years
to tell us she is alive and prospering and wooing a prince.
Pursuit 104


(The break, therefore, comes after the Time Chorus, not

Frye also observes that Shakespeare "abandons" Greene's
Pandosto at this point. 17 Shakespeare was a source man and
it seems out of character for a source man to drop one source
without having another in mind. I would suggest WYokin de
Worde's printing of William of Po/erne as a good bet for a second source. II Set in Sicily wi~h plenty of magic and
comedy, the romancehac;i been "immensely. popular"" i~ its
time. Plot elements. common to both seem to match up, particularly if one t~kes the dyptich structure as indicating a shift
from the story of Leontes to the story of Perdita: A courtier is
chased by a bear, a royal child adopted by fanners ends up
wooing royalty, the lovers flee to Sicily with some unconven- .
tional assistance. The only.thing is, William was helped by a
werewolf. Is Autolycus a werewolf?
By etymology alone, his name equals auto + lyk6s (= self
+ wolf = wolfself = werewolf). His first spoken lines announce that in his time he wore "three-pile" velvet, that he is
a thief "littered" under .Mercury, a "snapper-up of unconsidered trifles." Then what's he wearing now? Is it: the
"wolfhede" mask of Anglo-Saxon . law? If so, he is a
werewolf by legal definition, and punning on it with canine
references in his character-note speech.
Shakespeare read Ovid, so he knew of "bodies changed to
different forms," but he may have read Homer, too. Robert
Eisler20 writes:

Auto-Iykos, 'he himself a wolf,' is a synonym for

'werewolf,' 'man-wolf.' The earliest [person of this
name known to literature] is t.he Homeric Autolykos,
the grandfather of Uly'sses; ~tie master-thief"who steals
the helmet made of a boar's head. According to [the]
Odyssey the god Hermes - sometimes reputed to be
. the father of Autolykos - gives him the gifts of successful thieving and safe perjury. Accorc.Iing to Hesiod
he can make all stolen goods invisible, a feature to be
connected ~ith the wolf's ~ap or dog's cap (~ynel!) of
'invisible' Aides. [Thus] there existed, obviously, a
matriarcha.l, were-wolf genealogy for Odysseus. (Condensed) .
The circumstances Ovid relates of Autolycus' birth match
Shakespeare's well but they are, .to say the least, confusing. 2 ,
Mercury and Apollo both saw Chione, Daedalion's daughter,
~d wanted her. Mercury put the girl to sleep bymagic.and by
the time Apollo came
... to take the pleasure .
The other god had taken first. In time
A son was born, Autplycus, a schemer
With an inheritance, honestly come by,
of sheer dishonesty; the kind of fellow
To make white black, or vice versa, worthy.
Son of his father.
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But which father? Frye contends "there seems to be no deputy dramatic figure for the second action unless Apollo, working through Paulina and an offstage oracle, has theatrical
ambitions."22 There is a perfectly good one in Autolycus,
named son of Mercury and putative son of Apollo. Shakespeare knew well enough that paternity could sometimes be
Autolycus enters, singing his merry song and boasting of
his status as a thief. He wears his knavery outwardly in private, a badge of honor to his guild, or he would not tell us so.
Therefore, he wears the "woltbede" mask imposed on outlaws by Edward the Confessor. Three readings of the "wulfesheved" law are: 23 24 2S
A . wolf's head, which the English catl wulfesheved,
from the day of his outlawry.
From the time he is outlawed, he wears a wolf's head,
so that anyone may slay him.
He shall be driven away as a wolf, and chased so far as
men chase wolves farthest.
Taken together, these readings appear to constitute a
reasonably complete statute. Therefore, Autolycus is a
werewolf by legal definition.
He is also a werewolf by location, season and the technical
requirements of comic relief. Robert Burton reports lycanthropy "troubleth men most in February and is nowadays
frequent in Bohemia."26 It is "a winter's tale," February is
the tailing month of winter, and Autolycus makes his first appearance in Bohemia. Another writer 27 notes that Apulia was
once called Bohemia, which further indicates Polerne as the
second source.
Properly performed, the transformations of Autolycus occur on-stage, while the audience watches. When the Clown
enters, Autolycus pulls the mask back, leaving his costume in
place, and "grovels," whining like a whipped dog. When
next Autolycus enters he has, with the Clown's money, transformed himself to a higher type of man - a peddler. He next
exchanges garments with F10rizel and appears as a courtier,
having resumed his original form. Each transformation of
clothing changes his manner. However, as a visual reminder
to the audience of who and what he is he wears the woljhede
as a beard, and then a cloak, turned fur-side in to show he is
versipellis. I think there is something intrinsically funny about
a werewolf singing of "daffodils and doxies" and he fits right
in with the bestial rage of Leontes, Antigonus being eaten by
a bear, the dance of the Satyrs in the festival, and the wolfish
descent of Polixenes on the shepherds as he outlaws his son
and drives him away, "chased so far as men chase wolves farthest. "
Contention 2: Lear is a Iyamtbropic play
The kindest thing one can say of Regan and Goneril is that
they are viragos. The etymology of virago is "werewolf."28
On Edgar's disappearance (lI,iii), he says that he will reappear as a lunatic beggar and specifies a particular kind, a
"Turlygood." A Turlygood is a lycanthrope. Lear, the
fugitive King, is wulfesheved by definition; when he makes
his last appearance on stage, he enters howling. All of these
things, taken together, spell lycanthropy.
Robert Burton Z9 discusses "diseases of the imagination, or
injured reason" as being:
three or four in number, frenzy,.madness, melancholy,
dotage, and their kinds: hydrophobia, lycanthropia, St.
Vitus' dance, possession of devils.
Under a single subsection 10 Burton links
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Dotage, Madness, Frenzy, Hydrophobia, Lycanthropia, Chorus Sancti Viti, Ecstasis

as if they were phases of a single progressive disease. Striking
from the list canine rabies, S1. Vitus' Dance and demonic
possession, the King's psychology may be seen in proper
Elizabethan (or Jacobean) terms as progressively deteriorating from dotage to madness to frenzy to lycanthropy. Burton
defines dotage as "folly;" frenzy as "clamorous" dotage,
"continual, with waking or memory decayed;" madness as:
a vehement dotage, or raving without fever, far more
violent than melancholy, full of anger and clamour,
horrible looks, actions, gestures, troubling the patients
with far greater vehemence both of body and mind,
without all fear and sorrow, with such impetuous force
and boldness that sometimes three or four men cannot
hold them.
Lycanthropy Burton characterizes as:
wolf-madness, when men run howling about graves and
fields in the night. [Lycanthropes] lie hid all day and go
abroad in the night, howling at graves and deserts; 'they
have usually hollow eyes, scabbed legs and thighs, very
dry and pale.' (Condensed)
Edgar enters (lI,iii), announcing that he 'Escap'd the
hunt" and seeks to preserve himself in the base, poor shape
of man "brought near to beast." He will grime his face with .
filth, elf his hair in knots, blanket his loins and run naked
through the countryside howling (i.e., "with roaring voice"),
scratching his limbs with anything that will make him bleed.
"Poor Turlygood! poor Tomll' ... Edgar I nothing am," he
says, and exits. DoucelZ states:
Turlygood is the corrupted word in our language for
Turlupin. The TurlupiJiS were known at frrst as Beghords or Beghins, and brethren and sisters of the free
spirit. Their manners and appearance exhibited the
strongest indications of lunacy and distraction. The
common people alone called them Turlupins; a name
obviously connected with their wolvish howlings.
The existence of Turlupins is confirmed in French Ecclesiastical History as Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit. J] If
the etymology proposed is correct (i.e., Turlygood =
Turlupin = wer-Iupin), then a Turlygood is a werewolf or
anyway, a man suffering Iycanthropic delusions. The physical
description also seems to match that of condemned werewolves. Jacques Roulet, "The Lycanthrope of Angers"
(1598), was a feeble-minded, epileptic beggar, aged 35, accused as a werewolf after being found in some bushes J4
. half-naked, his hair unkempt, his hands smeared with
blood, and his nails clotted with shreds of human flesh.
Montague Sqmmers Jl cites Boguet, who judged many
werewolf trials, as noting that the werewolves who came
before him to be tried,
owing to their nocturnal coursings through briars and
brambles over the countryside, 'were all scratched on
the face and hands and legs, and that Pierre Gandillon
was so much disfigured in this way that he bore hardly
any resemblance to a man, and struck with horror those
who looked at him. .
Edgar did not want to be bothered. That much is obvious.
And so, it appears that he disguised himself not only as a
lunatic, but as a recognizably dangerous lycanthropic lunatic.
Edgar is wulfesheved by law, werewolfic by design.
Returning to Burton's c1assificatio~s, one may take Lear's
dotage and therefore his folly as being the self-evident psyPursuit 105

chological set-up of Act I. Bystanders at the love-trial may

well have been tempted to ask him, as Kent and Cordelia in
effect did, "Just who do you think you are?!' To answer that,
one must return to the fact that Shakespeare was a source
man. The likely main source appears to be the poem "Leir
and His Daughters" recorded in Layamon's The B'rut 36 (for
technical reasons 17 ) but it would be in character for a source
man to go farther - possibly to Geoffrey of Monmouth,
possibly to myth. Squire3B reports that the "far-off original"
of Lear was
the British sea-god 'Llyr Llediath.' The chief city of his
worship is still called after him Leichester, that is, Llyrcestre, still earlier, Caer-Llyr. (Condensed, emphasis
"Worship" = "adoration" = "love." Any crossword fan
knows this. "Abasement" is the act of adoration or worship,
especially before a diety; also, humiliation. "Whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased," says Luke 14: 11.
The set-up of abasement, prayer (in the legal sense) and
reward indicates Shakespeare conceived Lear as a priest-king
who believed himself a demi-god endowed with magical
powers, particularly over wind and rain; this is the nature of
his folly. From the moment Cordelia refuses to abase herself
in prayer of reward, his folly grows ever more'c1amorous and
continued; this is the nature of his frenzy. Lycanthropy is a
kind of madness and madness, a kind of action. Lear flits
between ordinary madness and lycanthropy from the moment
he vows to be "comrade of the wolf and owl" (JI,iv) until the
final scene, when he re-enters, howling.
Following the play on the level of action alone, one sees the
set-up: the cited line in II,iv shows the decision; Kent's discussion (III,i) suggests a strange wolfish howl softly woven in the
winds offstage. The audience discovers (III,ii) that the howling was Lear, attempting to raise a storm.]9 Brief scenes furthering the secondary intelligence plot 40 distract the audience
while Shakespeare moves the characters from place to place,
but the layouts of I1I,iv and IIlI,vi are identical: a fool, a
knave, a fugitive disguised as a lycanthrope, and a pitiable old
sorcerer (howling mad and therefore Iycanthropic) are twice
joined under one roof, on one stage, in one act. Glpucester's
first entry (III,iv) confirms Lear's madness and his iegal status
as wulfesheved;4. his second arranges the escape, concludes
the intelligence subplot, and sets up the "Wild Hunt" for
Lear. (It might be noted there are perfectly good reasons having nothing to do with symbolism41 that he recognizes neither
Kent nor Edgar.) 'Lear's next entrance'(IV,vi, ','fantastically
dressed with flowers") shows he is now a camouflaged outlaw
who believes himself a wild man. Therefore, the nature of his
madness ,is lycanthropy and his last appearance (V ,iii)
specifies that he re-enters, howling. The question is, would an
audience of Shakespear's time have recognized these
elements? I believe the answer is "Unquestionably, yes."
Eisler'] reports:
[In] the Twelfth Night pageant of 1515 produced at
Greenwich for Henry VIII 'came out of a place lyke a
wood 8 wyldemen, all apparayled in grene mosse.' In
1575 Queen Elizabeth [was received at Kenilworth by
the poet Gascoyne, who emerged] from the wood as a
'wild man,' entirely covered with ivy and carrying a little uprooted tree. [Eisler argues that the 'wyldeman's
costume' is] originally' a hunter's 'camouflage, [and
that] the 'Green Man' is known as Ie Loup Vert at
Jumieges (Normandy). The 'Green Wolf or 'Grass
Wolf is [therefore] by no means a creature of
Pursuit 106

WeIsb wolf pads from the mid-fifteen hundreds on display in the Natlonlll' Museum of Willes.

mythical imagination 'but the archetypal figure' of the

disguised outlaw and, werewolf hiding and feeding in
, the cornfields and vineyards when' the crops' are ripe.
As with Edgar's disguise, the physical descriptions of lycanthropy match those presented in the play.
That Regan and Goneril become lycanthropic is also
although their transfoqnations 'are
metaphorical (and therefore characteristic) rather than literal.
Their actions are whorish from the start because their love is
for sa,le; Cordelia's is not, so she seems pure by contrast"
(l,i). The trial-by-magic (III,vi) reverses the judgment of the
trial-by-Iove, but by' then the damage is done. Lear
characterizes his daughters as "she-foxes," 'an interesting
word which relates them by image to the maenads, or "raving
women," of Plutarch. CharacteriZed as sterile huntresses clad
in fox-pelts, the maenads sometimes took lovers, worshipped
the "Great Hunter;" ~d beat' the woods' by night in the
"Wild Hunt. "45.46 For this reason, and to show they are filthy
rich, Regan and Goneril should wear fox-fur' stoles or
something of the sort 'in their stage entrances:
That Shakespeare used this set-up is hinted ill Goneril's
chat with Oswald.{I,iii) and confirmed upon Oswald's death,
when Edgar makes a point of reading and interpreting her letter to Edmund. As soon as .Lear calls down the curse of
sterility upon her, ,she bec9mes maenad. However, for
Shakespeare, the sisters' progressive frenzy of lycanthropic
cruelty originates in their jealousy of (and hatred for) each
other. Each tries to outdo the other in c~uelty to Gloucester as
a fawning display of devotion to Edmund. Shakespeare openly shows this (and tells it). Nevertheless, he makes one fiction
fit another by casting Lear as "The Hunted," Edmund as the
"Great Hunter," and Regan and Goneril as his raving
devotees. The etymological trace is stamped, upon their
characters like DNA: virago = amazon' (without breast =
without heart) = she-fox = maenad = she-wolf (harlot) =
werewolf. -The layout is exact if one accepts etymology, antique psychology, and lycanthropy as valid bases"for literary

Third Quarter 1988

The question remains whether Shakespeare believed in
witchcraft, werewolves, and the like. Robert Graves asserts he
did; Shakespeare's own treatment of the material on stage
clearly indicates he did not. Casting Autolycus as a werewolf
(if he was so cast) was nothing more than a sight-gag designed
to raise an immediate laugh and let the audience know the
tragedy has turned to comedy. However, it is a. very good
sight gag, scholarly in character, the sort of thing one
wouldn't expect from a mere commercial hack who had little
Latin and less Greek. When Shakespeare presents Lear on the
heath raising a storm by magic, it is Lear (not Shakespeare)
who believes the storm was raised by magical means. Shakespeare has already taken pains to show the audience the storm
was in progress before Lear got there, ensuring that all the audience sees is a deluded old man who hasn't the sense to come
in out of the rain yet thinks he moves the powers of heaven
and earth at will.
Yet, even if he didn't believe in them himself and felt no
motive to educate the public by debunking them, he wasn't
above using them. Magical elements were popular motifs of
the public imagination and popular then (as now) meant boxoffice.
1. For antiquarian reasons, Kittredge's spelling of Shakespeare and

the Middle English spelling of werewolf are used in the title.

