You are on page 1of 72

SYLLABUS FOR

SCIENCE COURSES

SYLLABUS FOR
ARTS COURSES
AURCET - 2010
*Syllabus*
DIRECTORATE OF ADMISSIONS
AURCET - 2010

NAAC ‘A’ grade


(CGPA 3.65 on 4 point scale)

SYLLABUS FOR
SYLLABUS FOR
ARTS COURSES
SCIENCE COURSES
PAPER -- II & II
PAPER II

44
Annexure-II
TEST PATTERN
A. General:
1. Common Entrance test (AURCET-2010) for admission into Full time M. Phil & Ph.D
programmes in various Science and Arts and some Engineering faculties will be
conducted by the Directorate of Admissions in VISAKHAPATNAM only.
2. The test codes, the names of the departments different from M.Phil / Ph.D
programmes are offered along with the eligibility criteria are given in Annexure – I of
the AURCET Information Brochure.
3. The Common entrance test (AURCET-2010) for each subject / department consists
of two papers with multiple choice objective type questions.
4. Paper-I shall be of 45 minutes duration with 50 multiple choice questions for 50
marks. Paper-I is common for all Science and Engineering Subjects / Departments.
Similarly Paper-I is common for all Arts Subjects / Departments for 50 marks with 45
minutes duration. Paper-I of Science stream is different from Paper-I of Arts stream.
5. Paper-II shall be of 90 minutes duration with 100 multiple choice questions for 100
marks in the concerned subject for which the syllabus is given below. Paper-II will be
different for each department.
6. Based on the number of seats available and the number of applications received, the
University reserves the right to conduct or not to conduct the test.
7. Based on the eligibility criteria and the research interest of the candidate, he/she has
to choose only one test for admission into that particular department. In case if a
candidate wants to seek admission in more than one department (subject) he/she
has to submit separate application and has to appear for separate tests in Paper-I
and Paper-II depends on the
8. Those who obtain a minimum of 40% in Paper-I and Paper-II put together (35% in
case of SC & ST candidates) only will be eligible for presentation of Statement of
Research Interest (SRI) or interview. Those who do not obtain the above mentioned
cutoff mark will not be considered for admission.
B) Departments offering M.Phil./Ph.D.(Full time) Programmes through entrance test in:
a. A U College of Science & Technology:
(1)Applied Mathematics & Engineering Mathematics, (2) Biochemistry, (3)
Biotechnology, (4) Botany, (5) Environmental Science, (6) Geography, (7) Geology,
(8) Geophysics, (9) Human Genetics, (10) Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry,
Engineering chemistry, (11) Marine Living Resources, (12) Mathematics,
(13) Meteorology & Physical Oceanography, (14) Microbiology, (15) Nuclear Physics,
(16) Organic & food, Drugs, and Water Chemistry, (17) Physics & Engineering
Physics, (18) Physical, Nuclear & Chemical Oceanography, (19) Statistics, (20)
Systems Design, (21) Zoology, (22) Food, Nutrition and Deities (23) Geo Engineering
b. A.U.College of Arts & Commerce:
(31) Anthropology, (32) Commerce (33) Management (34) Economics (35) Education
(36) Adult & Continuing Education (37) English (38) Hindi, (39) History (40)
Archeology (41) MHRM (42) MJMC (NT) (43) MLISc (44) Linguistics (45) Music (46)
Philosophy (NT) (47) Politics (48) Public Administration (49) Psychology (50) Sanskrit
(51) Social Work (52) Sociology (53) Telugu (54) Physical Education (98) Human
Rights and Duties (Offered at Law College).

**********

[ 13 ]
CONTENTS
SL.NO SUBJECT PAGE NO.
SCIENCE SUBJECTS
I. Paper – I…………………………………………… 1
II. Paper – II.
1. Applied Mathematics………………………………….. 2
2. Biochemistry……………………………………………. 3
3. Biotechnology…………………………………………… 4
4. Botany…………………………………………………… 8
5. Environmental Science………………………………… 9
6. Geography………………………………………………... 9
7. Geology……………………………………………………. 11
8. Geophysics………………………………………………... 12
9. Human Genetics………………………………………… 13
10. Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry………………… 14
11. Marine Living Resources……………………………….. 16
12. Mathematics……………………………………………... 18
13. Meteorology & Oceanography……………………........ 19
14. Microbiology……………………………………………..... 22
15. Nuclear Physics…………………………………………... 29
16. Organic & Food, Drugs, & Water Chemistry…….... 32
17. Physics……………………………………………………. 34
18. Physical Nuclear Chemistry & Chemical
Oceanography……………………………………………. 36
19. Statistics…………………………………………………... 38
20. System Design……………………………………………. 38
21. Zoology……………………………………………………. 39
22. Food, Nutrition And Dietetics………………………. 41
23. Geo Engineering…………………………………………... 43

45
PAPER – I

Syllabus of Paper –I : Common to all Science Subjects: General information on Science and
its interface with society to test the candidates awareness of science, aptitude of scientific and
quantitative reasoning. Questions would be so designed to judge the creativity, analytical ability
and research aptitude of a candidate. The questions to test the knowledge at the basic level would
be setup in each of the subject areas of NET, viz., Chemical Sciences, Earth, Atmospheric, Ocean
& Planetary Sciences; Life Sciences; Mathematical Sciences, Physical Sciences and each 8 marks.
8 X 5 = 40 Marks.
Common Elementary Computer Science:
(Applicable to all candidates offering any subject area; A few questions dealing with basic computer
awareness and uses). 10 Marks
(i) Programming Instructions
(ii) Simple algorithms and Computational methods.

Total : 50 Marks.

1
PAPER – II
TEST NO. 01: APPLIED MATHEMATICS: REAL AND COMPLEX ANALYSIS (15questions)
REAL ANALYSIS: Basic Topology, Limit and Continuity, The Riemann-Stieltjes integral, Multivariable
Differential Calculus, Sequences and series of functionsCOMPLEX ANALYSIS: Functions of a complex
variable, Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Contour integration, Taylor and Laurent series,
Singularities, Calculus of Residues , Conformal mapping.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (15questions)
ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS: Linear equations with variable coefficients, the wronskian
and linear independence, reduction of the order of a homogeneous equations, the non-homogeneous
equations. Homogeneous equations with analytic coefficients. Linear equations with regular singular
points, Euler’s equations and series solutions. Existence and uniqueness of solutions of 1st order
equations, exact equations, Picard’s method of successive approximations, existence & uniqueness of
solution to systems.
dx dy dz
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS: Equations of the form , Orthogonal
P Q R
trajectories, Pfaffian differential equations, 1st order partial differential equations; Charpit’s method and
some special methods. Jacobi’s method. Second order Partial differential equations with constant &
Variable coefficients, canonical forms, separation of variables method.
DISCRETE MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES AND THEORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE:
DISCRETE MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES : Mathematical logic, Theory of Inference, Relations
and ordering , Lattices- Lattices as partially ordered sets, properties of Lattices, Lattices as algebraic
systems, sub-Lattices, direct product and homomorphism, some special Lattices, Boolean Algebra -
subalgebra, direct product and Homomorphism, Boolean forms and free Boolean Algebras, values of
Boolean expressions and Boolean functions.
THEORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE : The Theory of finite Automata, Formal Languages- Chomsky
classification of Languages, Languages and their relation, Recursive and recursively enumerable sets,
operations of languages, Languages and Automaton, Regular sets and Regular Grammars, Context-
free Languages, Turing Machines.
NUMERICAL METHODS AND C- LANGUAGE: Numerical techniques of solving transcendental and
polynomial equations: Bisection methods, secant method, Newton-Raphson method, Chebyshev
method, Rate of convergence, Iteration methods of first and second orders. Methods for multiple
roots. Numerical techniques of solving system of lineal Algebraic equations: Triangularization method,
Gauss elimination method, Gauss-Jordan method, Iterative methods: Jacobi method, Gauss-Seidel
method. Numerical techniques of determining the eigen values and eigen vectors of a matrix: Jacobi
method, power method and Rutishausher method Interpolation and Approximation, Numerical
techniques for evaluating derivatives and integrals, Numerical techniques for solving ordinary differential
equations, Numerical methods for solving elliptic partial differential equations.
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE-C: Data types, Operators and Some statements, Writing a Program in
C, Control statements, Functions and Program Structures, Arrays, Pointers.
METHODS OF APPLIED MATHEMATICS CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS: Euler’s equations,
Functional dependence on higher order derivatives, variational problems in parametric form and
applications.
TENSOR ANALYSIS : Covariant and Contravariant vectors, contraction, second & higher order tensors,
quotient law, fundamental tensor, associate tensor, angle between the vectors, principal directions,
Christoffel symbols, covariant and intrinsic derivatives.
INTEGRAL EQUATIONS: Solutions of integral equations, Volterre and Fredholm integral equations.
INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS: Fourier and Laplace Transforms, its applications to ordinary and partial
differential equations.
MECHANICS:

2
(I) CLASSICAL MECHANICS: Lagrangian Formulation- D’Alembert’s principle , Hamilton’s principle,
conservation theorems and symmetry properties, , Hamiltonian formulation- Legendre transformations
and the Hamilton equations of motion, the principle of least action, Poisson and Lagrange brackets,
Jacobi’s identity; Poisson’s Theorem., Hamilton Jacobi Equations for Hamilton’s principal function,
New concept of space and time, Lorentz transformation equations.
CONTINUUM MECHANICS: Analysis of strain, deformation, geometrical interpretation of the
components of strain, compatibility, Analysis of stress, equations of equilibrium, Mohr’s diagram,
Kinematics of fluids, real and ideal fluids, velocity of fluid at a point, streamlines and path lines, velocity
potential, velocity vector, local and particle rates of change, equation of continuity, Acceleration of fluid
conditions at a rigid boundary. General analysis of fluid motion. Euler’s equation of motion and Bernoulli’s
equation, Kelvin’s circulation theorem, Vortex motion.
(II). STATISTICAL METHODS: Random variables, distribution functions, Mathematical expectation
and Generating functions, Probability Distributions (Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions),
Correlation and Regression.

TEST NO.02: BIOCHEMISTRY:MOLECULES AND THEIR INTERACTION RELAVENT TO BIOLOGY


Composition, structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and
vitamins). Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative
properties).Bioenergetics, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reaction, group transfer,
biological energy transducers. Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation,
mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary,
tertiary and quaternary structure; domains; motif and folds). Conformation of nucleic acids (A-, B-, Z-,
DNA), t-RNA, micro-RNA).
CELLULAR ORGANIZATION Membrane structure and function: Structure of model membrane,
lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, ion pumps,
mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport, electrical properties of membranes.
Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles: Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi
bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure &
function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility.
Organization of genes and chromosomes: interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin
and chromosomes, unique and repetitive DNA, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons.
FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES DNA replication, repair and recombination: Unit of replication,
enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extra-chromosomal
replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms.
RNA synthesis and processing: Transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex,
transcription activators and repressors, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation and termination, RNA
processing, RNA editing, splicing, polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA,
RNA transport.
Protein synthesis and processing: Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and
their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA,
tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, post-
translational modification of proteins.
Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level: Regulation of phages, viruses,
prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression, role of chromatin in regulating gene expression and gene
silencing.
CELL COMMUNICATION AND CELL SIGNALING Cell signaling: Hormones and their receptors,
cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways,
second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component signaling
systems, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.
Cellular communication: Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell
adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins,
neurotransmission and its regulation.

3
Cancer: Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and
the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis,
therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth.
Innate and adaptive immune system: Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity,
antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody
molecules, generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-
antibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation
of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and
secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector
functions, inflammation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, immune response during bacterial
(tuberculosis), parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections, congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies,
vaccines.
APPLIED BIOLOGY: Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules.Application
of immunological principles (vaccines, diagnostics). tissue and cell culture methods for plants and
animals. Transgenic animals and plants, molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification.
Genomics and its application to health and agriculture, including gene therapy. Bioremediation
Biosensors.Clinical Enzymology, Liver and Kidney Function tests, Plasma proteins and their variations
in diseases, Anemia, Endocrine disorders of Pancreas.
METHODS IN BIOLOGYMolecular biology and recombinant DNA methods: Isolation and purification
of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation methods; analysis of RNA,
DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing gels; molecular
cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems; expression of recombinant
proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors; isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences; generation
of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors; in vitro mutagenesis
and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms; protein sequencing
methods, detection of post-translation modification of proteins; DNA sequencing methods, strategies
for genome sequencing; methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale
expression analysis, such as micro array based techniques; isolation, separation and analysis of
carbohydrate and lipid molecules; RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques.
Histochemical and immunotechniques: Antibody generation, detection of molecules using ELISA,
RIA, western blot, immunoprecipitation, flowcytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, detection
of molecules in living cells, in situ localization by techniques such as FISH and GISH.
Biophysical methods: Analysis of biomolecules using UV/visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism,
NMR and ESR spectroscopy, structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR; analysis using
light scattering, different types of mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods. co:
Statistical Methods: Measures of central tendency and dispersal; probability distributions (Binomial,
Poisson and normal); sampling distribution; difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics;
confidence interval; errors; levels of significance; regression and correlation; t-test; analysis of variance;
2
X test.
Radiolabeling techniques: Properties of different types of radioisotopes normally used in biology,
their detection and measurement; incorporation of radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells, molecular
imaging of radioactive material, safety guidelines.
Microscopic techniques: Visualization of cells and sub-cellular components by light microscopy,
resolving powers of different microscopes, microscopy of living cells, scanning and transmission
microscopes, different fixation and staining techniques for EM, freeze-etch and freeze-fracture methods
for EM, image processing methods in microscopy.
Computational methods: Nucleic acid and protein sequence databases; data mining methods for
sequence analysis, web-based tools for sequence searches, motif analysis and presentation.
TEST NO. 03: BIOTECHNOLOGY:1: CELL BIOLOGY: Structure of typical bacterial, plant and animal
cells and functions of cell organelles. Mechanism of cell division. Cell cycle – Molecular events including
cell cycle check points and Cdk – cyclin complexes and their role in cell cycle regulation. Ultra structure
of plasmamembrane - Components and membrane asymmetry. Transport processes - active transport,

4
ionophores and ion channels. Exo and endocytosis. Phago and pinocytosis.General morphology and
functions of endoplasmic reticulum. Signal hypothesis. Ribosomes - eucaryotic and procaryotic.
Ribosomal proteins. Role of Golgi in protein secretion. Lysosomes and peroxisomes. Cytoskelatal
elements. Cell – cell interaction. Mitochondria - structure, biogenesis and enzymatic compartmentation.
Organization of mitochondrial respiratory chain, mechanism of oxidative of phosphorylation. Ultra
structure of the chloroplast. Photosynthesis - photophosphorylation. Carbon dioxide fixation in C-3, C-
4 and CAM plants. Photorespiration.Organic evolution: Origin of life. Species concept, population, dones,
races, and subspecies. Mechanisms of speciation. Role of isolating mechanisms. Lamarckism,
Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism, synthetic theory of evolution. Micro, macro and mega evolution, sequential
and divergent evolution. Natural selection.
2: BIOMOLECULES Chemical foundations of Biology – pH, pK, acids, bases, buffers, weak bonds
and covalent bonds. Classification, structure, properties and biological significance of carbohydrates.
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides. Biological role of peptidoglycans, glycosamino
glycans and Lectins. Lipids - classification, structure and properties of fatty acids, triglycerides,
phospholipids, sphingolipids and cholesterol.Amino acids - Classification, structure and physico-chemical
properties. Chemical synthesis of peptides – solid phase peptide synthesis. Proteins - classification,
purification and criteria of homogeneity. Structural organization, sequence determination and
characterization of proteins. Confirmation of proteins – Ramachandran plots. Denaturation of proteins.
Hetero cyclic compounds – Heme and Chlorophylls.Structure and properties of purines, pyrimidines,
nucleosides, and nucleotides. Covalent structure of DNA and different forms of DNA - A,B and Z. DNA
super coiling. Types of RNA and covalent structure of t-RNA. Classification, structure and physiological
roles of Vitamins.Hormones- classification and mechanism of action of steroid and protein hormones.
Signal transduction cascade by cyclic AMP, Phospho inositate and calcium (Ca+), G-proteins, growth
factors and membrane receptor tyrosine kinases. Phytohormones and their physiological roles.
3: MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY & GENETICS: Classification and cultivation of bacteria. Bacterial
reproduction and growth curve. Preparation of bacteriological media. Staining techniques. Differences
between gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Methods of sterilization, pasteurization and
disinfection. Microbiology of water, milk, air, soil and sewage. Microbes as pathological agents in plant
and animals. Clinically important bacteria. Biohazards - safety precautions.Chemical nature and
classification of bacteriophages. Parasitic and temperate phages. Plant and animal viruses –
multiplication of viruses. General characteristics of T Phase, Ix174, SV40, TMV. Clinically important
viruses, retroviruses, HIV, Hepatitis B Virus and viral infections. General account of algae molds and
yeasts. Economic importance of algae and fungi. Clinically significant protozoans.Microbial genetics:
Recombination in prokaryotes, Transformation, conjugation, transduction and sexduction. Mapping of
prokaryotic gene. Transposons, retrotransposons and mechanism of transposition. Viral genetics.
Biology of plasmids. Extra chromosomal inheritance. Genetics of Eukaryotes: Gene & Environment,
Genotype and phenotype, Mendel’s experiments, Dominance relationships. Multiple alleles, Gene
Interaction, Gene mutations, Sex determination, Sex linkage, Linkage and recombination in diploids.
Tetrad analysis. Elements of gene mapping, Pedigree analysis
4: ANALYTICAL TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY : Principles and applications of
light, phase contrast, fluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Properties of
electromagnetic radiations. Principles, instrumentation and applications of UV, visible, infrared, ORD,
CD, NMR spectroscopy. Spectrofluorimetry and mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction. Flow
cytometry.Principles and applications of gel-filtration, ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. TLC,
GLC and HPLC. Basic principles of sedimentation. Applications of preparative and analytical ultra
centrifuges. Principles and applications of lyophilization. General principles of electrophoretic techniques.
Poly Acryl amide Gel Electrophoresis. Iso-electric focusing. Isotachophoresis. 2-D Electrophoresis.
Capillary electrophoresis. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA. Blotting techniques. DNA
fingerprinting. Stable and radioactive isotopes. Detection and measurement of radioactivity. Applications
of radioisotopes in biological sciences. Autoradiography. Non-isotopic tracer techniques. Principles

5
and range of electrochemical techniques. Operation of pH electrodes. Principles and applications of
Ion-selective and gas sensing electrodes. Oxygen electrodes.
1: ENZYMOLOGY & METABOLISM : Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes. Enzyme kinetics.
Factors affecting the rates of enzyme catalysed reactions. Assay of enzyme activity – units of enzyme
activity. Multisubstrate reactions. Enzyme – substrate (protein ligand) binding. Methods for measurement
of km. Coenzymes, metalloenzymes, and isoenzymes with examples. Active site determination.
Mechanism of enzyme action of Chymotrypsin & Trypsin, carboxy peptidase-A and ribonuclease A.
Multienzyme systems. Covalent modification. Zymogen activation. Enzyme inhibition – Competitive,
non-competitive and uncompetitive. Allosteric enzymes, Ribozymes and catalytic antibodies.Glycolysis,
Glycogenolysis, glycogenesis, gluconeogenesis, HMP shunt path way and their regulation. Tricarboxylic
acid (TCA) cycle, Glyoxylate cycle and its significance. Biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids.
Metabolism of cholesterol. Ketone bodies. Biosynthesis of Heme and chlorophylls.Protein turnover.
General metabolic reactions of amino acids. Urea cycle. Nitrogen fixation. Essential and non-essential
amino acids. Biosynthesis and degradation of aromatic and branched chain aminoacids. Inborn errors
of amino acid metabolism. Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and their regulation.
Catabolism of purines and pyrimidines.
2: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Organization of genetic material - Packing of DNA in to chromatin -
protein components of chromatin, histones, nucleosome organization. Solenoids loops, domains &
scaffolds. Gene amplification, polytene chromosomes. DNA replication – apparatus, enzymes involved
and mechanism. Replication at telomeres. DNA damage and repair mechanism. Nuclear genome.C
- value paradox. Mitochondrial & plastid genomes and genes. Fine structure of the eukaryotic gene.
Split genes. Different kinds of genes: overlapping, assembled, polyprotein & nested genes.Transcription
in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mechanism of transcription, enzymes and transcription factors, zinc
finger, leucine zipper mechanism. Maturation and processing of m-RNA, splicing, 5' end capping & 3'
end tailing. RNA editing and transport. RNAi and small RNAs.Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
Genetic code - properties of the genetic code, deciphering of the genetic code. Ribosome as a translation
factory. t - RNA as an adaptor, its mode of function. Post translational modifications. Leader sequences
& protein targeting. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes - The operon concept, lac & tryp
operons. Transcriptional control. Post translational control. Regulation in eukaryotes - Control by
promoter, enhancer and silencers. Cis-trans elements. Environmental & developmental regulation.
DNA methylation & gene expression. Chromatin structure & gene expression.
3: GENETIC ENGINEERING: Isolation of DNA and RNA. Restriction mapping, DNA sequencing by
chemical and enzymatic methods. Nucleic acid blotting – southern and northern blotting. DNA cloning.
Enzymes used in genetic engineering : Restriction endonucleases - types, nomenclature and properties.
DNA polymerase-I, polynucleotide kinase, DNA ligase, terminal nucleotide transferase, Reverse
transcriptase, alkaline phosphatase, S1 nuclease.Salient features of cloning vectors, types of cloning
vectors - plasmids, cosmids, phages (lamda and M13 phages), animal (SV40, Baculo) and plant
(CMV) viruses, Artificial chromosomes - YACs and MACs. Ligation of foreign DNA to vectors - cohesive
and blunt end methods - homopolymer tailing and adaptors. Preparation of gene libraries and c-DNA
libraries . Techniques of gene transfer - transformation , transfection, micro injection, electroporation,
lipofection and biolistics. Selection of r-DNA clones and their expression. Nucleic acid probes, colony
and fluorescent in-situ hybridization. Polymerase Chain Reaction and its applications. DNA micro array
technology. Applications of genetic engineering in agriculture, animal husbandry, medicine and in industry.
Genomics – genome sequencing by shot gun and hierarchical method. Genome annotation –
identification of genes, promoters and exon – intron boundries.
4: BIOLOGY OF IMMUNE SYSTEM: Types of immunity – innate, acquired, passive and active.
Organisation and structure of lymphoid organs – bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lymphnodes.
Cells of the immune system – B-Lymphocytes, T-Lymphocytes. T-cell receptor – structure and
function. Macrophages. Types of cell mediated immunity and lymphokine activatd killer cells. Clonal
nature of immune response, Immunological memory. Immuno regulation. Adjuvants and immunological
tolerance.Nature of antigens and antibodies. Structure and function of antibodies. Isotypes, Allotypes
and Idiotypes. Antigen – antibody interactions. The generation of antibody diversity, antigen receptors

6
Techniques involved in transgenic fish production. Post harvest technology. Diagnosis of shrimp & fish
diseases caused by bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens using molecular methods.
4: MEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGYHealth care products. Products from
recombinant DNA Technology - insulin, growth hormone, factor VIII, tissue plasminogen activator,
interferons, lymphokines and Hepatitis-B vaccines. Disease diagnosis: DNA probes, Enzyme probes -
glucose oxidase, lactate oxidase, monoamine oxidase. PCR amplification and diagnosis - Applications
in forensic medicine. Genetic diseases and gene therapy. Current strategies for development of vaccines
against HIV, Malaria, Tuberculosis.Environmental pollution – types, sources and control. Reduction of
environmental impact of industrial effluents, chemical herbicides and fertilizers. Removal of oil spills.
Environmental monitoring and biomonitoring. Bioremediation - solid and liquid waste treatment. Biomass
and energy production from waste. Bioleaching – Microbial recovery of metals and acid mine drainage.
Water pollution and its control. Microbiology of waste water treatment.Environment and energy:
Renewable sources of energy – Biogas, waste materials, energy crops, cellulose. Production of energy
and fuel using microorganism – Biofuels and Biodiesal. Global environmental problems: Ozone depletion,
UV-B, Green house effect. Biodiversity - benefits to mankind - Conservation; Ecology and sustainable
development.
1: HETEROLOGOUS EXPRESSION AND DOWN STREAM PROCESSING:
Heterologous Expression: Expression vectors and hosts Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS)
organisms. Production of active recombinant proteins of mammalian/Eukaryotic origin in prokaryotes.
Large scale production of proteins from recombinant microorganisms. Principles of microbial growth –
Batch fermentation, feed-batch fermentation – continuous fermentation, high density cell cultures –
Bioreactors – Large scale fermentation system – tandem Airlift reactors – Single stirred tank reactors.
Down stream processing: Harvesting microbial cells – Membrane filtration system, high speed semi
continuous centrifugation – disrupting microbial cells. Gram scale purification of recombinant proteins
– Chromatography systems and analytical methods for large scale purification. Stabilization of the
proteins.
Processing technology: Microbial metabolites - Organic solvents (Alcohol, Acetone, Butanol), Organic
acids (Citric acid, lactic acid), Wines and beers, Antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, semi
synthetic penicillins), Vitamins (Vitamin B12 and Riboflavin), Amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid). Production
of single cell proteins.
Enzyme technology: Sources production, isolation and purification of enzymes for the industrial use.
Application of enzymes in pharmaceutical, food processing and other industries. Different techniques
of immobilization of enzymes, applications and kinetics of immobilized enzymes. Design and operation
of immobilized enzyme systems and bioreactors. Whole cell immobilization. Biosensors - principle and
types.
2: BIOINFORMATICS AND BIOSTATISTICSScope of computers in current biological research. Basic
operations, architecture of computer. Introduction of digital computers. Organization, low level and
high level languages, binary number system. The soft side of the computer – Different operating systems
– Windows, Linux. Introduction of programming in C. Introduction to Internet and its
applications.Introduction to Bioinformatics – Genomics and Proteomics. Bioinformatics – Online tools
and offline tools. Biological databases. Types of data bases – Gen bank, Swiss port, EMBL, NCBL, and
PDB. Database searching using BLAST and FASTA.Multiple sequence alignment and Dynamic
programming. Gene and Genome annotation – Tools used. Physical map of genomes. Molecular
phylogeny - Concept methods of tree construction. Protein secondary structure prediction. Protein 3D
structure prediction. Protein docking. Introduction to homology modeling, Computer Aided Drug Design
(CADD) in Drug discovery.Brief description and tabulation of data and its graphical representation.
Measures of central tendency and dispersion - mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, variance.
Simple linear regression and correlation. Types of errors and level of significance. Tests of significance
– F & t tests, chi-square tests, ANOVA.
TEST NO.04: BOTANY:
UNIT – I: Recent trends in the classification of Algae. Thallus organization and life history in Algae.
Economic importance of Algae. Fungi as partners of Plants. Microbes – Nitrogen fixation and cycle.

8
on B & T lymphocytes. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Human leukocyte antigens (HLA),
MHC restriction and typing. Lymphokines, effector cell mechanisms, genetic control of immune response.
Complement system. Immunological techniques - ELISA, RIA, Western Blot, Immunoblot and Immuno
fluorescent techniques. FACS. Hybridoma technology - production and applications of monoclonal
antibodies. Antibody engineering, chimeric antibodies. Hypersensitivity - types of hypersensitivity -
immediate and delayed hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, transplantation and immunity, immunity
to infectious agents. Vaccines and Vaccination, types of vaccines including new generation vaccines.
Tumor immunology.
1: CELL CULTURE TECHNOLOGY AND TISSUE ENGINEERING: Plant tissue culture technology:
culture media – composition and preparation. Factors governing in vitro behaviour, Somatic
embryogenesis, organogenesis and plant regeneration. Culture types. Micro propagation, Haploids,
somaclonal variations, , metabolite production in cultures. Isolation of protoplasts, protoplast fusion
and culture. Somatic hybridization.Animal cell and tissue culture. Primary culture, balanced salt solutions
and simple growth medium. Serum and protein free defined media. Cell lines, primary and established
cell line cultures. Basic techniques of mammalian cell culture in vitro. Tissue and organ culture. Production
and use of artificial tissues and organs – Skin, liver and pancreas. Apoptosis - mechanism and
significance.The biology of stem cells – Different types of stem cells – embryonic stem cells, fetal
tissue stem cells, adult stem cells; stem cell differentiation, stem cell plasticity – Differentiation versus
stem cell renewal. Isolation and propagation of embryonic stem cells; chimeras; generation of knockout
mice and knock-in technology.Hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow transplantation: Cells for
hematopoietic reconstitution – Cord blood stem cells; cells for adoptive cellular immunotherapy; bone
marrow transplantation - advantages and disadvantages. Allogenic, autologous, syngenic and congenic
transplantation. Clinical applications of stem cell therapy; neurodegenerative diseases – Parkinson’s
disease, Alzheimers, spinal cord injury and other brain syndromes.
2: PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGYPlant Genetic engineering: Gene cloning techniques, Techniques for
gene transfer into plants. Mechanism of gene transfer by TI and RI plasmids as vectors. Reporter
genes, transient gene assays and identification of transgenic plants. Molecular markers and their
significance. RFLP, , AFLP and QTL in plants. RAPD for molecular mapping and crop improvement.
Agricultural Biotechnology: Engineering of herbicide tolerance in plants, production of disease resistant
plants by gene transfer; Development of insect resistant plants. Biotechnological strategies for
engineering stress tolerance.Altering protein and oil quality traits in seeds. Chloroplast transformation
– advantages in tobacco and potato, plants for expression of bacterial, viral and eukaryotic genes.
Edible vaccines and plantibodies. The genetic manipulation of crop yield by enhancement of
photosynthesis.Algal Biotechnology: Laboratory culture of micro algae. Large scale biomass production.
Marine micro algae/sea weeds and their products. Edible sea weeds and their cultivation. Biofertilizers
– Blue green algal fertilizers – Azolla, Anabaena, symbiotic association. Sea weed fertilizers. Mycorrhizal
biofertilizers, bacterial fertilizers. Biopesticides in agricultural production.3: ANIMAL
BIOTECHNOLOGYTypes and causes of male and female infertility, sperm collection, Cryopreservation,
artificial insemination, Oocyte recovery, superovulation, oocyte maturation in vitro, In vitro fertilization
in humans and cattle. Embryo culture, embryo transfer in farm animals. Immunocontraception - hormonal
methods. Biotechnological approaches for the management of pests, mosquitoes and nematodes.
Live stock improvementProduction of transgenic animals - mice, sheep and fish. Molecular pharming
and animal cloning. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in humans – Legal and ethical aspects. Potential
applications of transgenic animals – Animal models for diseases and disorders. Transgenic poultry and
transgenic insects as bioreactor.The concept of aquatic biotechnology and blue revolution. Economically
important aquatic resources from fresh water, brackish water and marine habitats – the finfish, shellfish,
lime fish, algae, corals, and holothurians. Bioactive compounds from corals. Fish bioproducts. Pearl
culture technology – principles and applications.Aquaculture - Fresh water fish culture practices and
types. Freshwater prawn culture. Brackish water fish, shrimp and crab culture practices. Fresh water
fish hatchery and seed production. Hypophysation and induced breeding techniques. Eyestalk oblation.

7
Geomorphic processes and landforms – fluvial, glacial, eolian, coastal and karst. River forms and
processes – stream flow, stage-discharge relationship; hydrographs and flood frequency analysis.
Submarine relief. Geomorphology and topographic analysis including DEM, Environmental change –
causes effects on processes and landforms.
CLIMATOLOGY: Fundamental principles of climatology. Earth’s radiation balance; Latitudinal and
seasonal variation of insolation, temperature, pressure, wind belts, humidity, cloud formation and
precipitation, water balance. Air masses, Monsoon, Jet streams, tropical cyclones, and ENSO.
Classification of climates – Koppen’s and Thornthwaite’s scheme of classification. Climate change.
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY: Man and Environment.. Biogeochemical cycles Natural and
man-made hazards – droughts, floods, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis. Ecological balance,
environmental pollution and deterioration. Environmental planning and Management. Environmental
Impact assessment.
GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA: Psysiography, drainage, climate, soils and natural resources. The Himalaya,
Gannga-Brahmaputra Plains and Peninsular India. Precambrian schield, the Gondwana rift basins,
Deccan Plateau. Indian climatology with special reference to seasonal distribution and variation of
temperature, humidity, wind and precipitation; Climate zones of India. Agricultural geography of India.
Population – its distribution and characteristics. Urbanization and migration.. Environmental problems
and issues.
POPULATION GEOGRAPHY: World population, distribution and composition. India’s population,
composition and distribution. Factors affecting the growth and distribution of population. Malthus theory
of population and his contribution – Demographic transition theory and theory of optimum population.
Components of population growth – Fertility, mortality and migration. Factors affecting fertility, mortality
and migration.
GEOGRAPHY OF HEALTH: Geographical factors affecting human health (1). Physical factors –
refief, climate, soils and vegetation (ii) Social factors – population, densitiy, literacy, social customs and
poverty (iii) Economic factors – food and nutrition, occupation and standard of living (iv) Environmental
factors – urbanization and congestion, water, air and noise pollution and solid waste. Ecology, etiology
and transmission of major diseases: cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis, leprosy, cardiovascular,
cancer, AIDS and STDS. Diffusion of diseases and causes. Deficiency disorders and problems of
mal-nutrition in India.
URBAN & REGIONAL PLANNING: Classification of urban settlements on the base of size and function.
Urbban Growth and theories, Central place theory- Christaller and Losch theories, Rank size rule.
Urban morphology and urban land use structure, Urban morphological theories (Concentric, sector
and multi-nuclei theory), Urban problems. Regional concept in Geography, Conceptual and theoretical
frame work; Merits and limitations. Types of regions: Formal, functional, uniformal and nodal, single
purpose and multipurpose regions.
CARTOGRAPHY: Basic principles of Cartography – scales, projections, symbolization and
generalization. Cartography as graphic means of Communication. Theory of Visual perception. Visual
variables, graphic elements, colour and pattern, typography and lettering. Types of maps and their
uses. Cartographic techniques for different purposes – Socio-economic data, Weather and Climatic
data, Physiography. Computer Assisted Cartography, Integration of Cartography and GIS.
REMOTE SENSING: Energy sources and Radiation principles. Electromagnetic Spectrum – Energy
interactions with Atmosphere, Earth’s Surface features. Spectral reflectance patterns, Atmospheric
windows. Types and scales of aerial photographs – photographic resolution. Mosaics. Geometry of
vertical aerial photographs – Image displacement – Stereoscopy – Parallax measurement.. Modern
remoste sensing platforms. Sensors- characteristics, Visual and Digital image processing. Applications
of remote sensing techniques.
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: General database concept: Spatial and Non-spatial data
– Database Management Systems – Geographic data sources – Sources of error and data quality.
Data structure – Rastar and Vector and their capabilities – Data conversions – Relational database
model; Data compression of spatial objects. GIS Functioning: Data capture – digitizing and scanning
– preprocessing – Data manipulation analysis. Mapping concepts – Coordinate system and geocoding:

10
Transmission of plant viruses.
UNIT – II: Advancements in Plant Embryological research with the application of modern techniques.
Ultra structure and biochemical aspects of pollen and embryo sac. Significance of anatomical characters
in phylogeny Modern concepts on fertilization in angiosperms. Comparative morphology and taxonomy:
role of anatomy, Embryology, Palynology and Phytochemistry. Recent achievements in Tissue Culture
in Agriculture and Forestry.
UNIT – III: Vegetational types of India. Ecology and human welfare; Conservation and management of
Natural resources; Water and Air Pollution. Growth hormones and their role in Plant systems. Minerals
and their role in growth and development. Photosynthetic productivity in field Crops in relation to carbon
dioxide fixation mechanisms.
UNIT – IV: Plant genome: nuclear genome – concept of nucleotype; extent and organization of
repeated DNA sequences. Structure, Organization and expression of Chloroplast and Mitochondrial
genomes.
Modern concept of gene: Historical account; Complementation and genetic resolution; fine structure
analysis in Plants.
Biology of Cell cycle: Determination of mitotic and meiotic cycle duration; metabolic aspects of
mitotic and meiotic cycles; experimental control.
Somatic Cell hybridization: Protoplast culture, Transformation, fusion, somatic hybrids and transgenic
Plants.
Genetic engineering: General principles of recombinant DNA technology and applications.
Conservation of Crop genetic resources: Necessity; Cryopreservation; Gene Banks – significance

TEST NO. – 05: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES : Definition of Ecology – Energy Flows, Ecological
Pyramids, Food Chains and Food Webs- Ecological Succession – Population and Communities -
Ecosystem- Structure- Components (Abiotic and Biotic factors) and Functions. - Terrestrial and Aquatic
(Fresh Water and Marine) Ecosystems. Ecotones - Ecological Niches- Classification of Biomes and
Bio-geographical Regions of the World.Bio diversity- Definition & Significance of Biodiversity - Ecological,
Economical and Aesthetic importance. Distribution of climatic regions of India and Vegetation types-
Biodiversities of Tropical and Temperate regions of the World-Measures of Bio Diversity- Alfa, Beta and
Gamma diversities. Conventions on Biological Diversity - Forest and Environmental Protection Acts,
Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, Biosphere reserves, National Parks, and Wildlife Sanctuaries, Man &
Biosphere Programmes.Microbial groups: Bacteria, Fungi, Algae, Viruses, and Protozoa; their place in
the classification of living world; their biology, nutrition, metabolism and reproduction – Types and
composition of culture media and sterilization – Physical factors (Temperature and light, Osmotic
pressure, Hydrostatic pressure), Chemical factors (pH, O2 and CO2), Diversity of Microbial Habitats:
(Air, Soil and Water), their general physical features.
Structure of Atmosphere: Temperature Profile – Air Pollutants: Oxides of Sulphur – Oxides of Nitrogen
– Carbon monoxide – Particulate matter, and impacts – Photochemical smog – Green house effect –
Ozone depletion – Acid Rains – Sources and effects of noise pollution, – impacts of Air Pollution-
.Classification of water and Water bodies – Abnormal properties of water – Water cycle- Water Quality
Parameters – Water Pollution – Sources – Classification, nature, types and Toxicology of water pollutants:
– Eutrophication – Ground water pollution – Marine pollution – Ecological and Economic impacts of
water pollution. Soil Texture – Ecological and Economic impacts of soil erosion and soil
pollution.Environmental Problems of India and some Ecofriendly Solutions-Over population, Food
security, Health security, Energy security, Environmental security, Negative side of green revolution,
Desertification, Deforestation. Concepts of Environmental Risks Definitions for Environmental Risk –
concepts of Hazard, exposure, dose and response with special reference to Risk – Public perception of
Environmental Risk – Communication of Risk – Developmental activities/projects/programmes required
to carry out Risk assessments and propose Contingency Plans for Risk Management.

