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CCS for USMLE Step 3

The following is a general outline of several concepts that are discussed in CCS workshops. This is just for
quick review. Comprehensive explanation and demonstrations are available in CCS Workshops.
EMERGENCY ROOM GENERAL PROTOCOL:
Check follow-up Hx often in ER to monitor subjective improvement in the complaints.
Use control button on an ORDER screen to pick up several options. Always check report time of the order
after placing the order - this allow seeing how long the procedure or order will take
Algorithm for ER: ( Refer Powerpoint Slides)
Initial orders + pain management
Focused PE
Additional orders
Full exam once stable
Orders:
Oxy oxygen several options
IVA IV access
Vitals q1hr
Card cardiac monitor,
Bmp basic metabolic panel
Counsel: seat belt, safe sex, weight loss, exercise, contraception, breast exam, smoking cessation, low Na (for
HTN), diet, calorie restricted (for HTN, obesity) In ER Cases, reserve this routine counseling to 5 min
screen.

Algorithm for office:


Full Physical Exam
Treat the Symptom
Order labs and Send patient home (unless there are criteria for admission or unstable vitals or severe pain)
Schedules follow up appointment when diagnosis is likely to be available
Treat the diagnosis during follow up visit, check follow up history and focused physical during follow up
visit.
The following are several sample CCS cases subject-wise which were practiced in several previous
CCS Workshops at the request of the attendees. A selection of the sample CCS cases will be practiced
in the CCS Workshop. In addition, most of the Cases that are requested by the attendees will be
practiced during CCS Workshops. Discussion of NBME copyrighted cases is strictly prohibited.
Students are advised to kindly not discuss exam cases or kindly not disclose NBME or USMLE Step 3
exam questions during the CCS Workshops.
Pediatrics
1. Newborn Down's baby. Get chromosomal analysis
2. Duodenal Atresia: 1 day old Down syndrome baby presents with vomiting ultrasound with duodenal
atresia. Get abdominal US, then General surgery consult.
3. Ventricular Septal Defect. The child presents with CHF. Hx of Down syndrome. PE: pansystolic murmur.
Initial mngt: furosemide, CXR, echoKG, Cardiology consult to get cardiac catheterization to rule out
pulmonary hypertension even it is not read on echo report (because if you will close VSD there will be
no blood coming to the LV). If pulmonary hypertension is present you cannot close VSD, than the only

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option is lung transplant.


Constitutional growth delay in african american kid. Check bone age, genitalia to rule out cryptorchidism,
chromosome analysis to rule out Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome.
CHILD ABUSE: 3 y/o African American boy presents with lethargy, CXR reveals multiple posterior rib
fractures and CT head subdural hematoma. Call child protection services and social work
Intussusception in child. Order abdominal x-ray and then barium enema
Bacterial meningitis in an infant. Get blood culture and start ceftriaxone and IVF immediately, then get
head CT and lumbar puncture
JRA. Check rheumatoid factor (should be negative), give NSAIDs, get ophthalmology consult to rule out
uveitis.
9mos old baby with fever unknown cause all tests including CBC are negative, wait three days by
advancing the clock for rash to appear (Roseolum infantum)
8 month old child with fever
Turners syndrome. Get chromosome analysis, check GH, CXR to look for aorta (rule out coarctation),
start GH replacement.
Foreign body aspiration. Look for unilateral (right side) wheezing.
Childhood sleep apnea
Sickle cell crisis with splenic calcification. Get CBC, reticulocyte count, Hgb electrophoresis, give
oxygen, IVF, analgesics (narcotics), consider blood transfusion if symptoms are severe. Vaccine
(pneumo), PCN V
Sinusitis. For a child <10 get CT scan (not x-rays). Start amoxicillin or TMP-SMZ.
HUS. ER: 8 yom with rash all over the body for 1 day. PMH: recent bloody diarrhea for 3 days
which improved on its own. DDx: TTP, ITP, HSP, HUS (elevated creatinine, hemolytic anemia),
thrombocytopenia. PE: brown-reddish, macular, diffuse rash (purpura). CBC: Hgb 8 (rule out ITP), plt
20.000 (rule out HSP); BMP: elevated creatinine; coags normal (rule out DIC); bleeding time, INR,
UA normal, vitals. Peripheral smear shows fragmented RBCs (schistocytes; hemolytic anemia). Ddimer, fibrinogen, FDP, reticulocyte count, LDH elevated with hemolysis, LFT, direct Coombs negative,
haptoglobin decreased with hemolysis. Tx: supportive care, if creatinine is not improving consider
dialysis. Order Nephrology consult, dialysis, dialysis IV consent. Check CBC for possible ongoing
hemolysis, consider plasmapheresis. Check BMP. Admit to ICU.
5 yom with recurrent nosebleeds in the last 24 hrs. Hx of recent URI. DDx: ITP, TTP, HUS, HSP. PE:
a red rash. Initial mgnt: nasal direct pressure, CBC shows low platelets, normal Hgb. Observation and
platelet count monitoring. IVIG.