2. Lidman relates werewolf folklore to the medieval wildman (see
Mark J. Lidman, "Wild Men and Werewolves: An Investigation
into the Iconography of Lycanthropy," Journal of Popular
Culture, Fall 1976, pp. 388-397). That the mental illness of lycanthropy is still extant is demonstrated in psychiatric journals (see
Frida G. Surawicz, M.D., and Richard Banta, M.D., "Lycanthropy Revisited," Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal,
Vol. 20 No.7 (1975) pp. 537-542). Clinical observation o.f two
Iycanthropes and interpretation of MMPI data shows a syndrome of progressive mental deterioration and delusions compatible with acute schizophrenia or toxic psychosis; these are consistent with symptoms of atropine ingestion (nightshade isa weUknown ingredient of werewolf ointments). The .painting, !'A
Wild Man and Woman" by Jean Bourdichon (15th C~tury)
depicts a man and woman covered with fur standing before a
cavc with a castle in the background. Russell writes as captiori to
the reproduced painting, "The legendary wild people of medieval
forests were sometimes associated with the wild hunt and with
witchcraft (see Jeffrey B. Russell, A History of Witchcraft:
Sorcerers, Heretics, and Pagans, Thames and Hudson, Ltd.,
London, 1980, p. 49). See also Daniel 4:33 (King James Bible) for
the case of Nebuchadnezzar, who "was driveri from men, and
did eat grass as oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of
heaven, tiD his hairs were grown like eagles' feathers, and his nails
like birds' claws." Burton (Robert Burton, The Anatomy of
Melancholy, (621) categorized Nebuchadnezzar under the
heading of lycanthropy as did Eisler (see Robert Eisler, Man Into
Wolf, Philosophical Library, Inc., New York, 1952, Note 118, p.
162); Eisler suggests that Nebuchadnezzar's case took the form of
"bovine therioanthropy" and adds "there is no reason to doubt
the historicity of an access of melancholy madness in the life of
this king, since his own inscriptions politely record a four-years'
suspension of interest in public affairs."
3. Anthony Burgess, Shakespeare, Alfred A. Knopf, New York,
1970, p. 169.
4. Robert Graves, The White Goddess, Farrar, Straus and Giroux,
New York, 1948 (1975 reprint), p. 426. Graves asserts, "Shakespeare knew and feared her. One must not be misled by the playful silliness of the love passages in his early Venus and Adonis, or
by the extraordinary mythographic jumble in his Mid-Summer
Night's Dream." See note 10 herein for comment.
5. Sir .James George Frazer, The Golden Bough (abridged), The

Third Quarter 1988

MacmiUan Company, New York, 1922 (1967 reprint), p. 40.

6. Ecclesiastes 9:11 (King James Bible) ends, "but time and chance
happeneth to them all." In maritime services, it is frequently read
"time and tide."
7. In a.Master's thesis, "Two Studies in Technique," David E.
Robson, University of San Diego. Discussed tangentially in essay
"On Translating," p. 206, and essay "On Adapting," p. 2-3.
First essay written Dec. 1981, Camp Covington, Guam; second
written Oct. 1982. Thesis approved March 1983 at San Diego,
8. John Gardner, The Art of Fiction, Alfred A. Knopf, New York,
1984, also addresses technical problems indirectly, p. 15.
9. It would have been impossible to be alive at the time and not be
aware of witchcraft, of which shapeshifting is an aspect. Five
notorious Iycanthropes were tried in France and Germany within
Shakespeare's lifetime; the Peter Stubb case (1589) in Cologne
was retold as a pamphlet in Holland and translated and printed as
a pamphlet in London (1590). It may be read in The Werewolf
with only the typeface changed (see Montague Summers, The
Werewolf, BeD Publishing Company, New York, 1966 (reprint of
1933 London edition), pp. 254-259.
10. See Falstaff as Heme the Hunter in Merry Wives of Windsor; see
also the hilarious plight of therioanthropic Bottom in MidSummer Night's Dream (re: Graves' assertion, Note 3 herein, one
wonders if the expression "half-assed" existed before Bottom.)
II. Magic by iDusion is not magic at all; cj. Master's thesis, Robson,
p. 13.
12. The romance tradition is inherently magical and filled with supernatural elements.
Ii Northrop Frye, The Myth of Deliverance: Reflections on Shakespeare's Problem Comedies, University of Toronto Press,
Toronto, 1983.
14. Northrop Frye, The Myth of Deliverance, p. 4.
IS. Northrop Frye, The Myth of Deliverance, p. 31.
16. Northrop Frye, Fables oj Identity: Studies in Poetic Mythology,
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1963, "Recognition in
. The Winter's Tale," pp. 107-118.
17. Northrop Frye, The Myth of Deliverance, p. 31.
18. In Master's thesis, Robson; pp. 5-6. I confess a personal and sentimental interest in finding traces of William in The Winter's
Tale; however, Shakespeare certainly could have read it.
19. Irene Petit McKeehan", "GuillOume de Polerne: A Medieval BestSeller," PMLA, 1926. (See also Summers, The Werewolf, pp.

20. Robert Eisler, Man Into Wolf: An Anthropologicallnterpretation of Sadism, Masochism, and Lycanthropy," Philosophical
Library, New York, 1952, Note 112, "Personal Names Meaning
Wolf," pp. 142-145.
21. Ovid, M.eta.morphoses (Rolf Humphries, Tr .), Indiana University
Press, Bloomington, 1955 (i968 reprint), p. 269. Ovid avoids the
paternity problem by saying Chiorie had twins.
22. Northrop Frye, The Myth of Deliverance, p. 31.
23. Eisler, Man Into Wolf, Note 112, p. 145.
24. Eisler, Man Into Wolf, Note 112, p. 145.
25. Venetia Newall, Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Magic, The Dial
Press, New York, 1974, p. 171.
26. Robert Burton, The Ana.tomy of Melancholy, Vintage Books,
New York 1977 (originally published L~ndon 1621). It might be
noted that Shakespeare could not have used Burton as a source
- he had been dead five years when the book came out;
however, their work methods appear similar in that both
transmuted materials which had been handed down to them.
27. S.L. Bethell, The Winter's Tale: A Study, Folcroft Library, Inc.,
1970, pp. 32-34. Strongly suspect this is a reprint of a 19405 text,
in that footnote dates reference nothing later than 1944. On the
point of Bohemia's non-existent sea-coast, BetheU suggests three
possibilities: (a) it had one, c. 1270; (b) in 1481, the name was also
used of Apulia (South Italy); and (c) the sea-coast of Bohemia
was as much of a standing-joke in Shakespeare's time as an admiral of the Swiss Navy would be in ours. Bethell favors the
Pursuit 107

standing-joke theory.
28. Webster'S New World Dictionary o/the American Long
William Collins + World Publishing Co., N~ York, 1974, p.
29. Robert Burton, The Antltomy 0/ Melancholy, Pt. I, Sect. I,
Subsea. III, ""Division of Diseases of the Head," p. 139.
30. Robert Burton, The Antltomy etc. , Pt. I, Sect. I, Subsea. IV, pp.
31. Howard Staunton (181()'1874) quotes a lengthy passase from
Dekker's 0 per se 0 (1612) describing Bedlamite begars in his
The Complete lilustfflted ShaJcespetlre, Vol. III, p. 118, originally
published by Routledse, 1858-61.
32. Staunton, SluJkespeore, p. 119.
33. Webster'S New Intemationtll Dictiontlry, Second Edition. No
citation was found in Samuel Johnson's DictiORllry, the word
had also apparently slipped from the dictionary by the time
Webster'S Third International was pub6shed.
34. Russell Hope Robbins, The Encyc/ojJedili 0/ WitclrcrtQt and
Demonology. Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, 1979, p. not

3S. Montague Summers, The Werewo({. p. 116. Since this note deals
with Edgar's "transformation" it is perhaps not impertinent to
mention the most excellent and learned demonologist Jean
Bodin, who affums that the Iycanthropes he tried "washed themselves with water" when they wished to resume human form,"
which is noted as being in aood apeernent with Sprenger's statement (Malleus Ma/eflCtlrum) that a man who has been changed
into a beast loses that shape when he is bathed in running water
(Summers, p. 113). Presumably, Edgar's Utransformation"
back to human form as a peasant was accomplished by sinillar
36. Roger Sherman Loomis and Rudolph Willard, eels., Medinal
English Vent' and Prose, Appleton:Century-Crofts, Inc., New "
York, 1948, pp. 7-13.
37. The ""technical reasons" are: (I) The outline of aetion matches
well between Layamon and Shakcispeare, although Layamon presents the tale so that Coidoille committed suicide after much torture; also, Layamon pve Leir only thirty kniJhts in his train. (2)
At 433 lines, it is apProximately the right length for a
"treatment. "
38. Charles B. Squire, The Mythology 0/ the British Islands,
Gresham Pub. Co., London, 1905. (Reprinted by Bell Publishing Co., 1979, as Celtic Myth and Legend, Poetry !md
Romance), p. 270.
39. Robbins, Ent:ydopecIia 0/ WitcharQt and Demonology. as per
Note 34 herein, p. not recorded. Robbins notes two well-knoWn
instances of storm-raising in the history of witchcraft, of which
one "classic" example is the involved trial of the North Berwick
Witches (IS90). Attempting by magical means to wreck the ship
on which King James of Scotland was returning from Denmark,
the witches christened a cat Uand bound to each part of that cat
the chiefest part of a dead man and several joints of his body."
For whatever reason, the ship was apparently slowed down by
contrary winds and the witches claimed credit, for which act of
using witchcraft with regicidal intent, they were executed. Anthony Burgess notes (Note 3 herein, p. 223) that James became
much more tolerant of witchcraft when he became King of
England and, towards the end of his life, flatly denied the work-"
ings of witches and devils as "but falsehoods and delUsions."
James had, as Montilgue SlQIlIIICI'S notes (The Werewo({. p. 192)"
"a far more skeptical mind t~ is vulprly supposed" and said
on the subject of werewolves, James stated, "if anie such thing
hath bene, I take it to haue proceeded but of a naturall superabundance of MeIanc:hoIic:" (KinJ James, DaemonoIogIce, 1957).
It would appear that if James believed Iycanthropes were mad,
Shakespeare (ever mindful of the importance of pleasing important members of the audience) pve him just what he wanted. It
may be here noted that in the storm-raising scene, Le8r's howling
has U. most eerie quality," as Summers wrote of t~ voice of the
wolf (Summers, The Werewo((. p. 64).


40. uThe secondary intelligence plot:" Gloucester was set up by

Edmund as spy. By Biblical and Hammurabic injunction,
blinding was one punishment of spies. Of course, Kent was the
spy, not Gloucester; Kent was Cordelia's agent provocateur. It
would appear she gave Kent the mission of keeping Lear from
c:oming to physical harm, if possible, while encouraging him in
his delusions and stirring up" enmity against him. Every action
Kent takes from the time he enten in disguise until Lear is on the "
heath is openly provocative. His exit and Cordelia's (I,i) are identical"in character, in that they are equally classy and provocative.
If this casts suspicion on the purity of Cordelia's motives, good!
(See Note 44 herein).
41. "His daughters seek his death," says Gloucester, conflf1lling
Lear's status as wulfesJreved. Lear's madness is confmned by the
contrast presented in Gloucester's sanity. "
42. Gloucester is a sane but not imaginative man and he only sees
what he expects to see. He has no reason to expect to" see Kent,
believing him to be comfortably banished" to France with CorHe has even less reason to expect to see Edgar, knowing
that he banished him himself. Further, there is no reason to
believe he would recognize Edgar beneath all the blood and dirt
of his Iycanthropic disguise. Thus Gloucester sees what any sane
m8n would see, a lunatic only.
43. Eisler, Notes IS8 and IS9, "Green Men;" "The Green Man as "
Camoufla&ed Outlaw," Man Into Wolf, pp. 184-188.
44. "'Cordelia's Motives:" As the unmarried daughter, Cordelia
presumably was living with her father at the palace and therefore,
knew about the prospect of sustaining not only her father but 100
~niJhts. Goneril mentions the problems caused by" 100 knights
and squ~, so it appears the actual number was substantially
greater. A little arithmetic shows that (given the modest assumption of close order drill formations with columns four horses
abreast and the horses spaced at IS-foot intervals) Lear's 100
knishts" alc,me formed an armored column 400 feet long.
However, knights are not much good without a support
organization; each knight requires a squire, and each knight/squire set requires an armorer. That's 300 men and 200 horses, not
to mention remounts and draft animals. If Lear has that many
people in his train, he lik~y has such ordinary support personnel
as cooks, bowmen, and suppliers (200). The army would pick up
an additional 200 camp followers quickly; medieval armies usual" Iy did. Taken together, that's 700 people and 200 mounts, 100 remoUnts and minimum of SO draft horses, forming a column
about a quarter mile long. One can almost feel sorry" for Goneril
" on flnt sight of that column: six months each supporting them
would bankrupt both households. Given this layout it would appear Cordelia's plan was to let her father wear out his welcome,
then raise an invasion and rescue him, "seeming at last the better
for having seenied at flnt the worst. The result, if it came off,
would be the disinheritance of both her sisters, making Cordelia
heir apparent to all of England as well as France. There was no
love lost between" these three sisters. Cordelia just planned to outfox the other two.
4S. Eisler, Man Inlo Wolf, p.3S.
46. Eisler, Man Inlo Wolf, Note 98, "Solitary Animals Converted to
the GregariOus Life," pp. 109-110.