TEST NO. – 06: GEOGRAPHY: GEOMORPHOLOGY: Development in Geomorphology.


Geomorphological processes. Landforms in relation climate, rock type, structure and tectonics.
Processes – weathering, pedogenesis, mass movement, erosion, transportation and deposition.

9
environments. Geochemical studies of aerosols, surface-, marine-, and ground waters. Radioactive
decay schemes and their application to geochronology and petrogenesis. Stable isotopes and their
application to earth system processes. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY:Magmatic, hydrothermal and surface
processes of ore formation. Metallogeny and its relation to crustal evolution; Active ore-forming systems,
methods of mineral deposit studies including ore microscopy, fluid inclusions and isotopic systematics;
ores and metamorphism-cause and effect relationships. Geological setting, characteristics, and genesis
of ferrous, base and noble metals. Origin, migration and entrapment of petroleum; properties of source
and reservoir rocks; structural, stratigraphic and combination traps. Methods of petroleum exploration.
Petroliferous basins of India. Origin of peat, lignite, bitumen and anthracite. Classification, rank and
grading of coal; coal petrography, coal resources of India. Gas hydrates and coal bed methane. Nuclear
and non-conventional energy resources.
PRECAMBRIAN GEOLOGY AND CRUSTAL EVOLUTION:Evolution of lithosphere, hydrosphere,
atmosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere;, lithological, geochemical and stratigraphic characteristics of
granite – greenstone and granulite belts. Stratigraphy and geochronology of the cratonic nuclei, mobile
belts and Proterozoic sedimentary basins of India. Life Precambrian. Precambrian – Cambrain boundary
with special reference to India.
QUATERNARY GEOLOGY:Definition of Quaternary. Quaternary Stratigraphy – Oxygen Isotope
stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. Quaternary climates – glacial-interglacial cylces,
eustatic changes, proxy indicators of paleoenvironmental/paleoclimatic changes, - land, ocean and
cryosphere (ice core studies). Responses of geomorphic systems to climate, sea level and tectonics
on variable time scales in the quaternary,. Quaternary dating methods, -radiocarbon, Uranium series,
Luminescence, Amino-acid, relative dating methods. Quaternary stratigraphy of India – continental
records (fluvial, glacial, Aeolian, palaeosols and duricrust); marine records; continental-marine correlation
of Quaternary record.Evolution of man and Stone Age cultures. Plant and animal life in relation to
glacial and interglacial cycles during Quaternary. Tectonic geomorphology, neotectonics, active tectonics
and their applications to natural hazard assessment.
MINERAL EXPLORATION: Geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical methods of surface
and sub-surface exploration on different scales. Sampling, assaying and evaluation of mineral deposits.
HYDROGEOLOGY: Groundwater, Darcy’s law, hydrological characteristics of aquifers, hydrological
cycle. Precipitation, evapotranspiration and infiltration processes. Hydrological classification of water-
bearing formatins. Fresh and salt-water relationships in coastal and inland areas. Groundwater
exploration and water pollution. Groundwater regimes in India.

TEST NO. – 08: GEOPHYSICS: Origin of the earth- the universe and our galaxy, chemical evolution of
galaxy, formation of the earth and planets, primary differentiation of the earth. Composition of the
various zones, abundance of elements in the earth, the rotation of the earth, the moon, salient concepts
of plate tectonics.Earth and stratified rocks- importance of stratigraphy – geological cycle on time
scale. Stratigraphic nomenclature and classification. Sargur, Dharwar, Singhbhum super groups, Aravallis
and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belts, Cuddapahs, Vindhyans and Kurnool systems, Deccan basalts,
Cretaceous formations, and Quarternary formations – Boundary problems in stratigraphy.Physiography
and divisions of seas and world oceans –Properties of sea water: temperature, salinity and density -
Littoral zone, Continental margin: continental shelf, continental slope and continental rise – Hotspot
mechanism, seamounts and guyots - abyssal plains – turbidity currents - Mid - oceanic ridge system
- Coral reefs and their formation- Island arcs – trenches - Deep sea sediments, placers on the beach
and shelves, conditions for formation of polymettallic nodules. Matrices: Principles and definitions,
Single value decomposition method. Introduction to various generalized inversion techniques and their
properties. Least square polynomial approximation: the principle of least squares, least square
approximation over discrete sets of points, Chebysev Polynomial.Numerical Analysis; finding the roots
by numerical methods- bisection method, False position method, Newton Raphson method. Interpolation:
Finite difference, symbolic relations. Interpolation by Newtons formula. Gauss’s Central difference
formula, Bessel’s formula, Lagrangian formula and Richardson’s extrapolation. Numerical differentiation
and Integration: Maximum and minimum of a tabulated function. Numerical Integration-Trapezoidal
rule, Simpson’ s rule, Romberg integration, Weddle’s formula.Groundwater in Igneous, metamorphic,

12
sedimentary rocks. Exploration Geophysics: Geological and Geochemical techniques. Importance Of
geophysical techniques.Hydrology - definition, hydrologic cycle, vertical distribution of groundwater
types of aquifers, Darcy’s law, porosity, permeability - laboratory measurement, well hydraulics - steady
and unidirectional flow, quality of groundwater, concepts of water balance, sea water intrusion in coastal
aquifers.
Gravity methods: Principles, instruments, survey & Interpretation techniques and application to Sub-
surface exploration.
Magnetic methods: principles, instruments, survey & interpretation techniques, application to sub-
surface techniques.
Seismic method: Principles, instruments, refraction survey, reflection surveys, survey techniques,
depth determination of different sub-surface layers. Electrical methods, Instruments, Sounding &Profiling,
SP techniques& interpretation techniques ea:– Principles of Induced polarization, Principles of magneto
telluricsElectromagnetic techniques, Principles, Instruments, Survey& Interprétation techniques.
Bore hole geophysics: Well logging, techniques- Electric log, Resistivity and density log, sp log,
radiation logging, sonic logging.
Fundamentals of Remote Sensing: Introduction: Basic principles of remote sensing; electromagnetic
spectrum; Planck’s law and wien’s displacement law; concept of incoming short wave and outgoing
long wave radiation: passive and active remote sensing, interaction of electromagnetic radiation with
matter; interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmosphere; selective and non-selective scattering;
impact of scattering on remotely sensed data; atmospheric windows and absorption bands.
TEST NO. – 09: HUMAN GENETICS: General Genetics: Cell – cell growth – cell cycle and cell death
Chromosomal basis of Heredity – distribution of chromosomes during mitosis, meiosis and
Gametogenesis. Human Chromosomes – types. Mendel’s Laws of inheritance, Gene action, Simple
single factor inheritance (autosomal dominant ; autosomal recessive, X – linked dominant, X –
linked recessive and Y – linked characters) Sex influenced and sex – limited characters.
Cytogenetics: History and development of Human Cytogenetics The Human Chromosomes:
Introduction – Morphological variability of the human chromosome; Banded chromosome and individual
characterization of the human chromosomes; Standardization in Human Cytogenetics; General remarks;
The origin and transmission of chromosomal abnormalities–Introduction, numerical changes resulting
from disturbances of chromosome distribution ; structural chromosomal abnormalities.
Medical Genetics:Scope of Medical Genetics. Skin- Ichthyosis, baldness, psoriasis, hereditary
Hemorrhagic telangiectasia, epiloia, multiple neurofibromatosis, the porphyrias, blooms, syndrome.
The skeletal system – Marfan’s syndrome, Nail patella syndrome, Brachydactyly, syndactyly, Polydactyly,
Spina bifida and anencephaly, Ankylosing spondylitis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteogenesis imperfecta.
Muscle – Muscular dystrophies, Myotonia.
Population Genetics and Biostatistics:Mendelian Population and scope of population genetics.
Gene and genotype frequencies, mating patterns, Hardy-Weinberg principle, heterozygotes, extention
of H-W principle to multiple alleles, sex-linked alleles. Non-random matings, inbreeding and assortative
matings, inbreeding coefficient. Factors that change allelic frequencies Importance of population studies,
sampling techniques, classification of data and tabulation. Measures of central tendency- mean, median
and mode. Measures of dispersion - variance and standard deviation.
Biochemical and Immunogenetics:The concept of Biochemical polymorphism, enzyme and protein
polymorphisms – Hemoglobin, Acid Phosphotase and Haptoglobin. Metabolic disorders,
Phenylketonuria, Hypercholesteremia, Lasch Nyhan Syndrome, Orotic aciduria, mukopolysaccharidoses,
DNA studies of PKU and Hemoglobinopathies.Immune responses – innate immune system and adaptive
immune system. Immunoglobulins. The major histocompatability complex – HLA and Complement
system.Human blood group systems. Immunodeficiency diseases – autoimmunity and acquired
immunodifficiences. DNA level studies in HLA systems.
Genetic Screening and Counselling:Scope of genetic screening- Prenatal and Post natal screening.
Population screening for genetic diseases, family screening.Scope of genetic counseling- methods of
genetic counseling, educating the counselee, presenting the risks and options and guiding. Social,
ethical and legal issues. Patterns of inheritance and risk assessment, chromosomal disorders, autosomal
dominant and recessive disorders, X-linked disorders, multifactorial-polygenic disorders. Reproductive

13
failures, consanguinity.Prenatal screening methods- Amniocentesis- Chronic Villous sampling,
Ultrasonography, fetoscopy, maternal blood sampling.Post-natal screening- chromosomal abnormalities,
cytogenetic disorders and molecular methods.
Molecular Genetics:DNA structure ; chromatin organization ; internal organization of gene ; nuclear
genome ; mitochondrial genome organization ; unique sequences and reiterated sequences,
transposons, Pseudogenes; gene families. DNA replication – Meselson and stahl experiment, enzymes
involved in replication, Mechanism of replication.DNA damage and repair, Central dogma. Transcription
– Types of RNA, mechanism of transcription, processing of m RNA Translation – Gene code, protein
synthesis, post translational modification. Regulation of gene expression- Transcriptional- promoters,
transcription factors, inducible gene expression, Alternate promoters. Post transcriptional- alternative
splicing, alternate polyadenylation, RNA editing; Epigenetic mechanisms- DNA mathylation.
Genomics and Proteomics: Introduction to genomics, genetic mapping of human chromosomes,
mapping of genetic disease locus to chromosome location, multilocus mapping of human chromosome,
physical mapping of human genome, cloning human disease genes, human genome project.DNA
sequencing, bio chips, DNA micro arrays, gene annotation, gene structure predictions, gene ontology
consortium recommendations, structural and functional genomics˜Protein structure and its
determination, structural hierarchy, domains, folds, motifs. Secondary structure prediction methods,
fold recognition and abinitio structure prediction, homology- comparative modeling of proteins.
TEST NO.: 10: INORGANIC & ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY:
General ChemistryBasic Quantum Chemistry:Wave equation – interpretation of wave function –
properties of wave function – normalization and orthogonalisation – operators-linear and non-linear,
commucators of operators. Postulates of quantum mechanics – setting up of operators observables –
Hermition operator – Eigen values of Hermitian operator.Wave mechanics of simple systems with
constant potential energy, particle in a box – factors influencing colour transition – dipole integral, rigid
rotator – simple harmonic oscillator. Hydrogen atom – solution of R(r), i (-) (-) i and 0 (0) equations
probability density in orbitals – shapes of orbitals.Perturbation theory – time independent perturbataion
– (Only first order perturbations to be dealt with) – applications to ground state energy of helium atom-
variation principle – applications – calculation of zero point energy of harmonic oscillator – Many electron
atom – Hartree-Fock self-consistent field method (Qualitative treatment only).Valence bond approach
– directed valence – hybridization covalent bond- calculation of ionic and covalent bond contributions in
hydrogen molecule.Molecular orbital theory – LCAO approximation – hydrogen molecules ion – hydrogen
molecule (fundamental concepts only).
Molecular Spectroscopy:Basic concepts of symmetry and group theory – symmetry elements –
axioms of group theory – classification of molecules into point groups – representation of point groups
– matrix representation – reducible and irreducible representations – reduction of a reducible
representation to an irreducible one – ortrhogonality theorem – character table and its anatomy (character
table not to be derived) – use of character tables – application of group theoretical concepts to vibrational
spectroscopy (infra-red and Raman).
Rotational and Vibrational Spectra:Rotation spectra of diatomic molecules – isotope effect-selection
rules.Infra-red spectra of diatomic molecules – isotope effect – selection rules – an harmonic oscillator
– normal modes of vibration – simultaneous vibration – rotation spectra-combination bands – overtones
– Fermi resonance – concept of group frequencies – Raman effect (classical approach) – applications
of IR and Raman spectra.Electronic spectrum of a diatomic molecule – coars structure – classification
of bands – fine structure – band head and band shading – types of electronic transitions in molecules
– applications of electronic spectra – charge transfer spectra.
Elements of Computer Programming:Basic components of computers – comparison of micro,
main frame and super computers – synopsis of software packages in chemistry – Basic commands of
MSDOS Format, copying operation, concept of directories, batch files, compilation of Fortran files,
flowcharting MS Fortran : Integer and real variables and constants – Assignment and replacement
statements – conditional statements (if-then-else, Goto) – repetition (Do statements with – read and
write with I, F and G formats – concept of function and subroutine subprograms.The following programs
are to be practiced:Rate constant of a first order reaction or Beer’s law by least squares Method (derivation

14
not needed).Roots of a quadratic equation – application to hydrogen ion Concentration of a strong
acid.Solving Vander – Walls equation or hydrogen ion concentration of a monoprotic weak acid (Gauss-
Newton method).Standard deviation and variance of univariate data. Basics of D Base III – creating
structures for a bibliographic Data base and properties of chemical elements (Retrieval programs not
needed.).
Inorganic ChemistryTerm symbols – Russell – Saunders coupling – Derivation of terms Symbols for
various configurations.Chemical Bonding : Application of VB, MO and VSEPR theories in explaining
the structures of simple molecules – role of ‘P’ and ‘d’ orbitals in and bonding.Chemistry of main group
elements: General trends in properties – boron hydrides. Carboranes, intercalation compounds, nitrogen
– phosphorous, boron – nitrogen and sulphur – nitrogen cyclic compounds.Chemistry of transition
elements: Comparative study of the first, second and third transition series. Metal cluster compounds
– Favorable conditions for formation – Structure and bonding in halide and carboxlate metal compounds.
Chemistry of Inner Transitution elements: Chemistry of Lanthanides – electronic configurations, Oxidation
states – Lanthanide contraction and its consequenees – magnetic and spectral properties – separation
of lanthanides. Chemistry of actinides – Synthesis of transuranium elements electronic configurations,
oxidation states – position in the periodic table – actinide contraction – comparison of magnetic and
spectral properties with those of lanthanides. Coordination compounds: Crystal field theory – crystal
field splitting patterns in octahedral, tetrahedral, tetragonal, square planar, square pyramidal and trigonal
bipyramidal geometrics – Determination of crystal field splitting energy-calculation of crystal field
stabilization energies – Factors affecting crystal field splitting energies – spectrochemical series – Jahn
– Teller effect – Ligand field theory.Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes – Selection rules –
break down of selection rules – Orgel and Tanabe – Sugano diagrams – Spectra a octra of octahedral
and tetrahedral complexes. Magnetic properties of freeions – spin and orbital moment and spin – orbit
coupling Quenching of orbital momentum by crystal fields in complexes.Stability of complexes – Factors
affecting stability – chelate effect – Determination of stability constants of complexes – Spectrophotometric
method and pH metric method.Inorganic reaction mechanisms: Inert and liable complexes – Explanation
of liability on the basis of CFSE.Substitution reactions of metal complexes – Did, I a and A mechanism
– Ligand replacement reactions of octahedral complexes-Acid hydrolysis, A nation and Base hydrolysis
of cobalt. (III) Complexes Ligand displacement reactions of square planner complexes of platinum (II)
– Trans effect – Mechanism of trans effect (theories) – Electron transfer reactions of complexes – Inner
and outer sphere mechanisms.
Organic ChemistryStructure and reactivity – localized and delocalized convalent bond – concent of
resonance and aromatieity – Huckl’s rule aromaticity in benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds –
anti aromaaticity and homo aromaticity, Naature of Organic reaction – energy and kinetic considerations
– types of Organic reactions – reagents – reactive intermediates, their formation and stabilization –
inductive and mesomeric effects.Stereochemistry and stereoisometism – conformational isomersm
and analysis in acyclic and simple cyclic systems – substituted ethanes, cyclopentane, cyclohexane,
cyclohextane, cyclooctance and decalins – Optical isomerism – optical aactivity molecular dissymmetry
and chirality – elements of symmetry.Fischer’s projection – D.L. and R.S. – configurations – relative
and absolute configuration – optical isomerism due to a symmetric carbon atoms optical isomerism in
biphenyl, allences and spirans – optical isomerism of nitrogenous compounds – recemisation and
resolution – geometrical isomerism and E.Z. configurations Properties of geometrical isomers. Aromatic
substitution reactions – electrophilic, nucleophilic and through benzynes – radical substitution of arenas
– orientation Nucleophilic substitution at a saturated carbon, SNI, SN2, ENi – reaction – effect of structure
nucleophile, leaving group, solvent and neighbouring groups. Addition Reactions: Addition to C=C and
C=O double bond. Additions involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals.Elimination reactions
– E1, E1Cb, E2 reactions – elimination versus substitution reactions.Machanisms of some name
reactions – aldol, Parkin, Benzoin, Cannirzaro, Witting, Grigand Reformatsky, Wagner – Meerwein –
Hofmann, Clasen and Favorsky, rearrangements – Hydroboration – Openauer Oxidation, Clemmensen
reduction, Wolf-Kischer reduction – Meerwein – Pondorf and Valey and Birch reductions. Chemistry of
hetrocyclic compounds – synthesis and reactivity of the following systems – pyridine; pyridine, quinoline,
isopquinoline, indole, benzefuran, benzothiophene – pyrazole, imidazole, exazole, isooxazole, thiazole,

15
isothiazole, pyridazine, pyrimidine and pyrazine.Spectra and structure – application of organic
spectroscopy UV IR – HNMR and Mass spectral data.Chemistry of some typical natural products – A
study of the following compounds involving their isolation, structure elucidation, systhesis and biogenesis
– Flavonoids – luteolin, quercein, cyaniding and genesterin, Terpenoids – citral, a-terpeneol, methal, a-
pinene, ophor farnesol.Alkaloids – priperine, apropine, cocaine, nicotins, papverine and quinine Purines
– caffions.
Physical ChemistryStates of Matter: Transport properties of gases – Thermal conductivity, viscosity
and diffusion. Theories of liquid structure – calculation of collision numbers.
Solids: X-ray diffraction studies – crystal structure determination – lattice types and lattice dimensions
– crystal defects – linear point and edge defects – Band theory solids – Theories of specific heats of
solids – semiconductors and their properties.Physical Methods for theelucidation of molecular structure
– magnetic properties of molecules – theories of magnetic susceptibility- Application of magnetic
susceptibility measurements to coordination compounds – spin-spin interactions – Chemical shift and
its origin – experimental methods – application of NMR studies in structural-elucidation – application to
structure of ethanol, acetophenone, acel tamide, dimethyl formamide and styrene – electron spin
resonance –principle and experimental technique – line shapes and line widths – g-value – hyperfine
interactions – application of ESR Studies to the structure of free radical, metal complexes and biological
systems.
Thermodynamics : Free energy, entropy and enthalpy – Chemical equilibrium – thermodynamic
criteria of the chemical equilibrium – effect of temperature on equilibrium constant – Vant Hoff isochore
– Maxwell relations – Gibbs-Duhem equation Duheme – Margules equation – classius –clapeyron
equation – Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics – determination of absolute entropy.
Kinetics: Theories of reaction rates – collision and transition state theories – study of fast reactions
using flow and relaxation methods – Kinetic isotope effects – reactions in solution – primary and
secondary kinetic salt effects – Effect of dielectric constant – elementary ideas of linear free energy
relations – Hammett and Taft equations – Chain reactions – consecutive, parallel and opposing reactions
involving uni-molecular steps only – catalysis – homogeneous and heterogeneous – acid-base and
redox catalysis.
Photochemistry: Laws of photochemistry – photophysical processes fluorescence – delayed
fluorescence and phosphorescence – Stern – volmer equation – Inter system crossing – internal
conversion – photolysis – photosensitization and photochemical equilibrium.
Electrochemistry : Theories of strong electrolytes – Debye – Onsager equation – electrochemical
cells – concentration cells with and without transference – effect of complexation on redox potential
Determination of activity coefficients from E.M.F. data.

TEST NO. – 11: MARINE LIVING RESOURCES: The sea as a Biological Environment.Classification
of Marine Environment; general characteristics of the populations of the Primary biotic Divisions: plankton,
Nekton and Benthos Effect of Environmental parameters –Light, temperature, Salinity and Density;
tides, waves , upwelling and sinking, constancy of composition of sea water, pH, CO2 systems, POM
and DOM in the sea and its properties.
The shore Environment: Physicochemical and biological factors of intertidal zone; Distribution of
life on rocky shores, sandy shores and muddy shores. Zonation and adaptations of organisms in the
interdial habitats. Coral reefs their special features and distribution.
Mangrove systems: Special features distribution of plants & animals.Larval Ecology, settlement of
larvae of benthic organisms.
Estuarine Environment: Classification and physico - chemical characters.Remote sensing
Applications in coastal zone Management, Coastal Zone regulations.General Account of Systematic
classification of fishes based on degree of movement and mode of Reproduction. Natural populations
(or) stocks as biological entities, factors limiting abundance of stocks.Criteria for distinguish units (or)
Multiple species concept of Unit stock – its relevance to tropical marine fish.Population dynamics:
Recruitment, growth and mortality, length – weight relationship, condition factor. Application of Statistics
in Research: Measures of central Tendency: Mean, Median, Mode. Standard deviation, standard error,
concept of correlation, ANOVA, ANCOVA, Chi square Test, t-Test, F-Test Random sampling.General

16
Account of reproduction and spawning of fishes, food and feeding habits of fishes, fish eggs and
larvae.Fishing craft: types of boats used in India, maintenance of fishing boats.Gear material: Natural
and synthetic, properties, testing and preservation, floats and sinkers, their properties, size and shape,
Hooks and baits. Handlines, Troll lines, Pole lines, long lines, Trawl nets, purse – seines, gill nets Fish
curing and processing Methods By products, processing of low cost fish, mincing meat, fish oil, fish
meal, fish sausages, isinglass, glue, fishes silage, chitosan, chitin, pearl essence, Alginates, Agar,
Agarose, Corals. Methods of exploitation of living Resources from sea. Overexploitation of
resources.Criteria for selection of candidate species for Aquaculture Survey and site selection, technical
considerations.
Culture systems: Ponds, cages, pens, rafts, long lines, raceways.
Culture practices: Open sea farming, Monoculture, Monosex culture, Polyculture. Integrated farming,
organic farming, Laws pertaining to aquaculture.Diseases in aquaculture organisms, Prevention and
treatment methodsWater Quality management in the culture systems. Use of Antibiotics and other
chemicals and their impacts. Environmental impact assessment in Aquaculture.
Eradication of weed fishes, predatory fishes, Aquatic weeds and Insects, sea ranching. Live feed
organisms: Microalgae, Rotifers, Artemia, Copepod, culture of chiranomiid larvae Supplementary
feeding: dry feeds, wet feeds, roller Artificial feeds, feed ingredients, nutritional quality. Nutritional
requirement of finfish and shell fishHatchery management and seed production of mullets. Milk fish,
seabass, shrimps, crabs lobsters, oysters, pearl oysters and mussels. Culture practices of sea
weeds.Role of genetics in aquaculture, Genetic Selection.In-breeding, Cross breeding, Hybridization,
Hybrid vigour.Induction of ploidy, production of ployploids.Chromosomes set manipulation – gynogenesis
and androgenesis.Trangenesis and its application in aquaculture to produce more growth, cold –
resistant, and disease – resistant varieties.Genetic modification in sea weeds: application to commercial
utilization and cultivation.
Microbes in the sea : Viruses, bacteria, fungi, microalgae and protozoa, distribution in the marine
environment. Micro algae, fungi and protozoans : classification and culture.
Mangrove microbiology: Mangrove microbial processes and organisms involved. Microbial
fermentation, decomposition, recycling, biofertilizer. Biofermentator– Designing. Biomolecules –
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, aminoacids vitamins, hormones and Minerals; Structure, biological
significance, role in metabolism, Bioenergetics. Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, Amino acids
and lipids. Enzymes structure and properties: classification, activity, factors affecting enzyme catalysis,
control of enzyme action, immobilization, co-enzymes, cofactors, activators, inhibitors, allosteric enzymes,
ribozymes and abzymes, Engyme kinetics, Enzymes of Industrial and diagnostic application. Moulting
and growth regulating factors.Cell ultrastructure, nutrient transport, cytoskeleton organization. Gene
structure and function, transduction and conjugation.DNA as genetic material, easy phages to study
T1, T2, T3 and T7.DNA replication, cell cycle, Mutations, Molecular basis of Mutations.Recombinant
DNA technology: Techniques and tools used in gene modification. Sequencing of proteins and nucleic
acids; PCR, Regulation of gene expression in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. environmental regulation
of gene expression.˚
Transcription: Mechanism of Transcription in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.Cell & Tissue culture
Techniques and tools of tissue culture. Single cell proteins and nutritional quality.Immunoglobulins:
Structure properties, B & T cells. Immunity types, Cytotoxicity mechanisms. Immunology of invertebrate
organisms.
Techniques in immunology: Precipitation & agglutination, Immunoelectrophoresis, Immunotherapy,
Monoclonal antibodies, Hybridoma technology, RIA, ELISA.
Bioactive marine natural products: Antibacterial and antiviral substances of Pharmaceutical
importance. Marine pollution: GESAMP Definition, types of pollution, Agents, Transport paths,
monitoring and treatment methods. Lethal and sub lethal effects of pollutants, toxicity tests,
Bioassay.Marine corrosion, Marine biodeterioration, application of Biotechnology to control
biodeterioration.

TEST NO. – 12: MATHEMATICS: Analysis: Elementary set theory, finite, countable and uncountable
sets, Real number system as a complete ordered field, Archimedean property, supremum,

17
infimum.Sequences and series, convergence, limsup, liminf.Bolzano Weierstrass theorem, Heine Borel
theorem.Continuity, uniform continuity, differentiability, mean value theorem.Sequences and series of
functions, uniform convergence.Reimann sums and Reimann integral, Improper Integrals.Monotonic
functions, types of discontinuity, functions of bounded variation, Lebesgue measure, Lebesgue
integral.Functions of several variables, directional derivative, partial derivative, derivative as a linear
transformation.Metric spaces, compactness, connectedness. Normed Linear Spaces. Spaces of
Continuous functions as examples.
Algebra: Permutations, Combinations, Pigeon – hole principle, inclusion – exclusion principle,
dearrangements.Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphisms, cyclic
groups, permutation groups, Cayley’s theorem, class equations, Sylow theorems.Rings, ideals, prime
and maximal ideals, quotient rings, unique factorization domain, principal ideal domain, Euclidean
domain.Polynomial rings and irreducibility criteria.Fields, finite fields, field extensions.
Topology: Finite sets, Countable and uncountable sets, infinite sets and the axiom of choice, well
ordered sets, the maximum principle.Topological Spaces, Basis for a topology, the ordered topology,
the product topology on X x Y, The subspace topology, closed sets and limit points. Continuous functions,
the product topology, Metric spaces, the metric topology.Connected spaces, connected subspaces of
the real line, compact spaces, compact subspaces of the real line, limit point compactness, local
compactness. The countability axioms, the separation axioms, normal spaces, the Urysohn’s lemma,
the Urysohn’s metrization theorem, The Tietz extension theorem, the Tychnoff’s theorem, the stone-
cech compactification. Local finiteness, The Nagata-Smirnov metrization theorem, complete metric
spaces. Compactness in metric spaces, pointwise and compact convergence, Ascoli’s theorem. Baire
space..
Complex Analysis: Algebra of complex numbers, the complex plane, polynomials, Power series,
transcendental functions such as exponential, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions.Analytic functions,
Cauchy – Rieann equations.Contour integral, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Liouville’s
theorem, Maximum modulus principle, Schwarz lemma, Open mapping theorem.Taylor series, Laurent
series, calculus of residues.Conformal mappings, Mobius transformations.
Linear Algebra: Vector spaces, subspaces, linear dependence, basis, dimension, algebra of linear
transformations.Algebra of matrices, rank and determinant of matrices, linear equations.Eigenvalues
and eigenvectors, Caley – Hamilton theorem.Matrix representation of linear transformations. Change
of basis, canonical forms, diagonal forms, triangular forms, Jordan forms.Inner product spaces,
orthonormal basis.Quadratic forms, reduction and classification of quadratic forms.
Discrete Mathematics: Graphs, diagraphs, networks, multigraphs, Elementary results, structure based
on connectivity, characterization, theorems on trees, tree distances, binary trees.Eulerian graphs,
Hamiltonian graphs, spanning trees, Fundamental cycles, unrestricted graphs, minimal spanning trees,
Kruskal algorithm, Prim’s algorithm.Relation, partial order relation, definition of lattices, Modular lattices,
distributive lattices, Boolean algebras, Boolean rings.
Basic properties: Boolean polynomials, ideals, minimal form of Boolean polynomials, Application of
lattices, Switching circuits, Karnaugh diagrams.
Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs): Existence and uniqueness of solutions of initial value
problems for first order ordinary differential equations, singular solutions of first order ODEs, system of
first order ODEs. General theory of homogeneous and non – homogeneous linear ODEs, variation of
parameters.
Functional Analysis: Banach Spaces- Examples- continuous linear transformations. The Hahn Banach
Theorem - The Natural imbedding of N into N**. The open mapping Theorem.The conjugugate of an
operator-Hilbert Spaces- examples and some simple properties-Orthogonal compliments - Orthonormal
sets-The Conjugage space H*-The adjoint of an operator-Self adjoint operators-Unitary operators and
Projections.
Partial Differential Equations (PDEs): Lagranges and Charpit methods for solving first order PDEs,
Cauchy problem for first order PDEs.Classification of second order PDEs, General solution of higher
order PDEs with constant coefficients, Method of separation of variables for Laplace, Heat and Wave
equations.