Psychiatry
1. Bipolar disorder. Depression index, start lithium or valproic acid, check TSH, follow TSH and lithium
level. If the pt in psychosis give haloperidol. Counsel alcohol cessation.
2. Panic Attack. Breathing in a paper bag, start fluoxetine, psychotherapy.
3. Alzheimer's disease (had to rule out other causes of dementia before making the diagnosis). Do cognitive
testing (this is a term for MMT), head CT, start donepezil
4. Acute manic disorder. If the pt in psychosis give haloperidol, consider ECT
5. Anxiety
6. Depression. Get depression index, start fluoxetine.
OBGYN
1. Pregnancy
2. Pregnancy in a 44 yof. Check at first visit Pap smear, UA, CBC, blood type, Rh type and antibody screen,
RPR or VDRL (if positive confirm with FTA-ABS or MHA-TP), rubella titer (if unclear vaccination Hx),
HIV, glucose (if the pt has risk factors). Repeat at every visit UA. Triple screen (AFP + estriol + HCG)
at 15-20 wks. If it is positive, get US to confirm accurate dates and do amniocentesis for chromosome
analysis and AFP. Check fasting glucose and glucose load test at 24-26 wks. Group B streptococcal
vaginal and rectal Cx at 35-37 wks.
3. Pregnancy with asymptomatic bactiriuria, UTI with 12 week pregnancy. Start ampicillin

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Incomplete abortion. US, observation, emergent D&C, check HCG


X2 Eclampsia... presented with seizures, AMS, and peripheral edema at 38 weeks pregnancy. Tx with
magnesia sulfate IV drip, monitor vitals q2hrs. follow magnesium level. Stop magnesium if you notice
decreased respiration or hyporeflexia (first sign) or CNS depression. Check for HELLP with LFT and
CBC. Deliver the baby with labor or C-section. If status epilepticus => intubate. OB consult.
Vaginal Bleeding secondary to Fibroids requiring hysterectomy.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding. ER: 25 yof, c/o vaginal bleeding, dizziness, diaphoria. Vitals: low BP.
PMH: negative, regular cycles which recently became longer and heavier (menorrhagia). FHx: pts
uncle had severe bleeding in major surgery and was diagnosed with the same disease. DDx: ectopic
pregnancy, blood dyscrasia, fibroid, dysfunctional bleeding. Initial mngt: oxygen, IVA, NS, NPO, type
and cross blood, BPM, vitals, cardiac monitor continuous, UA, HCG (if positive then get quantative
HCG; for this pt negative). Focused PE (chest, abdomen, genitalia): a lot of blood, no tenderness. CBC
7.4, platelets 300.000. BMP normal, coags: PT/INR normal, bleeding time prolonged. TSH. Advance
the clock. Interval Hx: vitals are more stable, but the pt is still dizzy. Transfuse blood (acute anemia
<8 or symptomatic pt, e.g. SOB). Conjugated estrogen IV (work as a hemostatic agent). BT 9, PTT 44
(vWD: woman, prolonged BT and PTT, positive FHx). Give DDAVP, if the first dose did not work,
then give cryoprecipitate (it has more factor 8 than FFP). Check CBC q4hrs (should improve after
blood transfusion). Interval Hx: the pt continue to bleed, transfer to ICU. Pelvic US normal (no fibroid,
if positive needs Tx with uterine artery embolization or if the pt >45 yo - hysterectomy). Eventually
bleeding decreases, the pt feels better.
Postmenopausal woman with vaginal bleeding. If she is on HRT, she can have bleeding in first 6 months.
Get US, if hyperplasia >5 mm get endometrial biopsy. If it comes back negative, then progestin. If it
shown atypical hyperplasia do D&C or hysterectomy. If endometrial CA proceed with hysterectomy.
Acute PID. Check ESR, CBC, vaginal Cx. Start cefoxitin + doxycycline for 2 wks outpatient or
clindamycin + gentamycin IV inpatient (pregnant, severe N/V, ileus, fever>39C, WBC>20.000). Follow
with pelvic exam and US if fever persists >48 hrs to rule out tubo-ovarian abscess. Continue ABx.
Bacterial vaginosis