This bibliography is intended to be brief and highly specialized,
rather than complete. Interested readen may track down sources as
discussed and identified in the notes.
Burton, Robert. The Anatomy 0/ Melancholy. Random House, Vintqe. New York, 1977 (reprint of 1932 Dent edition, London;
orisinally published London, 1621).
Eisler, Robert. MQn Into Wolf: An Anlhropologicallnlerpretation
of Sadism, Masochism, and Lycanthropy. A lecture delivered at a
meeting of the Royal Society of Medicine. Philosophical Library.
New York, 19S2.
Summers, Montague. The Werewolf. Bell Publishing Company.
New York, 1966.
Third Quarter


The UFO Impact

(The ...1D01ogIcaI .........'

Part m of IV-Part Sed..

bvd_....... Petlt
A serious problem arises regarding UFOs. If they are extraterrestrial vehicles, how do they cross the fantastic distances
between us and the closest stars? Special relativity behaves
like a steel wall. For today's scientist travel faster than c, the
speed of light, is nonsense. In fact, this limitation cames from
some fundamental geometric features of space-time. The observation of light rays tangent to the planet Mercury showed
that space-time had a certain curvature due to mass content.
Then, after Einstein we considered space-time as a fourdimensional hypersurface. Any regular n-dimensional surface
has a n-dimensional local Euclidean tangent-space. This
tangent-space is similar to the ordinary tangent-plane
associated with any point of a two-dimensional sphere.
[Note: The author discusses this two-dimensional concept
further on, Ed.)
Actually, the work of Einstein, in 1915, and then the work
of Minkowski, showed that this four-dimensional tangentspace was not a simple four-dimensional Euclidean space,
where the Pythagorean theorem works, but a pseudoEuclidean space. This peculiar geometric feature introduced a
fundamental limitation to the velocity of light. If interested,
the reader will find useful material in two books, called
Everything Is Relative and The Black Hole, William "Kaufmann, editor, 95 First Street, Los Altos, California 94022,
To sum up, in our four-dimensional space-time frame of
reference, to go faster than c is as stupid as to go deeper than
the center of a sphere.
Thus, if an interstellar voyage could be managed someday,
it would imply some fundamental changes to our scientific vision.
About tbe Absolute Constancy of tbe Velocity of up.
I am presently pl1blishing a paper in the international toplevel journal The Modern Physics Letters A. titled IIAn Interpretation of the Cosmologic Model With Variable Light
Velocity." The paper has been accepted after a six-month,
hard mathematical fight with the referee.
In the classical description, all physical contants: c, velocity
of the light; G, gravity constant; h, Planck's constant; K,
dielectric constant, )1, magnetic permeability of the vacuum;
me, mass of an electron, and so on, are considered as absolute
constants in space and time. Notice that c, K and)1 are not independent. In effect, c comes from Maxwen's equations

= -JjiK"

Notice" that light rays are nothing but the characteristic

paths associated with the Maxwell equations system, describing electromagnetism, from the mathematical point of view.
All that is classical. In other words,light is an electromagnetic
Also, in classical description, the universe is expandina,
since the big bang event. But the size of galaxies and atoms do
not change. They behave like frozen regions of space (see my
book Big Bang, same editor). The radius of a black holes
does not change, either.

"f~:!';"d Qli"~r"!r 1988"


..... 1 - The borlzoll ct aDd the cIIIIracterIIde Ieqtb R(t)

The big bang theory is not perfect. As an example, if we

fonow the Einstein-de Sitter model, expansion corresponds to
a law R".. tV] where R represents a cosmic characteristic
length, say, the distance between two clusters of galaxies, and
where t is cosmological time.
Consider an element - an elementary particle - where
time is close to t =0. Suppose it produces an electromagnetic
wave at the velocity c. "This wave wiD expand as a sphere
whose radius is the "horizon" ct. It is obvious that in the
primeval state of the universe the horizon ct was smaller than
the characteristic length R (See figure 1).
Under such conditions, how could the universe be so
homogeneous, if all the particles ignored each other during
the primeval period? How could men have the same opinions
if they never talked to each other? This is the fIrSt paradox.
The second paradox is the fonowing: Before t = 700,000
years energy-matter was mainly contained in primeval
photons, born at t= 13 seconds, when mutual matter/antimatter annihilation occurred. After t = 700,000 years matter
possessed almost all the energy of universe and light was
nothing but some tenuous ash. During the first period, which
we call the radiative period, R..,t I/Z Then, after t=700,000
years the law corresponds "to R tV], since we have a twovelocity cosmos. This is surprising because our physics says
that matter and light should be equivalent, through the
E = mc 2 relationship.
The universe possesses a certain amount of additional oddities, Some galactic redshifts do not fit in, at all, with the
general pattern for" they give relative velocities, in some
clusters of galaxies, which should be larger than 10,000 kIn/so
Quasar's energy emissi~ is stiD unexplained. We fmd only"
one half the necessary mass in our galaxy, in order to prevent
its explosion due to centrifugal force, and so on.
Einstein's theory comes from a basic assumption: the
geometric feat\1res of universe and its mass content are supposed to be closely related. Geometry is due to the presence of
matter, and mass is nothing but a geometric feature. If R is a
tensor describing the geometry of the universe and T the
energy-matter tensor, then the basic field equation that Eins"
tein introduced in 1917 i s : "

Pursuit 109

where, x is the well-known Einstein constant, that has to be

"I found it was identical to the cosmic perimeter at any time,
aDd as such-the problem of the homogeneity of universe was
""' :
"solved. In addition, it was no longer necessary to search for
In books we find that x was determined by considering
some peculiar situation. Attention was focuSed on the field as - what could be the sign of the curvature of space-time (k = I,
produced by a single mass m, in steady conditions. Then"'Eins- "' -: pOsitive, k = -I, negative, or k = 0, zero curvature), for the
tein built the necessary link between the old, classical Newtomodel"gave the single solution k = -I (negative curvature).
"The universe was no longer expanding and the redshift, as
nian description and the relativistic description and he found:""
x = - 8lTa
predicted by Milne, was derived from the secular variation of
h. The:relation R ""t 2/3 had to be interpreted as a gouge reloOn the other hand the field equation must mute into the
lion and did not correspond to a radial velocity, associated to
the Doppler effect. In spite of such strong change the Hubble
classical description at short range and for a short period. As
law still exists and the age of universe remains unchanged.
such, the field equation must be "divergentless.'; It is just a
But the Planck length and time were found to vary like Rand
mathematical property. hi the small neighborhood of spacetime this mathematical property degenerates into the more
t, whereas the quantic barrier, towardnhe t = () singularity,
vanished. A fascinating" perspective for theroretical physics. "
familiar property, i.e. where energy-matter is conserved.
This zero-divergent property has a conquence: x must be
Well, what does change in this magic model?
an absolute constant. If not, all our knowledge in physics
The answer refers to the voiumetric density of energy for diswou~d just collapse, but as x is determined from a steady
tant sources like quasars. In the classical description, as
quasars fluctuate in time," we associate with them a maximum
situation, nothing obliges us to assert that c and a are
diameter cT, where T is their period of fluctuation. Then we
separate constants. The ratio a/c 2 must be an absolute constant - that is all. This is the aspect of general relativity that I
compare their volumetric power density to the equivalent for
normal galaxies supposed not to "expand with the universe.
enhanced in my recent paper in Modern Physics Letters A.
Then we find that the quasar, as large as a star, produces as
Many authors have tried to consider a, m, & h as variable
in time. Milne (1932) supposed that a and h could vary. He
" much energy a whole galaxy.
denied the expansion process and suggested the red shift, Le.,
In the new model "I presented, c ~as larger when the light
was emitted" and the galaxies were smaller. Combining the
the variation of the light frequency v in time coUId be due to
two effects I found that the volumetric power density for distant
some secular variation for h, and he suggested h "" t. In addition he supposed the energy hv would remain constant in
quasars (z = 3)" should be 1000 times smaller. Interesting, no?
This work is very new. I passed the first barrier of the
referee's criticisms. Now this will have to be criticized by the
Hoyle suggested a secular variation of a and mass content
international scientific community. Perhaps somebody will
p. To fulfill the divergentiess condition" of the field equation he
had to introduce some source term in it, which corresponded
find some error in the structure - then again, perhaps not.
to continuous creation of matter. Later, in "1958, he published
But even in the first case, and my French colleagues agree,
a paper with Narlikar in which he suggested that the'variation
something will remain, because it could not be a naive matheof a could explain the expansion of the "earth and the initial
matical mistake.
aondwama breakage into parts: "the actual continents. ""
Advanced Cosmology
Dirac tried also to move the constants a and h, but, sur-"
prisingly, nobody touched c . '
The reader will say, "OK, but what is the connection with
the UFOs?" I will reply that this work started precisely from
In my recent paper I have presented a model in which all
it. "
the "constants can change with respect to cosmic tim"e. FollowI will have to "now give some concepts that, perhaps, will
ing Milne I tried to eliminate all possible witnesses of the expossibly seem difficult for the nonspecialist.
pansion. As such, I "supposed that the Compton length
In 1915 Albert Einstein developed, in a very brilliant and
(associated to panicles), the Scharzschild"length (associated to
elegant way, his theory of special relativity. Then, he inthe general relativity" and black" holes), the Jeans length"
troduced his field equation. In 1917 his cosmic model was not
(associated to stellar systems) followed the" variation of R in
so brilliant. In effect, Einstein did not know that the universe
time. Then the particles, the black holes and the galaxies exis a nonsteady object. Following this antic vision he" tried to
pimded with the universe. As a consequence of this geometric
build a steady universe. But the field equation did not work,
assumption I found that all the energies -:- radiative, gravitathe only solution" being a universe, as pointed out Sitter,
tional, and so on - were conserved. For example mc 2 was
conserved, but not m, alone!
occupied by vacuum! It was Ugly... ""
Then ,Einstein modified the field equation (as Hoyle did
The classical model saved mass, not energy: In this new
some years later). He introduced the so-called cosmologic
model the energy content was saved, not the masses. The
constant A. '
dependence between the constants and R can be given as the
Nobody knew what this strange constant could describe.
But" later, in 1921 the Russian .. Friedman, considered a
nonsteady universe and built a model from the field equati"on,
Any cosmic velocity V ~~ i/Rlil
without any need of this cosmological constant. Einstein was
very disappointed and said,
h" R312,,,, t (notice we refined Milne's old idea).
R s~{2!3 "
-"If I had known that the universe was nonsteady' I
would have found it before Friedman." "
found a single "law describing both matter and light
In '1918 "scien~ists tried to' introduce electromagnetic
worlds. It was no longer necessary to assume that the matter
features in the four-dimensional model. But soon it appeared
pressure was zero (dust universe). When I comp.uted the
horizon from the following integral:
that the c1assic?l description could not aCcept both gravitation
and electromagncli ~m. Snmt> 1I('~1i1 ional degree of freedom
Horizon =
c(t)dt = R(t)