18
TEST NO.: – 13:METEOROLOGY & OCEANOGRAPHY: Physical and Dynamical
Climatology:Introduction: Weather and climate concepts - World climate system - climate of
the hemispheres. Global distribution of temperature, precipitation pressure and winds - Circulation
pattern during winter and summer seasons. Jet streams. Monsoons – Asia, Australia, E. Africa and
North America; Systems of climatic classification - Koppen - Thornthwaite. General circulation of the
atmosphere - convective and meridional circulation - Rossby’s tricellular model - Palmen’s
modified model - Circulation indices - Experiments of General Circulation – Dishpan experiment;
Dynamics of atmospheric circulation— Maintenance of the General circulation – Kinetic energy, angular
momentum, absolute vorticity balance. NAO and Pacific oscillations. Fundamentals of Climate change
- local and planetary evidences - carbon dating - theories of climate changes; Paleoclimate -
Climate change and variations in Earth’s orbit; Climate trends - ENSO - teleconnections of the
world climate system - Ozone hole; Nuclear winter ; Global warming -Consequences of global
warming; Volcanic eruptions and aerosols; Impact of climate change on weather and climate; Climate
change and agriculture.
Dynamic Meteorology: Inertial and Non Inertial frames- Fundamental Forces-Pressure Gradient
Forces, Gravitational Force. Friction or Viscous Force. Apparent forces- Centrifugal Force, Coriolis
force, Affective Gravity. Momentum Equations- Cartesian Coordinate System, Spherical – Polar
coordinate system. Scale analysis of momentum equations. Hydrostatic approximation. Balanced
motion - Geotropic Wind, Gradient Wind, Thermal wind.Continuity equation – Horizontal divergence,
Vertical motion. Isobaric coordinate System - Transformation of momentum & continuity equations.
Circulation & Vorticity – Bjerknes circulation theorem. Application to Land & Sea breeze. Vorticity
equation. Potential vorticity - Application to Lee of the mountain trough, CAV Trajectories, Scale analysis
of vorticity equation.Atmospheric boundary layer: Atmospheric turbulence; Boussinesq approximation,
Reynolds equations; Turbulent kinetic energy; Momentum equations for PBL- well mixed boundary
layer, the Flux-gradient theory, Mixing length theory, Ekman layer, Surface layer, Modified Ekman
layer; Secondary circulations; Prandtl Layer – Logarithmic Profile Properties of Prandtl Layer.
Synoptic Meteorology:Synoptic data and collection: Surface and upper air weather data transmission-
Code for inland, coastal and ship stations. Upper air data – PILOT and TEMP codes. Station models,
Weather charts and analysis.Air masses and fronts: Air mass production – Classification – Sources of
air masses in winter and summer and their modification. Fronts and frontal surfaces – Principal frontal
zones –frontogenesis and frontolysis. Extra-tropical cyclones- formation – Life cycle – Structure and
movement. Anticyclones and blocking. Heat and cold waves.Kinematics of the pressure field:
Characteristic curves – General expressions for their velocity and acceleration – Movement of troughs,
ridges and pressure centres, Intensification and Weakening, deepening and Filling of surface pressure
systems.Kinematics of the wind field: Relation between streamlines and trajectories. Trajectories in
moving cyclones and anticyclones. Differential properties of the wind field. Application of geostrophic,
gradient, thermal winds, divergence and vertical velocity computations. Indian monsoons: Land and
sea breezes – Definition of monsoon – Synoptic features associated with onset, withdrawal, active and
break situations of southwest monsoon. Rainfall distribution and rain bearing systems during summer
monsoon season - monsoon depression, Mid-tropospheric cyclones and Onset vortex. Northeast
monsoon onset phenomenon and rainfall distribution. Prediction of weather elements: Seasonal
prediction of monsoon rainfall and date of onset. Maximum and minimum temperatures – Fog. Aviation
Meteorology: SEGMET and Meteorological hazards to aviation – Take-off, landing, in-flight, - Icing,
turbulence, CAT, visibility and fog.
Advanced Dynamical Meteorology:Atmospheric energetics – Energy equation. Kinetic energy. Internal
energy, Potential energy, Morgules theory of conversion of Potential & Internal energies to Kinetic
energy. Available potential energy, CAPE, CINE. Expression for APE . General circulation of atmosphere
– Maintenance of the mean circulation of kinetic energy balance of the atmosphere, Angular momentum
consideration. Absolute vorticity consideration.Linear perturbation theory – Perturbation method.
Properties of waves Sound waves, Gravity waves – External and Internal gravity waves, Rossby waves,
Inertial waves, Geostropic adjustment process.Dynamics of tropical atmosphere: scale analysis of

19
tropical motions, cumulus convection and convective heating, equatorial wave theory, Scale interaction
in the tropics- wave number domain, frequency domain, Adiabatic potential vorticity.
Numerical weather Prediction:Numerical models - Filtered models : Filtering of sound and
gravity wave models: Barotropic model ; Equivalent barotropic model ; Barotropic instability. -
Numerical methods - Computation of Jacobian and Laplacian ; solution of Helmholtz and
Poisson equations using relaxation method; Finite difference methods - Forward and centered
finite difference methods, semi-implicit method - computational instability. - Baroclinic Models -
Two level model; Quasi-geostrophic multi-level models; Omega equation; Liner balanced model;
Nonlinear balanced model, Baroclinic instability.Primitive equation models - Sigma coordinate
system; Two level primitive equation model; Multilevel primitive equation models.Introduction to
mesoscale models: Nonhydrostatic assumption, basic structure of MM5 and WRF models and their
applications. Objective analysis - Cressman method, Method of Optimum Interpolation.Initialisation
; Static initialisation; Dynamic initialisation- Normal mode initialisation, Newtonian relaxation or
Nudging . Nonlinear instability, Aliasing. Arakawa Jacobian. Staggered grid systems.
Satellite Meteorology:Physical basis of remote sensing - Remote sensing of the environment with
Electromagnetic energy - Atmospheric transmission, atmospheric window regions and absorption bands.
Remote sensing of atmospheric variables: Schwarzchild’s Equation and its solution, Vertical sounding,
Limb sounding, No emission equation, Detection of Aerosols.Kepler’s laws of universal planetary motion,
Meteorological satellites and their orbital characteristics, Geostationary, Sun-synchronous, Polar and
special purpose orbits, Different meteorological satellite systems- INSAT series, Meteosat series, NOAA
series, TRMM and SSMI series, QUICKSCAT etc and future ISRO programmes - MEGHATROPIQUES
satellite. Global weather satellite system.Satellite analogue data: Satellite image interpretation and
enhancement techniques, cloud type identification and Neph analysis, Synoptic scale weather systems,
Mesoscale weather systems, Tropical cyclones, Tropical cyclone categorization of different stages,
Estimation of central pressure by using Dvorak’s technique and extra tropical cyclones.Satellite digital
data: Retrieval techniques, SST, Cloud top temperature, methods of retrieval algorithms for temperature
and humidity profiles, Cloud motion wind vectors, Quantitative precipitation estimation. Radiation budget.
Tropical phenomena, Method of analysis of tropical disturbances, Mesoscale circulation patterns, Sea
and land breeze circulations, orographic pattern; Application of satellite data for the study of southwest
monsoon namely-onset of monsoon, active, break cycle, seasonal monsoon rainfall, low frequency
oscillations.Rainfall monitoring by VIS and IR data, Cloud Indexing Method, Bispectral techniques, Life
History Techniques, Cloud Model Techniques, Active and passive microwave sensors and their application
for Ocean surface winds, sea surface temperature, soil moisture and NDVI. GPS sounding, receiver
and data analysis.
Physical Oceanography:Physical properties of seawater: Temperature, Salinity and Conductivity,
Density, Sound in the sea, Light in the sea, Colour of seawater. Temperature, Salinity and density
distributions. Transparency of seawater. Heat budget of the oceans: Heat budget terms, Short and
Long wave radiation, Evaporation, Heat conduction.Oceanographic Instruments: Temperature
measurements; Protected and unprotected reversing thermometers, MBT, XBT, XCTD, ARGOS, Drifters,
Sea Gliders, CTD. Current measurements: Lagrangian and Eulerian methods with examples, Aandhera
current meter, ADCP, Position fixing at sea, GPS. Wave and Tide measurements.Marine Geology:
Continental shelf; Slope, Shelf sediments, mineral resources of the world ocean, submarine topography,
mid oceanic ridge system. Manganese and other deposits and the factors control their distribution.
Beach material, Shape and size. Beach terminology.Marine chemistry: Composition of seawater,
constancy of composition, dissolved gases, oxygen in the ocean, transfer of particle-aerosols, plankton
and climate, bio-geo chemical cycles, marine environment and their characteristics, Marine Eco - system,
Rocky shore, Sandy shore, Mangroves and Seaweed.
Dynamical Oceanography:The Geopotential structure of the sea – Concept of Geopotential, field of
mass, field of pressure, determination of Geopotential anomaly, isobaric and level surfaces.Stability of
fluid column: vertical acceleration in fluids and criteria for static stability. Geostrophic currents: Barotropic
and baroclinic fields, relative and slope currents, level of no motion, computation of relative currents in
a two layer ocean and in stratified ocean, Bjerknes’ circulation theorem and application to relative

20
currents. Ocean circulation: wind induced currents, Ekman spiral, Up welling, sinking; equatorial
current system, west ward intensification of currents, warm and cold currents of major world ocean,
seasonal currents in North Indian Ocean, thermohaline circulation, T-S diagram and water
masses.Fundamentals of waves and tides: wave characteristics, wave generation, sea and swell,
deep and shallow water waves. Tide producing forces, equilibrium theory and tidal currents. Coastal
Hazards- Storm surges and Tsunamis. Air Sea Interaction:The significance of Air-Sea Interaction;
Atmospheric and Oceanic Interaction at various scales; Concept of Boundary Layer, Barrier Layer,
Thermal inversion; Atmospheric Heat Budget; Variations of wind, temperature and moisture over the
sea surface. Air sea temperature differences; Wind stress and resultant drag coefficient with variation
to wind speed; Upper ocean boundary layer. Oceanic heat budget.Physical interaction between the
ocean and atmosphere; Radiation, Heat exchange through latent and sensible heat; Oceanic forcing
by air-sea exchange of moisture and heat; Momentum transfer and drag; Oceanic impact on the marine
atmospheric circulation.Large Scale Air-Sea Interaction: Ocean – Atmosphere interaction in tropics
Characteristics of ENSO; ENSO and Air – Sea coupling; ENSO and the Indian MonsoonWarm Pool in
Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Waves and tides:Wave hydrodynamics: wave characteristics, simple harmonic wave, Laplace equation,
potential flows, Small amplitude wave theory - Airy’s solution, Finite amplitude waves - -Stokes solution.
Deep water waves and shallow water waves. Wave transformation. Wave celerity and particle orbits.
Wave generation: Jeffrey’s theory, Sverdrup and Munk theory, wave growth and propagation. Group
velocity. Ocean tides: Tide producing forces, tide characteristics. Theories of tide generation: equilibrium
theory, Dynamical theory. Prediction of tides by harmonic analysis. Renewable energy sources from
Ocean – Wave energy, tidal energy and thermal energy OTEC.Wave forecasting: Sea and swell,
significant wave height, wave spectrum. SMB method of wave forecasting, PNJ method of wave
forecasting, Co-cumulative spectrum method, fetch limited and duration limited cases, swell forecasting,
dispersion, angular spreading and the concept of wave forecasting filter.
Satellite Oceanography:Physical Principles of remote Sensing: Electromagnetic Spectrum, Wavelength
regions, atmospheric window regions, black body radiation laws, Radiative transfer equation, Gaseous
absorption and Scattering. Satellite Orbits: Newton’s laws, Kepler’s laws, Orientation in space, Orbital
elements, Orbit perturbation, Sun synchronous orbits, Geostationary Orbits, other Orbits.Sensors for
forecasting the Ocean: using the EM spectrum, ocean properties measurable from above, classes of
sensors, seeing through the atmosphere. Indian Remote Sensing Program with special reference to
satellite Meteorology and Oceanography INSAT and OCEANSAT. Other satellites – NOAA, SEASAT.
Principles of Image Processing: Basics of image processing and Enhancement Presentation of Multi
channel image data.Passive sensors: Visible wave band, thermal IR and microwave; Ocean colors and
Remote Sensing: The coastal zone color scanner, Atmospheric correction of visible wave length data,
Oceanographic interpretation of ocean colors and its applications in oceanography, Sea surface
Temperature from infrared scanning radiometers, Characteristics of AVHRR, Atmospheric correction,
cloud removal techniques. Retrieval of SST from AVHRR data, Potential uses of SST data. Passive
microwave radiometers: Physical principles, microwave emissivity of the sea surface, skin depth, effects
of the atmosphere, and the geophysical model of the microwave radiation, salinity, and surface wind
and SST retrieval. Comparison between infrared and microwave radiometers for SST measurement.
Air – Sea Interaction studies using satellite data:Active Sensors: Altimeter, Scatterometer and Synthetic
Aperture Radar; Radars, sea surface roughness and Scatterometry: Measuring the radars energy
reflected from the sea, microwave interaction with the sea surface, relationship between wind and
radar back scatter, retrieving wind vectors from Scatterometer measurements, QUIKSCAT
Scatterometer. Radar Altimeters from the Ocean: Principles of Radar altimetry, distance measurement
with a satellite altimeter, orbit determination, ocean currents from altimetry, estimating of wave height
from the altimeter pulse shape, retrieving wind speed from return pulse amplitude :e, Application of
altimetry. Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging of Ocean: Principles of SAR operation, Ocean information
from óo images, SAR imaging of ocean waves, shallow water bathymetry measured from SAR images.
Electronics:Operational Amplifier Fundamentals: The operational Amplifier - Ideal OP Amp - Non
inverting amplifier, Inverting amplifier, Summing amplifier, differentiator and integrator, Feed back

21
in OP Amp circuits— The non-inverting configuration, Inverting configuration. Current to voltage
converter, photo detector amplifiers, transducer bridge amplifiers. Digital Electronics: Binary number
system, invertors, OR gate, AND gate, Boolean algebra, Nor gate, Nand gate, De Morgan’s
theorems, Boolean laws and theorem, exclusive - OR gates, Arithmetic circuits, 2 complement
Arithmetic, Half adder, Full Adder, Adder subtractor.Amplitude Modulation: Amplitude modulation
theory, frequency spectrum of AM wave, representation of AM, power relations in AM wave.
Frequency Modulation: Theory of frequency modulation, Mathematical representation of FM,
Frequency spectrum of FM wave, Comparison between frequency and amplitude modulation.
Propagation of radio waves - ground waves, sky wave propagation, space waves, Tropospheric
scatter propagation. Antennas: Antenna gain and effective radiated power, Antenna resistance,
Bandwidth, Beam width and polarization. Microwave antennas - antennas with parabolic reflectors,
properties of paraboloid reflectors, feed mechanisms.Radar System: Basic radar system, Radar
range equation, effect of noise, Basic pulsed radar system - block diagram and description.
Moving target indication radar— Doppler effect, fundamentals of moving target indication radar,
Synthetic Aperture Radar. General characteristics of a satellite communication systems, Advantages
of Satellite communication, Digital signal communication- Elements of Digital Communication system,
Digital Modulation Techniques, Satellite Digital Link design, Time Division Multiplexing. Satellite
Transponders, Earth stations.
TEST NO. – 14: MICROBIOLOGY : Discovery, Evolution and development of Microbiology. Contributions
of Van Leeuwenhock, Joseph Lister, Pasteur, Koch, Jenner, Winogradsky, Beijerinck. Recent trends
and development in modern in microbiology. Identification, characterization and classification of
microorganisms- Principles of bacterial taxonomy and classification: - Bergy’s manual and its importance,
Hackel’s three kingdom concept-Whittaker’s five kingdom concept-three domain concept of Carl
Woese.Basis of microbial classification. Concepts, nomenclature and taxonomic ranks: general
properties of bacterial groups. Major characteristics used in Taxonomy-morphological, physiological
and metabolic, ecological, numerical taxonomy, genetic and molecular classification systems; the
kingdoms of organisms and phylogenetic trees. Distinguishing characteristics between prokaryotic
and eukaryotic cells Structure and function of Cell wall of bacteria, cell membranes, flagella, pili, capsule,
gas vesicles, carboxysomes, magnetosomes and phycobolisomes.
Methods of sterilization: Physical methods – Dry heat, moist heat, radiation methods, filtration
methods, chemical methods and their application. Concept of containment facility, sterilization at
industrial level.
Microbial cultures: Concept of pure culture, Methods of pure culture isolation, Enrichment culturing
techniques, single cell isolation, and pure culture development.Chemical structure of peptidoglycon,
protoplasts, spheroplasts, microsomes and ribosomal RNAs, Nuclear material/nucleus.Microscopic
identification characteristics, staining methods – simple staining, differential staining, structural staining
and special staining methodsMicrobiological media-Natural and synthetic; autotrophic, heterotrophic
and phototropic media: basal, defined, complex, enrichment, selective, differential, maintenance and
transport mediaPreservation and Maintenance of Microbial cultures: Repeated sub culturing,
preservation at low temperature, sterile soil preservation, mineral oil preservation, deep freezing and
liquid nitrogen preservation, drying, glycerol cultures, freeze-drying (lyophilization). Advantages and
disadvantages of each method.Ecological identification methods, Nutritional (cultural) identification
characters, chemical identification characters, biochemical identification methods, immunological
characteristics, pathogenic properties identification, genetic characteristics identification.Bacterial
nutrition and growth kinetics- synchronous, stock, batch and continuous cultures. Growth measurement
methods –Metabolic diversity, measurements of NAD, ATP, DNA, and Protein, CO2 liberated O2
consumed, extra cellular enzymes. Cultivation of aerobes and anaerobes. Reproduction in bacteria &
spore formation.Morphology, Ultra structure and chemical composition of bacteria, actinomycetes,
spirochetes, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, Chlamydiae – TRIC agents and LGV ArchaebacteriaEukaryotic
microorganisms: General characteristics, reproduction and economic importance of fungi. Classification,
structure, composition, reproduction and other characteristics of fungal divisions-Zygomycota,
Ascomycota, Basidomycota, Deuteromycota and slime & water moldsClassification, structure,

22
reproduction and other characteristics of algal divisions,Distribution of algae. Biochemical classification
of algae. Characteristics of- blue green algae, dinoflagellates, Microalgae, thallus organization, products
of algae and their economic importance. Biochemical classification of algae.ne:Characteristics of Various
protozoa-Morphology, nutritional requirements, reproduction.
VIROLOGY: History and Discovery of Viruses, Nature origin and evolution of viruses, New emerging
viruses, viruses in human welfare. Nomenclature, classification and structure of viruses – criteria used
for naming, classification of viruses, recent ICTV classification of viruses infecting animals, humans,
plants, bacteria, algae, fungi. Major characteristics of different virus families/genera/groups- Poxviridae,
Hepadnaviridae, Baculoviridae, Adenoviridae, Herpesviridae, Ortho and Paramyxoviridae, Retroviridae,
Reoviridae, Parvoviridae, Rhadboviridae, Picornaviridae, Flaviviridae, Potyviridae, Tobamoviridae,
Bromoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Geminiviridae, Caulimoviridae.Algal, Fungal viruses- Phycodnaviridae,
Cyanophages, Partitiviridae and Totiviridae. Subviral agents-sat viruses, Sat nucleic acids, Viroids,
Prions. Properties of Viruses- Biological properties of viruses – host range, transmission-vector, non-
vector, Physical properties of viruses – morphology, structure, sedimentation, electrophoretic mobility,
buoyant density; Biochemical characteristics – chemical composition of viruses, proteins, nucleic acids,
envelope, enzymes, carbohydrates, polyamines, cations, Antigenic nature of viruses. Isolation, cultivation,
assay and maintenances of viruses – Animal, Plant and Bacterial Viruses: Experimental animals,
apparatus& equipment, media tissue culture – organs cultures, primary and secondary cell cultures,
suspension and monolayer cell cultures, cell strains, cell lines, embryonated eggs, experimental plant
tissue cultures. Viral replication and genome expression – viral genomes- structure and complexity of
viral genomes, diversity among viral genomes – DNA and RNA genomes- linear, circular, double and
single stranded, positive and negative sense of RNA genomes, mono, bi tri and multipartite of genome.
Replication of viruses – an overview of viral replication cycles, replication strategies of DNA, RNA
viruses and regulation of viral genome expression- Baltimore strategies.Virus – host interactions –
Influence of virus on host organism-latent infection, cytopathic effects of viral infections, inclusion bodies,
chromosomal aberrations; Response of host cells to viral infection – Host specificity, resistance,
interference, immunological responses of the host, host induced modification, patterns of host response-
biological gradient, systemic and general syndromes – interactions. Virus offense meets host defense
– Host defense against viral infections, innate and adaptive immune response to viruses. Molecular
mechanisms of viral pathogenesis with respect to Poliovirus, Rotavirus, Herpesvirus (CMV). Molecular
parasitism concepts.Transmission of viruses – Vertical (Direct) transmission – contact, mechanical,
transplacental, transovarial, sexual, fecal, oral, respiratory, seed and pollen. Horizontal (Indirect)
transmission- aerosols, fomites, water, food, graft, dodder. Vector-arthropod, non-arthopods, virus and
vector relationship. Multiple host infections – viral zoonosis.Persistence of viruses – Pattern of viral
infection, mechanism of viral persistence. Mechanism of infection and viral spread in the body: Routes
of entry – skin, respiratory tract, oropharynx and intestinal tract, conjunctiva, gential; Host specificity
and tissue tropism – receptors, viral enchancers; Mechanism of virus spread in the body – spread in
epithelia, subepithelial invasion and lymphatic spread, spread by the blood stream, invasion of the skin,
central nervous system, respiratory and intestinal tracts, other organs. Virus ecology and epidemiology
– Epidemiological concepts. Scope of epidemiology – epidemiological investigation of virus diseases,
qualitative and quantitative investigations. Definition of terms, types of epidemiological investigations,
components of epidemiology, biological and physical factors influencing the survival and spread of
virus diseases. Disease gradients and forecasting of diseases. Virus disease surveillance, strategies
of virus maintenance in communities- wild and domestic animals, wild plants and weeds.
BIOMOLECULES: Major Biomolecules: Carbohydrates – Classification, chemistry, properties, and
function – mono, di, oligo and polysaccharides.bacterial cell wall polysaccharides. Conjugated
polysaccharides– glycoproteins, muriens and lipopolysaccharides. Lipids – classification, chemistry,
properties and function – free fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids & waxes. Conjugated
lipids – lipoproteins. Major steroids of biological importance – prostaglandins.Amino acids and proteins
– classification, structure and function. Essential amino acids & amphoteric nature of amino acids and
reactions and functions of carboxyl and amino groups and side chains. Peptide structure.
Ramachandran’s plot. Methods for isolation and characterization of proteins. Structural levels of proteins
– primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary, denaturation of proteins. Hydrolysis of proteins. Protein
sequencing using various methods. Nucleic acids – structure, function and their properties. Structural

23
polymorphism of DNA, RNA. Structural characteristics of RNA.Sources, Chemistry and biochemical
functions of water-soluble vitamins. Chemistry of Porphyrins – Heme, Cytochromes, Chlorophylls,
xanthophylls, Bacteriochlorophylls & algal pigments. Carotenoides.Biological oxidation, Biological redox
carriers, biological membranes, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation and mechanism. Bacterial
photosynthesis, photosynthetic electron transportMineral metabolism – phosphorus, potassium, calcium
and Trace elements –molybdenum, zinc, manganese, cobalt and copper. Influence of minerals on the
production of toxins. Role of trace elements on microbial enzymes.
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES: Microscopy – Principles of light, phase, fluorescent & electron
microscopes; Microtomy – sectioning. Microscopic techniques: Basic principles and applications of
phase – contrast microscopy (phase annulus, phase plate, specimen preparations), fluorescent
microscopy (filters, dark field condensor, complex optical system, sample preparations) and electron
microscopy (Magnetic lenses, electron beams, condensors, types of electron microscopy – scanning
and transmission, sample preparations - fixing of specimens, preparation of blocks, microtomy and
staining, negative staining techniques of biological samples), cytometry and flow cytometry.Principles
of Centrifugation – Centrifugation techniques-preparative and analytical methods, density gradient
centrifugation. General principles and applications of chromatography – Paper, Column, Thin layer,
Gas, Ion exchange, Affinity chromatography, HPLC, FPLC and Gel filtration. Electrophoresis – moving
boundary, zone (Paper Gel) electrophoresis. Immunoelectrophoresis. Immunoblotting. Isoelectric
focusing, 2-D electrophoresisPrinciples, Laws of absorption and radiation. Visible, ultraviolet, infrared
and mass spectrophotometry. Absorption spectra, fluorescence flame photometry, NMR, ESR, Principles
of colorimetry, Turbidometry, Viscometry. Determination of size, shape and molecular weight of
macromolecules – osmotic pressure, flow birefringence, optical rotatory dispersion. light scattering,
diffusion, sedimentation and X-ray diffraction.Radio isotopic tracers – methodology, problems of
experimental design, radiometric analysis, stable and radioactive isotopes, preparation, labeling,
detection and measurement of isotopes. RIA. Kinetics of radioactive disintegration.Manometric
techniques. Freeze drying and its application in biological systems.
MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY & METABOLISM: Nutritional types – autotrophic bacteria, chemosynthetic
and photo synthetic microorganisms. Heterotrophic bacteria – saprophytes, parasites and mixotrophs.
Respiration in bacteria – aerobic and anaerobic types of respiration, obligate aerobes, facultative
anaerobes and obligate anaerobes. Toxic effect of oxygen on anaerobes. Bioluminescence in
microorganisms. Energy yields. Microbial growth: The concept of growth and definition, Cell cycle in
microbes and generation time Growth phases of bacteria –survival of microbial cells. Importance of
each growth phase. Synchronous cultures – methods of synchronous culturing Continuous culturing
methods, factors effecting growth. Methods of growth measurement. Physiology and biochemistry of
sporulation and germination of spores Carbohydrate metabolism in microbes – synthesis of
carbohydrates in photosynthetic, chemosynthetic and heterotrophic microbes. Fermentation of
carbohydrates by microorganisms – Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway,
C2-C4 split pathway. Kreb’s cycle, glyoxylate cycle, hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP),
gluconeogenesis, anaplerotic reactions, synthesis of peptidoglycans and glycoproteins. Anaerobic
respiration - Fermentation, Biochemical mechanisms of lactic acid, ethanol, butanol and citric acid
fermentations. Nitrate and sulphate respiration.Metabolism of amino acids –Biosynthesis of amino
acids and their regulation with emphasis on tryptophan and histidine by microorganismsProtein
metabolism - Assimilation of inorganic nitrogen and sulphur, Biochemistry of nitrogen fixation. Urea
cycle . Signal transduction with reference to nitrogen metabolism. Catabolism of amino acids,
transamination, decarboxylation and oxidative deamination. Porphyrin biosynthesis and catabolism.Lipid
metabolism - Biosynthesis of triacyl glycerols, phospholipids and sphingolipids. Oxidation of saturated
and unsaturated fatty acids. Microbial metabolism of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (camphor,
2,4-D and toluene) with emphasis on the role of monooxygenase and dioxygenase in the ring cleavage
(ortho, meta and gentsiate cleavage) and reductive catabolism.Nucleotide metabolism - Biosynthesis
of purnine and pyrimidine nucleotides, biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides. Regulation of nucleotide
synthesis, catabolism of purine and pyrimidines.Secondary metabolism - Utilization of secondary

24
metabolites for production of vitamins, toxins (aflatoxin and corynebacterial), hormones (GA), and
antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin).
CELL BIOLOGY & ENZYMOLOGY: Organellar Biology: Structure, function & biogenesis of
chloroplast and mitochondria, mesosomes, lysosomes and cytoskeletal system. Photosynthesis in
bacteria and plants: Organization, apparatus, electron donors & acceptors, energetics. Physico-chemical
properties of bacteria – intracellular osmotic pressure, permeability of the bacterial cell. Nutrient transport
– simple diffusion, active, passive and facilitated diffusion. Purple green photosynthetic bacteria
Photosynthesis - Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, structure of synthetic pigments, primary
photochemistry of PS I and PS II, and photosynthetic electron transport, CO2 fixation, halo bacterial
photosynthesis.Signal transduction in eukaryotes: Protein kinases, phosphorylation cascades, Ras
pathway, MAP kinase pathway, etc. Cyclic nucleotides, G proteins. Mechanisms of protein translocation
across membranes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, coated vesicles, membrane receptors.Outlines of
enzyme classification, nomenclature, assay of enzymes and kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions –
Michaelis – Menton equation, determination of Km, Vmax and kcat values. Factors affecting enzyme reaction
– pH, temperature, radiation, enzyme and substrate concentrations, activators, coenzymes and
metalloenzymes. Ribozymes and abzymesEnzyme inhibitors, competitive and noncompetitive inhibition.
Active site determination. Mechanism of action of ribonuclease, lysozyme and chymotrypsin. Isoenzymes,
Regulatory enzymes – covalent modification, zymogen activation, Allosteric enzymes – ATCase,
Glutamine synthetase. Hemoglobin & Myoglobin.Enzyme purification - Methods of isolation, purification.
Recovery and yield of enzymes. Criteria for testing purity of enzyme preparations. Immobilised enzymes
- Methods of immobilisation. Comparison of kinetics of immobilised and free enzymes. Application of
immobilized enzymes.
MOLECULAR & MICROBIAL GENETICS: Molecular organization of chromosomes in Prokaryotes
and Eukaryotes. Centromeres and telomeres. Recombination at molecular level, heteroduplex analysis.
Fine Structure analysis.Organisation of genomes – Repeated sequences - C value – cot curves”
Multigene families; Molecular markers(RFLP and RAPD) Polymorphisms. Yeast & Drosophila as model
organisms. Complementation and functional allelism. Plasmids – types, plasmid DNA properties. Sex
plasmid F and its derivatives, drug resistance (R ) plasmids. The Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium.
Hybridization in yeast, control of mating type loci in yeast. Transposable elements – transposition.
Types of bacterial transposons, duplication of target sequence at an insertion site. Deletion and inversion
caused by transposons. Transposable elements in yeast and drosophila. Retroposons.Mutations –
Terminology, types of mutations, Molecular basis of mutations, isolation & analysis of mutants.
Mutagenesis – base analogue mutagens, chemical mutagens, intercalating substances, mutator genes.
Site directed mutagenesis, mutational hot spots, Reversion, second site revertants, frame shift mutations,
carcinogens, screening of mutants. UV damage of DNA and repair.Bacterial genetics – Inheritance
of characteristics and variability. Phenotypic changes due to environmental alterations. Genotypic
changes. Bacterial recombination. Bacterial conjugation. Transduction – Generalized and specialized
transductions. Bacterial transformation. Tetrad analysis in eukaryotic microbes – Neurospora and
yeast.Mapping of bacterial chromosome by interrupted mating and transduction. Recombination in
bacteriophages. Benzer’s studies on r-II locus of T4 bacteriophage. Complementation test.
IMMUNOLOGY: Adaptive immunity, innate immunity, cells involved in immune system – T-lymphocytes,
B- lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, APC, Neutrophils, mast cells, lymphoid system, Thymus,
bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, generation of lymphocyte specificity and diversity, processing and
presentation of antigens, clonal selection of lymphocytes, immunological memory.Antigen-Antibody
reactions; Ag-Ab binding, agglutination, blood groups, immunoflourescence, and important immunological
diagnostic tests - ELISA, RIA, immune blot, Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis, Complement
fixation test (CFT).Nature of antigens; antibody structure, classification of antibodies, functions of IgG,
IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE; primary and secondary immune response; serological analysis of antibodies –
isotypes, allotypes and idiotypes. Antibody diversity, antigen receptors on B and T lymphocytes.
Opsonins and opsonocytophagic reaction.Hybridoma techniques (monoclonal antibody production) –
Myeloma cell lines, fusion methods. Selection and screening methods for positive hybrids. Production,
purification and characterization of monoclonal antibodies. Applications of monoclonal antibodies in

25
biomedical research, clinical diagnosis and treatment. The complement system. components of classical
and alternative complement pathways, complement receptors, biological, consequences of complement
activation.Humoral and cell-mediated immunity, ontogeny of B and T lymphocytes, generation of memory
B cells and affinity maturation. T and B cell interactions, cytokines, lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity
(CTL). Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Transmembrane signaling, antigen receptor and
signal pathways. Reactions of immunity – antitoxins, neutralization of toxin with antitoxin Immune
response to infectious diseases: viral infections, bacterial infections, and protozoan diseases. Vaccines
– development and production, vaccine expression system. Production of rabies vaccine, foot & mouth
disease vaccine and hepatitis-B vaccine. DNA vaccines.Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Human
leucocyte antigen (HLA) restriction, Hypersensitive reactions – Auto immunity, transplantation immunity,
Tumor immunology, immunological tolerance and immunosuppression. Immunodeficiency diseases -
Primary immunodeficiency (genetic) diseases due to B-cell and T-cell and combined defects
(hypogammaglobulinemia, thymic aplasia, SCID). Secondary immunodeficiency (acquired).
Immunotherapy of infectious diseases; Types and principles of immunization; vaccinoprophylaxis,
vaccinotherapy, serotherapy. Development of immuno diagnostic kits.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Proof of DNA & RNA as genetic material; Transformation experiments,
Blenders experiments, properties of genetic material. Modern concept of gene structure. Overlapping
genes, split genes, constitutive genes, jumping genes, Oncogenes. Types of tumors, physical, chemical
and biological Carcinogens, chromosomal changes induced by Carcinogens.DNA replication –various
modes of replication, Meselson-Stahl’s studies on replication. Enzymes and Proteins involved in
replication Mechanism of replication – Initiation, polymerization and temination. Topoisomerases, DNA
ligases. Procaryotic and Eucaryotic promoters. Mechanism of transcription and transcriptional activators.
Posttranscriptional modifications.The genetic code: Deciphering the genetic code; theory of triplet code,
elucidation of base composition of codons. Identification of stop and start codons, universality of the
code, redundancy of the code, the decoding system.
Protein synthesis: Mechanism and role of various factors involved in Initiation, elongation and
termination of Protein Synthesis Inhibitors of protein synthesis. Post translational processing of proteins,
protein channeling, role of RNA in protein synthesis.Regulation of gene expression at the levels of
transcription and translation. Operon concept; Regulatory genes, structural genes and repressors.
Negative and Positive regulation. Regulation of lac, ara and trp operons. Catabolite repression.
Regulation of gene expression in lambda and nif operon. Regulation of gene expression in
eucaryotes.-MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGYNormal microbial flora of human body, host microbe
interactions. Infection and infections process- routes of transmission of microbes in the body. Description
and pathology of diseases caused by bacteria; Streptococcus, Pneumococcus, Gonococcus,
Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Proteus, Vibrio cholera.
Brucella, Haemophilus, influenzae; pathogenic anaerobes, Tetanus, Clostridia, Conynebacteria,
Mycobacteria, Spirochaetes.Description and pathology of diseases caused by Aspergillus, Penicillium,
Mucomycosis, Blastomycosis, Microsporosis, Rhinosporidium, Epidermophyscosis. Description and
pathology of diseases caused by hemoflagellates; Leishmania donavani, L.tropica, Trypanosoma
gambiense; intestinal flagellates; Trichomonas, Giardia, Entamoeba histolytica, malarial parasites,
Helminthes; Ascaris lumbricoides, Hook worm, pinworm, Filarial parasites.Laboratory diagnosis of
Common infective syndromes and parasitic manifestations; Methods of transmission & role of vectors-
biology of vectors. (1) House fly (2) Mosquitoes (3) sand fly. Need and significance of epidemiological
studies. Epidemiological investigations to identify a disease, Principles of chemotherapy, Mode of
antibiotics. Penicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides and Polymyxins. Antifungal drugs (Nystatin), Antiviral
agents. Problems of drug resistance and drug sensitivity. Drug resistance in bacteria.Viral diseases:
Description, pathology and lab diagnosis of diseases caused by pox viruses; herpes virus (chicken
pox- zoster); orthomyxo and paramyxo viruses; adenovirus, other respiratory viruses, viruses affecting
nervous system (ex: Polio virus, Rabies virus), enterovirus, reovirus, viral hepatitis, HIV Virus, rickettsiae.
Interferon – Nomenclature, types & classification, Induction of interferon, types of inducers.
BIOSTATISTICS & BIOINFORMATICSBiostatistics: Measures of Central tendency and distribution
– mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, variance. Basic principles of probability theory,

26
Bayes theorem, Normal distribution, statistical inference – Types of errors and levels of significance.
Comparison of variance (F-test), small sample test, t-test for comparison of means chi square test.
Correlation and Linear regression. Introduction to hidden Markov models.
Sequence Analysis: Introduction to biological databases: NCBI, EMBL, EXPASY, PIR, Pfam.
Concept of World Wide Web: HTML, HTPP. Similarity measures - Euclidean, Mahalanobis distance,
Edit distance, similarity matrices (PAM, BLOSUM) Searching sequence databases using BLAST.
Pairwise sequence alignment using dynamic programming (Needleman – Wunsch & Smith – Waterman
algorithms.) Multiple sequence alignment – progressive alignment – profiles – multidimensional dynamic
programming.
Genomics and proteomics: Molecular phylogenetics: Construction of of phytogenetic trees using
parsimony method and branch & bound method. Clustering methods – UPGMA & neighbor- joining,
Analysis of gene expression data by clustering. Gene prediction – Statistical approaches
– Similarity based approaches gene annotation. Fragment assembly, peptide sequencing using mass
and spectroscopy data. Comparative genomics.
Modeling: Protein secondary structure prediction – Chou Fasman rules – neural networks – discriminant
analysis. Prediction of transmembrane segments in membrane proteins. Protein 3D structure prediction
– homology – threading – potential energy functions – energy minimization – molecular dynamics –
simulated annealing.
MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY: R-DNA technology- Isolation of nucleic acids, DNA sequencing,
maxam-Gilbert and Di-deoxy methods. Restriction endonucleases, restriction maps, Southern, Northern
blotting and western blotting. DNA finger printing, PCR- principle, types, application.Cloning vectors-
Plasmids, Cosmids and bacteriophages. Ligases- DNA ligases, ligation of fragments with cohesive
ends & blunt ends; homopolymer tailing, Cloning strategies – shot gun experiments, gene libraries.
Isolation of poly mRNA, synthesis of c-DNA, cloning of c-DNA in bacteria. Isolation of cloned genes,
identification of recombinants, structural and functional analysis of recombinants.Gene expression-
expression of cloned genes in bacteria, yeast, plant and animal cells. Application of recombinant DNA
technology in biology, plant, medicine, genetic diseases, gene therapy. Genetically engineered
microorganisms and intellectual property rights. Nucleic acid probe technology, DNA micro array n:–
printing of oligonucleotides and PCR products on glass slides, nitrocellulose paper. Whole genome
analysis for global patterns of gene expression using fluorescent-labelled c-DNA or end labeled RNA
probes. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms using DNA chips. Protein micro array, advantages
and disadvantages of DNA and protein micro arrays.
FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY & INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY: An introduction to fermentation
processes – the range of fermentation processes. Microorganisms used in industrial microbiological
processes – the isolation, preservation and strain improvement of industrially important microorganisms,
screening methods, isolation of autotrophic mutants. Media and materials required for industrial
microbiological processes – Antifoams.Microbial growth kinetics, batch culture, continuous culture, fed
batch culture and Dual or multiple fermentations. Inoculum development for large-scale processes.
Design of fermentor: Construction and maintenance of aseptic conditions. Control of various parameters.
Sterilization of media. Types of fermentors. Computer application in fermentation technology. Recovery
and purification of fermentation products. Fermentation Economics.Production of ethyl alcohol, beer &
wine. Enzyme probe biosensors, biochips, biofilms, biosurfactants, Biotransformation, Petroleum
Microbiology. Microbial leaching- role of microorganisms in the recovery of minerals (uranium, copper)
from ores.Microbial products from genetically modified (cloned) organisms ex: insulin. Microbial groups
involved in biogas production, design of digester.
Patenting: Concept and its composition & protection of right and their limitation, intellectual property
rights (IPR); patenting biotechnology inventions.
ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY: Basic concepts of Ecology and Environment – Biological
spectrum at levels of organization & realm of ecology. Ecosystem – Concept, components, food chains,
food webs and tropic levels. Energy transfer efficiencies between tropic levels. Biological factors
influencing the growth and survival of microorganisms- inter reactions of microbial population and