Surgery
1. Intussuception
2. AAA dissection. ER: 75 yom, c/o sudden onset of severe back pain when he tried to lift a heavy object.
Pain 10/10. Vitals are stable. PMH: HTN, PAD. PSH: smoking. DDx: prostate CA, HLD, abdominal
aneurysm dissection. Pain mngt: morphine IV without PE, then oxygen, vitals, IVA, EKG, CBC, BMP,
pulse oxymeter. PE: absent peripheral pulses, spine benign (rule out real spine problem; x-ray may help
for possible metastases). Abdominal US can help with abdominal aneurysm but not show dissection;
get abdominal CT with contrast (check creatinine before): shows AAA dissection. Start metoprolol. Get
lumbar spine x-ray. Complete PE: now back pain is better, but the pt has abdominal pain and dropped
BP (shock). Surgical consult for aneurysm repair, BPM, cardiac monitor, IVF. After OR transfer to ICU,
monitor urine output, CBC q8hrs, check lipid panel. Counsel: smoking cessation, vaccines.
3. PTX. 65 yom with excruciating right chest pain for 1 hr and severe respiratory distress. PMH: asthma,
emphysema. DDx: tension PTX, MI, aortic dissection, PNA. PE: absent breath sounds on the right side.
Initial mngt: needle thoracocentesis, followed by chest tube placement. Confirm the lung reinflation with
CXR.
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Trauma
1. Motor vehicle accident with splenic rupture. Postsplenectomy prophylaxis with pneumococcal,
meningococcal, and H.influenza vaccines, continuous PCN G.
2. Splenic hematoma
3. Osteoporosis with compression fracture. DDx: medications (esp. steroids), hyperthyroidism, multiple
myeloma. Get serum Ca, TSH, PTH, urine for Bence-Jones protein, DEXA scan, start Ca carbonate,
vitamin D, alendronate, for women raloxifene or conjugated estrogens + progesterone.
4. back pain due to osteoporotic fracture

Heat stroke. DDx: neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonine syndrome, sepsis. Risks of arrhythmia and
rhabdomyolysis. Initial mngt: electrolytes, CPK q6hrs and BMP q6hrs to monitor effects of Tx, cardiac
monitor, NS, dont give Na bicarbonate right away, cooling, intubate if the pt dont respond quickly.
6. Trauma patient with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis.
7. 75 y/o female fell and sustained right hip fracture orthopedic consult, orif, cbc, transfuse
5.

