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Science- is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the

natural world.
The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world,
to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to
make useful predictions.
Observation- the process of gathering information about processes in a
careful orderly way. Generally involves using the sense particularly
sight and hearing.
Data- the information gathered from observation.
Inference-a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or
experience.
Hypothesis a proposed scientific explanation for a set of
observations. Whenever possible a hypothesis should be tested by an
experiment in which one variable is changed at a time. All other
variables should be kept unchanged, or controlled. This experiment is
called a controlled experiment.
Manipulated variable- the variable that is deliberately changed.
Responding variable- the variable that is observed and that changes in
response to the manipulated variable.
Redis
expierement
Controlled variablesType of meat,
location,
temperature and
time.

jars,

Manipulated variableGauze covering that


keeps flies away from the
meat.
Responding variable- whether maggots
appear.
-Needhams
expierement

pasteurs test-

Theory- a well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of


observations.
Biology- is the science that seeks to understand the living world.
Cell- a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates
the cell from its surroundings.
Sexual reproduction- cells from 2 different parents unite to produce the
first cell of the new organism. 2 makes 1
Asexual reproduction- the new organism has a single parent. 1 makes 2
8 characteristics of life
-living things are made up of units called cells
-living things reproduce
-living things are based on a universal genetic code
-living things grow and develop
-living things obtain and use materials and energy
-living things respond to their environment
-living things maintain a stable internal environment. (Homeostasis)
-taken as a group living things change over time.(evolution)
Metabolism-the combination of chemical reactions through which an
organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life
processes.
Stimulus- a signal to which an organism responds.
Evolution- change over time.
Atoms =>molecules=>organelles=> cells=> tissue=>organs=>
organ systems
=> organisms =>populations =>community=>ecosystems=>
biomes=> biosphere
(a mother of cats ties orange objects on puppy chow everyday
basically because)
Botany- study of plants
Zoology- study of animals
Deductive reasoning-general premise leads to specific prediction
Inductive reasoning- large number of specific observations used to
form a generalization.
Metric system- a decimal system of measurements whose units are
based on certain physical standards and are scaled on multiples of 10.
Microscopes- makes things look bigger
Compound light microscopes-microscope that allow light through a
specimen and uses 2 lenses to form an image.
Refraction-bending of light
Magnification-apparent increase in size

Resolution- ability to see details


Stains(vital stains)- used to make structures on the microscopes more
visible.
Transmission electron microscope(TEM)largest magnification
Scanning electron microscope (SEM)- 3-D
magnification
Cell cultures-/ation growth of cells in a
test tube
Cell fractionation- seperation of the parts
of a cell
Centrifuge- spins to separate heavy
components from lighter components.
Protons-charge + 1 and mass of 1
Neutrons- charge of 0 and a mass of 1
Electrons- charge of -1 and mass of Atomic number-number of protons
equals number of electrons.
Atomic mass- number of protons plus neutrons.
Protons and electrons are the number at the top of an element picture
To find the number of neutrons then round the mass to the closest
whole number and subtract the
atomic number from it.
Element- pure substance consisting
of one type of atom.
Compound-to or more elements.
Isotope- same number of protons but
different number of neutrons.
Radioactive isotopes- unstable nuclei
breakdown at a constant rate over time.
Ionic bonding- the transfer of electrons. Often this happens
as a result of an Alkali metal giving its electron to a
Halogen, thus resulting in both becoming stable, but
charged Ionic Compound consists of a pos. and neg. ion
together. Loses an electron and becomes positively charged.
Gains an electron and becomes negatively charged.
Cation- positive loss of electrons.
Anion-negative gain of electrons.
Covalent bonding- the sharing of electrons. A covalent bond forms when nonmetal atoms
share electrons neither atom loses or gains an electron, instead the electrons move
between the outer energy levels of both atoms

Sometimes atoms share more than one electron


with other atoms creating a double or
triple bond

When covalent bonds are made they are based on the


attraction of electrons to the atoms
Some atoms attract electrons more strongly than others
do (Cl greater attraction then H)
This unequal sharing of electrons causes one side of the
molecule to be more negative than the other, polarizing
the bond
A polar bond is a bond in which electrons are shared unevenly
Molecules that are close together can develop an attraction because
of slightly charged regions, these forces of attraction are
called Van Der Waal forces.
Water is a polar molecule because one end of the ends is
negative and one is positive. The negative and positive
ends attract and bond.
Water is unique because you can find it in all forms of
matter.
Adhesion-attraction between molecules of different
substances; in plants, attraction between unlike molecules.
Cohesion-attraction between molecules of the same substance.
Mixture- material composed of 2 or more elements or compounds that
are physically mixed together but not
chemically combined.
Solution- when the ions gradually become
dispersed in the water.
Solute- the substance that is dissolved.
Solvent- the substance the does the dissolving.
pH scale- a measurement system that is used to indicate the
concentration of H+ ions in a solution.
Acid- any compound that forms H+ ions in solution. Acidic solutions
form contain higher concentrations of H+ ions than pure water and
have pH values below 7.
Bases- a compound that produces OH- ions in a solution. Basic, or
alkaline solutions contain lower concentration of H+ ions than pure
water and have pH values above 7.

Buffers-weak acids or bases that prevent sharp changes in pH


Macromolecules are made up of monomers and polymers to form the 4
major groups of organic compounds. Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic
acids, and proteins.
Carbohdrates- made up of carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen
Monosaccharids are single sugars, such as glucose, galactose and
fructose.
Polysaccharides are made up of many monosaccharids, such as
starch,cellulose, glycogen and chitin. Carbs can be used as an energy
source, starch in plants, glycogen in animals, but also can be used for
structural purposes, cellulose in plants and chitin in animals.
Lipids- are used to store energy and are an important part