27
community dynamics – Growth in closed environments and in open environments. The kinetic properties
of competition between microbial populations. Kinetic principles of prey-predator relationship.
Aquatic Environment: Fresh water microorganisms, their zonation and characteristics. Salt water,
oceans, estuaries, microorganism their zonation and characteristics. Faecal pollution of waters –
water borne diseases, indicator organisms. IMVIC test, sanitary examination of water.
Atmospheric Environment: Dispersal of airborne microorganisms. Air Sampling principles and
techniques. Air spora: Concepts and components, indoor and outdoor air spora. Diurnal periodicity
patterns. Seasonal periodicity patterns. Vertical profiles.
Microorganisms and pollution: Microbial production of methyl mercury, trimethyl arsine, hydrogen
sulphide, acid rain water, carbon monoxide, ammonia, nitrate, nitrogen oxides, nitrosamines,
Eutrophication, algal toxins.
Microorganisms and sewage treatment: COD, BOD & DO, trickling filters, activated sludge process,
oxidation ponds; sludge treatment (anaerobic digestion).Bioremediation Technology – Microbial
degradation of oil spills, pesticides and detergents, Biofouling; Fate of genetically engineered
microorganisms in the environment. Environmental impact assessment studies. Deterioration of
materials – paper, textiles, painted surfaces, prevention of microbial deterioration.
FOOD MICROBIOLOGY & AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGYMicrobiology of foods – Microbial flora
of fresh foods, grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, meat, eggs and fish and their infestation by bacteria,
fungi and viruses. Microbiological examination of foods- microscopic techniques and cultural techniques.
Direct microscopic examination, total colony counts and differential enumeration. Identification of specific
groups – Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi and Protozoa. Microbial spoilage of milk, food, types of spoilage
organisms, food poisoning, mycotoxins and bacterial toxins.
Food processing & preservation: Methods of food preservation, Aseptic handling, pasteurization of
milk, refrigeration and freezing, dehydration, osmotic pressure, chemicals – organic acids, nitrates,
nitrites and cresols; Radiation – UV light, Y-irradiation. Fermented foods – preparation of Yogurt,
streptococcus species, Lactobacillus bulgaricus; Manufacture of cheese; Pencillium roqueforti.
Fermented soybean products. Microorganisms as food – single cell protein, yeast, algae and fungal
biomass production.Soil Environment- Microorganisms, soil structure, soil profile, Physico-chemical
conditions, Microbial composition, sampling techniques, role of Microorganisms in organic matter
decomposition (cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignins)Bio-geo chemical cycles – Carbon cycle, Nitrogen
cycle – Nitrogen fixation, nitrification, de-nitrification, sulpher, iron and phosphorus cycles. Rhizosphere
– Rhizoshere Microorganisms, Biochelators (Siderophores).Biofertilizers – Introduction, biofertilizers
using nitrogen fixing microbes – phosphate solubilization- Rhizobium, Azatobacter, Azospirillum, Azolla;
Anabaena Symbiosis, blue green algae, Mycorrihiza, Biopesticides – toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis,
Psuedomonas syringae, Biological Control – Use of Baculovirus, NPV virus, protozoa & fungi in biological
control. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGYChemical disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives.
Types of Antibiotics-B-lactam antibiotics, tetracycline group Rifamycin, aminoglycoside antibiotics,
macrolides, polypeptide antibiotics, glycopeptide antibiotics, miscellaneous antibacterial antibiotics and
antifungal antibiotics. Production of antibiotics – Penicillin, Streptomycin, Erythromycin, bacitracin and
tetracycline.Mechanism of action of antibiotics – the bacterial cell wall, protein synthesis, chromosome
function & replication, folate antagonis, the cytoplasmic membrane. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics
- Intrinsic & acquired resistance, biochemical mechanism of resistance. Assay of antibiotics – Penicillin,
Streptomycin.Industrial Production of Enzymes – amylases, Proteases, organic acids- lactic acid, citric
acid, vinegar, aminoacids – L-lysine, L-glutamic acid; Food supplements and hormones. Production of
Vitamin B 12; Microbial transformation of sterioids and nonsteroids. Analytical Microbiology –
microbiological assays of Vitamins (Riboflavin, B12), amino acids (lysine, tryptophan).Ecology of
Microorganisms as it effects the pharmaceutical industry; Microbial spoilage & preservation of medicines
using antimicrobial agents; quality assurance and the control of microbial risk in medicines.
Contamination of non-sterile pharmaceuticals in hospital & community environments.
TEST NO. – 15: NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Network theorems: Thevenin theorem, Norton’s theorem and
maximum power transfer theorem.Semiconductor.

28
Devices: Tunnel diode, LDR, Photo diode, Solar cell, LED.UJT- characteristics and relaxation oscillator.
JFET and MOSFET – construction and characteristics – and their applications. JFET as common
source amplifier. BJT – CE amplifier – voltage gain, input and output resistance, graphical analysis and
analysis using h-parameter equivalent circuit.
Feedback Amplifiers : Feedback concept, types of feed back, general characteristics of negative
feedback in amplifiers, voltage series feedback, current series feed back and voltage shunt feedback.
Digital Electronics: (Combinational Logic)The transistor as a switch, OR, AND and NOT gates –
NOR and NAND gates – Ex OR gate. Boolean algebra and Logic implementation. Decoders and
Encoders, Multiplexers and De multiplexers.
Digital Electronics: (Sequential Logic) Flip-Flops, one bit memory – RS flip-flop, JK flip-flop, JK –
master slave flip-flop, T flip-flop. Modulo N counters.Operational Amplifiers: Ideal Operational amplifier.
Op. Amp. architecture- differential stage, gain stage, dc level shifting and output stage. Practical inverting
and Non inverting Op. Amp configurations, voltage follower. Op. Amp parameters – input offset voltage
( Vio) input bias current (Iio),Output offset voltage, Common Mode Rejection Ratio(CMRR), Slew rate,
Op. Amp. Open loop gainOp.
Amplifier applications: Summing, scaling and difference of input voltages, Integrator and Differentiator.
RC phase shift Oscillator. Comparators. Window -comparator, Schmitt trigger, Astable and monostable
multivibrators. Voltage regulators – fixed regulators and adjustable voltage regulators.Spectra of alkali
elements- Different series in alkali spectra, Ritz combination principle, Spin-orbit interaction, Doublet
structure in alkali spectra, transition rules, intensity rules.Spectra of alkaline earths, Coupling schemes,
interaction energy levels in L-S coupling and j-j coupling, singlet and triplet series in two valance electron
systems. Spectrum of helium atom. Fine and hyperfine structure of spectral lines—fine structure of
hydrogen lines, Lamb shift, experimental determination of Lamb shift, hyperfine structure—esxperimental
study and interpretation, measurement of nuclear spin.Effect of electric and magnetic fields on the
spectrum of an atom—Zeeman effect—classical interpretation of Normal Zeeman effect, Vector atom
model and Zeeman effect, Vector atom model anomalous Zeeman effect, Paschen – Back effect,
quantam mechanical treatment of Zeeman and Paschen-Back effect, Lande’s g-factor for two valance
electron system—L-S coupling and j-j coupling, Stark effect of one electron atom.Molecular spectra of
diatomic molecules-regions of the spectrum, Pure rotational spectra—salient features of rotational
spectra, the molecule as a rigid rotator, diatomic molecule as a non rigid rotator, determination of bond
length and moment of inertia, isotopic effect in rotational spectra, Vibrational spectra— diatomic molecule
as a harmonic oscillator, fine structure of rotation-vibration bands, Electronic transitions and Frank-
Condon principle.Raman spectra—classical and quantum theory of Raman effect, vibrational Raman
spectra, pure rotational Raman spectra, vibrational-rotational Raman spectra, structure determination
from Raman & infra red spectroscopy.Maxwell’s equations: Maxwell’s Equations in Free Space and
Linear isotropic media. Boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces. Potential formulation of
electrodynamics: Scalar and Vector potentials, Gauge transformations - Coulomb gauge, Lorentz gauge,
Gauge invariance, Lorentz force law in potential form. Poynting’s theorem, Maxwell’s Stress Tensor,
Conservation of Energy and Momentum. Electromagnetic waves: The Wave Equation, Electromagnetic
waves in non-conducting media-Plane waves in Vacuum - Energy and Momentum of electromagnetic
waves - Propagation through Linear media – Polarization Reflection and Transmission at a Conducting
surface/thin layer. Dispersion - The frequency dependence of Permittivity, Permeability and Conductivity
- Dispersion in non-conducting media-Cauchy’s Equation.Fields and Radiation by Moving Charges:
Retarded Potentials - ‘Lienard-Wiechert Potentials’ – Electric and Magnetic fields due to a uniformly
moving point charge and an accelerated charge. Power radiated by accelerated charge - Larmour’s
formula and its relativistic generalisation - Radiation losses in charged particle accelerators. Electric
and Magnetic dipole radiation. Linear and Circular acceleration and angular distribution of power radiated,
Bremsstrahlung, Synchrotron radiation and Cerenkov radiation, Radiation reaction force.
Shell Model: Evidence for shell structure in nuclei –square well potential – energy level scheme – spin
orbit potential, reproducibility of magic numbers with the spin orbit splitting of energy levels – Extreme
Single Particle Model, explanations of spins, parities and magnetic dipole moments of the ground and
low lying excited states of nuclei, nuclear isomerism in terms of shell model.

29
Collective Model: Elementary considerations, evidence for the collective motions within the nuclei,
pure vibrational states, deformed nuclei, pure rotational states - motions of nucleons in a deformed or
non-spherical potential - exited states of deformed nuclei – Nilsson’s Model - beta and gamma vibrational
bands – particle-rotational coupling.
RAL Model: High spin states – back bending – rotational alignment. Characteristics of nuclear energy
levels and nature of the connecting transitions – radioactive decay and heavy ion induced nuclear
reactions.Energies and intensities of gamma rays and conversion electrons – construction of the level
scheme using coincident methods – energy matrix.Life times of nuclear excited states – delayed
coincidence with gamma rays and pulsed beam – Doppler shift attenuation, recoil distance and Coulomb
excitation methods – transition probabilities – single particle estimates.Spins and parities of nuclear
excited states and the nature of the connecting transitions: Angular distributions in stripping and pickup
reactions – angular momentum transfer – spectroscopic factors.Internal conversion coefficients – XPG,
NPG, summing and coincident methods – sub-shell ratios – mixing ratios - dynamic nuclear structure
effects – penetration parameters.Electron-gamma and gamma-gamma directional correlations – spin
and parities – particle parameters - mixing ratios.Directional correlation of gamma rays from nuclear
excited levels populated in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions – multi-polarities from DCO ratios –
linear polarization.Static magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of nuclear excited states –
magnetic fields and electric field gradients at the nucleus: Perturbed angular correlations – integral and
differential correlations – experimental arrangement.Mossbauer spectroscopy – principle of the method
- experimental arrangement.
General Properties Of Nuclei: Size of the nuclei, nuclear binding energy, nuclear angular momentum,
parity and statistics, nuclear magnetic dipole moments, Schmidt limits, nuclear quadrupole
moments.Energy release in beta decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, shape of the beta spectra, angular
momentum and parity selection rules, comparative half lives, non conservation of parity, beta
spectroscopy.Energetics of gamma decay, angular momentum and parity selection rules, internal
conversion, lifetimes for gamma emission, gamma ray spectroscopy.General Characterstics of Nuclear
forces, The nuclear 2-body problem— deuteron and its simple theory—range and depth of the potential,
excited states of deuteron.n-p scattering at low energies—phase shift analysis, scattering length, spin
dependence of the nuclear forces, shape independent approximation/effective range theory, coherent
scattering of slow neutrons.p-p scattering at low energies— equivalence of p-p and n-p singlet forces,
equivalence of n-n and p-p forces, exchange forces, evidence for the existence of non central
forces.Particle interactions and families, symmetries and conservation laws— energy and momentum,
angular momentum, parity, Baryon number, lepton number, isospin, strangeness and charm, the quark
model, colored quarks and gluons, Grand unified theories ( preliminaries only).
Introduction: Principle of detection of photons, charged particles and neutrons. (Interaction of light
and heavy charged particles with matter, photoelectric, Compton and pair production )Gas counters:
Ionisation chambers, Proportional counters, Neutron detectors and G.M. counters.Scintillation detectors:
Organic and inorganic Scintillators – theory, characteristics and detection efficiency. BGO detectors –
advantages of BGO over Scintillation detectors. Solid State Detectors: Silicon Surface Barrier detectors,
E - 'E detection for charged particles, Si(Li) detectors for X-rays and electrons, HPGe detectors for
photon detection. Energy resolution, efficiency and timing considerations. Introduction to Cluster and
Clove detectors.Pulse Processing and shaping:- Preamplifiers - Voltage, Current and Charge sensitive
types. Resistive and Optical feed back. Main amplifiers- pulse shaping, pole-zero compensation, base
line restoration and pile up rejection.
Pulse height analysis: Single Channel analyser – integral and differential modes of operation. Simple
spectrometer assembly.
Multi channel analyser: A/D converters ( Wilkinson and Flash types ). D/A converters (R-2R ladder
type). Principle of operation and performance indices. Multi channel analyser in PHA and MCS modes.
Coincidence measurements: Slow - fast coincidence arrangement for measurement of coincidence
between radiation. Prompt and chance coincidences. Experimental arrangement for energy and time
coincidence measurements. Compton suppression spectrometer ( Ge(Li) detectors with anti Compton
BGO shield ).

30
Counting Statistics: Statistical errors and their propagation in experimental measurements, F2 - test.
Liquid Drop Model: Analogy between the atomic nucleus and a drop of liquid, Weizsaekar’s semi
empirical mass formula, Stability considerations of nuclei – Mass parabola – discovery of nuclear fission,
energy release in symmetric fission – conditions for spontaneous fission – neutron induced fission of
both slow and fast neutrons.
Nuclear Reactions: Types of reactions and Conservation laws – Energetics of Nuclear Reactions –
Cross sections – Neutron induced reactions – Slow neutron resonance – the two step view or the
compound nucleus picture due to Bohr – Entrance and Exit channels – Level width and Level Spacing
– Resonance reactions – Briet-Wigner single level formulation – Statistical model, Average level spacing
and reduced width – Direct interaction Mechanisms – Angular distribution in stripping, pick up and
inelastic scattering reactions – Spin, parity assignments – Total neutron cross sections. Gross structure
problem – Optical model and its explanation of gross structure problem.Cyclotron –FM Cyclotron
(Synchro-Cyclotron), Microtron – Alternate gradient (strong) focussing – Variable energy cyclotron (AVF
Cyclotron).Linear Accelerator –– modern linear accelerator for electrons and charged particles.Cockcroft
Walton Accelerator – Production of 14MeV neutrons. Van de Graaf Accelerator - Tandem Van de Graaf
Accelerator – Pelletron.Betatron – Electron Synchrotron and Proton synchrotron –– Beam
transport.Production of Neutrons: Classification of Neutrons – Slow, Intermediate and Fast Neutrons –
Radioactive Sources – Photo neutron sources – Particle accelerators as sources of neutrons – Mono
energetic neutrons – Reactors as source of thermal neutrons – Distribution of energy of neutrons in a
thermal reactor – Thermal column – The cadmium ratio – Measurement of thermal neutron flux using
foil activation method.Interaction of neutrons with matter in bulk – Moderation of neutrons – The elastic
collision – Average logarithmic energy decrement – Slowing down density and slowing down flux –
Space distribution of slowing down density – Transport mean free path – Fremi Age – Point source
consideration – Experimental determination of Fermi Age – Diffusion of neutrons – The basic diffusion
equation – Diffusion of thermal neutrons from a infinite plane source – Point source considerations –
Diffusion length and its experimental determination. Nuclear Fission – Characteristics of Fission reaction
– Fission chain reaction – Neutron Balance in chain reaction.Reactor types – Multiplication factor for
thermal reactors – Four-factor formula – Bare homogeneous thermal reactor – Critical equation –
Geometrical and Material Buckling – Neutron balance in a thermal reactor – Calculation of critical size
and composition in simple cases.Heterogeneous reactors – Properties of Heterogeneous systems –
Resonance capture – Volume and surface absorption – Resonance escape probability – Advantages
and Disadvantages of Heterogeneous systems. The Behavior of a Bare thermal reactor with prompt
and delayed neutrons – The inhour formula – Temperature effects – Fission product poisoning – Use of
Coolants and Control rods.Breeder and Power reactors – Elementary considerations.
CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS:Crystal Structure: Crystalline solids, periodic arrays of atoms –
Fundamental types of lattices – index systems for crystal planes – Simple crystal structures (NaCl,
CaCl and diamond).
Reciprocal Lattice: Reciprocal Lattice – Derivation of Scattered wave amplitude - Reciprocal Lattice
vectors – Diffraction conditions.
Crystal Diffraction: Introduction – Bragg’s law – Diffraction by X-rays, electrons and neutrons –
Experimental methods for Crystal structure determination – The Laue, powder and rotating crystal
methods Defects in Crystals: Point defects:- impurities – Vacancies – Schottky and Frenkel vacancies
– Extrinsic vacancies – Diffusion-Color centers – F-centers , other centers in Alkali halidesLine defects:
-Edge dislocation – Screw dislocations – Burgers vectors – Slip – Plastic deformation – Crystal
growthPlaner defects:- Stacking faults – Grain boundaries – Low angle Grain boundaries Ionic Crystals:
Electrostatic or Madelung energy – Evaluation of the madelung constant – Ionic crystal radii.
Band theory of Solids: Energy spectra in atoms, molecules and solids – Bloch theorem – acceleration
of the moving electron in the periodic lattice and effective mass of the electron – The tight binding
approximation – Construction of Fermi surfaces – Experimental methods in Fermi surface studies:
Cyclotron resonance, De Hass Von Alphen effect, Magneto-resistance and the anomalous skin effect
Semiconductors: Physical significance of Fermi function and Fermi energy – Photons, Phonons,
electrons and holes – Intrinsic carrier density – Intrinsic conductivity as a function of temperature and

31
band gap – extrinsic semiconductors – semiconductor energy band structure with acceptor type and
donor type impurities - extrinsic conductivity – position of Fermi level.
Magnetism: Introduction - review of basic concepts – Wiess theory of ferromagnetism – Heisenerg
model and molecular field theory. Spin waves and magnons – Curie Weiss law for susceptibility. Ferri –
and antiferro-magnetic order. Domains and Bloch – wall energy.
Superconductivity: Occurrence of superconductivity – Effect of magnetic fields – Flux exclusion and
Meissner effect – Heat capacity – Energy gap – Microwave and infrared properties – Isotope effect –
The London equations – Meissner effect and flux penetration – High frequency effects – The BCS
theory – BCS ground state Trace elemental analysis – X-ray fluorescence technique – particle induced
x-ray emission technique – neutron activation analysis technique – experimental arrangement –
applications in environmental pollution studies, medicine, geology.Rutherford back scattering
spectroscopy – basic principle – experimental arrangement – applications in surface physics.Auger
electron spectroscopy – basic principle – experimental arrangement – applications in surface
physicsNuclear Magnetic Resonance – Nature of the phenomenon – Analysis – Experimental method
– Determination of nuclear magnetic moments – structural studies.Positron annihilation technique –
basic principle – experimental arrangement for positron life time measurement – Doppler broadening
and angular correlation studies – applications Ion beam channeling – basic principle – experimental
arrangement – applications Neutron logging - Bulk density – applications in Geophysics.Units of radio
activity and radiation exposure – Curie, Roentgen, Becquerel – RAD – REP- REM – Gray – Sievert -
RBE, AD and DE and their relations.Protection of personnel against nuclear radiations – Radiation
monitoring – film badge technique - Radioactive waste management – planning and use of radio isotopes
and chemical laboratoriesStructure of the living cell – cell division – direct and indirect action of ionizing
radiation – Biological effects of radiations – somatic and genetic effectsApplications of radio isotopes in
medicine – use of 131I for the study of the thyroid – use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis and treatment
of cancer – radiation therapyApplications of radio isotopes in industry – principle of industrial radiology
– non destructive testing of materials Applications of radio isotopes in agriculture – detection of plant
diseases by tracer methods – study of photo synthesis – uptake of nutrients – radiation induced genetic
changes and crop improvement – preservation and sterilization of foods and drugs.
TEST NO. – 16: ORGANIC & FOOD, DRUGS, & WATER CHEMISTRY: General ChemistryBasic
Quantum Chemistry:Wave equation – interpretation of wave function – properties of wave function –
normalization and orthogonalisation – operators-linear and non-linear, commucators of operators.
Postulates of quantum mechanics – setting up of operators observables – Hermition operator – Eigen
values of Hermitian operator.Wave mechanics of simple systems with constant potential energy, particle
in a box – factors influencing colour transition – dipole integral, rigid rotator – simple harmonic oscillator.
Hydrogen atom – solution of R(r), i (-) (-) i and 0 (0) equations probability density in orbitals – shapes of
orbitals.Perturbation theory – time independent perturbataion – (Only first order perturbations to be
dealt with) – applications to ground state energy of helium atom-variation principle – applications –
calculation of zero point energy of harmonic oscillator – Many electron atom – Hartree-Fock self-
consistent field method (Qualitative treatment only).Valence bond approach – directed valence –
hybridization covalent bond- calculation of ionic and covalent bond contributions in hydrogen
molecule.Molecular orbital theory – LCAO approximation – hydrogen molecules ion – hydrogen molecule
(fundamental concepts only).
Molecular Spectroscopy:Basic concepts of symmetry and group theory – symmetry elements –
axioms of group theory – classification of molecules into point groups – representation of point groups
– matrix representation – reducible and irreducible representations – reduction of a reducible
representation to an irreducible one – ortrhogonality theorem – character table and its anatomy (character
table not to be derived) – use of character tables – application of group theoretical concepts to vibrational
spectroscopy (infra-red and Raman).
Rotational and Vibrational Spectra:Rotation spectra of diatomic molecules – isotope effect-selection
rules.Infra-red spectra of diatomic molecules – isotope effect – selection rules – an harmonic oscillator
– normal modes of vibration – simultaneous vibration – rotation spectra-combination bands – overtones
– Fermi resonance – concept of group frequencies – Raman effect (classical approach) – applications

32
of IR and Raman spectra.Electronic spectrum of a diatomic molecule – coars structure – classification
of bands – fine structure – band head and band shading – types of electronic transitions in molecules
– applications of electronic spectra – charge transfer spectra.
Elements of Computer Programming:Basic components of computers – comparison of micro,
main frame and super computers – synopsis of software packages in chemistry – Basic commands of
MSDOS Format, copying operation, concept of directories, batch files, compilation of Fortran files,
flowcharting MS Fortran : Integer and real variables and constants – Assignment and replacement
statements – conditional statements (if-then-else, Goto) – repetition (Do statements with – read and
write with I, F and G formats – concept of function and subroutine subprograms.The following programs
are to be practiced:Rate constant of a first order reaction or Beer’s law by least squares Method (derivation
not needed).Roots of a quadratic equation – application to hydrogen ion Concentration of a strong
acid.Solving Vander – Walls equation or hydrogen ion concentration of a monoprotic weak acid (Gauss-
Newton method).Standard deviation and variance of univariate data. Basics of D Base III – creating
structures for a bibliographic Data base and properties of chemical elements (Retrieval programs not
needed.).
Inorganic Chemistry: Term symbols – Russell – Saunders coupling – Derivation of terms Symbols
for various configurations.
Chemical Bonding : Application of VB, MO and VSEPR theories in explaining the structures of simple
molecules – role of ‘P’ and ‘d’ orbitals in and bonding.Chemistry of main group elements: General
trends in properties – boron hydrides. Carboranes, intercalation compounds, nitrogen – phosphorous,
boron – nitrogen and sulphur – nitrogen cyclic compounds.Chemistry of transition elements: Comparative
study of the first, second and third transition series. Metal cluster compounds – Favorable conditions
for formation – Structure and bonding in halide and carboxlate metal compounds. Chemistry of Inner
Transitution elements: Chemistry of Lanthanides – electronic configurations, Oxidation states –
Lanthanide contraction and its consequenees – magnetic and spectral properties – separation of
lanthanides. Chemistry of actinides – Synthesis of transuranium elements electronic configurations,
oxidation states – position in the periodic table – actinide contraction – comparison of magnetic and
spectral properties with those of lanthanides. Coordination compounds: Crystal field theory – crystal
field splitting patterns in octahedral, tetrahedral, tetragonal, square planar, square pyramidal and trigonal
bipyramidal geometrics – Determination of crystal field splitting energy-calculation of crystal field
stabilization energies – Factors affecting crystal field splitting energies – spectrochemical series – Jahn
– Teller effect – Ligand field theory.Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes – Selection rules –
break down of selection rules – Orgel and Tanabe – Sugano diagrams – Spectra a octra of octahedral
and tetrahedral complexes. Magnetic properties of freeions – spin and orbital moment and spin – orbit
coupling Quenching of orbital momentum by crystal fields in complexes.Stability of complexes – Factors
affecting stability – chelate effect – Determination of stability constants of complexes – Spectrophotometric
method and pH metric method.Inorganic reaction mechanisms: Inert and liable complexes – Explanation
of liability on the basis of CFSE.Substitution reactions of metal complexes – Did, I a and A mechanism
– Ligand replacement reactions of octahedral complexes-Acid hydrolysis, A nation and Base hydrolysis
of cobalt. (III) Complexes Ligand displacement reactions of square planner complexes of platinum (II)
– Trans effect – Mechanism of trans effect (theories) – Electron transfer reactions of complexes – Inner
and outer sphere mechanisms.
Organic Chemistry: Structure and reactivity – localized and delocalized convalent bond – concent of
resonance and aromatieity – Huckl’s rule aromaticity in benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds –
anti aromaaticity and homo aromaticity, Naature of Organic reaction – energy and kinetic considerations
– types of Organic reactions – reagents – reactive intermediates, their formation and stabilization –
inductive and mesomeric effects.Stereochemistry and stereoisometism – conformational isomersm
and analysis in acyclic and simple cyclic systems – substituted ethanes, cyclopentane, cyclohexane,
cyclohextane, cyclooctance and decalins – Optical isomerism – optical aactivity molecular dissymmetry
and chirality – elements of symmetry.Fischer’s projection – D.L. and R.S. – configurations – relative
and absolute configuration – optical isomerism due to a symmetric carbon atoms optical isomerism in
biphenyl, allences and spirans – optical isomerism of nitrogenous compounds – recemisation and

33
resolution – geometrical isomerism and E.Z. configurations Properties of geometrical isomers. Aromatic
substitution reactions – electrophilic, nucleophilic and through benzynes – radical substitution of arenas
– orientation Nucleophilic substitution at a saturated carbon, SNI, SN2, ENi – reaction – effect of structure
nucleophile, leaving group, solvent and neighbouring groups. Addition Reactions: Addition to C=C and
C=O double bond. Additions involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals.Elimination reactions
– E1, E1Cb, E2 reactions – elimination versus substitution reactions.Machanisms of some name
reactions – aldol, Parkin, Benzoin, Cannirzaro, Witting, Grigand Reformatsky, Wagner – Meerwein –
Hofmann, Clasen and Favorsky, rearrangements – Hydroboration – Openauer Oxidation, Clemmensen
reduction, Wolf-Kischer reduction – Meerwein – Pondorf and Valey and Birch reductions. Chemistry of
hetrocyclic compounds – synthesis and reactivity of the following systems – pyridine; pyridine, quinoline,
isopquinoline, indole, benzefuran, benzothiophene – pyrazole, imidazole, exazole, isooxazole, thiazole,
isothiazole, pyridazine, pyrimidine and pyrazine.Spectra and structure – application of organic
spectroscopy UV IR – HNMR and Mass spectral data.Chemistry of some typical natural products – A
study of the following compounds involving their isolation, structure elucidation, systhesis and biogenesis
– Flavonoids – luteolin, quercein, cyaniding and genesterin, Terpenoids – citral, a-terpeneol, methal, a-
pinene, ophor farnesol.Alkaloids – priperine, apropine, cocaine, nicotins, papverine and quinine Purines
– caffions.
Physical ChemistryStates of Matter: Transport properties of gases – Thermal conductivity, viscosity
and diffusion. Theories of liquid structure – calculation of collision numbers.
Solids: X-ray diffraction studies – crystal structure determination – lattice types and lattice dimensions
– crystal defects – linear point and edge defects – Band theory solids – Theories of specific heats of
solids – semiconductors and their properties.Physical Methods for theelucidation of molecular structure
– magnetic properties of molecules – theories of magnetic susceptibility- Application of magnetic
susceptibility measurements to coordination compounds – spin-spin interactions – Chemical shift and
its origin – experimental methods – application of NMR studies in structural-elucidation – application to
structure of ethanol, acetophenone, acel tamide, dimethyl formamide and styrene – electron spin
resonance –principle and experimental technique – line shapes and line widths – g-value – hyperfine
interactions – application of ESR Studies to the structure of free radical, metal complexes and biological
systems.
Thermodynamics : Free energy, entropy and enthalpy – Chemical equilibrium – thermodynamic
criteria of the chemical equilibrium – effect of temperature on equilibrium constant – Vant Hoff isochore
– Maxwell relations – Gibbs-Duhem equation Duheme – Margules equation – classius –clapeyron
equation – Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics – determination of absolute entropy.
Kinetics: Theories of reaction rates – collision and transition state theories – study of fast reactions
using flow and relaxation methods – Kinetic isotope effects – reactions in solution – primary and
secondary kinetic salt effects – Effect of dielectric constant – elementary ideas of linear free energy
relations – Hammett and Taft equations – Chain reactions – consecutive, parallel and opposing reactions
involving uni-molecular steps only – catalysis – homogeneous and heterogeneous – acid-base and
redox catalysis.Photochemistry: Laws of photochemistry – photophysical processes fluorescence –
delayed fluorescence and phosphorescence – Stern – volmer equation – Inter system crossing – internal
conversion – photolysis – photosensitization and photochemical equilibrium.
Electrochemistry : Theories of strong electrolytes – Debye – Onsager equation – electrochemical
cells – concentration cells with and without transference – effect of complexation on redox potential
Determination of activity coefficients from E.M.F. data.
TEST NO. – 17: PHYSICS: Mathematical Methods of Physics: Beta, Gamma & Special functions
(Hermite, Laguerre and Legendre); Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms; Elements of complex
analysis: Laurent series-poles, residues and evaluation of integrals; Elements of computational
techniques: roots of functions, interpolation, extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule;
Finite difference methods.Classical Mechanics Newton’s laws; Phase space dynamics, stability
analysis; Central-force motion; Two-body collisions, scattering in laboratory and centre-of-mass frames;
Rigid body dynamics, moment of inertia tensor, non-inertial frames and pseudoforces; Variational
principle, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and equations of motion; Poisson brackets and

34
canonical transformations; Symmetry, invariance and conservation laws, cyclic coordinates; Periodic
motion, small oscillations and normal modes, relativistic kinematics and mass–energy equivalence.
Electromagnetic Theory Electrostatics: Gauss’ Law and its applications; Laplace and Poisson
equations, boundary value problems; Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s theorem,
electromagnetic induction; Maxwell’s equations in free space and linear isotropic media; boundary
conditions on fields at interfaces; Scalar and vector potentials; Gauge invariance; Electromagnetic
waves in free space, dielectrics, and conductors; Reflection and refraction, polarization, Fresnel’s Law,
interference, coherence, and diffraction; Dispersion relations in plasma; Lorentz invariance of Maxwell’s
equations; Dynamics of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields; Radiation from
moving charges, dipoles and retarded potentials.
Quantum Mechanics: Wave-particle duality; Wave functions in coordinate and momentum
representations; Commutators and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; Matrix representation; Dirac’s
bra and ket notation; Schroedinger equation (time-dependent and time-independent); Eigenvalue
problems such as particle-in-a-box, harmonic oscillator, etc.; Tunneling through a barrier; Motion in a
central potential; Orbital angular momentum, Angular momentum algebra, spin; Addition of angular
momenta; Hydrogen atom, spin-orbit coupling, fine structure; Time-independent perturbation theory
and applications; Variational method; Time dependent perturbation theory and Fermi’s Golden Rule;
Selection rules; Semi-classical theory of radiation; Elementary theory of scattering, phase shifts, partial
waves, Born approximation; Identical particles, Pauli’s exclusion principle, spin-statistics connection;
Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein Gordon and Dirac equations.
Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics: Laws of thermodynamics and their consequences;
Thermodynamic potentials, Chemical potential, phase equilibria; Phase space, micro- and macrostates;
Microcanonical, canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions; Free Energy and
connection with thermodynamic quantities; First- and second-order phase transitions; Classical and
quantum statistics, ideal Fermi and Bose gases; Principle of detailed balance; Blackbody radiation and
Planck’s distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; Random walk and Brownian motion.
Electronics: Semiconductor device physics, diodes, junction transistors, field effect devices, UJT,
SCR devices structure, device characteristics and applications; Feedback concept in amplifiers, tuned
amplifiers, oscillators, multivibrators, operational amplifiers and their applications; Digital circuits –
number systems, logic gates and Boolean algebra, De-Morgan laws, flip-flops, counters, shift registers,
A/D and D/A converters; Microprocessor basics.
Atomic & Molecular Physics: Quantum states of an electron in an atom; Electron spin; Stern-Gerlach
experiment; Spectrum of Hydrogen, helium and alkali atoms; Relativistic corrections for energy levels
of hydrogen; Hyperfine structure and isotopic shift; width of spectral lines; LS & JJ coupling; Zeeman,
Paschen Back & Stark effect; X-ray spectroscopy; Electron spin resonance, Nuclear magnetic resonance,
chemical shift; Rotational, vibrational, electronic, and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules; Frank –
Condon principle and selection rules; Spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients;
Lasers, optical pumping, population inversion, rate equation; Modes of resonators and coherence length.
Condensed Matter Physics: Bravais lattices; Reciprocal lattice, diffraction and the structure factor;
Bonding of solids; Elastic properties, phonons, lattice specific heat; Free electron theory and electronic
specific heat; Response and relaxation phenomena; Drude model of electrical and thermal conductivity;
Hall effect and thermoelectric power; Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism; Electron
motion in a periodic potential, band theory of metals, insulators and semiconductors; Superconductivity,
type e:– I and type - II superconductors, Josephson junctions; Defects and dislocations; Ordered phases
of matter, translational and orientational order, kinds of liquid crystalline order; Conducting polymers;
Quasicrystals.
Nuclear and Particle Physics: Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and
parity; Binding energy, semi-empirical mass formula; Liquid drop model; Fission and fusion; Nature of
the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon potential; Charge-independence and charge-symmetry of
nuclear forces; Isospin; Deuteron problem; Evidence of shell structure, single- particle shell model, its
validity and limitations; Rotational spectra; Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and
their selection rules; Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanisms, compound nuclei and direct reactions;
Classification of fundamental forces; Elementary particles (quarks, baryons, mesons, leptons); Spin