HTN
1. 50 + y.o. F with high BP in office. Diet (low sodium and low cholesterol), counsel for exercises. Check
CBC, BMP, lipid profile, EKG, UA.
2. annual health check up, essential hypertension
3. hypertensive encephalopathy. ER. Initial mngt: place arterial line catheter to follow arterial pressure;
neurological signs, nitroprusside IV, start labetalol PO, BPM, head CT to rule out hemorrhagic stroke,
check other organ involvement (BMP, EKG, cardiac enzymes)
DM
1. DKA. Check BMP and UA. Cardiac monitor. Start IVF and insulin even before intubation, follow
glucose level. Give KCl and phosphorus when UOP>30 ml/hr is established. Blood Cx. Follow anion
gap.
2. New Onset DM type II. Check lipid profile, Ophthalmology consult.
3. Hyperglycemia/ new onset DM
4. Uncontrolled DM type 2 - came with increased thirst and urination
Cholesterol
Smoking
Alcohol
Obesety
1. Obese man with essential HTN evaluate for Sleep apnea, if positive nocturnal CPAP
2. Obesity in a teenager. Check lipid profile. Low calorie diet.
DVT, PE
1. Pulmonary embolism
2. Septic pulmonary emboli in IVD abuser.
Acid base / electrolyte disorder
1. Dehydration/ Hypernatremia - 70 y/o man with altered mental status, no urine output sent from NH
to ER. No fever. (BMP comes back shows NA + 160, BUN high, Crea normal) --> two things here ,
this patient has confusion which could be secondary to dehydration or hypernatremia. If euvolemic
hypernatremia with CNS symptoms --> you would use D5W IV. However, in this case there is a clue
that the urine output is low --> indicating hypovolemic hypernatremia --> so, would hydrate first with
NS , NG tube, free water orally, R/o sepsis ( if CBC showed leucocytosis or if there is fever - please
be sure to r/o sepsis , get CXR, blood cx, urinalysis and urine cx, if any source of infection seen start
empirical antibiotics pending cultures), get head CT, Foley catheter ( r/o obstructive uropathy since
there is no urine output), and next put orders to monitor pts response to your therapy ( I/O monitoring,
neurochecks q4hrs and BMP q4hrs - check if Na and BUN are improving, dont drop Na too fast due to
risk of cerebral edema)
2. Hypercalcemia/ renal mass (likely RCC) - Elderly man presenting with fatigue, do physical, make sure he
is not dehydrated (if he is dehydrated, needs admission and IV fluids) - office visit - routine tests - BMP
reveals hypercalcemia - stop clock and start w/u on order sheet, i.e., PTH, Serum phos, ionized calcium,
LFTs (check alkaline phosphatase - increased level may indicate bone lesions), vitamin D level, SPEP,
U/A, UPEP, 24 Hr urinary calcium excretion ( to r/o familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. 24 hr urine
calcium is increased in primary hyperparathyroidism where as decreased in hypocalciuria), CXR (R/o
sarcoidosis - hilar adenopathy, R/O LUNG MASS, Cancer) . R/O metastatic cancer ( back pain, breast