""Pursuit 110

Third Quarter 1988





Fig. 1 - The two-dimensional spherical space-time model

would have to be added. Also, in 1918 mathematician Herman Weyl supposed that length could depend on local electromagnetic energy content. An electromagnetic energy concentration would alternate lengths, but not angles. But Einstein
found some serious objections with this theory. He showed
that two atomic clocks working in two separate regions of
wiiverse with different values of electrical potential would differ more and more in time. In particular, this would cause an
enlargement of the spectral lines, which should be observable.
In 1919 Kaluza introduced a fifth dimension and showed
that the Maxwell equations could then take place in the
model. In addition Klein showed that this five-dimensional
frame of reference produced quantic features, through the
Klein-Gordon equation, which is a different formulation of
the SchrHdinger equation.
Time passed. Seventy years later, people rediscovered
Kaluza's work. This gave nothing but the superstring theory
which refers to a ten-dimensional description. Today's
fashion consists of adding new dimensions to the universe.
My personal opinion is that the method is good, but not the
interpretation of these additional dimensions. In papers, the
scientists say that they are too small to be measured (their
order of magnitude is always found like the Planck length,
i.e. 10- 33 cm). I think, among the ten dimensions, four are
measurable through a metric operation, the other six are not.
Take, for example, the fifth dimension as introduced by
Kaluza. Call XO the "chronological variable," identified as ct
in the classical, Xl, xZ, x3 the space markers and x' as the fifth
dimension. Kaluza and Klein showed that if x' is changed into
- x', matter and antimater are interchanged, and, similarly
the wave function 'I' of quantum mechanics is replaced by its
conjugated form '1'*. I say, "if we find a physical process that
interchanges 'I' and '1'* for a set of particles, these particles
will be transferred to the antipodal part of universe, and
similarly, the antipodal matter will take their place."
To visualize, take a sphere. For any region of the sphere,
find its antipodal region. For France it would correspond to
New Caledonia. The image of the eXchange, as suggested
before, would correspond to an abrupt exchange between
France and New Caledonia. As a consequence all the atopls would behave in this new frame as antimatter,
. without the possibility of meeting one another.
Well, a description of the whole theory would deserve a
Third Quarter 1988

book. In addition I would have to translate quite sophisticated mathematical concepts into ordinary language, which is
not very easy. I The central idea is that the universe has a complex geometric structure. The following will give a didactic
image of such a structure. Take a closed two-dimensional
space-time, represented as a sphere. The north pole represents
the big bang singularity. The equator represents the maximum extension configuration. Then, this universe would collapse towards a second singularity, the big crush.
Consider a parallel of this as a sphere with a ribbon, on
which we indicate the arrow of time, to represent a certain
neighbor, duration, in time .. It Corresponds to a certain state
of this closed universe, at a distance t from the big bang. Cut
this ribbon. The following, figures 3-a to 3-f, show that this
ribbon can be glued on itself without folding it, if its selfcrossing is authorized. If we consider two associated regions
of this spacetime, each facing the other, we see that their arrows of time are opposite. If we draw a letter like R or G we
see that the corresponding letter on the "other" fold is like in
a mirror. We would then say these two are enant;omorphic.
It is a rather good model to illustrate the geometric duality
between matter and antimatter. In effect, if we reverse all the
characteristic quantities of an object (Le., matter, charge,
time, space), it becomes an "anti-object."
As you probably know, we do not know where the cosmological antimatter has gone. Normally, after the t = 13 second
mutual annihilation, one should find some equivalent quantity of antimatter, somewhere. But computation ensures that
the cosmic mixture matter-antimater, under such conditions,
should have encountered a complete annihilation.
Andrei Sakharov suggested in 1979 that two universes
could exist, whose arrows of time should be in opposition.
They would be connected by the big-bang singularity, which
is a good answer to the eternal question "How was the
universe before t =01"
Hawking suggested in 1987 that the arrow of time could be
reversed after the maximum extension. As such, the universe
could live its own events backwards. In 1977 I published two
papers at the French Academy of Science of Paris, entitled:
-Univers .enantiomorphes it temps propres opposes .
-Univers en interaction avec leur image dans Ie miroir du
Pursuit 111




Fig. J - How to glue

Pursuit 112

ribbon on itself without folding it.

.Third Quarter 1988

Fig. 4 -.Enantiomorphic relation (Twin Universes).

I suggested the Universe could be "the two-fold cover of a

four-dimensional projective space." In other words it would
correspond to the image of a "four-dimensional ribbon,"
glued on itself. The black hole would then be some sort of
button hole.
Now we see what could be the significance of the fifth
dimension x', as introduced by Kaluza in 1919. It would be
perpendicular to the four-dimensional space-time hypersurface.
The universe, as a whole, evolves from a strange divorce. At
the time t = 0 it is "glued on itself" along a "single-sided"
four-dimensional hypersurface. Time does not flow. It is impossible to define any orientation. Then, the symmetry breakage occurs. The arrow of time appears, and, at the same time,
the concept of space orientation gets a real meaning. The
strange configuration of this space-time suggests two twin universes with opposite time arrows. But, in fact, there is only
one. If one could turn this universe around, he would come
back to his starting point with a reversed arrow of time, an
idea which is somewhat difficult to grasp. Fortunately, in the
model this is not possible for, at any epoch, this journey takes
a time equal to the age of universe. In other words, as
presented before, the horizon (the path associated to the
fastest vehicle: the photon) is always as large as the perimeter
of the universe. You cannot phone yourself, or light your
path with a lamp.
The twin appearance mirage creates the concept of antimatter. But, following this description, antimatter is strictly
identical to matter. They are just two different images of a
same object.
The parity is violated. If it was not, time would riot flow.
The violation of the parity principle is the price to pay ~o get
time's arrow.
As I said before, I think that the accumulation of electromagnetic energy along a border (a two-dimensional border
for a three-dimensional container) would create surgery in
space-time. Figures 5-a to 5-d illustrates this topological.
space-time surgery. Here we use two-dimensional contents
associated to a one-dimensional border (a circle). As you can
see the contents of two circles are exchanged. In the same
way, I think that when a. UFO "dematerializes," the content
of a particular border along which a tremendous amount of
electromagnetic energy is focused, emitted by the wall, is exchanged with the associated content of the antipodal region
of space-time.
In my previous paper I evocated the shock-wave
phenomenon as a catastrophy (in the mathematic meaning of
Third Quarter 1988

the word, as introduced by the French mathematician Rene

Thom, Field Medal). A shock wave was described as an effect
of nonlinear acoustics, which caused the concentration of
sonic energy and modified the value of the velocity of sound.
Similarly, in a material medium, nonlinear optical phenomena occur, with some change of the local value of light
velocity, but in the classical theory one considers that the
velocity of light is an absolute constant. I consider, personally, as an extension of Weyl's theory, that the concentration of
electromagnetic energy should modify the value of the velocity of light in a vacuum. This would generate an unstable
energetical situation, because this variation of c would reinforce the energy-absorption phenomena, which would cause
at least a surgical change between the two conjugated folds of
Why UFOs Don't Need a Propellar for Interstellar Journeys
Let us return to this didactic image of an expanding
universe. This is more familiar to our brain than a "gauge
variation." We could associate the universe to a sphere made
of metal. Imagine that "God" warms the sphere and causes a
dilatation of it. If the energy distribution is uniform the
radius of curvature would be the same in every point. But,
suppose God warms just one place, and later some place else.
The dilatation process becomes quite irregular.
A person who lives in a point of this spheroid universe is informed about a small part of space. The gauge effect will
make her unable to observe directly this extracosmological
oscillation. Suppose the universe expands, and you want to
measure this expansion, but unfortunately your scale expands, too! So you can't. This relative expansion will be observed if and only if a hyperspace transfer is performed from
a region to the corresponding antipodal region.
Introduce another image. (See figure 6.) Archibald Higgins
(who is the central character of my books) looks at a mirror.
His image seems to be compressed or elapsed, but he does not
feel any change in his own body. Inversely, if the image was
the real Archibald Higgins, it would feel the same on the
other side of the mirror.
In fact, the important object is the geometric structure called, mirror. The big bang is nothing, as suggested by Richard
Feynman, other than a hypersurface of zero extension. I
introduced in 1977, in two reports, the concept of a spacetime mirror. Andrei Sakharov focused on the time-mirror
concept, but in my mind, introducing the enantiomorphic
relation between these two "twin universes," this should be a
"space-time mirror."
Pursuit 113




Fig. 5 ....:... Space-time SIIrKery.

Fig. 6 - Relative fluctuaooa due to the osdIIating mirror.

Pursuit 114

Third Quarter 1988




AD drawings In this article were done by the author.

FIg. 7

Sakharov suggested the two folds of space-time could be

linked by the big bang singularity. In 1977 I suggested that the
black holes could be another kind of a link. In fact, they are
"CPT invariant" (C for the charges, P for parity and T for
time). Thus, a vehicle that would pass through a ten thousand
solar mass black hole would appear "on the other side" with
a reversed arrc;>w of time (therefore, this is a black hole on this
side, too!).
The next picture shows, with a two-dimensional didactic
model, how the image and the object forms a single reality.
When an octopus looks through a single-sided mirror the
world of the object and the world of the image are identical.
Suppose the antipodal portion of space associated with the
neighbor of the Earth would be "compressed," due to
natural extracosmological oscillations. If our vehicle is
transferred, its atoms would be larger than the atoms of the
antipodal region. This would mean that some energy would
have been lost during transfer. You possibly know that
energy is nothing than the measurement of the object's
length. Following Einstein's theory, if an object gains energy,
it is shortened. If it is enlarged, it loses energy. The conservation of energy is a basic principle in my model, included in
the hyperspace transfer. Thus, the atoms of the "transferred
vehicle will materialize in the twin-fold with relativistic
velocities. To recover 50010 of the lost energy, when appearing
in a two-times compressed twin universe, you need to cruise

Third Quarter 1988

at 86010 of the velocity of the light which corresponds to this

fold. Notice that the relation Rc 2 =constant gives a higher
velocity in a "smaller" twin-fold. That is, for hyperspace,
cruises seem to correspond to a velocity higher than light

velocity.ln./act, nobody can overstep the geometric bound c,

co~pond;ng to the fold he lives in.
Cosmic instability produces these relative gauge fluctuations between adjacent space-time folds. I think that such
phenomena should alternate the magnetic field and the electric charge of black holes. That, I am trying to show in my
present work.
Travel is possible only if the cosmic conditions are suitable.
UFOs must wait for these conditions as sailors awaiting the
good wind. This is my interpretation for the wave phenomena
of UFO sightings.
I am presently writing a book about all that. While writing
this paper I realize how difficult it is to transform the
mathematical concepts into today's words and to convert the
Kaluza-Klein relativistic frame of reference into Moebius ribbon, and so on. I hope the reader will not be left completely
confused by this.
My next paper [part IV] will be devoted to the sociological aspects of the UFO problem.

Pursuit 115

Katie: Nostradamus Automatic Writing,

Possible Direct Writing and Psychic Nexus
of an Illiterate (Part II)
bv 8-.01d E. Schwan, M.D.

Example 9: January 21 or 23,1988.

When I arrived at the office, at 8:40 a.m., was immediately aware of changes in the research room. There were
massive amounts of' gold' Covering the exteriors of both sealed
specimen bottles. The three gold flecks on the aortic rings
capped bottle were the same. There was a solitary gold fleck
on the external surface of one of the bovine aortic rings in a
different unsealed jar of mixed human and bovine rings
which were placed on top of the mini-lab. There was also a
fleck of gold on a white sheet of paper inside the locked, sealed mini-lab. The one-on-top-of-the-other position of the aortic rings was unchanged, but the tunica externa of one of the
human aortic rings was partially separated. The double
pagoda-like structure was unchanged. (See Figures 8-13).
ID. a room crowded with various experimental props, the
following changes were noted: a cigarette on top of the minilab was in a vertical position with a styrofoam ball balanced
on top. A blank sheet of plain eight and one-half by eleven inches white paper on a clip board and accompanying black
Flair soft-tipped pen, placed on a chair by the bedside, was
now filled with ancient French writing; and the plastic capped
pen was completely cut in the middle with the exposure of one
centimeter of black felt-like wick. The previously disarranged
Cox Masonite rings on a nearby leather topped end table now
had the rings one on top of the other with a drug company ornamental acrylic paper weight, with beans transfixed inside,
placed in the center of the stacked rings. Two teaspoons were
bent and intertwined. One was curled on itself, including partial bending of the bowl. There was no change in the PrattKulagina-Cox Coffeebox. I
On a fonnica-topped table, two 1.5 volt AA batteries, with
the positive poles in apposition, were balanced one on top of
the other. As a control, this feat tOQk several minutes to accomplish. Four boxes of thirty-five millimeter film were
pyramided one on top of each other and the conjoint stem of
a pair of forceps was bent seventy-fiv~ degrees. No other
changes were noted. The specimens were vid~otaped and
photographed in situ. Katie and her daughter left the ,office at
11:00 a.m. Daily inspections and videotaping of the
specimens revealed no subsequent changes.
On February 8, 1988, a ,specimen of "gold" which
measured approximately 5.5 by 2.0 centimeters, was removed
with forceps from the side of the aortic rings bottle and put in
a plastic envelope and sent to William Edward Cox of the
SORRAT research project, Rolla" Missouri" for physicalchemical analysis. It is hoped that the colored water and double pagoda can also be analyzed through physical-chemical
and biological techniques. It would be interesting to see the
microscopic anatomy of the double pagoda as well as to speculate on the possibility of DNN fingerprinting of the specimen, and comparison with other ,known sources.
These tumultuous events were presaged by Katie's comparable mood swings. From tbe nadir of a depression with
dangerous potentials for her life and health to euphoria and
personal emancipation, the paranormal concomitants crested
in tandem with Katie's exhilaration. She had made major
,decision$ and, as she proclaimed her psychic ode to joy, they
Pursuit 116

were reinforced by the spectacular subjective reappearance of

the entities and, in particular, the late, genial Waldo,l whom
Katie benefited in his life at his time of despair and, now,
whom she felt was coming to her rescue at the time of her
crisis. The following was found on the bedside chair the
morning of January 22nd:
Par fen du ciel
presque aduste,
L 'wrne menace
encore ceux alien,
vexee Sardaigne pa
la Punique faste,
Apres que lairra son
By fire from the sky nearly burned, the urn still
mena~es those alien, Sardinia is vexed by the
magnificence or ostentatious luxury of Carthage.
Afterwards a poem will be recited about Carthage.
The meaning of the translation is obscure, but it is consonate with the dark and foreboding previous messages that
might have been symbolic of Katie's personal quandry. This
second message, within hours of the first one which was
videotaped in statu nascendi could be congruous in its emotional tone with Katie's recent (still dormant) despair and, as
symbolized in the translated comparison of Sardinia and Carthage, Katie was infuriated by an older, jealous sister. The
flurry of psychic activity might have coincided with her
clinical flight into health, and her ecstasy. To' what extent, if
any, these events were influenced by possible heteropsychic
factors cannot be determined, but the possibility should not
be ignored. Although, it is impossible to prove discarnate influence, whether from Nost~adamus, Waldo, UFO entities,
or others, these explanations cannot be disproved. Katie accepts the simple, str~ight-forward claims of their origins at
their face value. This attitude is not unlike the dynamics with
the split-off entitie~ in multiple personality disorder. Yet she
has these spectacular paranormal abilities about which she is
never fanatical. She has no desire to convince others of her
viewpoint or impress them with her feats. She has amnesia for
much of what happens to her in the trance and she is so busy
with her family and occupation that she apparently seldom
thinks of these,matters when working.
, References and Notes
I. Richards, John Thomas: SORRA T: A History of the Niehardt
Psychokinesis Experiments, 1961-1981. The Scarecrow Press,
Inc.,'Metuchen, NJ, and London, 1982.
2. Merz, Beverly: "DNA Fingerprints Come to Court in Medical
News and Perspectives," Journal of the American Medical
Association, April IS, 1988 - Vol. 259, No, IS, 2193-2194.
3. On April 13, 1988, at .. :15 a.m" within twenty-four hours of
writing this material on Katie which pertained to the first editing of
the Waldo videotapes since his death, I was in a long line at the
post office and the lady in front of me turned around, introduced
herself, and asked if I ,was the doctor who had read the Waldo
eulogy at the funeral. She ,was a friend and admirer of Waldo and
appreciated' his complex, thoughtful, and different self-written
eulogy. '

Third Quarter 1988

Figure 11. Ooseup of epoxy sealed botde prepared and pbotographed January 17, 1985.