35
and parity assignments, isospin, strangeness; Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula; C, P, and T invariance and
applications of symmetry arguments to particle reactions, parity non-conservation in weak interaction
TEST NO. – 18: PHYSICAL NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY & CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY:
General ChemistryBasic Quantum Chemistry:Wave equation – interpretation of wave function –
properties of wave function – normalization and orthogonalisation – operators-linear and non-linear,
commucators of operators. Postulates of quantum mechanics – setting up of operators observables –
Hermition operator – Eigen values of Hermitian operator.Wave mechanics of simple systems with
constant potential energy, particle in a box – factors influencing colour transition – dipole integral, rigid
rotator – simple harmonic oscillator. Hydrogen atom – solution of R(r), i (-) (-) i and 0 (0) equations
probability density in orbitals – shapes of orbitals.Perturbation theory – time independent perturbataion
– (Only first order perturbations to be dealt with) – applications to ground state energy of helium atom-
variation principle – applications – calculation of zero point energy of harmonic oscillator – Many electron
atom – Hartree-Fock self-consistent field method (Qualitative treatment only).Valence bond approach
– directed valence – hybridization covalent bond- calculation of ionic and covalent bond contributions in
hydrogen molecule.Molecular orbital theory – LCAO approximation – hydrogen molecules ion – hydrogen
molecule (fundamental concepts only).
Molecular Spectroscopy:Basic concepts of symmetry and group theory – symmetry elements –
axioms of group theory – classification of molecules into point groups – representation of point groups
– matrix representation – reducible and irreducible representations – reduction of a reducible
representation to an irreducible one – ortrhogonality theorem – character table and its anatomy (character
table not to be derived) – use of character tables – application of group theoretical concepts to vibrational
spectroscopy (infra-red and Raman).
Rotational and Vibrational Spectra:Rotation spectra of diatomic molecules – isotope effect-selection
rules.Infra-red spectra of diatomic molecules – isotope effect – selection rules – an harmonic oscillator
– normal modes of vibration – simultaneous vibration – rotation spectra-combination bands – overtones
– Fermi resonance – concept of group frequencies – Raman effect (classical approach) – applications
of IR and Raman spectra.Electronic spectrum of a diatomic molecule – coars structure – classification
of bands – fine structure – band head and band shading – types of electronic transitions in molecules
– applications of electronic spectra – charge transfer spectra.
Elements of Computer Programming:Basic components of computers – comparison of micro,
main frame and super computers – synopsis of software packages in chemistry – Basic commands of
MSDOS Format, copying operation, concept of directories, batch files, compilation of Fortran files,
flowcharting MS Fortran : Integer and real variables and constants – Assignment and replacement
statements – conditional statements (if-then-else, Goto) – repetition (Do statements with – read and
write with I, F and G formats – concept of function and subroutine subprograms.The following programs
are to be practiced:Rate constant of a first order reaction or Beer’s law by least squares Method (derivation
not needed).Roots of a quadratic equation – application to hydrogen ion Concentration of a strong
acid.Solving Vander – Walls equation or hydrogen ion concentration of a monoprotic weak acid (Gauss-
Newton method).Standard deviation and variance of univariate data. Basics of D Base III – creating
structures for a bibliographic Data base and properties of chemical elements (Retrieval programs not
needed.).
Inorganic Chemistry: Term symbols – Russell – Saunders coupling – Derivation of terms Symbols
for various configurations.Chemical Bonding : Application of VB, MO and VSEPR theories in explaining
the structures of simple molecules – role of ‘P’ and ‘d’ orbitals in and bonding.Chemistry of main group
elements: General trends in properties – boron hydrides. Carboranes, intercalation compounds, nitrogen
– phosphorous, boron – nitrogen and sulphur – nitrogen cyclic compounds.Chemistry of transition
elements: Comparative study of the first, second and third transition series. Metal cluster compounds
– Favorable conditions for formation – Structure and bonding in halide and carboxlate metal compounds.
Chemistry of Inner Transitution elements: Chemistry of Lanthanides – electronic configurations, Oxidation
states – Lanthanide contraction and its consequenees – magnetic and spectral properties – separation
of lanthanides. Chemistry of actinides – Synthesis of transuranium elements electronic configurations,
oxidation states – position in the periodic table – actinide contraction – comparison of magnetic and

36
spectral properties with those of lanthanides. Coordination compounds: Crystal field theory – crystal
field splitting patterns in octahedral, tetrahedral, tetragonal, square planar, square pyramidal and trigonal
bipyramidal geometrics – Determination of crystal field splitting energy-calculation of crystal field
stabilization energies – Factors affecting crystal field splitting energies ´:– spectrochemical series –
Jahn – Teller effect – Ligand field theory.Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes – Selection
rules – break down of selection rules – Orgel and Tanabe – Sugano diagrams – Spectra a octra of
octahedral and tetrahedral complexes. Magnetic properties of freeions – spin and orbital moment and
spin – orbit coupling Quenching of orbital momentum by crystal fields in complexes.Stability of complexes
– Factors affecting stability – chelate effect – Determination of stability constants of complexes –
Spectrophotometric method and pH metric method.Inorganic reaction mechanisms: Inert and liable
complexes – Explanation of liability on the basis of CFSE.Substitution reactions of metal complexes –
Did, I a and A mechanism – Ligand replacement reactions of octahedral complexes-Acid hydrolysis, A
nation and Base hydrolysis of cobalt. (III) Complexes Ligand displacement reactions of square planner
complexes of platinum (II) – Trans effect – Mechanism of trans effect (theories) – Electron transfer
reactions of complexes – Inner and outer sphere mechanisms.
Organic Chemistry: Structure and reactivity – localized and delocalized convalent bond – concent of
resonance and aromatieity – Huckl’s rule aromaticity in benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds –
anti aromaaticity and homo aromaticity, Naature of Organic reaction – energy and kinetic considerations
– types of Organic reactions – reagents – reactive intermediates, their formation and stabilization –
inductive and mesomeric effects.Stereochemistry and stereoisometism – conformational isomersm
and analysis in acyclic and simple cyclic systems – substituted ethanes, cyclopentane, cyclohexane,
cyclohextane, cyclooctance and decalins – Optical isomerism – optical aactivity molecular dissymmetry
and chirality – elements of symmetry.Fischer’s projection – D.L. and R.S. – configurations – relative
and absolute configuration – optical isomerism due to a symmetric carbon atoms optical isomerism in
biphenyl, allences and spirans – optical isomerism of nitrogenous compounds – recemisation and
resolution – geometrical isomerism and E.Z. configurations Properties of geometrical isomers. Aromatic
substitution reactions – electrophilic, nucleophilic and through benzynes – radical substitution of arenas
– orientation Nucleophilic substitution at a saturated carbon, SNI, SN2, ENi – reaction – effect of structure
nucleophile, leaving group, solvent and neighbouring groups. Addition Reactions: Addition to C=C and
C=O double bond. Additions involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals.Elimination reactions
– E1, E1Cb, E2 reactions – elimination versus substitution reactions.Machanisms of some name
reactions – aldol, Parkin, Benzoin, Cannirzaro, Witting, Grigand Reformatsky, Wagner c:– Meerwein –
Hofmann, Clasen and Favorsky, rearrangements – Hydroboration – Openauer Oxidation, Clemmensen
reduction, Wolf-Kischer reduction – Meerwein – Pondorf and Valey and Birch reductions. Chemistry of
hetrocyclic compounds – synthesis and reactivity of the following systems – pyridine; pyridine, quinoline,
isopquinoline, indole, benzefuran, benzothiophene – pyrazole, imidazole, exazole, isooxazole, thiazole,
isothiazole, pyridazine, pyrimidine and pyrazine.Spectra and structure – application of organic
spectroscopy UV IR – HNMR and Mass spectral data.Chemistry of some typical natural products – A
study of the following compounds involving their isolation, structure elucidation, systhesis and biogenesis
– Flavonoids – luteolin, quercein, cyaniding and genesterin, Terpenoids – citral, a-terpeneol, methal, a-
pinene, ophor farnesol.Alkaloids – priperine, apropine, cocaine, nicotins, papverine and quinine Purines
– caffions.
Physical Chemistry: States of Matter: Transport properties of gases – Thermal conductivity, viscosity
and diffusion. Theories of liquid structure – calculation of collision numbers.
Solids: X-ray diffraction studies – crystal structure determination – lattice types and lattice dimensions
– crystal defects – linear point and edge defects – Band theory solids – Theories of specific heats of
solids – semiconductors and their properties.Physical Methods for theelucidation of molecular structure
– magnetic properties of molecules – theories of magnetic susceptibility- Application of magnetic
susceptibility measurements to coordination compounds – spin-spin interactions – Chemical shift and
its origin – experimental methods – application of NMR studies in structural-elucidation – application to
structure of ethanol, acetophenone, acel tamide, dimethyl formamide and styrene – electron spin
resonance –principle and experimental technique – line shapes and line widths – g-value – hyperfine

37
interactions – application of ESR Studies to the structure of free radical, metal complexes and biological
systems.©
Thermodynamics : Free energy, entropy and enthalpy – Chemical equilibrium – thermodynamic
criteria of the chemical equilibrium – effect of temperature on equilibrium constant – Vant Hoff isochore
– Maxwell relations – Gibbs-Duhem equation Duheme – Margules equation – classius –clapeyron
equation – Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics – determination of absolute entropy.
Kinetics: Theories of reaction rates – collision and transition state theories – study of fast reactions
using flow and relaxation methods – Kinetic isotope effects – reactions in solution – primary and
secondary kinetic salt effects – Effect of dielectric constant – elementary ideas of linear free energy
relations – Hammett and Taft equations – Chain reactions – consecutive, parallel and opposing reactions
involving uni-molecular steps only – catalysis – homogeneous and heterogeneous – acid-base and
redox catalysis.
Photochemistry: Laws of photochemistry – photophysical processes fluorescence – delayed
fluorescence and phosphorescence – Stern – volmer equation – Inter system crossing – internal
conversion – photolysis – photosensitization and photochemical equilibrium.
Electrochemistry : Theories of strong electrolytes – Debye – Onsager equation – electrochemical
cells – concentration cells with and without transference – effect of complexation on redox potential
Determination of activity coefficients from E.M.F. Data.
TEST NO. – 19: STATISTICSSample Space, Discrete Probability, independent events, Bayes theorem.
Random Variables and distribution functions( univariate and multivariate ); expectation and moments.
Independent random variables, marginal and conditiomnal distributions, characterisric functions,
probability inequalities(Tchebyshev, markov, Jensen), modes of convergence, weak and strong laws
of large numbers, central limit theorem(i.i.d case), Markov chains with finite and countable statespace,
Classification of states, limiting behaviour of n-step transition probabilities, stationary distribution.
( 20 Questions ).
Standard discrete and contiunuous univariate distributions. Sampling distributions. Standard errors
and asymptotic distributions, distribution of ordered statistics and range. Method of estimation. Properties
of estimators. Confidence intervals. Tests of Hypotheses. Most powerful and uniformly most powerful
tests, Likelihood ratio tests. Analysis of discrete data and chisquare test of goodness of fit. Large
sample tests. ( 20 Questions ).
Sample non-parametric tests for one and two sample problems, rank correlation and test for
independence.Gauss-Markov models, estimability of parameters, Best Linear Unbiased estimators,
tests for Linear hypotheses and confidence intervals. Analysis of variance and covariance. Fixed, random
and mixed effects models. Simple and multiple linear regression. Elementary regression diagnostics.
Logistic Regression. ( 20 Questions ).
Multi-Variate Normal Distribution, Wishart distribution and their properties. Distribution of quadratic
forms. Inferences for parameters, partial and multiple correlation coefficients and related tests. Data
reduction techniques: Principle Component Analysis, Discriminant Analysis, Cluster Analysis, Canonical
Correlation. ( 20 Questions ).
Simple random sampling, Stratified sampling and systematic sampling. Probability proportional to size
sampling. Ratio and Regression Methods, Cluster sampling, two stage and multi stage
sampling.Completely randomized, randomized block and Latin square Designs. Connected, complete
and orthogonal block designs, BIBD. 2k factorial experiments: Confounding and construction. ( 20
Questions ).
TEST NO. – 20: SYSTEM DESIGN: Digital Systems: Number system and codes: Binary, Octal,
Hexadecimal number systems – Conversions – BCD Codes.Digital logic circuits: Logic gates – Boolean
algebra – Map simplification – Combinational logic circuit design – Arithmetic circuits – Flip flops –
Excitation tables – Design of Register and countersDigital components: Decodes – Encoders –
Multiplexer – Demultiplexer.
Computer organization: General register organization – Instruction formats – Addressing modes –
Data transfer – Data manipulation – Program control types – Reduced instruction set computer.I/O &
Memory Organization: Peripheral deices – I/O Interface – Asynchronous data transfer – Modes of

38
transfer – interrupts – DMA – Memory hierarchy – Main memory – AUX memory – Associate memory –
Cache memory – Virtual memory.
Programming in C: Introduction – Character – Constants – Variables – Keywords arithmetic instruction
– Assignment statements – I/O Function – Conditional statement – Expressions in C-Logical expressions
and control statements – Decision control, loop control and case control structures, function arrays,
syntax rules, global, local & static variables data types.
Digital Signal Processing: Discrete time systems – Classification of discrete time systems – LTI
systems and time domain characterization – Linear and circular convolution – Auto and cross Correlations
– Different structures of discrete time systems – Basics of statistics – Probability and noise – Linear
constant coefficient difference equations – Frequency domain representation of discrete time systems
and signals – Frequency response of LTI systems – Discrete Fourier transform – DFT properties –
Computation of DFT – Fast Fourier transform (DIT and DIF) – Computational considerations of FFT –
Linear convolution using DFT (Overlap-add, Overlap-save methods) – Z-transform – Region of
convergence of Z-transform – Inverse Z-transform –Z-transform properties – FIR filters – IIR filters –
FIR design methods (Fourier, windowed and frequency sampling methods) – IIR filter design methods
(Impulse invariant, bilinear transformation and other methods) – Concept of circular buffering – Finite
word length effects in digital filters.

TEST NO. – 21: ZOOLOGY: Biosystematics and TaxonomyDefinition and basic concepts of
biosystematics and taxonomy, Importance and applications of biosystematics in biology, Material basis
of biosystematics. Trends in biosystematics´:–concepts of different conventional and newer aspects,
Chemotaxonomy, Cytotaxonomy, Molecular taxonomy, Molecular perspective on the conservation of
diversity, Diversity and ecosystem process: Dimensions of speciation and taxonomy characters,
Mechanisms of speciation in panmictic and apomictic species, Species concepts–species category.
Theories of biological classification, hierarchy of categories, Taxonomic characters – biological
mechanism of genetic incompatibility, Procedure keys in taxonomy,-taxonomic collections,
preservation, curetting process of identification, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN)–
its operative principles, Zoological nomenclature, formation of scientific names of various taxa.
Chordates and Invertebrates: Origin of Chordata, Concepts of Protochordata, The nature of
Vertebrate morphologyOrigin and classification of vertebrates, Common Indian vertebrates : Fishes,
amphibians, reptiles, birds & mammals, Vertebrate integument and its derivatives, Development,
general structure and function of skin and its derivatives, Glands, scales, horns, claws, nails, hoofs,
feathers and hairs, General plan of circulation in various groups, Evolution of heart, Evolution of aortic
arches and portal systems, Respiratory system, Characters of respiratory tissue, Evolution of
urinogenital system in vertebrate series, Sense organs, Simple receptors, Organs of Olfaction and
taste, Lateral line system, Electroreception, Nervous system, Comparative anatomy of the brain in
relation to its functions, Nerves-cranial, peripheral and autonomous nervous systems, Origin of
coelom, Locomotion, Flagella and ciliary movement in Protozoa, Hydrostatic movement in Coelenterata,
Annelida and Echinodermata, Nutrition andDigestion, Patterns of feeding and digestion in lower
metazoa, Filter feeding in Polychaeta, Mollusca and Echinodermata, Respiration, Organs of respiration:
Respiratory pigments, Mechanism of respiration, Excretion, Organs of excretion: Nephridia and
Malphigian tubules, Mechanisms of excretion , Nervous system, Primitive nervous system: Coelenterata
and Echinodermata, Trends in neural evolution, Invertebrate larva.
General Physiology: Types of muscles and classification, Light and Electron microscopic structure of
skeletal muscle, Molecular basis of muscle contraction, Sliding filament theory, Twitch, Summation,
Tetanus and Fatigue, Nerve Structure of the nerve, Excitability, conductivity, Nerve Impulse, Ionic
basis of resting and action potentials, Synaptic transmission, Neurotransmitters, Blood : Structure and
properties of Blood, Blood coagulation – Defense mechanism , Reticulo Endothelial system : Macro
phages, Immunoglobulins, Humoral Immunity and Cell- Mediated Immunity, . Blood groups and
tissue antigens, Physiological adaptation of animals to different environments, Marine environment,
Shores and Estuaries, Freshwater environment Terrestrial life, Extreme terrestrial environment, Parasitic
habitats, Stress Physiology, Basic concept of environmental stress and strain, concepts of elastic
and plastic strain; Acclimation and Acclimatization, Concept of homeostatis and homeostatic

39
mechanisms of the body, . Thermoregulation, Exothermic and Endothermic organisms, physiological
mechanism of body temperature regulation, Physiological adaptation to osmotic and ionic stress;
Osmoregulation in aqueous and terrestrial environments, Physiological response to oxygen deficient
stress, Physiological response to body exercise. Endocrinology: Hormones as messengers, Hormones
and eukaryotic metabolic regulation, Classification of hormones, Discovery of hormones, Phylogeny of
endocrine glands (Pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, thyroid, Ontogeny of endocrine glands, Concept of
Neurosecretion and Neuro-endocrine system in invertebrate groups, Neuro-endocrine mechanisms of
moulting and growth in crustaceans, insects, Mollusca and Echinodermata, General principles of
hormone action, Concept of hormone receptors, Hormonal control of homeostasis, Hormonal
regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen and lipid metabolism, Hormone structure and
Biosynthesis of hormones, Biosynthesis of steroid hormones de novo, Biosynthesis and amino acid
derives small size hormones ( Biosynthesis and simple peptide hormones, Pre- and Pro-hormones,
Co-translational and post-translational modifications of hormone structure, Hormones and behaviour,
Neuro-endocrine integration in vertebrate.
Biostatistics :Concept of sample and Population Sampling methods - Frequency distribution -
Classification and tabulation of data - Diagrammatic and graphical presentation. Measures of central
tendency: Mean, Median and Mode., Measures of Dispersion - Coefficient of Variation - Standard
Deviation – Variance - Standard Error., Analysis of variance – One way ANOVA Correlation and
Regression, Probability – Concept and types of probabilities, Distribution–Binomial, Poisson, Normal
distribution, Tests of significance–Chi-square test and Student’s ‘t’ test, Population attributes-population
dispersion- population density-Natality-Mortality-Age structure-Age pyramids- Survivorship curves
Remote sensing- applications in fish.
General Ecology and Adaptation :Origin of groups – Reproduction- passive transport - Active
Locomotion - Common orientation - Mutual Attraction, Population Regulation – Effects of increased
numbers – Division of labour, Population growth – Natality and Mortality Biotic Potential and
Environmental resistance ia:– Form of population growth – Logistic Curve – Stochastic and time lag
models of population growth – Optimal yield, Population–Inter-specific relationships – Positive
interactions – Commensalism – Mutualism – Negative interactions – Predation – Parasitism – Antibiosis,
Community concept – Community dominance – Ecotone – Community composition – Stratification of
community, Habitat and Ecological Niche Sympatry and Allopatry – Spatial relations of populations
Home range and Territory – Homing and return migration – Emigration, Demography – Life Tables –
Net Reproductive rate – Longevity and theories of ageing – Reproductive strategies, Fish population –
Population density – Population structure : Year classes – Estimation of population – Population dynamics
– Abundance in population and fishery – Population dynamics and fishery catches.
Cell and Molecular Biology :Biomembranes, Molecular composition and arrangement, Transport
across cell membrane: diffusion, active transport and pumps, uniports, symports and antiports,
Membrane potential, Transport of macromolecules, Cytoskeleton, Microfilaments and microtubules,
Microtubules and mitosis, Cilia and flagella, Cell movements – intracellular transport, signal transduction
mechanisms Cell surface receptors, Second messenger system, MAP kinase pathways, Apoptosis
Cell-Cell adhesion and communication, Ca++ dependent homophillic cell-cell adhesion, Ca++ independent
homophillic adhesion, Gap junctions and connections, Integrins, Collagen, Cell cycle, Cyclines and
cyclin dependent kinases, Regulation of CDK-cycline activity, Genome organization Mobile DNA,
Morphological and functional elements of eukaryotic chromosomes, Protein synthesis on free and
bound polysomes, Biogenesis of mitochondria and nuclei, Trafficking mechanisms.
Genetics:Concepts of evolution and theories of organic evolution with emphasis on Darwinism, Neo-
Darwinism, Hardy Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium, natural selection Mutation Migration, Genetic
drift, Genetic structure of natural populations, Phenotypic variation, Factors affecting human diseases
frequency, Genetics of quantitative traits in populations, Analysis of quantitative traits. Estimation or
habitability, Genotype – environment interactions, Inbreeding, depression and Heterosis, Genetics of
speciation, Phylogenetic and biological concept of species, Patterns and mechanisms of reproductive
isolation, Molecular evolution, Gene evolution, Phylogenetic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium,
Micro- and macro-evolution, Molecular Phylogenetics, Phylogenetic trees?, Immunological techniques,

40
Restriction Enzyme sites, Amino acid phylogeny-DNA-DNA hybridizations, Nucleotide sequence
comparisons and homologies.
Instrumentation: Chemical assay, Biological assay, Principles and uses of analytical instruments,
pH meter, Spectrophotometer, Ultra-centrifuge, Radio activity counter, N.M.R. Spectrophotometer,
Microscopy, Principles of light, dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence, transmission electron, scanning
EM, Micro-biological Techniques, Media Use of fermentors, Microbial assays, Cell culture
techniques, Culture Media, Separation Techniques in biology, chromatography and
electrophoresis, Organelle separation by centrifugation, density gradient separation, Radio Isotopes.
Fisheries and Aquaculture :Fish catch statistics of the world, A general survey of inland and marine
fish catches of India and the world, Estimation of Inland fish, Estimation of marine fish landings and
Fisheries of different Marine States., Craft and Gear used in Inland and Marine Fisheries, Freshwater
Fisheries, Riverine Fisheries : River systems in India, their ecology and fisheries (Ganga, Brahmaputra,
East Coast River system and West Coast river system), Reservoir Fisheries Estuarine Fisheries,
Major Estuaries of India and their fisheries (Hooghly – Matlah, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery
and West Coast estuaries), Brackishwater Fisheries Chilka lake, Pulicat lake and Kerala back waters,
Hilsa fishery – causes of decline and efforts for revival, Fisheries of Indian Sea, Fish populations and
factors affecting the population structures, Estimation of fish yield and control of over-fishing, Fish
products and By-products, EEZ and its strategy, Fish transport and marketing including fishery co-
operatives, Fishery education, training and extension Freshwater Aquaculture, Selection of species for
culture–Biological principles, Procurement and transportation of seed from natural resources,
Transportation of brood stock and induced breeding, Construction of hatcheries and their management,
Freshwater fish culture Freshwater prawn culture, Integrated Fish Farming ˜:– Paddy cum Fish Culture
and Fish cum Livestock Culture, Fish nutrition, Nutritional requirements, energy metabolism, formulation
and preparation of fish feeds, Brackish water aquaculture, culture of shrimps and their management
and economics, Crab culture – Pond design, management of crab farm, fattening process of crab,
Finfish culture – Mullets (Mugil), Milk fish (Chanos) and sea bass (Lates), Principles of establishment
of crab and lobster hatcheries; Water quality management – pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, BOD,
COD, Nitrates, Phosphates, Ammonia etc., Feed management Mariculture , Lobster culture, Mussel
culture, Pearl oyster culture, Edible oyster culture, and, Sea weed culture.

TEST NO. – 22: FOODS, NUTRITION AND DIETETICS:


FOOD CHEMISTRYStarch chemistry: Classification of carbohydrates, types of starches, examples
physical and chemical properties of starches, structure, enzymes and starch, technology of starch,
Modified starches, methods of identification and extraction, browning reactions, flours and flour
mixes.Protein Chemistry: Chemical and physical properties, structure, denatured proteins, gel
formation, theories, collagen and gelatine, determination of proteins in foods, heat treatment, pure
proteins of from foods, and amino acid composition of some proteins.
Lipid chemistry: Fatty acids, types of fats, physical and chemical properties of fats, flavour changes
in fats and oils, Rancidity, methods of evaluation of rancidity, methods of determination, shortening
value of fats.
Enzymes: Types of enzymes in foods, function and their importance to Food Industry.
ADVANCED FOOD SCIENCEDifferent methods of sensory evaluation. Chemical and physico chemical
methods of food evaluation. Methods of cooking- dry and moist heat methods. Cereals & Cereal products,
Pulses, Milk & milk products, Flesh Foods: Meat, Fish and Eggs, Composition, Nutritive value Fats and
Oils, Nuts and Oil seeds: Composition & Nutritive value Fruits and Vegetables. Types, composition,
nutritive value, effect of cooking on plant pigments and Sources, Physical and chemical changes during
ripening, cooking methods, browning reactions.Beverages: Tea, Coffee, & Cocoa, Composition &
Nutritive value.
FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION TECHNOLOGY: Physical principles of food
processing and preservation- Thermal processing methods, application of cold conditions,
Refrigeration, Freezing etc., Irradiation, canning.
Chemical principles of food processing – Processing by salt, sugar, curing, smoke, acids and
chemicals. Additives and Preservatives- Cereal and pulse processing, Cereal and pulse based products,
Fermentation technology: Fermentation technology of various fermented products, Milk products,
beverages, vegetables, fermented soya products.

41
Oil seeds processing Technology:Oil seed pressing, solvent extraction, purification (degumming,
bleaching, refining, deodorization), hydrogenation, plasticizing, tempering, products- butter, margarine,
shortening, mayonnaise, salad dressing, winterisation, inter esterification and production of MCT.
Milk and Milk products processing Meat, Fish and Eggs: Preservation, processing and storage of
meat, fish eggs, Products.
Fruit and vegetable processing Technology Food fortification and enrichment technology-
current trends, application, fortified foods and their production technology.
Food safety and quality control- Food adulteration, Food laws and regulations, Hygiene Methods
of quality control in food industries, Shelf life testing, GMP, GHP,HACCP, Food labelling.
Food Packaging: Packaging – Concepts, definition, significance, classification,.
FOOD ANALYSIS Carbohydrates: Methods and principles of starch determination, sugar
determination and polarimetry, refraction index, gel strength, brix, densitometry, refractometry.
Crude fibre and fibre fractions: Soluble and insoluble, neutral, detergent fibre and methods of
determining fibre fractions.
Total Proteins: Protein nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen, methods and principles in Micro and Macro
determination of nitrogen, solubility separation of protein fractions electrophoresis (paper and boundary
zone), ultra centrifugation and ultra filtration techniques with examples.
Total fat: Macro method and principles, method of separation of lipid fraction, neutral glycerol, fatty
acids, phospholipids and cholesterol.Ash as an indicator of total mineral content. Estimation of different
minerals in foodsInstrumentation: Application of spectroscopy, flame photometry, atomic
absorptiometry, colorimetry procedures and principles in food analysis with suitable examples.
Principles and Application of Chromatographic procedures in food analysis: Ion exchange, thin layer,
solid, liquid, gas, column, paper and gas and high performance liquid chromatography with suitable
examples.
FOOD MICRO BIOLOGY: Brief history of Micro biology, General classification of Micro organisms-
Family-genus-species, study of their morphology, cultural characteristics and biochemical activities-
Micro organisms of importance to foods. Growth curve of a typical bacterial cell, Factors affecting the
growth of micro organisms. Beneficial and harmful activities of micro organisms. Beneficial micro
organisms- role in oriental and traditional foods, Probiotics and prebiotics. Brief account of fermentation
technology. Role of micro organisms in antibiotics. Food poisoning and food infections- causative agents,
symptoms and foods involved their prevention.. Bacterial &viral diseases of man. Pathogenic yeasts
and Moulds Methods of detection and isolation of micro organisms in foods: conventional methods,
newer techniques viz. radio immuno assays and immuno diffusion. Culture media-solid and liquid media,
isolating pure cultures and culturing techniques. Micro biological analysis of water- test for coli forms-
most probable no, differential test.HUMAN NUTRITION Energy- Energy content of foods, physiological
fuel value, TEE, Energy balance, Basal metabolic rate, total energy requirements, BMR & RMR, Factors
affecting BMR, Body composition, methods of assessment, Changes in body weight and body
composition with the changing energy balance, Thermic effect of food, Associated nutritional
problems - PEM, Obesity
Carbohydrates, Proteins & Lipids :Functions, sources, Dietary requirements and recommended
allowances with respect to various stages of life and for different activity. Hormonal control of
carbohydrate homeostasis, Fructo Oligo saccharides, Dietary Fibre and its role in health and disease.
Evaluation of protein quality . Role of n3 & n6 in health and disease, Trans fatty acids, Prostaglandins,
Cholesterol Vitamins and Minerals - sources, functions, deficiency, and toxicity, dietary requirements
and the recommended allowances with respect to various stages of life and for different
activities.Nutrient interactions- vitamin and mineral, macro and micro nutrients Interactions between
drugs, nutrients- Effect of drugs on Nutrient intake, absorption, Metabolism and requirements, Drugs
affecting the intake of food and nutrients and their absorption.
NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRYCarbohydrate metabolism- Classification of carbohydrates,
biochemical functions, Glycolysis, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation; HMP Shunt, energetics of
aerobic and anaerobic Breakdown, Glycogenesis, Glcogenolysis, Gluconeogenesis and Regulation,
Regulation of blood glucose, Altered metabolism in Diabetic MellitusEnzymes- Classification,
biochemical functions, intracellular distribution of enzymes, Enzymes in clinical diagnosis (SGPT, SGOT,
alkaline phosphatase).
Protein metabolism- Classification of proteins; Amino acids and its classification , Pathway of
entry of amino acids into TCA cycle; Transamination, deamination (oxidative and non-
oxidative pathway); Decarboxylation for amino acids, Detoxification of ammonia, Urea cycle,
biosynthesis of amino acids, Protein biosynthesis (Transcription and Translation) , Creatine and creatine
synthesis,- Changes in serum protein levels in PEM, pregnancy and liver disorders.

42
Lipid Metabolism- Classification, functions, Biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, Ketosis and
control mechanisms and steps of ketone bodies formation, cholesterol synthesis; bile acids metabolism,
triglycerides , Lipoproteins, prostaglandins in health and disease
Biological oxidation: Concept of enzyme system and carriers in oxidation chain reactions, respiratory
chain components, functions, redox potentials, energy carriers and oxidative
phosphorylationMetabolism of nucleic acids- Biosynthesis and degradation of purine and pyrimidine
ring nucleotides, regulation of bio-synthesis, and conversion to bio nucleotidesInborn errors of
metabolism- Alcaptoneria; Phenylketonuria, Albinism; Homocystinuria; Cystinuria, Maple Syrup Urine
Disease; Galactosemia; Glycogen storage disease; Fructosuria; Pentosuria; Wilson’s disease.
DIET THERAPY Introduction to diet therapy, Menu planning- principles, factors to be considered,
food guide pyramid and food exchange lists. Standardization of recipes and portions.Nutritional needs
and diet management throughout life cycleTherapeutic diets- Modification of normal diet to
suit special needs. Routine hospital diets, regular diet, light diet, soft diet, liquid diet, tube-feeding,
parenteral feeding, commercial formula feeds.Nutritional care for weight management- Overweight,
obesity, underweight.Dietary management in Gastro intestinal diseasesDietary management in liver
and gall bladder disordersDietary management in Diabetes mellitus Dietary management in renal
disorders Dietary management in Cardio vascular disordersDietary management in respiratory
disordersDietary management in cancers.
COMMUNITY NUTRITION Concept of community nutrition and malnutrition- Indicators of mal
nutrition, IMR, MMR,CMR, birth Rate, Death Rate, Total fertility rate, Identification of vulnerable groups-
pregnant women, nursing mothers, infants and children. Impact of malnutrition on National Development.
Nutritional problems in India- Xeropthalmia, Anemia, Ricketts, Iron deficiency disorders etc. Nutrition
Intervention Schemes and programmes operating in India- ICDS, Mid day Meals, Vitamin A Prophylaxis,
anemia control, Goiter control, role of various National and International agencies in promoting nutrition
and health status of the vulnerable sections of the society. Ex. FAO, WHO, UNICEF, CARE, NIN,
CFTRI.Assessment of nutritional status of community- Clinical, Bio-chemical and Anthropometric
Measurements.Comparison with standards of ICMR and NCHS, classification according to grades of
malnutrition, Clinical signs and symptoms for PEM, and deficiencies of vitamins and minerals.
Biochemical parameters for assessing the nutritional status, Diet surveys. Role of Communication and
Mass media in Nutrition and Health education, Channels of communication, Impact of Mass media
communication on modification of food and nutrition behaviour. Nutrition education- planning, conducting
and evaluating nutrition education programmes.
TEST NO. – 23: GEO-ENGINEERING: Interior of the earth, isostasy, continental drift, plate tectonics;
endogenetic processes-volcanism, tectonism; classification of rocks, igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks
and metamorphic rocks. - Exogenetic processes-Weathering, mass-wasting, erosion; geomorphic
processes and landforms-fluvial, coastal, glacial and eolian. - Soil and regolith, soil forming factors, soil
components, soil properties and soil classifications. - Principles and applications of electrical, seismic,
magnetic, gravity methods.
Structure and composition of the atmosphere, insolation and heat budget, pressure belts and winds,
eneral circulation of the atmosphere. - World oceans, salinity, temperature, density, color of sea water;
ocean aves, tides and currents. Sea level changes.- Electromagnetic radiation, radiation principles,
atmospheric windows, sensors and platforms; data products.- Maps-types of maps, map scale,
geographical co-ordinates – map projections and datums.