mass etc) from the history itself - All come normal, so remember to r/o ectopic PTH secretion that is
seen as PTH related peptides (PTHrP is not picked up by the software) --> so, next do w/u for r/o occult
malignancies that can lead to hypercalcemia by ectopic PTH secretion (SQUAMOUS CELL LUNG
CANCER, SQUAMOUS CELL HEAD AND NECK CANCERS, BREAST CANCER, MULTIPLE
MYELOMA [UPEP/SPEP], T-CELL LYMPHOMAS, RENAL CELL CANCER, AND OVARIAN
CANCER ) -- > do a CT chest and abdomen (will help to r/o lung ca, lymphoma and renal cell ca) CT abdomen reveals a 10 cm renal mass ( make sure they say complex renal mass) - call nephrologist,
oncologist and surgeon - rx is nephrectomy which will resolve hypercalcemia ( but remember, if the
presentation revealed dehydration or coma or calcium > 13 gm% - suspect hypercalcemic crisis, admit
patient and hydrate first and then work up everything as inpatient! Give bisphosphonates for all cancer
related hypercalcemia)
Shock
Cardiology
1. Acute pericarditis - rx (make sure to do echo, dont do unnecessary pericardiocentesis if there is mild to
moderate pericarditis without clinical or echocardiographic evidence of tamponade)
2. Acute MI. ER: 65 yom, c/o severe left chest pain 10/10 which started at rest and radiates to the left
shoulder. Vitals are stable. PMH; HTN, PAD, AAA. Start with pain mngt: MONA = morphine IV x1,
oxygen, nitroglycerine sublingual x1, aspirin and tests: vitals, pulse oxymeter, IVA, cardiac monitor,
BMP, CXR, EKG 12 lead (the most important test), cardiac enzymes x3. Then get focused PE => normal
=> get full PE including rectal (the pt will probably need heparin). Advance the clock for EKG result,
shows STEMI (if it is negative, then you need to rule out non-STEMI with cardiac enzymes). Start
BBL (metaprolol; decrease mortality), clopidogrel, heparin x24 hrs, abciximab (Reopro; continue for
1 yr if there is a stent, if not then just for 1 wk), statin, cardiology consult for cardiac catheterization
(do thrombolysis with tPA only if cannot get cardiac catheterization promptly). It will give you EF
(if EF is low start ACEI) and show a blood clot. Check PT/PTT. Follow CBC for possible HIT, BMP
for possible contrast nephropathy, check lipid panel, check diet. Counsel for sex activitiy, exercise,
education, smoking. Get cardiac rehab. Get submaximal stress test in 1 wk after STEMI for exercise
recommendations (not used that often now). For non-STEMI (without cardiac catheterization) proceed
with full stress test in 1 wk if there is ongoing ischemia. If the pt cannot walk on the treadmill get
pharmacological persantine or depyridamole test.
3. DM w/ MI
4. Stable Angina
5. atrial fib
6. Congestive heart failure in a post-op patient (make sure they are not giving too much IV fluids in post
op setting, I/O monitoring, daily weights, lasix, 2d echo, r/o MI, EKG, CXR, BNP - Lasix, if flash pulm
edema, give morphine)
7. complete heart block (MVA) actually, MVA secondary to syncope from 3rd degree heart block.
Bradycardia / heart block mngt. Stabilizing orders before Dx: monitor cardiac, oxygen, pulse oxymetry,
check monitor cardiac, EKG 12 lead, ABG, blood pressure monitor (BPM), IV access. Check TSH,
cardiac enzymes, give midozalam to sedate the pt for transcutaneous pacer; consult cardiology, place
pacemaker transthoracic (transcutaneous). Then transfer the pt to the ICU, change the pacemaker to
transvenous (more stable); d/c any meds that decrease cardiac conduction (BBLs, ACEIs), then change
transvenous pacemaker to permanent (get cardiothoracic consult). Diet: normal. Counsel family/pt, seat
belt, medic alert button. Vaccine: influenza, pneumo. TEE to look for possible clots.
Endocrinology
1. Secondary Hypertension, Hypokalemia adrenal mass
2. Constipation, hypercalcemia, primary hyperparathyroidism
3. Hypothyroidism in a man. Office: 33 yom, c/o extreme tiredness and constipation for several wks.
The pt lost 10 lbs in the last month. Smoker. FH: DM. PE (complete without genital/rectal [do if >50
yo]): delayed reflexes, obese, mild brady (may be normal in young person). DDx: hypothyroidism,
anemia, colon CA, hypercalcemia. Tests: TSH, CBC, LFT, EKG, UA, BMP, FOBT. Respond to sxs for