Figure 9. William Edward Cox's locked, sealed mini-lab: gilded

specimen botdes several hours later; gold speck on paper inside minilab.

Figure ll. Ooseup of botde with external gold

several bours after initiation of effects.

Figure 10. Closeup of botde with external gold (prepared December


Third Quarter 1988

FIgure 13. Ooseup of pagoda.

Pursuit 117

"5\x" Icc


Llr~ ApJr dO/~{ltfJ)

PCl \" cl ~ l) rd/llT


~J? JI'
D Cl \"


II u

F,.OoI"\ "



Flgure 14. Katie's multiple witnessed automatic writing"'" being

videotaped (Febniary 3, 1918).

4. For his translation, George Andrews assumed that "fen" should

be "feu," that "wrne" should be "urne," that "pa" should be
"par," and "so" should be "sa" or "Son." He wrote, "in the
Middle Ages, the primary meaning of 'urn' was a funerary urn
containing the ashes of the deceased. The word 'alien' does not
exist as such in modem French, but there are many words based
upon it, all referring to mental iUness. Sardinia is vexed by the
magnificence or ostentatious luxury of Carthage (punique refers
to ancient Carthage, modem North Africa); 'faste' is the sort of
royal display customary in the courts of kings. The meaning of the
last phrase is obscure:'Apres que lairra son Punique.' Apres is
'after.' The only word I could find that 'lairra' might be derived
from is 'lai' which, in Medieval times, referred to a type of narrative or lyrical poetry, such as was sung by the troubadors. So the
meaning might be 'after a poem will ~ written or recited or sung
about Carthage (North Africa).''' He continued: "I am particularly intrigued by the reference to 'ceux alien,' IiteralIy 'those
alien,' in juxtaposition with fire from the sky and an urn containing funeral ashes." It is no surprise that Mr. Andrews would be intrigued by this verse, for he is the author of Extra-Terrestrials
Among Us (Llewellyn Publications, PO Box 64383, St. Paul, Min" nesota 55164-0383, U.S.A.) and is an authority on UFOs and a
leading exponent of the extra-terrestrial hypothesis.

Example 10: Febmary 3, 1_


Katie collapsed at her home and was rushed in"

ambulance to the emergency room at the hospital with uterine
hemorrhaging on February 2, 1988. When she came for her
session the next day, February 3, 1988, she appeared sallow
and fatigued. Her skin was warm and moist. She arrived at
noon with "gold" on her abdomen~ The stigmatization of a
Viking ship was forming on her abdomen. She quickly
entered a trance and was given a clipboard, paper and pen.
She wrote eight words in apparent old French.
Pursuit 118

5\x IJ~0- del{_q.<!.!

:if l~fVfJ)

C/ t: lJ rdJLIT
-\-". ~ ... ii\"



Flpre 15. WDHam Heary Belk, Ir. 's IIDROtatiORS.

(Both dnwiDp reduced III size


Six la" deubut

ate Apri darnns
par devrant
Six th~ beginning quote to act from the front. I
Two of the guests, Henry Belk, Jr., the father, who spoke
French and his son, Henry, III; were from Charlotte, North
Carolina. Katie might have affected the son's battery driven
transistorized wrist watch because he said the crystal digit
"should stop at twelve but it goes back to four" inst~d. [The
watch has been twenty seconds fast ever since.] Katie drew a
mask which Mr. Belk compared to a ceremonial mask in his
home. She then drew a rectangle and put a U in the center
with the numbers twelve and four on the sides and two and
two above and below (Figures 14, 15). At the end of the session, the son was surprised, for he suddenly recalled his gun
box and the combination to the lock which was twelve, two
and twenty four (12... 2 ... 24). When he returned home to
Charlotte, he was surprised to discover that the U or lock
latch and rivets to the gun box and lock were missing and"
there were no signs of a break-in and entry into his apartment, and the contents of the gun box were apparently intact.
[He later sent confirmatory photographs of this changed box
Figure 16.] Katie drew thr~ large, monument-like "stones
about which Henry Jr., the father, later wrote as follows:
"Some invisible person in your office knew (about) my trip to
Egypt before I did it ...The three large stones are the three
Giza pyramids." Katie also "treated" the son's painful
muscles in the region of his left hip. When I next spoke to
Henry Belk and" his son on the telephone, on May 19, 1988,
they said that shortly after leaving the session, Henry III had
Third Quarter 1988

Pe.I- dl.L


. ~che,
I CJ n 9 5,' e. c../e. .5 e I"Cl

tfi) TrOut/C.,

cl e

figure 16. Henry BeIk,

m's gun boll with missing latch and lock.

noticed swelling twice normal in his right (non-wrist-watchextremity) elbow. (Henry Ill, is right-handed.) This subsided
when he was subsequently "treated" by Alex Orbito, the
Philippine psychic "healer" friend of his father's.
Katie had once met the father more than two years ago.
She and I had no advance knowledge of the Belks coming to
Florida and their attendance at the session. Henry III
videotaped Katie's writings with my upright Panasonic PK
958 TV camera while I used the portable Panasonic Camcorder Omni Movie PV 320 simultaneously for much of the
action. There were two other witnesses, a man whose wife
had once attended when Katie was at her best, and his wife's
nephew, who was visiting from England. The uncle did not
know of his nephew's keen interest in psi or about his
nephew's past experiences with an alleged haunting. Katie did
not know anything about this or the guests. When Katie was
departing, the stigmatization had nearly faded and Henry III
noticed "gold" forming on her face.
Mr. Belk and I have been friends for years and he has had a
life-long interest in psi. He knew Jacques Romano and
pioneered the "discovery" and scientific study of the Philippine psychic surgeons. He told us how he had recently met a
dermatologist who was involved with psycho-immunology,
an area of expertise that would be most applicable to the
study of stigmatization and the "gold" materialization.
Within twenty-four hours of her session, Katie was emotionally whipsawed from the panic of her collapse and being
rushed to the hospital, to the reprieve from emergency
surgery. Although split and tired, she came to the session
and, for the first time before four witnesses and myself, she
wrote in old French while being videotaped by two cameras.
Some of the participants were highly interested and empathetic and experienced with psi themselves. One might
speculate how these converging attitudes might have played a
role in Katie's obtaining the "energy" to produce her writing,
"gold," stigmatization and possible telekinetic watch effects.
If there were elements of possible precognition,as Mr. Belk
wondered in reference to his trip to Egypt, more information
would be desirable.
References and Notes
1. In his translation of the scrambled fragment, George Andrews of-

fered "standing" or "beginning" for "deubut" and ,iquote" or

"take an example" for "cite;" he suggested to "act" (agir) for "a
pir" or "after" if it was "apres." He questioned the meaning of
domns and felt that "par devrant" was probably "par devant"
which meant "from the front."
With such limited information, it is almost impossible to offer
any remotely responsible conjecture for the meaning of this
fragmented verse.
Third Quarter 1988




Figure 17. Katie's multiple witnessed o~ _French automatic writing

(February 25, 1988). [Above note reduced In size.]

Example 11: February 25, 1988

The noon session of February 25, 1988, was attended by
eight people, including myself. Two couples were retirees.
One of the women had once developed "gold" flecks on her
forehead during a previous session with Katie. The daughter
of one of the couples was a surprise guest. She lived in Paris
and was married to a Frenchman. The other two participants
were professional security officers, a man and a woman who
had attended previous office sessions with Katie and who had
also once been involved with Katie in successfully obtaining
clues to crimes. Katie had hardly arrived, when I performed
the customary physical examination I and noticed how her
convenience-store styrofoam cup of coffee already had gold
floating on the surface. Almost simultaneously with this, and
while being videotaped, Katie went into a deeper trance and
proceeded with automatic writing to partially fill a page with
" old French (Figure 17). While writing, she softly said, "[ just
keep seeing the letters [in her mind's eye]."
Perdu Trouve, cache
de si long siecl~ sera
Pasteur demi honore
Aina qusla la
Lost, found, hidden
" For such long centuries will be
The half-honored shepherd
Thus, until the, Z
The young Parisian woman unsuccessfully attempted to
carry on a conversa1ion in French with the alleged entity Nostradamus. For the past few weeks, Katie had shown remarkable improvement in her physical, mental and emotional
status. She was regaining her customary strength, energy,
optimistic attitude and confidence. She looked forward to the
sessions but she never knew what would happen next or what
she could reasonably expect. This was the third time that
Katie was videotaped while writing in old French and the second time that there were many witnesses beyond myself or
her family.
The fragmentary verse would seem to be applicable to
Nostradamus and perhaps, with liberties of extrapolation, it
could also symbolize what Katie does or tries to do. [n some
ways, she might be a lone beacon of light in a revived method
of study which is centered upon her mediumship. [ have attempted to adjust clinical and laboratory methods to what she
does rather than trying to fit her into a procrustean bed of
sometimes sterile and aseptic techniques after catacylsmic
catechisms which can dampen the emotional nuances and still
the phenomena.
Pursuit 119

References and Notes

I. The "gold" and apports frequently happened just before Katie arrived or immediately upon arrival at the office. However, whenever feasible, she was physically examined before the sessions. This
included the head, hair, eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, including
removal of dentures and digital palpation of the oral cavity. She
then drank coffee or water from a cup provided by myself. I inspected her chest, back, axillae, upper extremities and abdomen.
In many instances, under these conditions, "gold" still developed
on her body or, ostensibly, in her mouth or external auditory
canals. The same was noted for apports which seemed to come
from the mouth, ears, noSe, region of the eyes, or fall from her
hands or even, rarely, appear on the bodies or in the pockets of
others. Katie usually wore a cotton T-shirt and no undergarments."
When feasible, the temperature, pulse and blood pressure were"
taken before and after developments. Although Katie had many
episodes of stigMatizations and was suggestible; she never had dermographia. Her past medical history revealed no chronic condition other than her allergic diathesis, muu.nal myopia, and previous surgery for an ectopic pregnancy and a prolonged application of a body cast following a traumatically dislocated hip as a
young child. As already noted, she developed renal stones in adulthood. Her teeth were extracted at age nineteen. Perusal of her
mediclil records and laboratory reports, including hemogram,
urinalysis and blood chemistry profiles, revealed no gross abnormalities. In his classic encyclopedia, Nandor "Fodor has given excellent, relevant articles on apports and materialization (Fodor,
N.: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. University BOoks, Inc., New
Hyde Park, NY, 1966). Also Fodor's later, insightful contributions should also be mentioned (ibid., The Haunted Mind,
Chapter VI: "Apports of a Carpenter," "Helix Press, Garrett
Publications, NY, ~959; ibid., Mind Over Space, Chapter XVI,
"The Marquis Vanishes,": and Chapter XVll, "The Marquis
Retreats," The Citadel Press, NY, 1962).
2. Although George Andrews stated that the meaning of the first
three lines were comp~etely clear, the fourth line might have been a
scrambled version of "Ainsi Jusqua la," which would give the incomplete phrase "thus until the."

Example 12: April 20, 1988

In a then infrequent telephone ~all to my condo on April
19, 1988, at 5:30 p.m., Katie said that Waldo and Nostradamus had come through to her two or three times while she
was at work; and also late in the afternoon at home "he
(Waldo; Nostradamus?) sat there and started talking to me all
this stuff. 'The ground is moving. Something is happening to
the ground; will be a nasty earthquake in California.' Put it in
my mind so I could see ... to understand. I'd see the waves. No
matter where I go I could feel the vibrations. Like the earth
were going to take a big burp. Second week of May." In"a second call that was audiotaped at 7:30 p.m., Katie again
reported seeing Nostradamus: "Looked a whole lot different
from when I saw him before. I look at him; it's the eyes like
they're looking straight on through you. They subdue you.
They hold you there, whether speaking or not. A huge red"
stone' the way the light hit it; on a chain he wore around his
neck. Face look disturbed. 'Listen to me. Get what I am telling you.' Worried look. Told [husband). (To Nostradamus)
'OK, I'm here; tell me what you want.' I walk out or through
the house and the floor is moving. It's still doing it. The entire
earth is shaking. Nostradamus had some kind of riddle or
"poem: 'The wind, the rain, the sun, the stars.' It didn't make
sense. "2
-In the research session on April 21, 1988, Katie confirmed
her recent Nostradamus communications and when she arrived and was examined under videotape, "gold" was noted on
her abdomen. She also said that she still felt the vibrations,
which no one else perceived during the session. Then she sudPursuit 120

Figure 18. Katie's amytbest glasS pendant apport (April 11, 1988).