**********

43
DIRECTORATE OF ADMISSIONS
AURCET - 2010

NAAC ‘A’ grade


(CGPA 3.65 on 4 point scale)

SYLLABUS FOR
SYLLABUS FOR
ARTS COURSES
ARTS COURSES
PAPER -- II & II
PAPER II

25
CONTENTS
Code. .NO SUBJECT PAGE NO.
ARTS SUBJECTS
I. Paper – I…………………………………………… 1
II. Paper – II.
31. Anthropology………………………………………….. 2
32. Commerce………………………………………….. 2
33. Management Studies……………………………….. 3
34. Economics………………………………………….. 4
35. Education………………………………………….. 5
36. Adult & continuing education……………………… 6
37. English………………………………………….. 7
38. Hindi………………………………………….. 7
39. History………………………………………….. 8
40. Archaeology………………………………………….. 9
41. Human resource management……………………… 10
42. Journalism & mass communication………………… 10
43. Library and information science…………………… 12
44. Linguistics………………………………………….. 13
45. Music………………………………………….. 14
46. Philosophy & Religious studies (NT)……………… 15
47. Politics………………………………………….. 17
48. Public administration……………………………… 18
49. Psychology & Para-psychology…………………… 19
50. Sanskrit………………………………………….. 19
51. Social work………………………………………….. 20
52. Sociology………………………………………….. 21
53. Telugu………………………………………….. 22
54. Physical education…………………………………… 23
98. Human Rights and Duties……………………………… 24

46
PAPER - I

1. General English {Comprehension, Prepositions, One-word Substitutes, Choose the


Appropriate option, Phrasal Verbs, Idomatic Expessions}. - 25

2. General Knowledege and Current Affairs - 7

3. Quantitative Ability - 7
4. Reasoning - 6

5. Logic Reasoning - 6

**********

1
PAPER - II
TEST NO. – 31 : ANTHROPOLOGY: Culture & Society: Characteristics of Culture, Ethnocentrism &
Cultural relativism.
Culture change: Acculturation, Diffusion Social Groups, Social Structure and Social Organization -
Ethnography – Hunter gatherers, Pastoral, Pre-agriculture and Agricultural Communities of India -
Tribes and their Development in India – Pre & Post Independence era - Evolutionary overview of
Social, Political and Religious organizations - Salient features of Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic,
Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic Cultures of India.
Chronology: Relative Dating – Pleistocene deposits, Glacial, River, Cave and wind deposits,
Stratigraphy and Sea-level Changes; Absolute Dating – Carbon-14, Potassium – Argon, Thermo-
luminescence and Dendro-chronology.
Fossil evidences for human evolution: Australopithecenes, Homo erectus, Neanderthals and
Cro-Magnon - Primates – Classification, Characteristics. Comparison between Man & Anthropoid
Apes.
Genetics: Cell – Structure & Division, Mendelian Theory & Darwin Theory.
Human Biological Diversity: Major Races in the World, Races in India. Demographic concepts.
TEST NO. 32: COMMERCE: Unit - I: Business Environment - Meaning and Elements of Business
Environment - Economic environment, Economic Policies, Economic Planning - Legal environment
of Business in India, Competition policy, Consumer Protection, Environment protection - Policy
Environment: Liberalization, Privatization and globalization generation reforms, Industrial policy and
implementation. Industrial growth and structural changes.
Unit – II: Financial & Management Accounting, Basic Accounting concepts, Capital and Revenue,
Financial Statement Partnership Accounts: Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution and Cash
Distribution Advanced Company Accounts: Issue, forfeiture, Purchase of Business Liquidation,
Valuation of shares, Amalgamation, Absorption and Reconstruction, Holding Company Accounts Cost
and Management Accounting: Ratio Analysis, Funds Flow Analysis, Cash Flow Analysis, Marginal
costing and Break -even analysis, Standard costing, Budgetary control, Costing for decision-making
Responsibility accounting.
Unit – III: Business Economics - Nature and uses of Business Economics, Concept of Profit and
Wealth maximization, Demand Analysis and Elasticity of Demand, Indifference Curve Analysis, Utility
Analysis and Laws of Returns and Law of variable proportions Cost, Revenue, Price determination in
different market situations: Perfect competition, Monopolistic competition, Monopoly, Price
discrimination and Oligopoly, Pricing strategies.
Unit – IV: Business Statistics & Data Processing - Data types, Data collection and analysis, sampling,
need, errors and methods of sampling, Normal distribution, Hypothesis testing, Analysis and
Interpretation of Data Correlation and Regression, small sample tests-t-test, F-test and chi-square
test Data processing-Elements, Data entry, Data processing and Computer applications, Computer
Application to Functional Areas-Accounting, Inventory control Marketing.
Unit – V: Business Management - Principles of Management - Planning-Objectives, Strategies,
Planning process, Decision-making - Organizing, Organizational structure, Formal and Informal
organizations, - Organizational culture - Staffing - Leading: Motivation, Leadership, Committees,
Communication controlling - Corporate Governance and Business Ethics.
Unit – VI: Marketing Management - The evolution of marketing, Concepts of marketing, Marketing
mix, Marketing environment - Consumer behavior, Market segmentation - Product decisions - Pricing
decisions - Distribution decisions - Promotion decisions - Marketing Planning, Organizing and Control.
Unit – VII: Financial Management - Capital Structure, Financial and Operating leverage - Cost of
capital, Capital budgeting - Working capital management - Dividend policy.
Unit – VIII: Human Resource Management - Concepts, Role and Functions of Human Resource
management - Human Resource Planning, Recruitment and Selection - Training and Development,

2
Succession Planning - Compensation: Wage and Salary Administration, Incentive and Fringe benefits,
Morale and Productivity - Performance Appraisal Industrial Relations in India, Health, Safety, Welfare
and Social security, Workers’ Participation in Management.
Unit – IX: Banking and Financial Institution - Importance of Banking to Business, Types of Banks and
Their Function - Reserve Bank of India, NABARD and Rural Banking - Banking Sector Reforms in
India, NPA, Capital adequacy norms - E-banking - Development Banking: IDBI, IFCI, SFCs, UTI,
SIDBI.
Unit – X: Income-tax Law and Tax Planning - Basic concepts, Residential status and tax incidence,
exempted incomes, Computation of taxable income under various heads - Computation of taxable
income of individuals and firms Deduction of tax, filing of returns, different types of assessment;
Defaults and penalties - Tax planning: Concept, significance and problems of tax planning, Tax evasion
and tax avoidance, methods of tax planning.
TEST NO. 33: MANAGEMENT: Unit – I: Managerial Economics – Demand Analysis - Production Function
- Cost-output relations - Market structures - Pricing theories – Advertising - Macro-economics - National
Income concepts - Infrastructure – Management and Policy - Business Environment - Capital
Budgeting.
Unit – II: The concept and significance of organizational behavior – Skills and roles in an organization
– Classical, Neo-classical and modern theories of organizational structure – Organization design –
Understanding and Managing individual behaviour personality – perception – Values – Attitudes –
Learning – Motivation. Understanding and managing group behavior, Processes – Inter – Personal
and group dynamics – Communication – Leadership – Managing change – Managing conflicts.
Unit – III: Concepts and perspectives in HRM: HRM in changing environment - Human resource
planning – Objectives, Process and Techniques - Job analysis – Job description - Selecting human
resources - Induction, Training and Development - Exit policy and implications - Performance appraisal
and evaluation - Potential assessment - Job evaluation - Wage determination - Industrial Relations
and Trade Unions - Dispute resolution and Grievance management - Labor Welfare and Social security
measures.
Unit – IV: Financial management – Nature and Scope - Valuation concepts and valuation of securities
- Capital budgeting decisions – Risk analysis - Capital structure and Cost of capital - Dividend policy
– Determinants - Long-term and short-term financing instruments - Mergers and Acquisitions.
Unit – V: Marketing environment and Environment scanning: Marketing Information systems and
Marketing research: understanding consumer and industrial markets: Demand Measurement and
Forecasting: Market Segmentation – Targeting and Positioning: Product decisions, Product mix,
Product Life Cycle; New product development; Branding and Packaging; Pricing methods and
strategies, Promotion decisions- Promotion mix; Advertising; Personal selling; Channel management;
Vertical marketing systems; Evaluation and control of marketing effort; Marketing of services; Customer
relation management; Uses of internet as a marketing medium – other related issues like branding,
market development, Advertising and retailing on the net. New issues in Marketing.
Unit – VI: Role and scope of production management; Facility location; layout planning and analysis;
Production planning and control – production process analysis; Demand forecasting for operations;
Determinants of product mix; Production scheduling; Work measurement; Time and motion study;
Statistical Quality Control.Role and scope of Operations Research: Linear Programming: Sensitivity
analysis; Duality; Transportation model; Inventory control; Queuing theory: Decision theory; Markov
analysis; PERT/CPM.
Unit – VII: Probability theory; Probability distributions – Binomial, Poisson, Normal and Exponential;
Correlation and Regression analysis; Sampling theory; Sampling distributions; Tests of Hypothesis;
large and small samples; t,z,F, Chi-square tests.Use of Computers in managerial applications;
Technology issues and Data processing in organizations; Information systems; MIS and Decision
making; system analysis and design; Trends in Information Technology; Internet and Internet-based
applications.
Unit – VIII: Concept of corporate strategy; Components of strategy formulation; An offs growth vector;
BCG Model; Porter’s generic strategies; competitor analysis; strategic dimensions and group mapping;

3
Industry analysis; Strategies in industry evolution, fragmentation, maturity, and decline; Competitive
strategy and corporate strategy; Tran nationalization of world economy; Managing cultural diversity;
Global Entry strategies; Globalization of financial system and services; Managing international
business; Competitive advantage of nations; RTP and WTO.
Unit – IX: Concepts – Types, Characteristics; Motivation; Competencies and its development;
Innovation and Entrepreneurship; Small business – Concepts Government policy for promotion of
small and tiny enterprises; Process of business opportunity identification; Detailed business plan
preparation; Managing small enterprises; Planning for growth; Sickness in Small Enterprises;
Rehabilitation of sick enterprises; Entrepreneurship (organization entrepreneurship).
Unit – X: Indian’s Foreign Trade and Policy; Export promotion policies; Trade agreements with other
countries; Policy and performance of Export zones and Export-oriented units; Export
incentives.International marketing logistics; International logistical structures; Export documentation
framework; Organization of shipping services; Chartering practices; marine cargo insurance.
International financial environment; Foreign exchange markets; Determination of exchange rates;
Exchange risk measurement; International investment; International capital markets; International
Credit Rating Agencies and Implications of their ratings.WTO and Multilateral trade agreements
pertaining to trade in goods; trade in services and TRIPS; Multilateral Environmental Agreements
(MEAs); International Trade Blocks – NAFTA, ASEAN, SAARC, EU, WTO and Dispute Settlements
Mechanism.

TEST NO. 34: ECONOMICS: Micro-economic Analysis: Demand analysis – Marshallian, Hicksian and
Revealed preference approaches Theory of Production and Costs - Pricing and output under different
forms of market structure - Factor Pricing analysis - Elements of general equilibrium and new welfare
economics.
Macro-economic Analysis : Determination of output and employment – Classical approach,
Keynesian approach, consumption hypotheses - Demand for Money – fisher and Cambridge version,
Approaches of Keynesian, Friedman, Patinkin, Baumol and Tobin Supply of Money, Determinants of
money supply, High-powered money, Money multiplier Phillips Curve analysis - Business cycles –
Models of Samuelson, Hicks and Kaldor. - Macro-economic Equilibrium – Relative roles of monetary
and fiscal policies,
Development and Planning: Economic Growth, Economic Development and Sustainable
Development – Importance of institutions – Government and markets – Perpetuation of
underdevelopment – Vicious circle of poverty, circular causation, structural view of underdevelopment
– Measurement of development conventional, HDI and quality of life indices - Theories of Development
– Classical, Marx and Schumpeter; Economic Growth – Harrod-Domar model, instability of equilibrium,
Neoclassical growth – Solow’s model, steady state growth. Approaches to development: Balanced
growth, critical minimum effort, big push, unlimited supply of labour, unbalanced growth, low income
equilibrium trap Indicators and measurement of poverty Importance of agriculture and industry in
economic development – choice of techniques and appropriate technology – Investment criteria –
Elementary idea of cost-benefit analysisTrade and Aid – International trade as ‘engine of growth’ –
Globalization and LDC Objectives and role of monetary and fiscal polices in economic development
Techniques of planning; Plan Models in India; planning in a market-oriented economy.
Public Finance: Role of the Government in Economic activity – Allocation, distribution and stabilization
functions; Private, Public and Merit goods The Public Budgets – Kinds of Budgets, Zero-base budgeting,
different concepts of budget deficits; Budgets of the Union Government in India - Public Expenditure
– Hypotheses; effects and evaluation - Public Revenue – Different approaches to the division of tax
burden, incidence and effects of taxation, elasticity and buoyancy; taxable capacity - Public Debt –
Sources, effects, burden and its management - Fiscal Federalism – Theory and problems; Problems
of Centre-State Financial relations in India - Fiscal Policy - Neutral and compensatory and functional
finance; balanced budget multiplier.
International Economics: Theories of International Trade: Empirical verification and Relevance
International Trade under Imperfect competition Terms of Trade and Economic Growth – Secular
Deterioration of Terms of Trade Hypothesis – a critical review Equilibrium/ disequilibrium in Balance

4
of Payments, Foreign Trade Multiplier Impact of Tariffs, Partial and general equilibrium analysis;
Political economy of Non-Tariff Barriers Theory of regionalism at Global level – Collapse of Bretton-
Wood System – Recent Monetary reforms - Trade Policy and Reforms in India.
Indian Economy: Basic Economic indicators – National income, performance of different sectors
Trends in prices and money supply - Agriculture – Institutional and technological aspects, new
agricultural policy Industry – New industrial policy and liberalization - Money and banking – Concepts
of money supply, inflation, monetary policy and financial sector reforms - Public finance – Trends in
revenue and expenditure of the Central and State Governments, Public debt; analysis of the Union
Budget - Foreign Trade – Trends, Balance of payments and trade reforms Poverty, unemployment,
migration and environment.
Statistical Methods : Measures of Central tendency, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis - Elementary
theory of probability – Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions - Simple correlation and regression
analysis - Statistical inferences – Applications, sampling distributions (t, ÷2 and F tests) - Sampling of
attributes, testing of Hypothesis - Index numbers and time series analysis - Sampling and census
methods, types of sampling and errors.
TEST NO. 35 : EDUCATION: PHILOSOSPHY OF EDUACATION: Relationship between Education
and Philosophy; Scope and functions of Educational Philosophy; Modern Concept of Philosophy:
Analysis, Logical Analysis, Logical Empiricism and Positive Relativism- Impact of modern Philosophical
thought on Education- Development on the different school of philosophical thought such as Idealism,
Naturalism, Realism , Pragmatism, Existentialism, Marxism with a special reference to the concept
of knowledge, reality and values and their contributions to the field of Education and the Educational
aims and objectives.Relationship between Sociology and Education- scope and functions of
Educational Sociology and Sociology of Education – Education as a social sub system – specific
characteristics- Education and Indian Constitution with special reference to (a) Education and
democracy and (b) Education as an instrument of change – National Integration through Education –
Education for International UnderstandingEducation in relation with home , culture, religion, politics,
modernization – Role of culture in personality development – Education and Cultural changes in
India and the Globe-Education and Social change, social stratification and social mobility- Education
and social constraints in India (Caste, ethnicity, class, language, religion, regionalism)Education for
the socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society with special reference to scheduled
castes, scheduled tribes, physically challenged children, women and rural population- content and
methodology of teaching in relation to the aims of education - nature of the child- Relationship between
General Education and professional education. The future of Education- Reports of the Educational
Commissions and committees in India -Economics of Education- rate of return in education-
Globalization of higher education- Educational management and planning in India.
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: Nature and scope of Educational Psychology– psychology and
education - Methods of Psychology – Introspection-Observation- Experimentation- Case Study- Survey
- Approaches to different schools of psychology to the study of human behavioral problems of education
with reference to functionalism- Behaviorism- Gestalt Psychology- Psycho-analysis. Growth and
Development - Human Development- stages of child development; factors influencing development
of child and characteristics and problems of each stage – Cognitive- Emotional, Moral and Social
Development- Theories of Piage and Gagne -their Educational implicationsLearning theories –
Thorndike’s Trial & Error theory- Pavlov’s classical conditioning- Skinners Operant conditioning- -
Group Dynamics – Nature types – cohesiveness – norms – conformity – interaction in the class room
climate – Attitudes formation and development- attitude measurementTheories of Intelligence – Two
factor theory- Multifactor theory – Structure of Intelligence - Guilford- Measurement of Intelligence.
Nature of Personality- Theories of Personality - Allport, Eysenck; Psycho-analytic approach of Sigmund
Freud, Erickson, Maslow and Rogers Personality – Assessment – tools and techniques of assessment
– observation – Interview Inventory – Projective tests.
TEACHER EDUCATION: Aims and objectives of teacher education at different levels of global
perspectives -Need and significance of teacher education at global level as well as in India - Historical
perspective of teacher education in India-Teacher preparation process at subject level and language
level in view of different stages of education - Professional and disciplinary oriented courses in education
at UG and PG level-Professional preparation and academic orientation of teacher educators and
educational administrators - Pre-service and in service teacher training programmes - Training for
lesson writing /preparation using ICT-Process of Student teaching programmes- internship- block
teaching-teaching practice- off campus teaching practice - Techniques of teacher training- macro
teaching- micro teaching- interaction analysis- feedback - Evaluation of student teaching - Taxonomy

5
of teacher behavior-Teaching and learning perspectives [E- learning and teaching] - Developing
an inclusive approach to teacher training for people with disabilities - Innovations in teacher education-
The role of NCERT, NCTE, IASE, and CTE for strengthening teacher education - Problems in teacher
education-practice teaching schools - Revision of teacher education curriculumResearch activities
and their implications for improving teaching effectiveness - Research on continuing professional
development (CPD) within teacher education - Research on pedagogical approaches in teacher
education - Research on professional knowledge, identity, beliefs & understanding of Teaching &
Learning in teacher education - Building a research agenda for teacher education research - Research
on teacher induction.
EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: Educational research as a scientific and disciplined inquiry- The
characteristics of educational research- Different approaches and types of educational research-
Objectivity in educational research-introduction to the research processes in education.Research
problem- Selection and nature of the research problem-Techniques involved in defining and formulating
a research problem- The significance of selecting an appropriate problem-Formulating hypotheses-
Source and characteristics of hypotheses-Types of hypotheses- Variables-Nature and types of
variables-Quantitative and categorical variables- Continuous and discrete variables-Independent,
dependent, moderator, control, intervening variables-Selection of variables in educational
research. Literature Review- Sources and functions of review- The search for the literature- Selection
and presentation of previous studies-Interpretation of previous studies- Designing Research- Meaning
and need for research design-The features and different types of research design- Important concepts
involved in research design.Qualitative approaches-Nature of qualitative studies- Phenomenological
methods- Ethnographical methods- Case-studies- Historical studies-Action research- Quantitative
approaches- Nature of quantitative studies- Experimental methods- Survey research.Nature of data:
primary and secondary- Questionnaires and interview schedules-Observation schedules-Using
aptitude, attitude, achievement, personality tests- Procedures of standardization and establishing
reliability and validity- Research report – different styles of writing research report Sampling theory-
Different sampling distributions- Sampling and non-sampling errors- Hypothesis testing- Type – I and
Type – II errors-One tailed and two-tailed tests- Estimation of sample size- Methods of
samplingMeasurement in educational research- Levels of measurement scales- Tests of sound
measurement: tests of reliability and validity- Techniques of developing measurement tools-Meaning
of scaling and important scaling techniques.Classification and tabulation of data- Diagrammatic and
graphic presentation- Measures of central tendency-Measures of variability- Measures of relative
standing-Probability and distribution- Simple correlation and regression analysisSampling distributions
and hypothesis testing- Parametric tests: t-test, one and two way analysis of variance (ANOVA)(F–
Test)-Non-parametric tests: chi-square and median test. Meaning and techniques of interpretation-
Significance and importance of report writing- Different types and steps of report writing.
FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS: History of computers- Hardware and Software aspects-
Introduction to operating systems- Developments in information technology and their uses to the field
of education-Multimedia- Uses of multimedia- Multimedia development-Multimedia software: Basic
tools, authoring tools, software drivers- Multimedia Building block: Text, Graphics, Digital Video or
Animation, Digital audio- Multimedia applications in education Concepts and types of Networks and
communication networks- The Internet and the World Wide Web- Communication channels and
protocols-Factors affecting communication- Browsers and search engines- Introduction to web
designing-Internet applications in education- Files and databases- Data storage- File management-
Database management-Management information systems in the field of education. Computer and
Data Analysis - Data Base Packages - MS -Excel, - Data Entry - Variables - Import and Export of files
- Data Manipulation - Data Transformation - Performing Simple Statistical Analyses like Measures of
Central Tendency, Measures of Variability, Percentiles, Correlation, t – Value, F –Value, Chi square
test etc. - Statistical Packages SPSS – applications of SPSS package in Educational Research.
TEST NO. 36: ADULT & CONTINUNING EDUCATION: Concepts and Terminologies - Andragogy and
pedagogy - Illiteracy and its types, Literacy and its types – traditional, functional, mass rapid, legal,
technologies. - Adult education, adult learning, continuing education, lifelong learning, Recurrent
education, difference between teaching and training - Formal education, non-formal education,
information education, incidental Learning. Extension education, field outreach, community
engagement - The non-formal approach in education- Education for all School drop-outs and
universalisation of primary education and its -Relationship with adult literacy; DPEP - Sarva Shiksha
Abhiyan - Jana Shikshan Nilyam, Continuing Education Scheme, Jana Shikshan Sansthan (Shramik
Vidyapeeth) - Difference between population education and population studies - National Literacy
Mission (NLM); Structure, role and function, operational Network and supporting agencies and bodies
such as SRC, DIET,NIAE, Directorate of Adult Education, etc. - Total Literacy Campaigns (TLC),

6
post-Literacy Campaigns (PLC), Off Shoots of TLC and PLC - Field skills, teaching methods for
adults, training methods for training of Functionaries - Monitoring and evaluation of TLC, PLC, and
other programs of the NLM - Role of NGOs, Universities and other Government agencies in support
of the NLM.
TEST NO. 37: ENGLISH: (1).Chaucer to Shakespeare, (2). Jacobean to Restoration Periods, (3).Augustan
Age: 18th Century Literature, (4). Romantic Period, (5). Victorian Period (6). Modern Period
(7).Contemporary Period, (8). American and other non- British Literatures (Including Indian Writing in
English), (9). Literary Theory and Criticism (10). Rhetoric and Prosody.

TEST NO. 38: HINDI: X´mW\‰É¬É(É^œ*®1àÉX¦1àÉ®(~‰È


*®1àÉX¦1àÉ® a¨ (¦´EŸE®X´R (É^œ~ΜÉn\X´mW\1àÉ®‹…mi1àÉ¥
‰É¬É1]à¡~Œ×(¦i\1àÉ*W(É^œX¦1àÉ®1àÉ¥‰É¬É1]à¡~Œ×…a?‰É¬É1àÉ*W(É^œX¦1àÉ®®ÉX´XQ1àX´mW\
1]à¡~Œ×4J\…É]¤\1àÉ*W(É^œX¦1àÉ®ŒÉn1àX´mW\1àɉɬɦ^UÉXn1àX¦¦œP ¡~7R X´mW\1à\…É]X¤É`
¦7\_1àɜPàRVÉTÉ]ÀnÉ7œ\X¤X~1àÉX¦1àÉ®(É]œ*®1àÉŒÉn1à\1àœP#
X´mW\®ÉX´Q1àÉ)XR´É®
X´mW\®ÉX´Q1àÉ)XR´É®X´mW\®ÉX´Q1àÉ)XR´É®W¨_nX´mW\®ÉX´Q1]à)XR´É®¤]4n1à\~ÓXRÉÇ#X´mXW
®ÉX´Q1]à~aŒÎ4)XR´É®7aÈmVX´mW\1]à~aŒÎ4®ÉX´XQ1à1]àmWa®È­VÉ/Ç/¦È~À~XÀ1àÉ/ÇX´mW\®ÉX´Q1]à
)XR´É®1àÉ1àɤX¦‰É?n(É]œnɌ1àœP#(ÉXW1àɤX´mW\®ÉX´Q1àÉ(ɜ‹‰1à…(É^œ1^à®]"œÉ®É]®ÉX´Q
(ÉXW1àɤ\nX´mW\1àÉ?^n®ÉX´QX®Ó(É^œnÉV®ÉX´Q(Œ\œ4ޜÉ]1à\X´mW\1àX¦RÉX¦h~XR(É]œ*n1à\
~Wɦ¤\(ɜX‹‰1഍iRVɤÉ^X1à1à®ÉX´Q#Œh1àɤ‰X2à(ÉmWÉ]¤n1]à*W1]à®ÉŒÉX?1à®ÉÈ­1¢àÎXR1à1àɜP
ŒÎ4Xn7Î_P/¦È®7ÎP®‹Wɐ¦^«P¦‰X2à1à\®ÉŒÉX?1à®ÉÈ­1ZàXR1àÎ«H‰ÐXŒ(ɤ¦Éœ®mRŒÎ4®‹Wɐ(É^œ
(É<ɐ_‰X2à(ÉmWÉ]¤n1àÉ(X4¤‰ÉœR\­¦¡~(É^œ*®1àÉ(mRÉW]X¨1à¦^X¨«E#X´mW\®mR1àÉ¥®mR
1àÉ¥1àɦ^<ÉXœ1à(ÉiɜŒÎ4Xn7Î_P®mR1àX¦1à…\œnÉn1àWÉWÐœ^W^®®mR1àÉ¥1à\ŒÎ4X¦¨]¬RÉ/Ç
‰ÉœR\<iŒ_®ÉinɌ׮mR1àX¦É×1àÉ­VÉn#X´mW\®Ð„à\1àÉ¥®Ð„à\1àÉ¥1àɦ^<ÉXœ1à(ÉiɜX´mW\1]àŒÎ4®Ð„à\
1àX¦(É^œ1àÉ¥ŒÎŠÉWÉ+W <mWɐn 1ÎàR΅n XŒœ7ɦR\ ŒÈAn ŒiΌɤR\ ŒÉX¤1àŒÎ´‹ŒW?ɐ®\
~WŸŒÉ¦R ®Ð„à\]ŒÉ3Én1àÉ×1àÉ­¦¡~X´mW\®Ð„à\1àÉ¥1à\ŒÎ4X¦¨]¬RÉ/Ç#X´mW\1Zà«P1àÉ¥X¦X¦i®‹Wɐ
¦Š‰®‹Wɐ(«E=É~ŒÎ41Zà«P‰2à1àX¦(É^œ1àÉ¥®ÐœWÉ® ®Ðœ®É7œ nmWWÉ® œÉ®~È<ÉhÉ\ 
‰¢Œœ7\R~œ‹~œÉ7\XR~œ‹~œÉ(É^œX´mW\1Zà«P1àÉ¥Œ\œ(É^œœ®4Én#œ\XR1àɤ®ÉŒÉX?1à®ÉÈ­1ZàXR1à
~Xœ]Áœ\XR1àÉ¥1]à‰Ð¤­ÀÉ]Rœ\XR1àɤ1à\ŒÎ4¦ZXҐÉǜ\XR1àɤ®ÉŒÉX?1à®ÉÈ­1ZàXR1à~Xœ]Áœ\XR1àÉ¥
1]àŒÐR­ÀÉ]Rœ\XR1àɤ1à\ŒÎ4¦ZXҐÉÇœ\XR1àÉX¤n1àX¦É×1àÉ(É<ɐ_Q¦œ\XRŒÎ2à1àÉ¥iɜ\œ\XR1àɤ1]à
ŒÎ41àX¦1]ਦWÉ®ŒXRœÉŒ‰Ð¬PX…´Éœ\¤É¤W]¦9nÉnmW(É^œ~ØÉ1àɜœ\XR1àɦŒ×¤É]1à?\¦n#(ÉiÎXn1à
1àɤ X´mW\ 7h 1àÉ *Ö¦ (É^œ X¦1àÉ® # ‰œR]mWÎ ~Ц_ X´mW\ 7h  1à\ œÉ> 1¢àÉXmR (É^œ ®ÉÈ­1ZàXR1à
~În?É_7œP‰ÉœR]mWÎ(É^œ*n1àÉŒOJ¤¦Í¨RɅW\1]à*ҜÉhW_1à\X´mW\~À1àÉXœRÉ#Xݦ]W\Î7Œ´É¦\œ®ÉW
Xݦ]W\ (É^œ *n1àÉ Î7 X´mW\ n¦?É7œP (É^œ ®œ­¦R\ Œ^XV¤\¨œP 7ή (É^œ   œÉ«Ea\ 1àÉ¥iɜÉ œÉ«Ea\
1àÉ¥iɜÉ1]àŒÎ41àX¦­¦;=mWRɦÉW(É^œ*®1]àŒÎ41àX¦#=ɐɦÉW(É^œ*®1]à…ÉW=ɐɦÉW\1àÉ¥1à\ŒÎ4
X¦¨]¬RÉ/Ç=ɐɦÉW1]àŒÎ41àX¦®ÉWXn¨¤É~mR(É^œŒ´ÉW]¦\*Ҝ=ɐɦÉW\1àÉ¥(É^œ*®1]àŒÎ41àX¦
7XR¨\¤1àÉ¥(É^œ*®1]àŒÎ41àX¦É]7¦ÉW(É^œn)_1àX¦RÉn)_1àX¦RÉ1]à1àX¦®Œ1àɤ\n1àX¦RÉ®Œ1àɤ\n
®ÉX´XQ1à~À1àÉXœRÉ#
X´mW\®ÉX´Q1à\7hX¦iÉ/ÇX´mW\*~mÉ®]
 Œ<mW~Ц_*~mÉ®]Œ<mW(É^œ*n1àɐÎ7]Œ<mW1]à~œ¦R\_
ŒÎ4*~mÉ®1àɜ?^nm] Wa(U]´?ɜ\®ÉWXݦ]W\¨~ɤ(ŒZR¤É¤n7œ„àP\ªœnÉVœ]PΉ\«Œ®É´n\
1Zà«PÉ®É]…R\XnŒ_¤¦ŒÉ_nœ]¨Œ]´Rɪ\¤É¤¨Î0¤œÉ´\ŒÉ®\Œœ?ÉœÉÈ7] œÉ9¦ŒÀЉOJɜ\#X´mW\1à´Én\
…\®¦\_®W\1à\X´mW\1à´Én\(É^œŒÎ41à´Én\(ÉmWÉ]¤n#X´mW\nÉE1àX´mW\nÉE1à(É^œœÈ7ŒÈ<X¦1àÉ®1]à<œP
(É^œŒÎ4nÉE’1ZàXRÉÇ(Èi]œn7œ\<mWa7Î}R(ÈiɐÎ7(Éi](iМ](ÉH¦ÉÈ®7_X´mW\/1àÉÈ1à\#X´mW\(ɤÉ]<nÉ

7
X´mW\(ɤÉ]<nÉ1àÉX¦1àÉ®(É^œŒÎ4(ɤÉ]<1àœÉŒ<mWa¨Î0¤nmWWΤɜ]¦É?~]\´?ɜ\®ÉWXݦ]W\œÉŒX¦¤É®
¨ŒÉ_JÉ`n7]mWaJÉ`nɌ¦œX®È´X¦?W]¦nɜɐP®É´\#X´mW\1à\(m7ÛX¦iÉ/Çœ]4ÉX<À®È­ŒœPÉÀÉ
X´mW\Xn…mi
®ÉX´Q(ÉQŒ1àVÉ?\¦n\(É^œXœ~É]RÉ_?#X´mW\Xn…mi
X´mW\Xn…miX´mW\Xn…mi1]à1àɜ(É^œŒÎ4Xn…mi1àɜœÉŒ<mWa¨Î0¤
1àÉ¥¨É­À(É^œ(ɤÉ]<nɉœRŒÎ
´?ɜ\®ÉWXݦ]W\1Îà…]œnÉVœÉX¦ÛÉXn¦É®XŒª´Xœ¨È1àœ~œ®É)_#1àÉ¥¨É­À(É^ nÉ Xn1àÉ
œ®®ÐÀ(É^œ*®1]àŒÎ4¥É3É1àɜ#œ®1]à(¦¦#®ÉiɜP\1àœP#¨…W¨X2àÉÇ (É^œh¦Xn1àÉ­¦¡~#
(¤È1àɜŒ1৤]¬¦1¢àÉ]X2à*~ŒÉ¡~1à*Q]TÉ®ÈW´] ‰ÉXmRŒÉn(XR¨É]X2à(mÉ]X2஌ɮÉ]X2à(QÎX2à
X¦¨]¬É]X2àWZ«EÉmR*WÉ´œPXR¦­RÐ~ŒÉXnW¨_nÉ(VÉ_mRœ®X¦‰É¦nÉ(®È7XRRVÉX¦œÉ]iɉɬÉ#œ\XR7ÎP
WÉ]¬#XŒV1à„àmRÉ®\1à£~nɁR\1à(É^œX…‹…#­¦;=mWRɦÉW(É^œVÉV_¦ÉW®Èœ<nɦÉW*Ҝ®Èœ<nɦÉW
(ÉiÎXn1àRÉ *Ҝ (ÉiÎXn1àRÉ # ®Œ1àɤ\n (ɤÉ]<nÉ 1à\ 1àXR~ (¦WɜPÉ/Ç  X¦J‹…nÉ (ɐœn\  (?n…\~n
/X¤n]¨n X¦®È7XR /…®J_ (mRX¦_œÉ]i ~^œÉJ`0® X¦4OJn J\1àm®Ea0¨n #
TEST NO. 39: HISTORY: Ancient Indian History: Sources; Harappan civilization; Vedic and Post Vedic
Period-Society, religion and culture; North India 600 B.C. to 300 B.C- Political, Socio-economic and
religious conditions; Rise of Buddhism and Jainism; The Mauryan Empire- Nature and Structure of
the Mauryan Empire; Asoka and Buddhism; Sculpture and architecture; Kushanas and their contribution
to culture; History of the Satavahanas in Deccan and South India; The Gupta Empire-Political, Social,
Economic and Cultural aspects; Political history of the emerging Regional Powers in Deccan, Far
South, and Eastern India during 600 A.D. to 1200 A.D. Nature of South Indian States-Pallavas,
Chalukyas of Badami and Cholas-Their contribution to Society, Agriculture, Irrigation, Trade, religion
and culture; South Indian Bhakti Movement and later developments; Hindu temples and architectural
styles; Contribution of Rashtrakutas, Pallavas, Chalukyas and Cholas to sculptural art, architecture
and literature.
Medieval Indian History: Sources ; Political developments-the Ghoris, the Turks, the Khaljis, the
Tughlaqs, the Sayyids and the Lodhis; Foundation of the Mughal empire; Babur, Humayun and Sher
Shah Sur; expansion from Akbar to Aurangzeb; causes for the decline of the Mughal empire; The
Vijayanagara and the Bahamanis in South India- Rise, expansion and disintegration; the Maratha
Movement; Shivaji and his contribution; Expansion under the Peshwas; causes for the decline of
Maratha power Administration of the State under Sultanate, Mughals, Vijayanagara, Bahamanis and
Marathas with reference to civil, judicial, revenue, fiscal and military aspects Agriculture, irrigation,
Industries and developments in technology; trade and commerce-internal, external and European
trade; trade centres and ports; Transport and communication; Currency systems Socio-religious
movements- Sufism and the Sufi saints; Bhakti cult-Saivism and Vaishnavism- its branches; Impact
of the religious saints of the medieval period in North and South India; the Sikh Movement-Guru
Nanak and his teachings; Social divisions and religious groups; mercantile and professional classes;
Position of women Educational institutions and its motivations; Literature-Persian, Sanskrit, and
regional languages; Fine arts- Painting and music; development of monumental art and architecture-
Indo-Islamic architecture.
Modern Indian History : Sources and Historiography- Archival materials, biographies, memoirs,
News papers, Oral traditions, paintings; Imperialist, Nationalist, Marxist and Subaltern Studies;
European trading Companies in 17th and 18th centuries; establishment of British dominion in India;
Relations of the British with the principal Indian powers-Bengal, Oudh, Hyderabad, Mysore, Marathas
and the Sikhs- First war of Indian independence-1857; Administration under the crown- Local self-
government, constitutional changes 1909-1935Impact of British economic policies on agriculture,
industries and trade; British industrial policy-labour and trade Union Movements; monetary Policy,
banking, currency and exchange; Railways and road transport; Famines and epidemics and the
government policy; Drain theory; New Education-English language; Modern Science; Socio-religious
Reforms-Raja Ram Mohan RoyRise of Indian nationalism-Indian national congress 1885-1920; Trends
in Swadeshi Movement; Gandhian mass movements- Indian Revolutionaries in India and abroad;
Movement of Depressed classes; Communal Politics and genesis of Pakistan; Towards independence