constipation: docusate, bisacodily, diet with high fiber. Send the pt home, schedule appt when results are
back. TSH 35 (you start with screening test, if it is positive, then do confirmatory tests; stop the clock,
order T3/T4). Order levothyroxin, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (antimicrosomal antibodies), lipid
profile (if LDL is elevated it might be caused by hypothyroidism, so dont need to treat it right away, it
may improve on levothyroxine). Counsel: smoking cessation, side effects of medications, seat belt, safe
sex practice. Later check TSH and lipid profile in 1 month. Follow thyroglobin for effectiveness of Tx.
Gastroenterology
1. Alcoholic hepatitis
2. Acute Hepatitis A
3. 50 yom with epigastric pain (erosive gastritis, had h/o long term NSAID use)
4. Hepatic encephalopathy. ER: 65 yom brought in by his wife for AMS since am; he has constipation for
7 days, on spironolactone. PMH: hepatitis C, ascitis, portal hypertension. Initial mngt: secure airway,
oxygen and pulse oxymeter, suction airway q1hr, vitals, IVA, cardiac monitor, BMP, thiamine IV,
accucheck, Tylenol level, CBC, UA, CXR, LFT, ammonia = 82, coags. Do paracentesis for cell count,
culture, cytology, Gram stain, protein (if WBC>250 the pt has SBP). Lactulose per rectum (the pt can
start responding after 1-2 bowel movements, so try not to intubate but secure airway. Levofloxacin for
SBP prophylaxis (ceftriaxone for SBP treatment). Neurochecks q1hr. BMP and CBC negative. PTT
prolonged, INR 1.5. After lactulose the pt is more awake, opens eyes. Very low AST, ALT, albumin
(means advanced cirrhosis). Dont give albumin, it will not stay in the vessels and make edema worse.
Get EGD to look for varices, check AFP q6 months and US q6 months for future hepatocellular
carcinoma screening. SCDs for DVT prophylaxis.
5. Acute cholecystitis
6. Inflammatory bowel syndrome (ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease). Office: 25 yom, c/o abdominal
cramps, bloody diarrhea for 5 wks, tenesmas, lost 10 lbs. SH: smoker (quit 2 months ago). DDx:
infectious diarrhea vs. IBS. Vitals stable => proceed with full exam (without breast, genitalia): normal,
without dehydration, rectal guaiac positive. Orders: stool for culture, fat, ova / parasites (Giardia
antigen is more sensitive but takes more time), WBCs, Gram stain; CBC, ESR, BMP. Tx: loperamide
(but not for infectious diarrhea caused by Shigella or Clostridium difficele), check orthostatic, oral
electrolyte mixture, dicyclomine for abdominal cramps. Send the pt home, follow in 3 days. Gram stain
shows GNRs normal bacteria in bowels (dont be fooled; follow culture which will show normal flora).
WBCs elevated an important sign of inflammation. ESR elevated, CBC normal. Follow-up: check
interval Hx, get focused PE: the pt still has diarrhea. Get colonoscopy, GI consult, low residue diet (less
fiber). Colonoscopy shows pseudopolyps. Tx: meselamine (later add steroids) or sulfasalazine.
7. Erosive esophagitis/ GERD
8. Acute pancreatitis
9. 53 y.o. F with Lower GI bleed and anemia
10. acute diarrhea
11. Diverticulitis
12. ischemic colitis
13. Gastric ulcer. 55 yom c/o epigastric pain 5/10 for 2 wks, wakes at night, pain is worse with eating,
without melena, N/V, heartburn. SH: ETOH positive, tobacco positive. PMH normal. DDx: ulcer disease,
GERD, cancer, pancreatitis, MI, dyspepsia. Full PE: mild epigastric tenderness, FOBT negative. Initial
mngt: CBC, ESR, BMP, EKG, LFT, lipase, omeprazole, H.pylori breath test (urea breath). GI consult
and consent for EGD. EGD shows gastric ulcer, get biopsy for H.pylori (but you dont have to order
biopsy for CA, it will be done by itself). Counsel for alcohol and smoking cessation. Follow-up in 3 days
when biopsy stain is back, H.pylori is negative. Focused PE. New follow-up in 1 month. New counsel for
colonoscopy and check lipid profile.
Hematology
1. G6PD in AA (?aplastic anemia) kid presented with jaundice.
2. Anemia secondary to colon cancer
3. 20 month old african american boy brought for fatigue and lethargy to office (initial orders - CBC