denly developed violent paroxysms of choking. She opened

her mouth and an" amethyst cut-glass pendant 7.5 x4 centimeters and 2 centimeters thick at the center popped into her
7-Eleven thermal plastic cup of coffee (see Figure 18).
Although the television camera, was aimed at Katie's head and
upper body, it did not catch the projection of the amethyst. 3
However, the impact click was clearly audible and recorded
on a" lapel microphone. She did not synthesize the two temporally refuted events. The possible connectiQn between her
mentioning Nostradamus's huge red pendant and the
amethyst glass pendant with a hole cut for attachment (see
Figure 1 [PURSUIT Vol. 22 #2, p. 52) for Katie's drawing of
Nostradamus with red pendant on February 27, 1986). Katie
was physically examined before t~e apport and the coffee was
looked at, but it was not poured into an un"used cup and stirred beforehand. When the Pendant was removed from the
cup, it was noted that the round, blunt end must have exited
from her mouth first rather than the sharp-pointed part of the
tear-drop-shaped glass. In her frustration, Katie wished thai"
Nostradamus would appear himself rather" than using such
roundabout methods in his communications. During the session, Katie also developed the stigmatization of a cross ~n her
" At her request, an extra session" was held on April 23, 1988,
when Katie tried to" obtain clues to a grisly child "abductionmurder case. This traumatic and possibly successful session,
where she might have psychically ~phorized clues hitherto
unknown, and therefore hard to explain as purely telepathic
or subliminal, was coupled with extremely frustrating events
in her personal life. She was exhausted over recent unexpected reversals" from previQusly agreed- upon plans, hard
physical work, and ~ . nearly all-night-Iong auto drive where
Katie sat on a wooden tool box instead of an uphols~ered
cushion. As a consequence of her lost weekend, she missed a
therapeutic session, her twelve-year-old daughter missed
school, Katie had to cancel her reading lesson, and there were
derivative economic penalties. While in this push-pull, highly
stressful, split state where she was traumatized by specific
events that she could" not handle, and while a1~ being pulled
toward, interested in,. and motivated to pursue the heartrending child murder case, her literacy lessons,. and helping in
an experimental attempt to dematerialize a stainless steel plate
with twelve screws in a physician-subject's formerly comminuted fractured left femur, 4 Katie had a predictable flurry
of psychic activit)'.
Third Quarter 1988

On the late afternoon of April 20, 1988, the day before her
research session, when she returned from picking her
daughter up at school, she noted a piece of paper with writing
in old French on her bedroom dresser. No pen or pencil was
nearby. She wondered if this was the same sheet of bonded
paper that I had given her and upon which I had typed a
question directed to the entity, Nostradamus, on March 3,
1988, for if it was the typed question, the type-print was no
longer there. I did not recall giving her blank paper, but this
was impossible to determine. She wondered about a possible
dematerialization effect because of previous experiences during which she said a copy-machine-like product of a face once
occurred as she was holding the originally blank papers, twice
in succession, as well as other possibly related episodes
already described.
Also after supper, when her husband had returned home,
they were invited out to their friend's house. When there,
they were astonished to learn that the man's seventy-nineyear-old father and aged mother, who lived in the northwestern corner of North Carolina, had noted that shortly
after their return home from their Florida son's home, they
saw images' of Katie with strong Indian features, a man with
white, waist length, flowing hair, and a thir~ non-descript image on the inside of their bathroom door. The wife
remembered how she herself had sanded and stained the birch
door, and that there was no image then or at any time
previous to their return from the visit with their son in
Florida. While there, the father sought "healing" from Katie
for his deafness and traumatically induced arthritic knees
(one was plastic). At the time, Katie "treated" the elderly
gentleman in his son's home. On a few occasions, "gold"
allegedly issued from the man's external auditory canal and
his painful knees. The man felt that his hearing was improved
and the pain in the knees was sufficiently relieved so that he
was again walking two to three miles every day for the first
time in two months. In one of the sessions, Katie recalled how
blood suddenly appeared on her finger without any known
cause, while the same thing happenedto the old gentleman.
He said that they were united by blood. He and his wife also
recalled Katie's quip that he should keep exercising because
she would be watching him when they returned to North
Carolina. The man retorted that now he had to take his
showers while Katie's image was looking at him. The three
images were witnessed by the man and his wife, his son and
his girlfriend, and his other son and his wife .. The Florida son
and his ladyfriend gave Katie a signed report of what had
happened. These matters were reviewed and confirmed by
telephone interview, on April 30, 1988, of the elderly North
Carolina couple, and it was hoped that arrangements could
be made to photograph the images, which have persisted unchanged to this day.
In a letter received June 18, 1988, my North Carolina
friend, Henry Belk, Jr., wrote that he spoke to the wife on the
telephone. "Her husband has a hearing problem ... Spe says
that the image on the door is all made up by h~r son. Tain't
so. She frankly doesn't comprehend Katie, who she thinks is
a witch. End of search." My curiosity about these strange
claims is whetted. Nothing can be an acceptable substitute for
a field trip visit and first hand examination of the door with
the alleged images and in-depth interviews of the involved
persons. This case is unsolved.
Indeed, as predicated by the push-pull magnitude of events
in her life, there were further more interesting psychic
developments. I will arbitrarily cut off the ongoing psychic
nexus by mentioning how, on the day of Katie's research sesThird Quarter 1988

sion (April 21, 1988), with multiple witnesses and while being
videotaped, the entranced Katie went into a state of transfiguration with the murdered little boy and produced an apport
from her right ear of a child's silver medal of Jesus on one
side, and the Virgin Mary and the Infant Jesus on the other
side. The psychic nexus, so far as Nostradamus is concerned,
continues as of this writing. 67 The page of old French that
Katie found on her dresser the afternoon of April 20, 1988,
Les deux unis ne
tiendront longusment,
Etdans treize ans au
Barbare Satrappe:
Au deux costez seront
quuh benira Ie Bargu
sa cappe.
George Andrews wrote: "I have the impression that there
may be some missing words, as even allowing for errors in
transcription the meaning of the final lines is not clear ... it was
at the end where the definition went utterly out of focus. If
we speculate that what Katie was trying to transcribe was
something along the line of:
Les deux unis ne tiendront longuement,

Et dans treize ans au Barbare sa trappe;

Aux deux contes seront tel eperdument.
qu'on benira la Barge sa cape.
It comes out in English more or less like th'3:
The two united will not hold up (or maintain
themselves for long).
And in thirteen years to the Barbarian his trap (or
pitfall.. .not clear whether Barbarian falls into trap or
traps the two united ones);
On the two coasts there will be such loss (implication
of violent loss ... strange way of saying it ... may be
word or words missing).
Now for the difficult last line:
qu'on benira la Barge sa cape.
We know that Nostradamus frequently used images
related to Catholicism, one of them being the Catholic
Church symbolized as a boat. A sailboat w."uld have been a
traditional symbol, but a barge seems inappropriate. Also
'mettre la cape' is a term that applies specifically to sailing
boats, meaning to trim the sails when faced with a storm. A
barge does not have sails ... but maybe my guess at Katie's
meaning is wrong. If 'Bargi' is a scrambled version of 'Barque' rather than 'Barge,' it brings a plausible meaning into
clear focus:

qu'on benira la Barque sa cape.

that one will bless the Boat for trimming its sails."
It might be conjectured that the meaning of the verse is
to Katie's concern over an approaching earthquake,
based on information she received from the Phantom
Nostradamus. Katie might also have been influenced by the
television news and common talk of the sage's prophecies
which were not, fortunately, fulfilled at the popularly ascribed time. Katie's messages also might have been given greater
impact by the associated apports of the amythest similar to
the jewel she had drawn and "seen" on Nostradamus' neck
more than two years ago and the apport of the child's
religious medal subsequent to the Nostradamus message.

Pursuit 121

Could the apport mean: "Pay attentjon to this mes,sage. It is

important?" These fears of impending catastrophe might
have been condensed with the trauma in her personal life
which threatened her marriage of thirteen years, and which
were, as in the child murder case, related to splitting incidents
with the potential for the further eruption of specific violence
and barbarism. Her family's desire to help a "friend~', was in
danger of backfiring and destroying their union. Indeed, she
had reason to take precautions, and stock of herself, trim her,
sails and receive blessings from On High. The melding of the
devout Nostradamus, his mystical apports and possibly
Katie's perception of threats to (the East and West) coasts (of
florida, the U.S.A.?) by some tidal wave secondary to a
massive earthquake might also have been'condensed with and
symbolized her titanic struggle for survival at a ti~e 'of crisis.,
References and Notes
1. Note the tear - drop -shaped red pendant hung around
Nostradamus' neck in a drawing by Katie on February 27, 1986
(See PURSUIT Vol. 21, No.2, p. 56).
2. On January 30, 1985, Katie's and her husband's close gentleman
frieed visited their home. According to Katie and her husband, the
man brought a "letter that didn't make sense. [My husbandl
found [hat every word had an 'A' in it; as he dropped the 'As' and
put the last letter to the front he got: 'I see mountains; I ,see
danger; I see water ... for water and fire meet. But where (?)... Remember your ancestors ... (?) ... beware of money changers.' (Signed:'Sun and Moon'). It was done with a pencil and he found it,on
the front seat of his truck. (At that time) he went to Sebastian
(town) and went around a curve and a big eagle flew in front of his
truck. (The eagle was) carrying a rattlesnake ... dropped it on the
front end of his truck. (Our friend) took it home and skinned it."
This history of an unusual [rain of synchronistic events was confinned on interviews of the husband and his friend, who, in the
meantime, had given the crypts to his son in college. The widely
known ancient Aztec-Mexican symbol of the eagle with a rattlesnake in its talons might be another interesting facet worthy of
further study in this enigmatic episode. This (lecal can be found on
the Mexican twenty-five pesos coin. The friend never had an experience like this before.
In reference to the psychic nexus, something further might be
said about this family friend, who has been close to Katie's husband and who might have acted like a psychic, magnet in several
previous Katie episodes, some of which I witnessed, and audiotaped or videotaped. For example, on June 6, 1984, the husband's
birthday, the man came to the house and Katie "zapped" his closed hands which contained six commercial radish seeds that I had
given him; one sprouted within seconds. Katie repeated the stunt
with me, and her husband recalled how earlier in the day "she had
cut a fresh tomato, put several seeds in her hand and most of them
sprouted." Also during that visit, attended by the friend and
myself, Katie put six commercial com kernels in my hand. She'
never touched my hand, but when I opened it there were only five
seeds left. When I got into my car at the end of the visit, Katie's
eight-year-old daughter said that I had the missing seed in my shirt
pocket; which, when I checked, was true. The daughter and others
were at no time near me.
Also, on June 7,1984, the friend came to Katie's house and she
"treated" his painful gouty arthritic right knee in my presence.
His pain was completely relieved and when the'man was subsequently seen by his orthopedic surgeon, his previously scheduled
surgery was cancelled. At that visit, I put six radish'seeds in the
man's hands. Shortly after Katie "zapped" them, one had
sprouted and one was missing. Again, Katie never touched the
man. Finally, on July 6, 1984, the man and three friends were at
Katie's house. Katie "treated" an X-ray technician's' painful
right shoulder (subacromial bursitis?) with immediate relief and,
~uring the "healing," the part-Choctaw Indian technician suddenly noticed links' of turquoise Indian jewelry in his outstretched

Pursuit 122

At one point in ~he evening, I gave Katie six radish seeds and the
family friend six ,radish seeds. Within a short time, the man felt
movement. When he opened his hands, he had five seeds and
when Katie opened hers she' had seven, one of which had germinated: Then the friend, who was sitting next to me the whole
evening, dressed only in swimming trunks, opened his hands again
and was shocked 'to discover that he 'had no seeds left. I wonder
about the possibly critical psychodynamic and physiologica! prerequisites for successes with physical psi.
, On June 2; 1988; Katie was given three Indian corn kernels ttiat
Mrs. Lois Hanggi, found on the ground at the site of reputed com
falling from the sky, over many' years' duration, near Evans, Colorado. Katie's attempts to genninate, the seeds in Mrs. Hanggi's
hands, as well as in her Qwn, were unsuccessful. Mrs. Hanggi will
, try to get seeds that she observed falling from the sky. (See PURSUIT: "Corn Fall Update," Volume 20, No.4, 1987, p.159)." Although Charles Fort's specul;uions on why com, frogs, fishes
and other biological materials might fall from the skies from time
to time, e.g., to' stock various sPecies and genera in areas that
might not have them, it is difficult to Clearly see any teleologiCaJ.
.. reason for Katie's apports that occasionally happen in her research
sessions. However, there are sometimes appealing psychodynamic
reasons for her ideoplastic apports and "gold."
3. Although Kati~'s ~ost ready-made amethyst apport was in harmony with her previous drawing of Nostradamus with a red pendant hung arourid his neck, the possible ideoplastic nature of the
event must not be lost sight of. This observation was made long
in the classical materialization studies of ~he medium, Eva C.,
by Von Schrenck-Notzing. A more up-to-date example of this process might have happened to Katie on May 5, 1988, during her
regular Thursday noontime videotaped session. Bill R., one of the
participants, brought in half an ordinary old-fashioned button
that might have been made from sea shells. In view of the events
during the ,previous' sessions with Katie, he wondered if, for
sp,ecific circumstantial reasons, his half-button, which seemingly
projected itself out-or-nowhere onto the floor in front of him in
his home, was the kind of "trivial event" that he might have
otherwise easily' overlooked as a possible apport. However, having
now seen these happeriings'in the Katie sessions, he was emotionally alert to their possibility and reality. He had concrete reason for
his' 'belief" in their occurrence. Within minutes of his declaration,
Katie developed paroxysmal coughing and then she spit out a halfpolished, rounded, purplish sea shell fragment which might have
been part of a button, similar, yet'different in color and dimensions, from the one Bill had brought to the session. In both instances, there is the structur~ similarity (the fractionated buttons)
and the temporal, suggestive, ideoplastic compliance on Katie's
part. This is analogous to other Katie-recorded data. Jule Eisenbud has psychodynamically elucidated the operation of similar
factors in some of Ted Serios' thOlightography, the production of
paranormal Polaroicis that coincided with suggestive-unconscious
preoccupations for the paragnost (Ted) and some of the guestswitnesses: part of the psychic nexus matrix (see Eisenbud, Jule:
The World of Ted Serios. Wm. Morrow & Co., Inc., NY, 1967.)
4. On May 4, 1988, I learned that this heroic experimental attempt at
dematerialization of the femoral plate was unsuccessful. For an
alleged successful instance of this involving a physician-inventor,
see my UFO-Dynamics, Book I, p. 266, Rainbow Books, Moore
Haven, Florida, 1983, p. 561. However, in the Katie experimental
dematerialization attempt, a woman participant who was sitting
next to the physician-subject with the left femoral plate - her
right thigh was in apposi~ion to his left injured thigh - reported
that two weeks after the session she noted a linear, red, flat scar
approximately four inches' in length. There were no associated
suture punctuate scars'. She had her scar photographed and she said
that it, was unchanged on August 17, 1988, when she was interviewed on the telephone in her California home. The role of psi,
suggestion and psychosomatic mechanisms that are possibly illustrated
this example might be germane to the claimed insiances of various S<;aIS without known cause appearing in some
UFO contactee cases.