8
and PartitionIndia after Independence 1947-1964- Integration of the Indian states-Kashmir question;
making of Indian constitution; economic policies and planning process; Linguistic reorganization of
State; India’s foreign Policy.
History and Culture of the Andhras From Earliest Times to Formation of Andhra Pradesh State
: History of the Andhra-Satavahanas and their contribution to society, economy, religion, literature, art
and architecture; Post Satavahana Period- Ikshvakus, Salankayanas, Vishnukundis and Early Pallavas;
Patronage to Buddhism- Establishment of the Eastern Chalukyan kingdom- cultural conditions; History
of Chalukya-Cholas and Kakatiyas of Warangal- Pancharamas; Virasaivism in Andhradesa;
contribution of Kakatiyas for the development of trade and commerce, art and architecture; Muslim
invasions and the fall of the Kakatiyas Liberation Movements- Musunuri Chiefs; Reddis of Kondavidu;
establishment of Vijayanagara Empire- relations of Rayas with contemporary powers; Society,
agriculture, Irrigation, taxation, trade and commerce, art and architecture, language and literature
under the Rayas of Vijayanagar; Disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire Contribution of the Qutub
Shahis of Golkonda for the development of art and architecture and Telugu literature; Nayaka kingdoms
and their patronage to Telugu literature Andhra under the East India Company rule 1802-1857; Revolt
of 1857 and its impact on Andhra and Telangana; social Reform movement in Andhra-Political, social
and cultural awakening in Andhra and Telangana Vandemataram Movement and its impact on Andhra;
Home Rule and Non-cooperation movement in Andhra; Alluri Sita Ramaraju and Rampa rebellion;
Salt Satyagraha and civil disobedience Movement; Quit India Movement in Andhra; Police Action in
Hyderabad-Integration of Hyderabad with India-Movement for formation of Andhra State-Activities of
Andhra Mahasabha upto 1943; Sri Bagh Pact; martyrdom of Potti Sreeramulu- Formation of Andhra
State 1953; State Re-organisation Commission- Gentlemen’s Agreement and formation of Andhra
Pradesh State 1956.
TEST NO. 40: ARCHEOLOGY: Archaeological Methods and Cultures: Nature and scope of
Archaeology; Relations with History and Sciences-New Archaeology-Recent Trends in archaeological
studies; Explorations and Excavation methods; Aerial Photography Remote sensing techniques; Under
water archaeology Dating Methods-Relative and absolute methods; C-14 Method, thermo
luminescence, Potassium Argon Method, Dendro chronology; Palaeo Magnetic Dating methods
Techniques of conservation and preservation of organic antiquities; conservation methods of mural
paintings and oil paintings; conservation of ancient Indian monuments Palaeolithic cultures; Early
civilizations; Harappan civilization-Name, extent, chronology and end of Harappan culture; Town
planning; Trade and commerce, Burial customs, Seals, toy objects and art forms; Archaeological
excavations at Lothal, Dholavira, Kalibangan and Harappa and material culture Copper hoard culture,
iron age, PG ware and Megalithic culture; Early historic cultures of India- Hastinapur, Taxila,
Nagarjunakonda.
Epigraphy and Numismatics: Origin and antiquity of writing in India-Development of Brahmi and
Kharosthi scripts in ancient India-types of inscriptions; palaeographical formulae; dating of inscriptions-
Asokan inscriptions Satavahana and Ikshvaku inscriptions and their value and significance for
reconstructing history. Importance of Hatigumpha inscription, Girnar Inscription and Nanaghat
inscription for the reconstruction of Satavahana history; Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta
and Aihole inscription of Pulakesin II; Copper Plate inscriptions of the Eastern Chalukyas. Usefulness
of coin studies in the reconstruction of the history; Origin, antiquity and evolution of coinage in ancient
India.Indo-Greek, Roman and Kushana coins-their characteristic features Satavahana and Kshatrapa
coins-coin legends and symbolism; Coins of the Imperial Guptas- Samudragupta, Chandragupta II
and Kumaragupta’s coins; Coinage of Rayas of Vijayanagara.
Indian art, architecture and Hindu Iconography: Development of Buddhist art and architecture-
rock-cut and structural; Stupas, Chaityas and Viharas; Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda, Guntupalli and
Sankaram ; Sanchi, Pitalkhora and BarhutEvolution of Hindu temple- Nagara, Dravida and Vesara;
Temples of Guptas and Chandellas; Orissan temple architecture; Chalukyan temple art and
architecture; Temple art and architecture of the Rashtrakutas, Kakatiyas and Hoyasalas; Pallava,
Chola and Vijayanagara temple art and architecture Literary sources for the study of Hindu iconography;
Saiva iconography-Pacific and Terrific forms of Siva; Anugrahamurti and Samharamurti forms of

9
Siva; Vaishnava iconography-Vyuha forms of Vishnu; 24 forms of Vishnu; Dasavataras; Iconography
of Ganesa, Karttikeya, Surya, Brahma, Sarasvati, Dikpalas and Navagrahas; Iconography of Durga;
Mahishasuramardini.
History and Culture of the Andhras From Earliest Times to 1565 A.D: Sources for the study of
the Andhra History-archaeological and literary; History of the Andhra-Satavahanas and their contribution
to society, economy, religion, literature, art and architecture; Post Satavahana Period- Ikshvakus,
Salankayanas, Vishnukundis and Early Pallavas; Patronage to Buddhism- Establishment of the Eastern
Chalukyan kingdom- cultural conditions; History of Chalukya-Cholas and Kakatiyas of Warangal-
Pancharamas; Virasaivism in Andhradesa; Contribution of Kakatiyas for the development of trade
and commerce, art and architecture; Muslim invasions and the fall of the KakatiyasLiberation
Movements- Musunuri Chiefs; Reddis of Kondavidu and their contribution to the religion and literature;
Social customs and practices-celebration of vasantotsava festivals under the Reddis; Establishment
of Vijayanagara Empire- relations of Rayas with contemporary powers; Administration of the State-
Civil, Judiciary and Military; Nayankara system-its merits and demerits-views of historians on the
Nayankara system, Krishnadevaraya and his military conquests; His contribution to the Telugu literature;
Society, agriculture, Irrigation, taxation, trade and commerce, art and architecture, language and
literature under the Rayas of Vijayanagar; Ramaraya’s role in South Indian politics-causes for the
battle of Rakshasi Tangadi, 1565 A.D. Results of the war.
TEST NO. 41: M.H.R.M.: UNIT-I: Schools of management thought- Scientific Management School,
Human Relations School, Behaviour School, System Approach.
Functions of Management- Planning: Types, Steps, Organizing. Direction, Control, Coordination,
Communication.
UNIT-II: Personnel Management: Functions, Structure of Personnel Department, line and Staff,
Job Analysis, manpower Planning, New Challenges. Recruitment and Selection, Placement and
Induction. Wage and Salary Administration, Job evaluation, Methods of wage payment linking wages
with productivity. Grievance handling and Disciplinary action.
UNIT-III: HRD Concept, importance, Evolution, Functions, Organisation of HRD Function. Performance
appraisal, Training and Development , Quality of work life, Career planning, Quality circles. Training
Programmes for workers, Management Development Programmes. Evaluation of training.
UNIT-IV: Organizational Behaviour : Concept, Importance, Evolution , Role, Group Dynamics.
Motivation, Leadership, Job satisfaction, Morale, Fatigue and Monotony. Organisational change and
Development, Organisational effectiveness.UNIT-V: Industrial Relations: Concept, Scope, Approaches,
Industrial Relations System. Industrial disputes: Causes, Effects, Trends, Methods and Machinery
for the settlement of Indddustrial disputes. Workers participation in management, Code of discipline,
tripartite bodies, ILO, industrial relations and the new economic reforms.UNIT-VI: Trade Unions:
Meaning, Objectives, Functions, Theories, Structure of Trade unions. Trade Union Movement in
India, Leadership, Finance, Union Politics, Inter and Intra-union Rivalry.UNIT-VII: Labour legislation,
Objectives, Principles, Classification, Evolution of labour legislation in India, impact of ILO, Labour
legislation and Inddian Constitution. Factories Act, 1948. Employees State Insurance Act, 1948;
Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923, Maternity Benefit Act, 1961.UNIT-VIII: Trade Unions Act, 1926;
Industrial Employment (Standing orders) Act, 1946; Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. Minimum Wages
Act, 1948; Payment of Wages Act, 1936; Equal Remuneration Act, 1976; Payment of Bonus Act,
1965.UNIT-IX: Labour Welfare: Meaning, Definition, Scope, Theories, Principles and
approaches. Statutory and Non - statutory labour welfare; Intra-Mural and Extra-Mural welfare. Agencies
of Labour Welfare: State, Employer, Trade Unions, Voluntary Agencies.UNIT-X: Labour market,
Features, Deamnd and Supply of Labour, nature and Composition of Indian Labour Force, Un-
Employment and Under-Employment. Concepts of wages, State Regulation of wages, Fixation of
wages, Wage theories, Wage differentials.

TEST NO.42: M.J.M.C: HISTORY OF JOURNALISM: Indian press and freedom movement – Gandhi’s
contribution to Indian journalism – Nehru era – Government v/s Press – Indian Press and Emergency
Contribution of National eminent newspapers - Amrit Bazar Patrika - Kesari – Hitvada – The Times of
India – The Statesman – Free Press Journal- The Hindu- Recent trends in journalism Origin and

10
development of Telugu press – Telugu press and freedom movement _Kandukuri Veeresalingam –
Kasinadhuni Nageswara rao – K.Ramarao – Khasa Subba rao – Tapi Dharma Rao –Mutnuri Krishna
rao – NarlaVenkateswara Rao- Telugu Press after 1970’s – Recent trends.
REPORTING AND EDITING: Detailed analysis of news – definition – concepts- components – values
– sources- press conference – Interviews – qualifications and responsibilities of reporter – ethical
aspects - Reporting special events – disasters and accidents – crime – sports – budget – courts –
legislature reporting – speech reporting – investigative reporting – science reporting – moffussil
reporting - Editor – News editor – Sub-editor- their responsibilities – Editorial writing – Letters to the
editor – Leads – Principles of rewriting – Rural news editing - Journalism ethics- accuracy-fairness-
completeness- code of ethics- Journalism and objectivity- the influence of news values- objectivity in
practice- redefining objectivity- objectivity as a perspective- use of language.
COMMUNICATION THEORY: Definitions of communication – scope – Communication process –
Variables of communication – Source - Message – Channel - Receiver – Feedback – Basic models
of communication – Shannon & Weaver – Lasswell –Berlo - Types of communication –interpersonal
– group – mass communication – mass communication – characteristics of print, radio, Television,
film Advanced models of communication – two step flow of communication opinion leaders –
characteristics – Diffusion of innovation – Rogers and Shoemakers model of communication Gate
keeping models - White’s model, Galtung and Ruge model of selective gate keeping – Models of
communication – Verbal and non-verbal Normative theories – Authoritarian – Libertarian – Communist
– Social responsibility – Development media – Democratic participant theory.
ADVERTISING & PUBLIC RELATIONS: Evolution of advertising - socio economic effects of
advertising – types of advertisements – Various phases of advertising – advertising agency system -
market research – vocational aspects of advertising - Planning and campaigns – Media selection –
newspapers – Magazines – Radio _ Television - Direct mail - Outdoor advertising - Hoarding - Bus
panels- spectacular- Bulletins - Components of PR – Principles of persuasion – effective
communication – attitude change – application of communication techniques for PR media – PR for
print , electronics and film, oral,open house, photography , campaigns , demonstration, exihibitions,
trade, press – press conference – special events - PR organisations – structure – PR policy –
consultancy agency system – planning – fact finding – implementation- Feedback analysis – methods
of PR – Press relations – periodicals – controlled electronic communication – advertising as a
component of PR – direct communication methods – books and other publications.
RADIO, TELEVISION AND FILM PRODUCTION: Brief history of broadcasting in India –characteristics
of radio – objectives of radio – AIR code – stages in programme production – writing for radio – news
features – interviews – audience profile – special audience programmes - women – children – youth
– industrial workers – farm and home programmes - Audition – microphone talents – mikes – Outdoor
broadcast – Covering special events – Festivals – Sports - Radio Bridge Origin and growth of radio
network – All India radio and Doordarshan – Prasar bharathi – Organizational structure – FMRadio. -
TV as medium of communication – Origin and growth - Characteristics – Audience – stages in TV
programme production – Script writing – types of scripts – programme production techniques – TV
studio – types of cameras – lenses – Basic shots –micro phones – lighting –floor planning – duties of
the TV crew Television – Growth – Private TV – Cable TV- DTH- CAS- TV ads. Regulations Problems
and prospects of the Indian Film industry - Film organization - FTII: NFDC –censorship & laws –
Khosla committee report – Film policy.
MEDIA LAWS AND MANAGEMENT: Indian constitution – Salient Features – Fundamental rights –
Article !9 (!)(A)- freedom of the press - Press Council of India Act,1978 – Indian Cinematography Act,
1950 – Law of defamation – Contempt of court - Censorship Law and Internet – Laws and Cyberspace
– emerging trends – Laws relating to cable and satellite TV - Types of newspaper organization –
functions – newspapers departments – editorial circulation – advertising – Production – Types of
ownership pattern – Advantages and disadvantages - Newspapers finance and control – newspaper
registration – RNI – Recruitment policy – training – Wage policy - Wage boards – Readerships surveys
– ABC-Advertising policy - Press commissions - Recommendations –– Press Council of India –
structure – Composition – Guidelines.

11
DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMMUNICATION: Development – Different concepts
– causes for under development – theories of development – economic theory – Walt Rostow –
Sociological theory - Modernization theory - Dependency theory - Dominant paradigm – New paradigm
of development- Sustainable development - Development dilemmas- Millennium development goals
–diffusion of innovations - An over view - Development journalism – origin – growth – developmental
journalism - concepts- case studies – development news – Different concepts – Development reporting
– problems – Indian Press and Development journalism - Development communication – definitions-
nature- scope- merits and demerits – case studies of SITE and Jabua development communication
project– Development support communication – an overview – Communication and Human
development – literacy – population control- Sanitation – Gram panchayat – AIDS - Environmental
communication- nature, scope and definition - Environment- citizens and community groups -
Environment groups- scientists, corporations, business lobbyists, anti-environmental groups - Global
environmentalism-environmental movements in India, USA and Europe - Media and environmental
journalism - Environment –causes and factors of environmental pollution - Constitutional and legal
provisions in India - Environmental act, Environment (protection act, 1996) – Sustainable development
- Commission on sustainable development - Earth summits- UN and climate change - International
communication International Communication- nature and scope- historical evolution - Emergence of
long-distance communication- early communication channels- post- traditional forms- newspapers-
news agencies- telegraph-telephone- Types and channels of communication- interpersonal-technical
and global International communication and national identity - Dimensions of international
communication- global village- war of ideas- communication and national sovereignty- increasing
concentration and Transnationalization - International news system- international news flow and
controversy- news values controversy- media imperialism- communication policies- UNESCO – mass
media declaration- New World Information and Communication Order- McBride Commission-
emergence of IPDC - Propaganda and forms of propaganda –use of mass media - Satellites- comstats-
emergence of CNN and its impact on world of communication - War and media-public diplomacy and
political warfare- new ways to report the world - Globalization and media – different phases of
globalization-mediating globalization-Media and communications- emergence of STAR TV-
Globalization and ICT - Media organizations- International Press Institute- International
Telecommunication Union-British Broadcasting corporation- Voice of America-European Broadcasting
Union- Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development.
TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION - Traditional media – nature – meaning – Definition – Historical
background – characteristics – Classification of formats – Different phases - Folk arts and social
perspectives – Folk arts and religious communication.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Basic elements of research – concepts – definitions, variables,
hypothesis and causation - hypothesis – type of hypothesis – characteristic of good hypothesis –
hypothesis testing – research designs in mass communication research outlines of important designs
, approaches: Survey research , content analysis and historical method . Measurement: meaning -
levels and types of measurement Sampling in communications research, types, their applications
and limitations Methods of Data collection: Interview, Questionnaire, observation and case study -
application and limitations of different methods.
TEST NO. 43: M.L.I.Sc: UNIT-I: Information, Information Science, Information Society. - Information as
a Resource / commodity. - Information Transfer Cycle – Generation, Collection, Storage and
Dissemination Fole of information in Planning, management, Socio-Economic Development,
Technology Transfer. - Communication – Channels, Barriers. - Intellectual Property Rights – concept,
Copyright, Censorship – Print and Non Print Media. - Library and Information Policy at the National
Level.
UNIT-II: Laws of Library Science - Library Resource Sharing and Networking - Library Movement and
Library Legislation in India - Library Extension Services - Library and Information Science Education
in India - Library and Information Profession - Library Associations in India, UK and USA – ILA,
IASLIC, IATLIS, SIS, LA, ASLIB, SLA and ALA - Library Associations Organizations at International
level – FID, IFLA and UNESCO.

12
UNIT-III: Sources of Information – Primary, Secondary and Tertiary – Documentary and Non-
documentary -Reference Sources – Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Geographical Sources, Biographical
Sources, Year-books/Almanacs, Directories, and Handbooks, Statistical (Salient features and
evaluation).Bibliographical Sources – Bibliographies, Union Catalogues, indexing and Abstracting
Journals (silent features and evaluation) -E-documents, E-books, E-Journals -Databases –
Bibliographic, Numeric and Full text –Evaluation.
UNIT-IV: Reference and Information services, Referral Service Bibliographic Service, Indexing and
Abstracting service, CAS, SDI, Digest service, Trend Report -Online Services - Translation
ServicesReprographic Services.
UNIT-V: Organization of knowledge / information - Modes of formation of subjects - Library
Classification – Canons and Principles - Library Classification Schemes – DDC, UDC and CC -
Library Cataloguing – Canons and Principles - Library Cataloguing Codes – CCC and AACR – II -
Bibliographic Records – International standards – ISBDs, MARC and CCF - Indexing – Pre-coordinate,
Post-Coordinate -Vocabulary Control – Thesaurus, Lists of Subject Headings - Databases – Search
Strategies, Boolean Operators - Knowledge Management.
UNIT-VI: Management-Principles, Functions, Schools of Thought Planning, Organization Structure
Decision making - System Study – Analysis, Evaluation and Design - Collection Development –
Books, Serials, Non-Book Materials – Selection. - Acquisition, maintenance; ISBN, ISSN, Cataloguing-
in-Publication (CIP) -Human Resources Management – Manpower Planning, Job analysis, Job
description, Selection, Recruitment, Motivation Training and Development, Staff Manual, Leadership
and performance Evaluation - Delegation of authority - Financial Management – Resource Generation,
Types of Budgeting, Cost and Cost-Benefit analysis - PERT, CPM - Library Building and Equipments
Performance Evaluation of Libraries / Information Centres and Services Marketing Information product
and services - Total Quality Management (TQM).
UNIT-VII: Information Technology – Components, Impact of IT on Society - Computers – Hardware,
Software, Storage Devices, Input / Output Devices Telecommunication – Transmission media,
Switching systems, Bandwidth, Multiplexing, Modulation, Protocols, Wireless Communication, Fax,
E-Mail, Tele- conferencing / video – Conferencing, Bulletin Board Service, Teletext, Videotex, Voice
Mail - Networking – Concepts, Topologies, Types – LAN, MAN and WAN - Hypertext, Hypermedia,
Multimedia - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), Open Systems Interconnection (OSI).
UNIT-VIII: Library Automation – Areas of automation, Planning, Hardware and Software Selection,
OPAC.Networks – ERNET, NICNET, DELNET, JANET, BLAISE, OCLC, INFLIBNET - INTERNET –
Components, Services, Browsing – Web Browsers, Search Engines Meta – Data, Digital Object
Identifier (DOI) - National and International information Systems – NISSAT, NASSDOC, INSDOC,
DESIDOC, INIS, AGRIS, MEDLARS, INSPEC.
UNIT-IX: Types of Research – Basic, Applied, Interdisciplinary Research Design Scientific Method,
Hypotheses, Data collection, Sampling Methods of Research – Historical, Descriptive, Case Study,
Survey, Comparative and Experimental.- Statistical Methods, Data Analysis. - Report Writing - Research
Methods in Library and Information Science and Services Bibliometrics.
UNIT-X: Types of Libraries – national Public, Academic and Special Objectives, Structure and
Functions. Digital Libraries – Concept - Virtual Libraries – Concept - Types of users, User Studies,
User Education. - Role of UGC in the growth and development of libraries and information centres in
institutions of higher education in India. - Role of Raja Rammohan Roy Library Foundation (RRLF).

TEST NO. 44: LINGUISTICS: PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY: Air stream mechanisms, places and
manners of articulation, Vowels and Consonants, Supra-segmental features. concept of distinctive
features, Concept of Phoneme, Principles of Phonemic Analysis, Phonological processes.
MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX: Morph, Allomorph, Morpheme and word. Morpheme as a meaningful
unit and as a grammatical unit. Types of morphs, Sandhi, Word formation processes; Inflection,
Derivation, Compound formation, Reduplication etc., Grammatical Categories and Parts of
Speech.Sentence Structure - Nature of Linguistic Knowledge; competence and Performance. Syntactic
Categories - Lexical and Phrasal. Phrase markers and tree diagrams. Generative Grammar and
adequacies of grammar.

13
SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS: Meaning, Sense and reference. Lexical semantics - fields and
collocations. Sense Relations. Componential analysis. Semantics vs. Pragmatics. Deixis, Discourse
and Conversation. Cooperative Principle, Speech Act Theory.
LANGUAGE VARIATION: Social and Geographical variation, Regional dialects and Social dialects,
Language in relation to social variables like caste, class, status, education, sex, etc., Styles and
Registers. Diglossia and Bilingualism. code-switching and Code-mixing.
APPLIED LINGUISTICS: Second Language teaching, English language teaching, approaches and
methods; Communicative language teaching-learning; Translation and Interpretation; Use of language
in allied areas - literature, journalism, advertisements.

TEST NO. 45: MUSIC: TECHNICAL – TERMINOLOGY: Nada, Shruti, Swara, Grama – Moorchana,
Jati, Raga, Tala, Tan, Gamak, Gandharvagaan, Marga-Deshi, Giti, Gaan, Varna, Alankar, Melody,
Harmony, Musical Scales, Musical intervals, Consonance – Dissonance,Harmonics, Western and
South Indian terminology and their explanation, Drrone, Alpatva-Bahutva, Abirbhav- Tirobhav, Uthan,
Peshkar, kayda, Rela, Rang, Laggi, Ladi, Farshbandi, Tala, laya, Matra, Avartan, Vibhag, sashasbda
Kriya, Nishabda Kriya, Theka, Saral gat, Adi Gat, Chakradar Gat, Farmaishi Gat and other variety
of Gats and Kayadas, Upanga, Bhashanga, Gita, Kriti, Kirtana, jatiswara, Pada, Swarjati, Ragamalika,
Tillana, Nyasa, Amsa, Prasa, Yati, Anuprasa, Alapana, Neraval, Sangati and other terms, Gitintya,
Nritya-natya, Baitalik, Varsha-Mangal, Basantotsav, Gita-Bitana, Swara-Bitana, Akarmatrik notation,
Masitkhani and Rajakahni Gat.
APPLIED THEORY: Detailed and critical study of Ragas, classification of Ragas, i.e., Grama Raga
vargikaran, Mela Raga Vargikaran, Raga-Ragini Vargikaran, Thata Raga Vargikaran, and Ranganga
Vargikaran, time-theory of Rages, Application of melody and harmony in Indian Music, Placement of
Shuddha and Vikrit Swaras on Shruties in ancient, medieval and modern period.Detailed knowledge
of prevalent tales of Hindustani music, knowledge of tala Dashpranas and Marga and Deshi tales of
ancient period, the original principales of making Tihai, Chakradar Gat, Chakradar Paran, comparative
study of Hindustani and Karnatak tala system with special reference to ten pranes of tala, detailed
study of different layakaris viz, Dugun, Tigun, Chaugan, Ada, Kuada, Viyada and method to apply
them in compositions.Tagore’s treatement of Hindustani ragas and raginis, elements of Hindustani
classical music, karnatak music, Western music, music from other provinces, folk mouic and Kirtan
of Bengal and their influence on Tagore’s treatment of ragas.
COMPOSITIONAL FORMS AND THEIR EVOLUTION: Prabandha, Dhrupad, Khyal, Dhamar,
Thumri, Tappa, Tarana, Chaturang, Trivai, Vrindagana, Vrinda Vadan, Javeli, Tillana, Alap, Varnam
(Pad Varnam and Tana Varnam), Padam, Ragam, Tanam, Pallavi, Gita, Varna, Swarajati,
Kalpita, Sangita, Ragamalika, narvallu, Swara Kalpana (Manodharma Sangeet), tevaram,
Divyaprabandham, Tiruppugazh.- Main forms of Rabindra Sangeet. - Akarmatrik notation system.
Knowledge of Development script. - History of music of Bengal.
GHARANAS AND GAYAKI: Origin and development of Gharanas in Hindustani music and their
contribution in preserving and promoting traditional Hindustani classical music. Merits and demerits
of Gharana system.Origin and Development of Gharanas in Hindustani music and percussion and
their contribution in promoting traditional Indian classical music, merits and demerits of Gharana
system.Study of the traditions and specialities of different gharanas in vocal, instrumental and
percussion group. Desirability and possibility of gharanas in contemporary music.Guru shishya
parampara and different styles of singing and playing in Karnatak Music.An overall survey of Rabindra
Nath Tagore’s musical creativity, tonal and rhythmic varieties of Tagore’s musical compositions.
Including his own experimental variations. Periods and phases of Tagore’s musical Compositions.
(Chronological order may be maintained)The Cultural atmosphere of Tagore’s family (Pathuriaghata
and Jorasanko, Calcutta) Thematic variations of Tagore’s Music: (Puja, Swadesh, Prem, Prakriti,
Vichitra, Anusthanik).
CONTRIBUTION OF SCHOLARS TO INDIAN MUSIC AND THEIR TEXTUAL TRADITION: Narad,
Bharat, Dattil, Matanga, Sharangadeva, Nanyadeva and others.Lochan, Ramamatya, Pundarik Vitthal,
Somnath, Damodar Misra, Ahobal, Hridaya Narain Deva, Vynkatmakhi, Sriniwas, Pt. Bhatkhande,
Pt. V.D. Paluskar, Pt. Omkranth Thakur, K.C.D. Brahaspati, Dr. Premalata Sharma and others.Study

14
of anicient, medieval and modern treatises in Percussion instruments like Bharat Natya shastra,
Sangeet Samaysar, Radha Govind Sangit Sar, Madrul Mosiqui, Bhartiya Vadyon Ka Itihas, Sangeet
Shastra, Bhartiya Sangeet Mei Taal aur Roop, Abhinav Tala Manjari, Bharitiya Sangeet Vadya, and
other Treatises. Contribution of various Scholars to percussion instruments like kudau Singh , Bhagwan
Das, Raja Chatrapati Singh, Anokhe Lal, Ahmadhan thirakwa, Shamta Prasad, Kishan Maharaj and
others in ancient, medieval and modern period.Tagore’s Musical dramas (gitinatyas) and dance-
dramas (nrityanatyas); e.g., Valmiki Pratibha, Kalmrigaya, Mayar Khela, Chitrangada, Chandalika,
Shyama and other dramas full of various songs, i.e,. dramas like Prayaschitta, Visarjan, Saradotsava,
Raja, Phalguni, Taser Desh, Vasanta etc., Tagore’s musical creativity in Gitabitan, Part I, II, III,
Swarabitam (notation books) Part I-63, Sangeet – Chinta(Vishva-Bharti).Contribution of prominent
Karnatak Scholars composers and performers and their medieval and modern period like, work such
as. Ramamatya, Vyankatmakhi, Tyagraja, Muttu- Swami Dikshitara, Shyama Sastri, Gopla Krishna
Bharti, Prof. Sambhamoorti,Papanasam Shivan, Vasantha Kumari, Subbulakshmi, Ramari,
T.N.Krishna and others.
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF MUSIC: A Study of the historical development of Hindustani music
(Vocal Instrumental, Percussion), Karnatak Music and Rabindra Sangeet in anicient, medieval and
modern period. - Contribution of Western Scholars to Indian Music.
AESTHETICS: Its origin, expression and appreciation: Principle of aesthetics and its relation to Indian
Music. - Rasa theory and its application to Indian Music. - Relationship of Musical aesthetics and
Rasa to Hindustani Music (Vocal, Insrumental and Percussion), Karnatak Music and Rabidra Sangeet.
- Interelationship of Fine Arts with special reference to Rag-Ragini Paintings, Dhyan of Ragas and
others. - Bibliography of Rabindra Nath Tagore.
INSTRUMENTS/DANCE: Origin, evolution, structure of various instruments and their well-known
exponents of Hindustani (Vocal, Instruments and Percussion), karnatac music and Rabindra Sangeet.
Importance of Tanpura and its Harmonics.Classification of Instruments of Hindustani, Karnatac Music
in anicient, medieval and modern period. Popular instruments used in Rabindra SangeetElementary
knowledge of Indian dances like Kathak, Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi, Oddissi, Kathakali etc.
FOLK MUSIC: Influence of folk music on Indian Classical Music. Stylisation of folk melodies into
ragas. - Popular folk tunes and folk dances of Hindustani, Karnatak and Rabindra Sangeet, such as
Baul, Bahtiyali, Lavani, Graba, Kajri, Chaity, Maand, Bhangra, Gidda, Jhoomar, Swang, Pandawani,
Amar-Praner Manush Acchhe prane, Amar Sonar Bangla, Kirtan, Sari, Rai Beshe, Jhumur, Karakattam,
Kavadi Attam, Villuppattu, maiyandi Melam and other prominent folk forms.Analysis of the elements
of Hindustani folk music, Karnatac folk music or South Indian folk music and Rabindra folk Sangeet
or folk music of Bengal and the elements regarding their interrelationship.General study of the folk
music of various regions of India like Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Maharashtra,
Bengal and South India.
MUSIC TEACHING AND RESEARCH TECHNOLOGIES: Guru Shishya Parampara, Sangeet –
Sampradaya Pradarsini and the institutional system of music teaching with reference to Hindustani,
karnatac music and Rabindra Sangeet. - Utility of teaching aids like electronic equipments in music
education with reference to Hindustani, karnatak music and Rabindra Sangeet. - The methodologies
of music research, preparing synopsis, data collection etc. with reference to Hindustani, Karnatak
music and Rabindra Sangeet. - Study of interrelation between textual and oral tradition.

TEST NO. 46: PHILOSOPHY & RELIGIOUS STUDIES: CLASSICAL INDIAN PHILOSOPHY Vedic
And Upanisadic World –Views: Rta-the cosmic order, the divine and the human realms; the centrality
of the institution of yajna (sacrifice), the concept of ma-duty/obligation; theories of creationAtman-
self (and not –self), jagrat, svapna, susupti and turlya, Brahman, sreyas and preyas Karma, samsara,
moksa.
Carvaka: Pratyaksa as the only pramana, critique of anumana and sabda. - rejection of non-material
entities and of dharma and moksa.
Jainism: Concept of reality –sat, dravya, guna, paryaya, jiva, ajiva, anekantavada, syadvada and
nayavada; theory of knowledge; bondage and liberation.

15
Buddhism: Four noble truths, astangamarga, nirvana, madhyam pratipad, pratityasamutpada,
ksanabhangavada, anatmavada Schools of Buddhism: Vaibhasika, Sautrantika, Yogacara and
madhyamika.
Nyaka: prama and aprama, pramanya and apramanya; pramana : pratyaksa, Nirvikalpaka,
savikalpaka, laukika and alaukika; anumana: anvayavyatireka, Lingaparmarsa, vyapti; classification:
vyaptigrahopayas, hetvabhasa.
Upamana; sabda: Sakti, laksana, akanksa, yogyata, sannidhi and tatparya, concept of God, arguments
for the existence of God, adrsta, nihsryeasa.
Vaisesika: Concepts of padartha, dravya, guna, karma, samanya, samavaya, visesa, abhava,
causation: Asatkaryavada, samavayi, asamavayi nimitta karana paramanuvada, adrsta, nihsyeas.
Samkhya: Satkaryavada, prakti and its evolutes, arguments for the existence of prakrti, nature of
purusa arguments for the existence and plurality of purusa relationship between purusa and prakrti,
kaivalya, atheism.
Yoga: Patanjali’s concept of citta and citta –vrtti, eight – fold path of yoga, the role of God in yoga.Purva-
Mimamsa - Sruti and its importance, atheism of purvamimamsa, classification of srutivakyas, vidhi,
nisedha and arthavada, dharma, bahvana, sabdanityavada, jatisaktivada - Kumarila and Prabhakara
Schools of mimamsa and their major points of difference, triputi-samvit, jn atata, abhava, and
anupalabdhi, anvitabhidhanavada, abihitanvayavada – Vedanta.
Advaita-Rejection Of Difference: Adhyasa, maya, three grades of satta, jiva, jivanmukti, vivartavada
Visistadvaita: Saguna Brahman, refutation of maya, aprthaksiddhi, parinamavada, jiva, bhakti and
prapatti Dvaita- Rejection of nirguna Brahman and maya, bheda and saksi bhakti.
MODERN INDIAN THINKERS: Vivekananda – Practical Vedanta, universal religion – Aurobindo -
Evolution, mind and super mind, integral yoga Iqbal – Self, God, man and superman - Tagore -
Religion of man, ideas on education - K.C.Bhattacharyya – Concept of philosophy, subject as freedom,
the doctrine of maya - Radhakrishnan – Intellect and intuition, the idealist view of life - J. Krishnamurti
– Freedom from the known, analysis of self - Gandhi – Non-violence, satyagraha, swaraj, critique of
modern civilization Ambedkar – Varna and the caste system. Neo-Buddhism.
CLASSICAL WESTERN PHILOSOPHY: Early Greek philosophers, Plato and Aristotle - Ionians,
Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus and Democritus - The Sophists and Socrates - Plato- Theory of
knowledge, knowledge (episteme) and opinion (doxa), theory of Ideas, the method of dialectic, soul
and God.’Aristotle – Classification of the sciences, the theoretical, the practical and the productive
(theoria, prexis, techne), logic as an organon, critique of Plato’s theory of Ideas, theory of causation,
form and matter, potentiality and actuality, soul and God - Medieval Philosophy - St. Augustine –
Problem of evil - St. Anselm – Ontological argument - St. Thomas Aquinas - Faith and reason, essence
and existence, the existence of God.
MODERN WESTERN PHILOSOPHY: RationalismDescartes: Conception of method and the need
for method in philosophy, clarity and distinctness as the criterion of truth, doubt and methodological
skepticism, the cogito-intuition or inference? Innate ideas, the ‘real’ distinction between mind and
matter, role of God, proofs for the existence of God, mind-body interactionalism.
Spinoza: Substance, Attribute and Mode, the concept of ‘God or Nature’ the mind-body problem,
pantheism, three orders of knowing.
Leibniz: Monadology, truths of reason and truths of fact, innateness of all ideas, proofs for the existence
of God, principles of non-contradiction, sufficient reason and identity of indiscernible, the doctrine of
pre-established harmony, problem of freedom and philosophy Empiricism.
Locke: Ideas and their classification, refutation of innate ideas, theory of knowledge, three grades of
knowledge, theory of substance, distinction between primary and secondary qualities.
Berkeley: Rejection of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities, immaterialism, critique
of abstract ideas, esse est percipi, the problem of solipsism; God and self.
Hume: Impressions and ideas, knowledge concerning relations of ideas and knowledge concerning
matters of fact, induction and causality, the external world and the self, personal identify, rejection of
metaphysics, skepticism, reason and the passions Critical Philosophy and After

16
Kant: The critical philosophy, classification of judgments, possibility of synthetic a priori judgments,
the Copernican revolution, forms of sensibility, categories of understanding, the metaphysical and
the transcendental deduction of the categories, phenomenon and noumenon, the Ideas of Reason-
soul, God and world as a whole, freedom and immortality, rejection of speculative metaphysics.
Hegel: The conception of Geist (spirit), the dialectical method, concepts of being, non-being and
becoming, absolute idealism.
Neitzsche: Critique of western culture, will to power
Moore: Refutation of idealism, defense of commonsense, philosophy and analysis
Russell: Refutation of idealism, logic as the essence of philosophy, logical atomism
Wittgenstein: Language and reality, facts and objects, names and propositions, the picture theory,
pihiloopjhy and language, meaning and use, forms of life
Husseri: The Husserlian method, intentionality
Heidegger: Being and nothingness, man as being-in-the-world, critique of technological
civilization.Logical Positivism: The verifiability theory of meaning, the verification principle, rejection
of metaphysics, unity of science - C. S. Pierce and William James: Pragmatic theories of meaning
and truth - G. Ryle: Systematically misleading expressions, category mistake, concept of mind, critique
of Cartesian dualism.