reveals anemia, MICROCYTIC TYPE - do iron studies (serum iron, ferritin and TIBC), blood lead
levels, reticulocyte count, LFTs, haptoglobin, sickle screen and LDH - ferritin low. No evidence of
hemolysis (r/o sickle cell at this time), do stool guaic (rectal exam in the beginning itself r/o blood loss
as a cause of Fe def) --> Fe defeciency diagnosed which is most common in children during growth
spurts if nutrition is not adequate ( remember you already ruled out other causes of Fe deficiency i.e;
lead poisoning, GI blood loss, ongoing hemolysis) . Order iron rich diet (very important to order this
diet since lack of balanced diet is the reason for Fe def in children during growth spurts) , iron oral
pills ( FERROUS SULFATE)- check cbc in 1 month/ schedule follow up visit - usually blood counts
return to normal in 2 months --> so, schedule follow up CBC and Ferritin level for "LATER" date i.e; 2
months later on 5 minute screen ( continue ferrous sulfate for at least 6 months even when blood count
normalized)
Infectious
1. Urosepsis. ER: 72 yof brought in for AMS. Hx of hospitalization for PNA, then diarrhea 2 months age.
SH: lives in assisted living facility. Temperature 101, vitals stable. DDx: urosepsis. Initial mngt: oxygen
and pulse oxymeter q 1hr, airway suction q1hr, IVA, vitals, cardiac monitor, EKG 12 lead normal, BMP
normal, CBC with WBC 18.000, blood culture x1, LFT, portable CXR normal, UA: cloudy, positive LE,
positive nitrites, get urine culture. Aspiration precautions: elevate HOB.
2. Toxic Shock syndrome
3. 40 y.o. M with IVDA and SOB with fever (Infective Endocarditis)
4. Chlamydia urethritis in 23 y/o male
5. Acute bacterial prostatitis
6. Osteomyelitis
Nephrology
1. Minimal change disease: Child had scrotal swelling. Office: 10 yom, c/o swelling for 10 days including
low extremities and scrotum. PMH: strep sore throat 10 days ago. DDx: glomerulonephritis, nephrotic
syndrome with protein >3.5 (minimal change disease), allergy, liver disease, malnutrition. Full PE:
swelling, no rash, without rales/crackles. Initial mngt: UA stat in the office (dipstick takes 30 min)
shows no blood (rules out glomerulonephritis), positive for protein, ?lipid casts, CBC, LFT, BMP, order
diuretics only if pulmonary edema, CXR AP/lat, urine protein for 24 hrs, diet with low Na. follow-up in 3
days: focused PE still shows edema. BMP normal, 24 hr Na 50 confirms minimal change disease, maybe
lipiduria, start prednisone, does not need renal biopsy. Next follow-up in 4 wks. Counsel parents, order
lipid panel, check 24 hr protein in 4 wks, continue low Na diet.
2. 50 + y.o. F with Renal failure and family h/o ADAPKD, HIGH K+
3. Cystitis
Oncology
For any pt with CA seen in the office do metastatic work-up for staging and call Oncology.
1. Breast CA
2. benign endometrial hyperplasia
3. Endometrial carcinoma
4. X2 cervical cancer
5. ovarian tumor, ovarian teratoma
6. Vulvar Squamous cell cancer
7. X2 pancreatic ca, old man with fatigue, weightloss - exam shows icterus - go ahead with CT
8. gastric carcinoma
9. Adenocarcinoma colon
10. ALL : 4 yo boy presents with weakness, disinterest in activity and lesion on leg. On examination, the
lesion was ecchymosis and there was generalized lymphadenopathy with liver enlargement. CBC, BMP,
LFTs, LDH -- > revealed CBC: anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, lymphocytosis with 95%
lymphocytes on DC, peripheral smear shows blasts (schistocytes if there is concomitant DIC), LDH
elevated in leukemias/ lymphomas, hepatosplenomegaly on ultrasound, CXR: many enlarged lymph