Third Quarter 1988

,5. Vallee, Jacques: Passport 10 Magonio, Henry Regnery Co.,

Chicago, 1969: see pp. 136-139 for a well-documented account,of
Singing Eagle's - (Juan Diego's) - materialization ofthe radiant
image of Tetlcoatlaxopeuh ("Stone Serpent Trodden on") or, to
Spanish ears, Santa Maria de Guadalupe, on his tilmil December
9, 1531. Also see Schwarz, D.E.: "Telepathy and Pseudotelekinesis in Psychotherapy," (Journal 0/ the American Society 0/ Psychodynamic Dentistry and Medicine, Vol. 15 (No.4): 144-155,
1968) for a psychodynamic study of the factors involved in
telekinetic experiments and the sudden "appearance," or noticing,
of an image at the time of a planned experiment with Joseph Dunninger.
6. On May 11, 1988, Katie's eighteen-year-old son unexpectedly
returned from his six-month sojourn in Connecticut. Before leaving for his home in Rorida, his traded his motorcycle for a jeep
and, when cleaning out his auto, he was surprised to fmd a
videotape of the Orson WeDes' telecast 'on Nostradamus. This
"coincidence, " or possible example of synchronicity in view of the
ongoing study with his mother, th~ specifics of which he was
unaware of, or up-to-date on, is mentioned in passing.
7. Katie called on Sunday, May 30, 1988, at 8:30 to ask about
"beer yeast treatment" for moniliasis. Nostradamus came
through and he advised that remedy which, upon application in a
Sitz bath, gave her immediate relief of her symptoms. She also
successfully advised her son's girlfriend, who had been similarly,
previously diagnosed by a gynecologist. Upon questioning, Katie
said that her mother never permitted the daughter; to assist with
the canning of tomatoes, green ~s or making of sauerkraut'
when they were menstruating, since it would spoil the food (see
Rahn, Otto: "Invisible Radiations of Organisms," Verlag "on
Gebriider Bornlraeger, Vol. 9, 1936, p. 215.) In this inStance,
Nostradamus, the physician~tity, whatever the scientific merits
of his recommended treatment, might have corresponded to the
Inner Self Helpers, psychic entities that are found in multiple personality disorder and which are helpful "to the therapist in guiding
therapy in the proper direction so that personality integration can
be achieved" (see Allison, R.D.: "Spiritual Helpers I Have Met,"
presented at the Meeting of the Association for the Anthropological Study of Consciousness, Menlo Park, California,
April 11-14, 1985).

Example 13: June 28, 1_

The first conjoint psychotherapy session in many months
was marked by an explosive outburst and Katie precipitously
left in a split, fragmented, depressed state. The stage was set
for the next day, for after'I returned from an errand, there
~ere two messages from Katie on the telephone tape answering machine. She said: "Sara has made her visit and she has
something interesting." I immediately called Katie and confirmed events, threw the Camcorder and camera in the car
and rushed to Katie's house, where I found her in the kitchen
looking at the glass bottle containing two recently prepared
small diameter bovine aortic rings in a 100/0 formalin solution
that she had received in the research session five days earlier,
and which was recorded. on videotape. She had originally
placed the bottle on the counter between her kitchen sink and
family room and nothing had happened until the time of her
message from the entity, presumably her great-aunt Sara,
which was at approximately 10:45 a.m. '
While I was studying the bOttle, videotaping and photo~
graphing, it appeared that two of the largMiameter bovine
rings that I had given Katie months ago, and which had
disappeared, were now in the bottle and apparently undergoing linkage. The vessel wall media was splitting and there
seemed to be an ever-widening oblique slit in the external
layer of the vessel. The two small-diameter rings were unchanged. There was a bronze-colored quarter-sized coin with
inscriptions in the bottle, vertically wedged in the bottom aor-

Third Quarter 1988

Figure 19. Ooseup of apported partially Unked large diameter aortle

rings, bronze colored coin and gold In 10010 formalin solution (June


tic ring. Both surfaces of the coin were almost completely

,covered with "gold" and there was a column of. "gold" that
rose from the inferior surface of the coin, festooning toward
the surface of the formalin (see Figure 9).
While I was recording these changes, Katie off-handedly
remembered the Nostradamus message which had happened
through her automatic writing on a pink pad while she and I
were'talking on the telephone. When she went to get the writing, she was surprised because, instead of three to four lines
of old French verse, there were three extra lines which she
claimed were not there originally and might have been formed
by direct writing from the capped ball-point pen on top of the
pad or in some other unknown way. The message read:
De l'aquilon' les efforts
Scront grands,
Sus 1'Qccean sera la
Porte ouverte
Le regne en lisle
Sera reintegrand;
Tremblera Londres
Par uoille deScouvede.

Mr. Andrews' translation was:

The efforts of the young eagle
will be great,
under the ocean
the door will be opened
the reign over the island
will be restored;
London will tremble.
(The last line is undecipherable, as far as my ability goes.)
Katie attributed all the action to Sara and wondered if there
was any connection with her premenstrual phase, because she
usually felt "strong" at those times. She was still upset by extreme situational stresses and the defenses of repression,
denial and dissociation were sorely taxed. However, it can be
conjectured that more specific factors ~ight have been inPursuit


volved in the precipitation of these events. Instead of working

through some of the problems in conjoint therapy, Katie,
beset with frustration, impulsively bolted out of the session
and might have psychically acted out her conflicts and perceived transgressions. The production of a galaxy of spectacular psi, which was similar to the last previous explosion involving an attempt at paranormally linking aortic rings,
might have symbolized Katie's desire for retributipn. By
linkage - the piece de resistance psychosomatic experiment
- she might have indicated her desire to continue in therapy
and growth with her abilities.'
The meanings of the translated verse might have been
applicable to herself for, Katie, the "young eagle" was.attempting mastery. of the events that beseiged her as she sought
answers to her .problems, and restoration of her dignity .
(reign?) in her home (island). It might be speculated that the
door opening' .under the ocean is consistent with thi~.
However, it 'should also be meiltioned that, prior 'to this
episode of old 'French, Katie was aware of an unusual search
by one of the participants at the sessions. E.S., Director of
the EEG laboratory where Katie had recently been studied,
had told Katie and the group about his professional experience of once obtaining a history from a middle-aged couple
of European origin who claimed an encounter with a UFOlike craft under the sea. The 'couple were upset over this
event, which involved occupants, light beams, glowing metal
objects, telekinesis, haraSsment and, as in Katie's previous
assault, the woman was physically beaten. E.S., who had
never come upon such a history before, had seen the evidence
for that. At the time, the couple supposedly reported their encounter to the county police, F.A.A. and F.B.I. It is of inter'est that Katie might have ~ad some of her past condensed
with this information which, in some unknown way, might
have surfaced in this highly specific phrase of the quatrain.
E.S. sought to help in tracking down and documenting his
unique case.
As in pre.vious examples of old French and associated
phenomena, further questions might be considered. Were the
large diameter and' formerly miss~ng bovine rings that now
appeared to be linking apported into the formalin solution in
the glass jar? Did they materialize with the "gold?" Where
did the coin come from?
The history for the almost simultaneous automatic and
direct writing of the Nostradamus verse lends credibilitY:Jo
the former events which can neither be "proven" nor "disproven." The specimens, other than the Nostradamus
writings, were left as they were for further observation.
Should future biological or physical-chemical analysis be
done, it might be wiser to have the facilities and expertise
thoroughly arranged and thought through, as in the example
of the allegedly materialized double pagoda in the colored
water, than to prematurely and inadvertently destroy the
evidence in the quest for a quick "answer," and amateurish
Because ofalready mentioned circumstances, it is unlikely
that Katie's automatic and direct writing. were fraudulent. If
it were, various explanations would have to be considered.
Her husband is a high school graduate who is out working
most of the time, and his knowledge of Nostradamus is not
much more than Katie's. Prior to the series cif communications, it was limited to hearsay information and part of a
special program on cable TV. Furthermore, it would be a
giant step from that source to an illiterate person's producing
scripts in old French as described and while under the TV
Pursuit 124

camera on three occasions, twice with multiple witnesses and

once with myself. Katie's seventeen-year-old son, who dropped' out of school in the tenth grade, and his friends, were
seldom.. home at the time the events occurred, and it is difficult to see how they would tie ~pable of concocting the
scripts under the time. frames described, and also how they
could have obtained their information. If an. expert and
author on Nostradamus could provisionally not ident~fy some
of Katie's scripts beyond stating that they came from an early
edition of his works, how would a teenage grade school youth
fare? The same questions might be more applicable to Katie's
young daughter who is in elementary school, attending learning disability classes and having ~ hard time mastering her
grade-level English. If someone were planting the writing, I
would ask who, in what way, and why? This would mean that
someone would have to have knowledge of the subject, access
to the data and the. usually lock~d l:J.ome when rio one is there,
plus the motivations and finances to undertake such a stunt.
Even a "g~nius" winner - professional debunker - of the
prestigious MacArthur Foundation award might find the
finances steep and the chances of detection too real to risk
such a venture for any ill-gruned notoriety.
Perhaps some scholar who is fainiliar with the more than
one thousand quatrains of Old French and an amalgam of
other ancient languages ~uld best 'be qualified to establish
whether the Katie ~ata is what it purports to be, the.authenticity of the translations versus alternative ones, .or, for other
technical reasons, to determine the likeliho~d of al,lthorship;
e.g. was it consisten~ material attributable to Nostradamus, to
someone else or, possibly, another agency, living or dead,
with material telepathically. or' clairvoyantly ecphorized by
Katie from such sources as tQe. minds of -living (or dead)
Nostradamus scholars, TV,. printed material' in existence
somewhere, or from combinations of the above.. including the
possibility that they inay have been chosen or composed by
Nostradamus after his death, which mesh with Katie'S hypothesized needs with her family's needs and others within the
psychic nexus? It should bestressed that Katie is illiterate and
can only write her name. Katie and her 'family prefer anonymity. There are no commercial gains to be had, and i(these
studieS were 'not being pursued in: psychodynamically structured, scheduled sessions that might have conditioned, reinforced or augme'nted the likelihood for the occurrence of psi,
it is unlikely, beCause of social and work factors, amnesia and
other components,' that anything would have been made of
the data, everi if it were recognized and acted uPon. As I have
indicated in the examples, the production of t~e scripts is
usually 'involved 'wiih other apparently paranormal events,
many of which'. have high ~redibility. Therefore, they might
be better understood in this context rather than by separating
them unnaturally from their continua and nexus. Still, every
event must be reported as it happened, .and because some
events might have approached acceptabJe paranormal validity
does not mean that pars pro toto reasoning could be justified
for all pOssible events. The latter l1).ust not be bent to experimental bias. To ~he best extent possible, the data should
always be presented in its. own matrix and nexus. The data
and the matrix are facts, natural history constants. However,
the interpretations can be flexible and open to challenge and
change. With more information, there is the paradox of an
enhanced ability to ascribe additional meanings as well as the
gainsaid knowledge that" there are 'many layers of varying
complexities wbich interdict any tendency to be dogmatic.
There can be many>' interpretations which, although
sometimes apparently contradictory on the surface, can also
Third Quarter 1988

be complementary.
In some of the examples, I have mentioned various possible
physical and physiological factors that could be profitably
pursued in Katie's case, and also similariti'es to Katie's trance"
entities and multiple personality disorder (MPD), and even to
the age-old question" of recycling possible possession. 14 As has
already been done in MPD, it would be interesting to see
what, if any, changes might be correlated with the various entities and possible psi effects while Katie was being monitored
with the electroencephalogram. s,6 Would there be changes in
background, left-right hemispheric symmetry or temporal
lobe functions? What differences might there be with the sensory evoked response? Would there be changes with cOmputerized tomography (CAT), magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI), positron emission tomography "(PET),"' the polygraph, 8 or the Burr-Ravitz' technique of measuring potentials
in the electro-dynamic fieids?
Study of Katie's often associated stigmata and her history
of bronchospasm might provide" psychic-dynamic and psychodynamic clues to the pathogenesis of allergic reactions. By
applying methods that have already been helpful in studying immunocompetence, 10, 11 during stress, neuroendocrine
changes might be found which correlate with Katie's stigmata
and paranormal pheQomena of the Nostradamus writings,
apports, metal bending and other psi phenomena. These and"
other laboratory studies 12 could be extended for the possible
rewards of new knowledge which would justify the efforts
and expense. If these things actually happened as reported
here, and as similar events "have" been recorded throughout
history, then any shreds of information; solid data, or correlations could be invaluable in the studY of dissociative states,
in health and disease, and the nearly boundless research opportunities in the currently overlooked role of paranormal
factors in these conditions.
I should mention the imaginable connection between
Katie's paranormal abilities and the savant syndrome. In
both cases, despite an enormous amount of investigation,
there is no tenable explanation for the occurrence of the
extraordinary talents that seem to develop out of nowhere
and sometimes almost overnight.13 Recently, Treffert 14 mentioned ESP as a possible savant skill. However, the question
might be turned around. Could psi be a missing link in interpreting this condition: viz. the paranormal apprehension of
the particular knowledge or skills, as has been hypothesized in
the case of genius. IS This reasoning is "also applicable to identical twins who often report similar shared choices, predicaments, tastes, and thoughts. In addition to these factors, telepathy might be the via regia of communications for events
dependent on rapport shared by the twins and which might
account for their over-a-lifetime multiple "coincidences."
This practical, psychic aspect might be as germane as the
usual explanations of identical genetic, anatomical and
physiological attributes. In both instances, the savant syndrome and the "coincidences" of identical twins raised apart
since birth, the remarkable events might be more strongly influenced by telepathic psychobiological bonds rather than
psychic abilities being but a ~ide issue, a result of their condition.
In both Katie's instance and the savant syndrome, there are
also the common elements of cognitive-social isolation due to
either environmental-situational factors or to physical states
of deprivation (i.e. blindness, cerebral "palsy, retardation,
etc.) If so, then why are these possible compensatory psi or
prodigy talents not more commonly noted in the legions affected by strokes, organic brain syndromes and other minus
Third Quarter 1988