TEST N. 47: POLITICS: POLITICAL THEORY AND THOUGHT: Greek Political Thought: Plato and
Aristotle - European Thought – I: Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau - European Thought – II:
Bentham, J.S.Mill, Hegel, Marx, Green and Lenin - Modern Political Thought: Gandhi, M,N,Roy,
Aurobindo Ghosh, Joy Prakash Ambedkar, Savarkar - Behavouralism and Post- Behaviouralism,
decline and Resurgence of Political Theory, Feminism - Democracy, liberty and Equality.
COMPARATIVE POLITICS AND POLITICAL ANALYSIS: Evolution of Comparative politics as a
discipline; nature and scope - Approaches to the study of Comparative politics: Traditional, Structural,
Functional, systems and - Marxist - Forms of Government: Executive, Legislature, judiciary – their
interrelationship in comparative perspective - Party systems and pressure groups; electoral systems
- Bureaucracy – types and roles - Political developments and political modernization - Political culture,
Political Socialization and Political Communication - Political Elite; Elitist theory of Democracy Power,
authority and Legitimacy - Dependency; Development and Under Development.
INDIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS: National Movement, Constitutional Developments and the
Making of Indian Constitution - Ideological Bases of the Indian Constitution, Preamble, Fundamental
Rights and Duties and Directive Principles - Structure and Process – I: President, Prime Minister,
Council of Ministers, Working of the Parliamentary System - Structure and Process – II: Governor,
Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, Working of the State Legislature Panchayati Raj institutions:
Rural and Urban, their working - Federalism: Theory and practice in India; Demands of Autonomy
and Separatist Movements; Emerging trends in Centre-State Relations - Judiciary: Supreme Court,
High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism including public Interest Litigation cases, Judicial
Reforms - Political Parties, pressure Groups, Public Opinion, Media: Dalit, Women and Peasant
Movements - Elections, Electoral Behaviour, Election Comission and Electoral Reforms.
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: Development Administration - Theories of organization - Chief Executive:
Types, Functions and Roles - Bureaucracy: Theories Type and Roles; Max Weber and his critics Civil
Servant – Minister Relationship - Leadership, its role in decision- making; Communication - Good
Governance; Problems of Administrative Corruption; Transparency and Accountability; Right to
Information - Research Methodology: Sampling, Data Collection Techniques, Report Writing.
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: Contending Theories and Approaches to the study of International
Relations; Idealist, Realist, Systems, Power, Interest and ideology in International Relations; Elements
of Power: Acquisition, use and limitations of Power, Perception, Formulation and Promotion of National
Interest, Meaning, Role and Relevance of Ideology in International Relations - Cold War, Alliances,
Non-Alignment, End of cold War, Globalization - WTO, Regional and sub-regional organizations
especially SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, OAS - United Nations: Perspectives; Charter Revision; Power-
struggle and Diplomacy within UN, Financing and Peace-Keeping operations - India’s Role in

17
International affairs: India’s Relations with its neighbors, wars, security concerns and pacts, Mediatory
Role, distinguishing features of Indian Foreign Policy and Diplomacy.
TEST NO. 48: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: Theory of Public Administration: Public Administration –
meaning, nature and Scope, Public and Private Administration, New Public Administration, New Public
Management - Administrative Thinkers – Kautilya, Woodrow Wilson, Gulick and Urwiick, Max Weber,
F.W. Taylor, Henri Fayol, M.P. Follet, Elton Mayo, C.I.Barnard, Herbert Simon, D.H. Mc.Gregor, Abraham
Maslow, Herzberg, Chris Argyris and Fred Riggs - Theories – Classical, Human Relations, Bureaucratic,
Public choice and Principal Agent Relationship - Approaches to the study of Public Administration –
Scientific Management, behavioural Systems, Structural-functional, Decision-making, Public Policy
and Marxian - Organization – Bases of Organization, Formal and Informal, Principles of Organization
– Hierarchy, Span of control, Unity of Command, Delegation, - Decentralization and Line-Staff
Agencies.Leadership, Motivation and Communication.
Comparative Public Administration: Comparative Public Administration – Nature and Scope. -
Theories and Models of Comparative Public Administration – Contributions Of Fred Riggs, Montgomery
And Ferrel Heady. - A comparative study of the Administration, Institutions and Processes in U.K.,
U.S.A, and India. - Various Control Mechanisms over Administration in U.K., U.S.A. and India. -
Citizen and Administration – Machinery for Redressal of citizen’s grievances in U.K.,, U.S.A and
India.
Development Administration: Development Administration – Meaning, Nature and Scope, Concept
of Development Administration; Development Administration and Traditional Administration:
Characteristics of Administration in Developed and Developing Countries. - Models of Economic
Growth. - Planning – Projects and Plan Formulation, Plan Implementation and Evaluation. - Importance
of communication in Development Administration. - Bureaucracy and Development Administration –
Role of Bureaucracy in Plan Formulation and its Implementation. - Development Administration –
Interactions among Bureaucrats, Politicians, Technocrats, Social Scientists, Educationists and
Journalists. People’s Participation in Development. - International Aid and Technical Assistance
Programmes – IMF, IBRD, WTO.
Indian Administration: Administrative Legacies at the time of Independence – Civil Services; District
and Revenue Administration - Organization of Government at the Central Level – Organization of
Secretariat, Ministries and Departments, Cabinet Secretariat, P.M.O. - Organization of Government
at the State level – Secretariat, Role of Chief Secretary, Organization Ministries, Departments and
Directorates. - Personnel Administration – Classification and Services, Recruitment, Recruitments
Agencies – U.P.S.C. and State Public Service Commissions, Training, Promotion, Discipline, Morale,
Staff Associations, Employer – Employee Relations. - Financial Administration – Budget, Enactment
of Budget, Finance Ministry and its Role, Audit and Accounts, Comptroller and Auditor – General. -
Plans – Five Year Plans, Formulation of Plans, Planning Commission, National Development Council,
Plan Implementation.Centre-State Relations – Legislative, Administrative and Financial, Finance
Commission. - Control over Administration – Legislative, Executive and Judicial Control, Transparency,
Accountabiligy and Administrative Responsiveness - District Administration – Organization of District
Administration. Role of District Collector in Development - Citizen and Administration – Lokpal and
Lokayukta - Delegated Legislation and Administrative Adjudication - Administrative Reforms in India
since Independence.
Research Methodology: Types of Research - Identification of problem and Preparation of Research
Design - Research methods in Social Sciences – Hypothesis - Sampling – Various Sampling
procedures - Tools of Data Collection – Questionnaire, Interview, Schedules and Observation -
Processing of Data - Measures of Central Tendency – mean, Mode and Median - Report Writing.
Social and Economic Administration: Meaning, nature and Scope of Social Welfare and Social
Justice - Central Social Welfare Board and State Social Welfare Boards - Major Social Sectors –
Health and Education - Industrial Policy Resolutions and Growth of Public Sector in India - Public
Sector – Features, problems of Management, Accountability and Autonomy - New Economic Policy –
Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization.

18
Local Governments – Rural and Urban: Meaning, Nature and Scope of Local Governments -
Major Features and Structure of Local Government in U.K., U.S.A., France and India - 73rd and 74th
Constitutional Amendments in India - Functions and Role of Local Governments in India - State-Local
Relations in India.

TEST NO.: 49: PSYCHOLOGY: PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES: Approaches to the study of perception:
Gestalt ad physiological approaches - Perceptual Organization: Gestalt, Figure and Ground, Laws of
Organization - Perceptual Constancy: Size, Shape and Brightness, Illusion; Perception of Depth and
Movements. - Role of motivation and learning in perception.
LEARNING PROCESS: Classical conditioning::Procedure, Phenomena and related issues -
Instrumental learning: Phenomena, Paradigms and theoretical issues - Reinforcement Basic variables
and schedules - Verbal learning: Methods and materials, organizational processes.
MEMORY AND FORGETTING: Memory processes - Encoding, Storage, Retrieval - Stages of memory:
Sensory memory, Short-term Memory (STM) and Long-term Memory (LTM) - Episodic and Semantic
–memory - Theories of Forgetting: Interference, decay, retrieval.
THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING: Theories of though processes Associationism, Gestalt,
Information processing - Concept formation: Rules and strategies - Reasoning: Deductive and inductive
- Problem-solving: Type and strategies - Role of concepts in thinking.
MOTIVATION AND EMOTION: Basic motivational concepts: instincts, needs, drives, incentives,
motivational cycle - Approaches to the study of motivation Psychoanalytical, ethological S-R Cognitive,
humanistic - Biological Motives Hunger, thirst, sleep and sex - Social Motives: Achievement, affiliation,
approval - Exploratory behavior and curiosity - Physiological correlates of emotions - Theories of
emotions: James-Lange, Canon-Bard, Schachter and Singer - Conflicts Sources and types.
HUMAN ABILITIES: Intelligence: Biological, Social, Eco-cultural determinants - Theories of
intelligence: Spearman, Thurston, Guilford - Individual and group differences: Extent and causes -
Measurement of human abilities.
PERSONALITY: Determinants of personality: Biological and socio-cultural - Approaches to the study
of personality: Psychoanalytic, neo-freudian, social learning, trait and type, cognitive – Personality -
assessment: Psychometric and projective tests Self-concept: Origin and development.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Research problems, hypothesis, variables and their operationalizaton
- Types of psychological research - Methods of psychological research: Experimental, Quasi-
experimental, case studies, field studies and cross-cultural studies. - Methods of data collection:
Observation, interview, questionnaire, tests and scales. - Non-parametric tests.
MEASUREMENT AND TESTING: Test construction: Item writing, item analysis - Test standardization:
Reliability, validity and norms - Types of tests: Intelligence, aptitude, personality – characteristics and
important examples. - Attitude scales and interest inventories - Educational measurement and
evaluation.
BIOLOGICAL BASIS AND BEHAVIOR: Receptors, effectors and adjuster mechanisms - Neural
impulse: Origin, conduction and measurement - Sensory system: Vision and Audition - Human nervous
system: Structure and functions.
TEST NO. 50: SANSKRIT: VEDIC LITERATURE: 10 Suktas from Rugveda, Agni, Savitr, Indra, Varuna,
soma, Purusa, Nasadiya, Purusa, Usa, Visnu.- General Samhita – Brahmana, Aranyaka, Upanisads.
DIALOGUE HYMNS: Nadi-Viswamitra. Litt Date & Classification of Rgveda – Maxmuller, Jacobi,
Tilak, Traditional Theories – Vedangas – All the Six.
DARSANAS: Tarkasangraha, Samkhyakavikas, Vedantasarah.
VYAKARANA: Paribhasa, karaka, Samasa Prakaram Samhita etc.
LINGUISTICS: Theories – Origin of Speech Classification of Language Phonetic Theories – Semantic
Theories.
KAVYA LITT: Mahakavyas – Asvaghasa, prose kavyas, Dramas – Bhasa, Kalidasa, sudraka,
Bhavabhuti, harsa.
KAVYASASTRA: Classification of Kavya – kavya Laksana – Sriya kavya – Definition kavyas of different
types – from Sahitya darpana – Chapter-I – Chapter-VI.

19
TEST NO. 51: SOCIAL WORK: UNIT – I: Evolution of Social Work profession – Impact of Social Reform
Movements Factors that influenced the emergence of method approach in Social Work practice ;
Social Work profession and Human Rights. - Philosophy and Principles of Social Work and their
application. - System Approach to Social Work Practice ; Role of Social Work in the Remedial,
Preventive and Developmental Models. - Definition, Relevance and Scope of Integrated Approach to
Social Work Practice, Skills and Techniques. - Social Work Education – Content, Training, Supervision,
Problems and Challenges.
Unit – II : Meaning and Characteristics of Society, Community, Social Group and Social Institution ;
Social Structure and Social Stratification ; Theories of Social Change and Social Disorganization. -
Tribal, Rural and Urban Communities, Weaker and Vulnerable Sections and Minority Groups. - Concept
and Causative Factors of Indian Social Problems – Analysis. - Intervention in Social Problems –
Government and Voluntary Efforts at Micro – and Macro – Levels. - Role of the Social Workers in
identifying social problems and development of appropriate strategies.
Unit – III: Human Behaviour, Human Needs, Human Motivation and Problems of Human Behaviour
and Coping Mechanisms. - Human Growth and Development in the Lifespan of Individual. - Learning,
Socialization and Theories of Personality.
Unit – IV : Case work – Concept, Objectives and Principles. - Social Case Work Process – Intake,
Study, Social Diagnosis, Treatment, Termination and Evaluation. - Approaches in Case Work –
Psychoanalytical, Psycho Social, Problem Solving, Behaviour Modification, Crisis Intervention, Eclectic
Approach. - Techniques and skills in Social Case Work: - Interviews, Home visit, Resource Mobilization,
Referral, Environmental Modification, Case Work Relationship, Communication, Types of Recordings
in Case Work. - Role of Social Case Worker in Various Settings.
Unit – V.: Concept of Group Work – Assumptions, Definition and Goals of Group Work. - Principles,
Skills and Values of Social Group Work.- Stages of Group Development and Use of Programmes for
Group Development: Orientation Stage, Working Stage, Termination Stage, Programme Planning,
Implementation and Evaluation. - Study of Group Process – Group Dynamics, Member’s behavior,
Leadership and Role of the Worker in Various Settings. - Approaches and Models in Group Work
Practice – Therapeutic / Social Treatment. Development Group and Task – oriented Group.
Unit – VI : Concept, Principles and Objectives of Community Organization.- Approaches in Community
Organisation – Models, Strategies and Role of Social Work in each of the Approaches. - Community
Development and Community Organization. - Social Action in Community Organization – Concept,
Purpose and Techniques. - Community Organization as a Para – Political Process – Networking,
Conscientisation, Planning and Organizing, Roles and Strategies of Social movements – Types and
Roles of NGOs.Unit – VII : Definition, Nature, Scope and purposes of Social Work Research. -
Research Designs, Types and Methods. - Steps in Social Work Research-Problem Formulation,
Operationalisation of Variables, Sampling, Tools and Techniques of Data Collection, Date Analysis
and Report Writiong. - Role and Responsibilities of the Researcher. Statistics – its use and limitation
in Social Work Research (measures of central tendency, chi-square test, correlation).
Unit-VIII : Social Policy – Concept and Scope, Distinction between Social and Economic Policies,
Place of Ideology and Values. - Evolution of Social Policy in India; Review of Major Policies and
Programmes, Viz., Education, Health, Shelter, Environment, Social Security, Employment, Family,
Child, Women and Youth Welfare, Welfare of the Weaker Sections, Elderly and Disabled. -
Characteristics of Social Welfare Organisations – Size, Nature, Design, Legal Status, Rules and
Procedure and Overall Policy. - Management of Social Welfare Organisations (Government and
voluntary) – Home relation, Financial relation and physical relation - Programme and Porject
Management – Identity Overall and Specific Needs, Project Formulations, Monitoring and Evaluation,
Recording and Accountability.
Unit-IX : Concept of Social Justice – Its relationship with Social Legislation: Civil Rights; Human
Rights ; and Issues of Social Justice. - Legislations pertaining to Women and Children. - Legislation
Pertaining to Social Defiance, Social Security and Social Assistance. - Legislations pertaining to
people with Disability, the Underprivileged and Health related Legislations. - Role of Social Worker in
promoting Social Legislation and Social Justice.

20
Unit-X: Social Development – Meaning, Concept and Indicators.- Approaches and Strategies – Growth
and Equity, Minimum Needs Quality of Life.- Global Efforts for Human Development, Concept of
Sustainable Development. - Social Work and Social Development. - Problems of Social Development
in India.

TEST NO. 52: SOCIOLOGY: 1. SOCIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS:Nature of sociology: Definition -


Sociological perspective Basic Concepts: Community - Institution – Association – Culture - Norms
and values.
Social structure: Status and role, their interrelationship - Multiple roles, Role set, Status sequence -
Role conflict.
Social Group:Meaning - Types: Primary Secondary, Formal-Informal, Ingroup-Outgroup, Reference
group.
Social Institutions: Marriage – Family – Education – Economy – Polity – Religion.
Socialization: Socialization, Remobilization, Anticipatory socialization, Adult socialization Agencies
of Socialization - Theories of socialization.
Social Stratification: Social differentiation, Hierarchy Inequality - Forms of stratification, Caste, Class,
Gender, Ethnic - Theories of social stratification - Social mobility.
Social change: Concepts and Types: Evolution, Diffusion, Progress, Revolution, Transformation,
Change in structure and change of structure - Theories: Dialectical and Cyclical
2. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORYStructural Theory: Radcliffe Brown - Levi-Strauss.
Functional Theory: Malinowski – Durkheim – Parsons - Merton
Interactionist: Social action: Max Weber, Pareto - Symbolic interactionism: G.H. Mead, Blumer.
Conflict: Karl Marx – Dahrendorf - Coser
3. METHODOLOGYMeaning and Nature of social Research.: Nature of social phenomena - The
scientific method - The problems in the study of social phenomena: Objectivity and subjectivity, fact
and value.
Quantitative Methods: Survey - Research Design and its types – Hypothesis – Sampling - Techniques
of data collection: Observation, Questionnaire, Schedule, Interview.
Qualitative Methods: Participant observation - Case study - Content analysis - Oral History - Life
History.
Statistics in Social Research: Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, Mode - Measures of
dispersion - Correlational analysis Test of significance - Reliability and validity.
4. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES:Socio-cultural: Poverty - Inequality of caste and gender - Regional,
ethnic and religious disharmonies - Family disharmony: (a) Domestic violence (b) Dowry (c) Divorce
- (d) Intergenerational conflict.
Developmental: Population: Theory of population growth - Determinants of population - Population
policy; Problems and perspectives - Regional disparity - Slums - Displacement - Ecological degradation
and environmental pollution Health problems - Sustainable development – ecological and social
Issues Pertaining to Deviance: Deviance and its forms - Crime and delinquency - White collar
crime and corruption - Changing profile of crime and criminals - Drug addiction – Suicide.
Current Debates: Tradition and Modernity in India - Problems of Nation Building: Secularism, Pluralism
and National building
The Challenges of Globalisation: Indianisation of Sociology - Privatisation of Education - Science
and Technology Policy of India.
5. INDIAN SOCIETY CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT : Rural – Urban difference - Rurbanism,
Regionalism, sub- Regionalism - Peasant studies - Jajmani system and Jajmani relations - Pandchayat
before and after 73rd Amendment - Agrarian unrest and Peasant movements Trends of changes in
rural society - Factors of change Industrial Relations: Changing labour –management relations -
Workers participation in management (joint Management Councils)Quality circles - Impact of
industrialization on family education and stratification.
Paths of Development: Modernization, Globalisation, Gandhian.
Gender and society: Theories of Gender Relations - Effect of development policies on gender
relations - Women and development in India.

21
TEST NO.53: TELUGU: ¶Ð?7!™7XՔF¯Ã@ɶÃ9 ”s©V£És e XՔZ?7C_VG£ ° V£ É_X”Õ HÉs e XՔZ?7
¶Ã©l H9”V£?Ñ 7C\r@ÉE¯¶r?7És eXՔZ?ß­¶Ð?7!™7N¯~TCXÕg!¥>¡…!“G@9”l7¿ XՔZ?7És eXՔF¯
?¡…'n ”?7bÉÕHl 77¶Ð?7!™7¶ÐT7!™7_s?_¼•7ž_3 V¥©¶ÃÑ s?7C\r^Î\r_ Ñ ¶Ð?7!™7ß­É!“aÕ¡… HH9Æ@¡…;Ê?· 7?7
CuV£©ÃTx¶Ã°¾Ñ¡“N¯?7bÕ7l u¡…ÉE¯H¸'Ρ… ¶Ð?7!™7XՔF¯CbH;ڍ¡…¶à QV£¨ _@'”H7
¶Ð?7!™7N¯9 ”¶ÃÃ@ɶÃ\rªjMÃ7N¯V£G© ¶ÃN¯9 ”¶Ã;ÚX”¨Vr¨?7CN¯9 ”¶ÃÃ@ɶÃG©V£¸_G©XՔ\r?7 QՍl MÃ7TC
_¶¨l 7à ?7  C  ¡“ß”T7GV'£   r@ɶà ¶Ã7?+r¶Ãj¡… _¶¨l 7à ?7TTwMÃ7 ¡…¶r ‘¶Ã7?7 C bUjMÃ7¶Ã C MÃ77!™
ÉE¯H77.E¯?7º@¡ÎNàH7+rÕ7l u¡…q¶Ã7?G07¡…n CH¸V£= ݇HG7Ñ ¡…¶Ã?G©V£¸_C&”T7¶ÐT7!™7CG©XՔH¾¡…ºT
GH7T©MÃ7lqZ  ž 9”@9”V£+rÕ¶l ¶Ã ©Ñà C¾¡…ºT¡…q¶Ã7?G07¡…n C¡…¶r‘¶Ã7?7CbUjMÃ7¶Ã+rÃTNàH7+rÕ7l u¡…q¾
G07¡…n CPÉV£TNàH7T?¡…¶r¶rV£¶Hà 7¡…qZHt ¸rV£7?7 G 9”²@TV£9” @HÃ+r?7 O+rÕ7l u¡…q¶Ã7?
G07¡…n C+ÐZ·  sÕ É%Õ¡V… '£ _¾¿lÕ C¡…¶r‘¶Ã7?7CbUjMÃ7¶ÃEà¶ÃT¡…q¶Ã7?7CG07¡…n !|V£T 9”@;ڮɥN¯8”T
ª¡…ºT É¡…H¸V£ºÃ@ɶà QT¶rH¸¶Ã7 e7 XÕ­ªVr-MÃ7 QTwH7MÃ7C\ÝH7T?N¯H¸}¡…GGºV£'
lq¡…°Õl VrMÃ7?MÃ77!™ C CÉ_mÕl MÃ77!™CÉ_mÕl ?¡…'n ”?7QZž a!™ª= ¡…H¼?_@ÃM7à 
¡…H¼?7O¡…qZt ÝHVrMÃ7?7 bMÃ77¡…HÑ ¸?l Q?„N¯u{_lT¿  H7T7Ã@ɶà Ta¾H7jT E¯@&”¶r_9” V£' 
Õ¸l V£^Š Î O¡“ÀÚ9” Gµ;Ñ ©Ú V£H79Æ¶Ãj H¸lM7à !“@H7?„T Vrª;Ä.V£Ã@ɶà QMÃ7?Vr(VrH7XÕÉf l7 e7
VrH¸XÕ7f lM7à  VrH7VrªXÕ¸f Z'7 e7 HG7Ã@ɶà _ !™>G¸V£T ¡…À”_3V¥tM l 7à É_X”Õ HUÉ_7l H7w 
¶Ð+r VrH7¡…qZ‰ t 7e  E¯ e7V£!™H79Æ¶Ãj G§…vN¯?TqG 9”¡… ¡…¡…Vt£ V£N¯MÃ7T Eàuw¡…^ζÐ?!™T
MÃ7Mø¾Ã@ɶà ¡…¡…^Î E¯_Vr( x¶ÃVÑ £ VrH¸MÃ7' V£_7z 7+rÕl +rMÃ7§…v?¡…q¶Ã7?G07¡…n MÃ7¡…!n “T
HÃT¡“HÉ_É¡ÎM7à ?_¼•7ž¡… C¡“Gl¡'nÎ ”ÉÕl MÃ77!™ d¶ÃV£ ¡…H¼?7V£!“ªH7j H7+rwV£7sG ߔG
+r•¡… H77l7_¿ À uÚ  VraÕ¡“N¯¶Ã©T GH77.\С…•¡…qZ_t ° +rMÃ7§…v e7 &«· 7ÜXՔV£¶à CHÃT
É_mÕl !¥!™7?E¯^Χ…/V£j+rÕl ¡… +rV£G  9”;Ú¶¡Ã … ¡“G7?_¼V£7Fà¶ÃHÑ 7¡… bÉÕl +rMÃ7¡…;Ú¶¡Ã … C
E¯;È®¶Ã7?\rYjMÃ7GHÉ_¶Ý ¡ÎœG _ ÉXg+p
&”T_l&”ÅTCN¯H¸}¡…¶à CN¯9 ”¶Ã&”T_  l &”ÅTuV£©ÃTC?¡…'n ”?7H‘=¡V… '£ b•É!“07'
+r!™@¡…&”Å+r?¶rV£¶Hà ¸?7E¯;È®¶Ã7?&”T_l &”ÅT¡…qZ bÉÕ7l ?&”T_l &”ÅT¡…qZ &”T_l N¯9 ”¶Ã
C?¡…'n ”?7H‘=¡V… '£ baH7A¶ÃC_¼•7ž¡… C¡“GÉ;È7¡…!› Mø?7CÉGµ?Ñ ›!Mø?7_ ??„ ›!Mø?7C
¡|•7B¡… !› Mø?7;Úq!“V£ !› Mø?7C9ÆG›!Mø?7¡…V7£ 'V£G !› Mø?7CE¯V£H¸@¨¡… !› Mø?7œTw
¡…sš ›!Mø?7CG7XÕÉf lN¯¤VE¯•Q?¸„@Gµ¶rVrH7Vr(E¯•m7 hˆ\Ð!™ÀV¤Ú oˆ E¯•{_l¿ ¡…sš ›!Mø?7C!™!“
\r9”¡…lš X…B´ ¡…lš GVr©V77E¯_u¡…lš ¡…sš ›!MÃ7ÃÉ¡“?7C¡“•H7Vr(¡…?lš 7C;Ú¡ÑÎ ¡l?lš 7N¯\Ð7¶Ã
CuV£©ÃT_¼•7ž¡… ?¡…'n ”?7H‘=¡V… '£ E× e7_¼¡…lš CuV£©ÃT?¡…'n ”?7H‘=¡V… '£ ÉE¯1TN¯9  ÉE¯1TN¯9 ”¶ÃH7V£Ö
G s¨¶r?7CG¸É¶r?7 ɶr?7G9” qlM7à 7 e7CÕl QBÕÉE¯Mø?7¡“H9”¶Ã7H¼?7CÕl QBÕÉE¯Mø?7¡“\r¶Ãj
CÕl b?¡“@§…v?;ÄZ„ ' V£G G s¨¶ÃCBÕTwb?¡“@§…v?H7¶ÃÕ©l uCuV£©ÃTXÕÓ s?7Õ©l TXÕHf
\rs?7
T\rÉÕl ¡…¶Ã©TT\rÉÕ
 l ¡…¶¥©lMÃ79”¶Ã7H¼?7C?¡…'n ”?7CMÃ77!™¡…VÑ£ XՔH¡…¶Ã©uV£©ÃTCÕl
;È.?7a!™mV£ ¡…¶Ã© ?¡…'n ”?7 C Õ¥V£'7?7_H„  ¡…¶Ã© ?¡…'n ”?7 C Õ¥V£'7?7ÉGµ\Ñ rl ¡…¶Ã© G©V£¸_
G©XՔHCBÕTlq¡…°Õs?7l>¶Ã¡…¶Ã©?¡…'n ”?7CG©V£¸_G©XՔ\r?7
N¯H¸T XՔF¯ ;ÈÉGÑXՔZ C uV£©ÃT G©XՔH _¼•7ž¡… ¡“G C G s¨¶r?7 C H¸TH XՔZ§…vTw
É_¶Ý ¡…¶?à 7_V+t£ r¶Ãj¡… Ã@ɶá…  ¶Ã7?+r¶Ãj¡… XՔF¯ ;ÈÉGÑ  C XՔF¯ ;ÈÉGÑ ß­u Õl N¯É_sMø?7XՔZ?
H‘=¡V… '£  C XÕg!¥>¡… H;ÈT7!™7' _sÕ ;ÈT7!™7' XÕªf T C É_sÕ T É__ à XՔF¯ §…v•7X”?7XՔZ?ß­u
bs+r?7Cbs+r?ß­uV£¡“?7CXÕg!¥>¡…N¯Gºq¾¡…Guw9 ”¶Ãbs+r?7
¶Ð?7!™7XՔZß­uQTÝ;ȍ?7HV£t &”ÅT;ÈÉGÑ CÕ©l u&”ÅT;ÈÉGÑ HV£t l©u&”ÅT;ÈÉN¯Ñ?§…vTwXÓlÕ C

22
uV£©ÃT_l &”ÅT;ÈÉGÑ C_s;ÚCG_ s;ÚCuV£©ÃTC_s;È?!™7@Ñ_¼_s;È?V£¡“?7C
+Ð · hG¸É¶r?7\r¡…&”ÅT;ÈÉGÑ C_s;Ú\r¡…+rVrj'_Vr7¶Ã7 wN¯~_  Ã^uÎ ¡Î _¶¨l 7à ?7CGuw9 ”¶Ã
GmÕ7l ?;ÄZ„ ' N¯H¸}¡…XՔF¯;ÈÉGÑ CGH¸ªXՔF¯GmÕl C\ÐM · 7à ¡Î¡Ñ … H¸ e ¡…H¸ e ¡…
XՔZCuV£©ÃTXՔZß­H¸ e ¡“?7#V£° ÝÕsT¡“V£'”?7H¸ e ¡“?H‘=¡V… '£ CÉE¯UMÃ7N¯_z7  ¡…
Hq¾ÑGmaÕCH©H9ÆV£XÕÓ ¡l … V› 8”_^”?¶ÃM¸Ã ‘CH¸ e ¡…GVr9”l7 ¿ w!™7@ÑÕCXՔF¯ÉE¯H¸'ƒ¡V… '£
CÉ_¶Ý ¡Îœ¶Ð?7!™7
TEST NO. 54: PHYSICAL EDUCATION: UNIT-I: Introduction to and definition, aim and aobjectives of
Physical Education and other terms – health education and recreation. - Philosophies of Education
as applied to Physical Education – Idealism, naturalism, Realism, Pragmatism, Existentialism,
Humanism. Biological basis of physical actitity – benefits of exercise, growth and exercise, exercise
and well-being -sex and age characteristics of adolescent, body types. Psychological basis of Physical
Education – Play and Play theories, general principles of growth and development, Principles of
motor – skill acquisition, transfer of training effects. - Sociological basis of Physical Education –
socialization process, social nature of men and physical activity, sports as cultural heritage of mankind,
customs, traditions and sport, competition and cooperation. - Physical Ecuation in ancient Greece,
Rome and Contemporary Germany, Sweden, Denmark and Russia. - Olympic Movement – Historical
development of Ancient and Modern Olympic Games. - Physical Education in India.
UNIT-II: Physiology of Muscular activity, neurotransmission and Movement mechanism. - Physiology
of respiration. - Physiology of blood circulation. - Factors influencing performance in sports. -
Bioenergetics and recovery process. - Athletic injuries – their management and rehabilitation. -
Therapeutic modalities. - Ergogenic aids and doping.
UNIT-III: Joints and their movements – planes and axes. - Kinetics, Kinematics – linear and angular,
levers.- Laws of motion, principles of equilibrium an force, spin and elasticity. - Posture, Postural
deformities and their correction. - Muscular analysis of Motor movement. - Mechanical analysis of
various sports activities. - Mechanical analysis of fundamental movements – (running, jumping,
throwing, pulling and pushing). - Massage manipulation and therapeutic exercises.
UNIT-IV: Learning process – theories and laws of learning. - Motivation, theories and dynamics of
motivation in sports. - Psychological factors affecting sports performance – viz., stress, anxiety, tension
and aggression. - Personality, its dimensions, theories, personality and performance. - Individual
differences and their impact on skill learning and performance. - Group dynamics, team cohesion
and leadership in sports. - Sociometrics, economics and politics in sports. - Media and sports.
UNIT-V: Development of teacher education in Physical Education. - Professional courses in sports
and Physical Education in India. - Professional Ethics. - Qualities and Qualifications of Physical
Educational Personnel. - Principles of curriculum planning. - Course content for academic and
professional courses. - Age characteristics of pupils and selection of activities. - Construction of
class and school Physical -Education time table.
UNIT-VI : Health – Guiding principles of health and health education. - Nutrition and dietary -
anipulations. Health – related fitness, obesity and its management. - Environmental and occupational
hazards and first aid.- Communicable diseases – their preventive and therapeutic aspect. - School
health programme and personal hygiene. - Theories and principles of recreation. - Recreation
programme for various categories of people.
UNIT-VII: Characteristics and principles of sports training. - Training load and periodization. - Training
methods and specific training programme for development of various motor qualities. - Technical and
tactical preparation for sports. - Short-term training plans. - Sports talent identification – process and
procedures. - Preparing for competition – (build up competitions, main competition, competition
frequency, psychological preparation). - Rules of Games and Sports and their interpretations.
UNIT-VIII: Nature, scope and type of research. - Formulation and selection of research problem. -
Sampling – process and techniques. - Methods of research. - Data collection – tools and techniques.
- Statistical techniques of data analysis – measures of central tendency and variability. Correlation,
normal probability curve, t-test and f-tests, chi-square, z-test. - Hypothesis – formulation, types and
testing. - Writing research report.
UNIT-IX: Concept of test, measurement and evaluation. - Principles of measurement and evaluation.-
Construction and classification of tests. - Criteria of test evaluation. - Concepts and assessment of
physical fitness, motor fitness, motor ability and motor educability. - Skill test for Badminton, Basket
ball, Hockey, Lawn-tennis, Soccer, Volley ball. - Testing psychological variables – competitive anxiety,
aggression, team cohesion, motivation, self-concept.- Anthropometric measurements and body
composition.

23
UNIT-X: Concept and principles of management. - Organization and functions of sports bodies. -
Intramurals and Extramurals. - Management of infrastructure, equipments, finance and personnel. -
Methods and Techniques of teaching. - Principles of planning Physical Education lessons. - Pupil –
teacher interaction and relationship. - Concept of techniques of supervision.
TEST NO. 98: HUMAN RIGHTS & DUTIES:
Unit I-Concept of Human Rights – Origin and Historical Development; United Nations and Human
Rights – ICCPR & ICSECR
Unit II-Human Rights in Third World Perspective, Civil, Political, Economic and Social Rights in Pre
and Post constitutional period of India;
Unit III-Mechanism for Human Rights Protection – NHRC; National Commission for Women; The
National Commission for Minorities; The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes.
Unit IV-Indian Society – Historical, Geographical and Ethnic diversity and Social Stratification; Problems
of Indian Rural Society with reference to unemployment, bonded labour and child labour.
Unit V-Concept of weaker Sections – Social Organization of Minorities & weaker Sections; Protection
to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward Classes: Protection of disadvantage groups with
reference to disabled and senior citizens.
Unit VI-Law & Social Justice; Legal Aid as instrument for human rights promotion.
Unit VII-Environmental Education; Sustainable Development; Water Pollution, Air Pollution;
Environmental Protection Act, 1986.
Unit VIII-Social Movements – Religious Reform Movement, Peasant and Agrarian Movement;
Environmental Movements, Women’s movement, Backward sections Movement; NGOS &Human
Rights.
Unit IX-Violence against women; Gender Discrimination, Rape, Prostitution, Dowry, Sexual
Harassment.
Unit X -Meaning and Nature of Social Research; Methods of Social Research; Scientific Method,
hypothesis, Research Design, Sampling, Techniques of Data Collection – Observation, Questionnaire,
Schedule, Interview, Case Study, Content Analysis.

**********

24