nodes, then now need to do bone marrow biopsy (diagnostic step) and this reveals many lymphoblasts.
Admit and call ped/onc, CT chest and abdomen (shows wide spread lymphadenopathy), bone scan,
karyotype- counsel: cancer diagnosis. Check PT/PTT, FDPs and fibrinogen to r/o DIC as 10% ALL
patients may have DIC. If there is fever at presentation, make sure to get pan cultures. Make sure to
order "neutropenia precautions" if there is absolute neutropenia (ANC < 500)
Pulmonology
1. Acute Asthma Attack
2. 14 y.o. F with Asthma exacerbation in office, shift her to ER after doing the pulse oxy and PEFR
3. Exacerbation of Asthma diffuse wheezes. Nebs, iv steroids, o2, PEFR
4. Right upper quadrant pain, cxr - PNA - right lower lobe - community acqd pneumonia. ER: 66 yom, c/o
severe, sharp, continious RUQ pain x8 hrs a/w deep breath. DDx: cholecystitis, right-side PNA, pleuritis,
pancreatitis, renal stones, hepatitis. Initial mngt: morphine x1 (pain is a priority, even for abdominal
pain), vitals q1hr, oxygen and pulse oxymeter, IVA, cardiac monitor, EKG (normal), CBC, BMP, LFT
(normal). PE: tenderness, guarging RUQ but without Murphy sign or rigidity. Portable CXR (the pt
is in pain) shows RLL PNA. Admit for IV ABx (the pt is old, high fever). UA, amylase / lipase (more
specific for pancreatitis) normal. Check interval Hx and finish PE normal. Tylenol PRN and advance
the clock. NPO, NS, ceftriaxone (Gram-positive and Gram-negative coverage + azythromycin (only to
cover atypical organisms) or levofloxacin (covers everything including Mycoplasma and Legionella). Get
sputum and blood cultures. Now can change location after first dose of ABx. Criteria for discharge 24
hrs afebrile. Check CBC on day 2. Vaccine: influenza on day 5 IM, pneumo IM. Counsel: colonoscopy.
Change diet to regular.
5. bacterial pneumonia
Rheumatology
1. Osteoarthritis of the knee (if there is large joint effusion, always do arthrocentesis)
2. SLE
3. 4 yo. F with ANA +ve Arthritis
4. Polymyalgia rheumatica. Office: 75 yof, c/o stiffness in both shoulders and fatigue for 6 wks. PMH:
osteoarthritis, without weight loss. SH: normal. ROS: HA on the left side. DDx: polymyocytis, temporal
arthritis, dermatomyocytis, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, hypothyroidism (fatigue),
osteoarthritis. Complete PE: normal, stiffening limitation in shoulders and hips, without tenderness.
Initial labs: CBC, BMP, UA, ESR (very high; confirms polymyalgia rheumatica), x-ray of bilateral
shoulders and hips (use control button) shows only mild osteoarthritis (not explaining pain); CRP normal,
rheumatoid factor negative, TSH normal. Give Tylenol and physical therapy (symptomatic Tx even not
sure about Dx), send home, follow in 1 wk. follow-up appt: focused PE, start prednisone, check DEXA
(as prednisone will be for a long time) for baseline, esp. she is at risk for osteoporosis as postmenopausal.
Start Ca carbonate, vitamin D3 (calciferol), alendronate, temporal artery biopsy, colonoscopy (does not
need mammogram as she is already 75 yo).
5. Giant cell arteritis
6. septic arthritis
7. rh. arthritis
Dermatology
Immunology
1. HIV with PCP and lymphoma
2. HIV in a 25 y/o f with multiple partners presents with with weightloss, fatigue and cough. Do HIV test,
viral load, genotyping. Then cd4 count.
3. Anaphylactic reaction. ER: 25 yof, c/o SOB, itching and wheezing after bee sting. Vitals: low BP,
tachycardia. Start Tx without PE: IVA, oxygen and pulse oxymeter, vitals q1hr, cardiac monitor,
epinephrine x1, NS, BPM, diphenhydramine, famotidine, prednisolone for 5 days, albuterol continious.
Finish PE. When BP is stabilized transfer to ICU for possible delayed reaction. Check HCG, CBC, BMP,
vitals. Later: skin test (when the pt is off steroids), allergy in 2 wks (check for more broad allergies);

immunology consult, Pap smear, counsel: use epinephrine.


Neurology
1. TIA
2. Woman with multiple sclerosis (comes with weakness and has nystagmus on neuron exam)
3. CIN III
Toxicology
1. Tylenol overdose
2. TCA Overdose : 30 year old man with no history know brought in the ER by a neighbor with
unconsciousness and unresponsive state....he had some depression as per neighbor (TCA overdose).
How will you manage? DDx: overdose medication, schizophrenia, infection, drugs, hypoglycemia.
Initial management: secure airway, continuous suction (start with it, dont intubate right away; but
if irreversible, than intubate); oxygen, IVA, blood sugar with Accucheck (takes 2 min; if low give
dextrose), ethanol level, give thiamine IV, naloxone IV x1, salycilate level, Tylenol level, UA, CBC,
BMP, EKG 12 lead shows prolonged QT interval (?TCA), portable CXR, toxicology screen in urine
takes 2 hrs shows TCA. Do neurochecks q2hrs to follow Tx. As reversible causes of unconsciousness
are ruled out you can intubate the pt before starting treating something. Consult pulmonary medicine for
ventilator settings. Give Na bicarbonate IV (lidocaine for V-tach), NG tube, do gastric lavage. Transfer to
ICU, consult psychiatry, make suicide precautions, check depression index.
3. Lead poisoning
4. Opoid poisoning
5. Alcohol intoxication- 40 year old man presents to ER in comatose state and is unresponsive. Alcohol
breath. ETOH level very high . How will you manage? .
Geriatrics
Elder abuse