states? 16 Some seminal thinking that might be pertinent to"

these matters is provided by recent studies on vigilance theory
by Tolaas 17 and Ullman. II Also, the rare and complex condition of prodigious specific memory feats as illustrated by the
stage performer, Harry Lorayne,19 whom I once observed
perform before physicians, might have similarities to the savant syndrome and Katie's psychic talents.
A striking difference between Katie and the savant syndrome is that for the latter, there is almost never any family
history for the various musical, mathematical, mnemonic or
artistic talents, whereas in Katie's case, bOth her parents gave
positive family histories 2o for psi. Also several of Katie's
mother's ancestors might have had high-quality"psi, and there
are indications for enhanced paranormal abilities for Katie's
children, the son more so at this time than the younger
daughter by a different husband. What could be learned from
new techniques in genetic "analysis? Finally, neuropsychological tests l might further elucidate the similarities and the differen<,:es in Katie and the sav~t syndrome.
" Hopefully, ongoing studies of Katie and her family will expand the scope and content of these observations in a way
that will help to explain some of her accomplishments.
Perhaps this would also be applicable to other psychically
gifted people, as well as to the wider "purpose of integrating
psi in a theory of the mind and its role with the brain in the
age-old mind-matter interface dichotomy. The closer one gets
to knowledge, the more one learns that this is but an illusion,
for how far away one is from ever really knowing! Writing is
only a partial skeleton for reality - or "knowing. " Whatever
the explanation,21 Katie does things that are worth
References and Notes

1. Allison, Ralph B.: "The Possession Syndrome; Myth, Magic and

Multiplicity." Presented at Second Pacific Congress of Psychiatry, Manilla, Philippines, May 12-16, 1980.
2. Allison, Ralph B.: "Difficulties Diagnosing the Multiple Personality Syndrome in a Death Penalty Case." The International
Journal o/Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. Vol. XXXII,
No.2, 1984, 102-117.
3.Allison, Ralph B.: "The Possession Syndrome on Trial."
American Journal 0/ Forensic Psychiatry. Vol. VI, Number I,
1985, 46-56.
4. Naegeli-Osjord, Hans: Possession and Exorcism. New Frontiers
Center," Oregon, Wisconsin, Colin Smythe, Ltd., Gerrards
Cross, Bucks, England, 1988.
5. Kluft, R.P.: "An Update on Multiple Personality Disorders."
Hosp. Community Psychiatry. 38, 1987,363-373.
6. Although an electroence"phalogram was done on Katie, April,
1982, following neurological consultation for syncope, it was impossible to locate the report, and the physician who had seen her
had moved away. She recalled being told that the tracing was
"normal." A base line sixteen-channel Nihen Kohden electroencephalographic recording on June 22, 1988, was essentially normal. During the tracing, Katie went into a spontaneous trance
and four entities communicated. With "Sara," who might be
characterized as being irascible and negativistic, low voltage fifteen to twenty-five cycle per second beta activity predominated,
whereas with the switch to the compliant and passive
"Elizabeth," the background of the recording yielded a highvoltage regular alpha activity varying between ten and eleven
cycles per second. Obviously, there were not enough control
segments to attribute any significance to these possibly associated
electrographic changes. A new entity, "Marie," popped out,
amid much turmoil. Apparently, she was French and she seemed
to understand some questions posed to her in that language by
the technician and,later, by a psychologist-language interpreter
who came to the laboratory. Despite "Marie's" appearance of

Pursuit 125

panic and plaintively calling out "fire" and "burning," there

were no striking changes in the background of the tracing other
than a marked increase in eye movement and muscle artifact. Attempts to communicate with Marie (and others, including
Nostradamus and Waldo) were not successful verbally, nor was a
trial at automatic writing with Katie using her right and left hand
alternately while entranced. Similarly, aside from pronounced artifact, there were no changes during modified hypnotic activation
(see Schwarz, B.E., Bickford,R.G., and Rasmussen, W.C.:
"Hypnotic Phenomena, Including Hypnotically Activated
Seizures Studied with the Electroencephalogram," Journal 0/
Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 122, No.6, December, 1955,
. 564-573). Thro.ughout the recording, the electrocardiographic
. artifact for contour and rate was unchanged. At the conclusion
of the base-line electroencephalogram, a six channel Oxford
ambulatory twenty-four hour monitoring electroencephalogram
was attached to Katie, who reported no possible psi effects until
she left her employer to come to the office for her regular Thursday research session. She was apparently unaware of the sudden
appearance of "gold"on her abdomen and left neck when she arrived. Review of the tracing presumably made at the time of .
those developments revealed no grossly discernable changes in
the background of the recording or other electrographic effects
other than artifacts. In addition to myself, all the tracings were
independently reviewed by expert physician electroencephalographer.
As in the EGG Laboratory, there were nQ stigmata or apports
that could, hopefully, be correlated electrographically. Although
there were no post laboratory recording session episodes of alleged psi; be/ore the base-line tracing, the technician, while in the
cafeteria with his colleague, went to cut his tomato when he
noticed that the stainless steel knife blade bent an estimated thirty
degrees. He associated this event to the impending recording session with Katie, about whom he had heard things, but whom he
had not met. Without thinking, he straightened the bent knife
blade rather than saving it as a possible specimen of the telekinetic aspects of the psychic nexus.
Katie's son, who has had high quality psi (see Schwarz, B~ E.:
"Presumed physical Mediumship and UFOs," Flying Saucer
Review, Vol". 31, No.6, Oct. 1986: 18-22) and allied abilities, including a local bigfoot experience shared with his girlfriend on
February 12, 1987, and a knack for finding fossils of ancient
animals (Vero Beach Press Journal, Vero Beach, FL, February
16, 1987, p. I, and ibid. May 23, 1988, p. 3 A) had seizures as an
infant, and he had an episode of electroencephalographically
conflI1lled temporal lobe epilepsy (right temporal spikes) on October 10, 1987, when he was looking at the flickering TV tube .
and he suddenly had an aura of "burning plasticodor"which was
followed with nausea, disorientation and furor. He had "visions,
heard voices" and, according to the ambulance attendants, he
"spoke a different language" (see McKenna, P.J., Kane, J.M.
and Parrish, K.: "Psychotic Syndromes in Epilepsy," American
Journal 0/ Psychiatry, 142, 1985, 895-904.) Both Katie and her
son could be ideal subjects for electroencephalographic studies,
including twenty-four hour ambulatOl:y EEG monitoring and
computer data reduction analysis, plus neurometric analysis. A
recent report about this fascinating mind-brain interface relevant
to Katie (and her son's temporal lobe epilepsy and fugues) is provided by Joseph (see Joseph, Anthony B.: "A Hypergraphic
Syndrome of Automatic Writing, Affective Disorder, and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Two Patients," J. Clin. Psychiatry, 47:5,
May, 1986.)
In reference to electrographic studies of presumed physical psi,
in the fall of 1981, I undertook studies with a mentalist who
claimed metal-bending abilities. Although the mentalist later
publiCly confessed that he had cheated and that he was part of a
scam, when I interviewed him on the telephone after the debacle,
he claimed that twenty of twenty-two events that I cited from
memory, not having the data at hand, were "coincidences." Unfortunately fOT the researches, the cognoscenti might have accepted the dishonest mentalist's naive, simplistic, black-or-white
Pursuit 126

explanations at face value. But most of the data still stood as

described and was !lnexplained. During those investigations, an
eight-channel electroencepJtalogram was taken of the mentalist at
the Essex County Hospital Center, where I was consultant to the
EEG Laboratory. The recording was within normal limits. Present during this experiment were the EEG technician, the supervisor of the laboratory, the.X-ray technician, the laboratory
secretary, and the adjacent ECG technician. The ECG technician
produced several car and house keys which the X-ray technician
was unable to bend. He scratched them for identification. While
the electroencephalogram was running, the ECG technician put
three keys in her left hand and two in her right. She clenched her
fists and while the mentalist's eyes were closed, he held out his
hands an estimated eight inches a~ve and below the woman's
clenched right hand, and "zapped" the keys. When he asked her
if she felt anything,. she said tingling and warmth and that a key
was starting to bend. At that time, no change was noted in the
recording other than increased eye movement and muscle artifact. When the technician opened her hands and the mentalist
opened his eyes, it was apparent that an automobile trunk key
had bent approximately 30 at the midpoint of the shaft. She is
left-handed. At no time during this procedure did the mentalist
handle the keys nor was there any ostensible. opportunity for
fraud, substitutjon, use of confederates, or other explanations.
The releVant normal control "tracing and section of the recOrding
when the key bending took place were also reviewed by two
acknowledged authorities in electroencephalography, who also
. noted nothing beyond the alpha waves, muscle artifacts and eye
blinks. With new technology, it would be practical to take portable EEGs on all the people attending the experiment - the
psychic nexus - to see if there were any correlative changes and,
if so, how they related to clinical phenomena and chronology.
The lack of any focal or paroxysmal discharges are consistent
with Hasted's citation of an EEG taken during metal bending
(Hasted; J.: The Metal-Benders, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, Boston and Henley, 1981). However, he reported waves in
the iower frequencies during metal bending, while we did not.
The Uphoffs (Uphoff, W. and M.J.: Mind Over Malter, Interactions 0/Masuaki Kiyoto 's PK Feats with Metal and Film, New
Frontiers Center, Oregon, WI 53575, 1980) mentioned related
Japanese studies on psychic metal benders Masuaki Kiyoto and
Hiroto Hamashita, who allegedly produced changes in electrical
energy when "concentrating." In my own previous studies, I
noted no conventional scalp EEG changes during presumed
telepathy. However, in a more recent study (Schwarz, B.E.:
"Clinical Observation in Telekinesis," Journal 0/ the American
Society 0/ Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, V. 23 (No.2)
1980, 54-58) of poltergeist-protagonists' florid experiences, one
of them had an EEG reported by his neurologist as being consistent with a convulsive disorder.
Another telekinetic subject recorded in my laboratory had a
con"ulsive pattern during reading. It would be interesting to try
variations of the metal-bending experiments between the men--
talist (scalp EEGs) and subjects who were wired for depth electrography, which might be more likely to show changes. Also, it
should I\ot be too difficult to have an BEG wired to the mentalist
and connected to a telekinetic target box, so that when telekinesis
is precipitated, the EEG tracing videocamera can either be turned
on, or, if running through the experiments, the relevant EEG
segment can be identified. This would be similar technology to
that which Ullman and Krippner (Ullman, M., Krippner, S., and
Vaughan, A.: Dream Telepathy, Macmillan, New York, 1973)
found to be so successful in their dream telepathy studies and
Cox (Cox, W.E.: Afterword, in Richards, J.T.: SORRAT: A
History o/the Neihardt Psychokinesis Experiments, 1961-1981,
the Scarecrow Press, Inc., Metuchen, NJ) in the construction of
the mini-lab and the Cox-Calvin RSPK Automatic Filming
Device for the SORRAT experiments. The telekinetic fallout that
ha~ to some members of the EEG laboratory staff after the
experimental session was striking and consistent with the observation pertaining to mind-set, programming and belief (see
Third Quarter

i 988

Owen, A.R.O.: Psychic Mysteries of the North, Harper and

Row, New York, 1975; Batcheldor, K.J.: "PK in Sitter
Groups," Psychoenergetic Systems, 1979, Vol. 3, pp. 77-93).
The intrinsic difficulties in these researches of gifted paragnosts
pale by comparison with the self-proclaimed expert-professional
debunkers' extrinsic obstructions to this vital area of inquiry.
As in many matters with telekinesis, there are beneficial potentials and, as is obvious, there are major, potential deleterious effects. The work must mean something to somebody because,
when finishing my report on Joe A. Nuzum, a gifted telekinetic
paragnost, twelve of my key references, many of which were
autographed and had my personal annotations on the pages,
vanished from my locked office. There was no indication of a
break-in and nothing of value was stolen, but Nuzum's family in
Pennsylvania had subsequent repeated telephone harassment,
and the air was let out of Nuzum's automobile tires. Similar
"coincidences" could be cited with telekinetic allied UFO
research, where all the issues in separate envelopes of a series of
FSR (England) articles about a UFO contactee with telekineticthoughtographic effects were opened, scattered about and "lost"
in the back room of a northern New Jersey post office until
discovered by my persistent and irate secretary, and years later,
when most of the review copies of my UFO-Dynamics were
"lost" in the mail between the publisher's address of Moore
Haven, Florida, and the Palm Beach routing office. In both instances of the missing books, the police and postal authorities
were unable to help (See Schwarz, B.E.: "A Presumed Case of
Telekinesis," International Journal of Psychosomatics, Vol. 32,
No. I, 1985,3-21; Schwarz, B.E.: UFO-Dynamics, Rainbow
Books, Moore Haven, Florida, 1983). [also in PURSUIT Vol.
18, No.2, pp. 50-61.]
7. Hendrie, Hugh, Ed:: "The Impact of New Technology on
Psychiatric Practice." Psychiatric Annals, Volume 15, Number
4, April 1985; Garber, H.J., Weilburg, J.B., Buonoanno, F.S.,
Manschreck, T.C., and New, P.F.J.: "Use of Magnetic
Resonance Imaging in Psychiatry