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Schedule of Minimum Testing Requirements

Governing Items of Work of the DPWH


Specifications for Highways, Bridges and Airports
(2004 Edition)

For each 500m2 of each layer of compacted fill or


fraction thereof: At least one group of three in situ
density test. The layer shall be placed not exceeding200
mm in loose measurement or based on the result of
compacted trials.

PART C - EARTHWORKS
ITEM 100 CLEARING AND GRUBBING
* This item shall consist of clearing, grubbing, removing
and disposing all vegetation and debris as designated in
the contract.
Tests:
None
ITEM 101 REMOVAL OF STRUCTURES AND
OBSTRUCTIONS
* This item shall consist of the removal wholly or in
part, and satisfactory disposal of all buildings, fences,
structures, old pavements abandoned pipelines, and any
other obstruction which are not designated or permitted
to remain.
Tests:
None
ITEM 102 EXCAVATION
* This item shall consist of roadway, drainage and
borrow excavation and the disposal of materials.
Tests:
Same as for Items 103, 104 and
105, whichever is applicable
ITEM 103 STRUCTURE EXCAVATION
* This item shall consist of the necessary excavation for
foundation of bridges, culverts, under-drains, and other
structures not otherwise provided in the specifications.
If the excavated materials are washed, the volume
involved shall be reported so that quality control
requirements may be adjusted accordingly (submit
Project Engineer Certificate of Waste).
If the excavated materials are incorporated into
the work:
Tests:
For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 P, Plasticity Test (LL, PL, PI)
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test
For every 150 mm in uncompacted depth:
1 D, Field Density
ITEM 104 EMBANKMENT
* This item shall consist of the construction of
embankment.
Tests:
For every 1,500m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 P, Plasticity Test (LL, PL, PI)
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test

ITEM 105 SUBGRADE PREPARATION


* This item shall consist of the preparation of the subgrade for the support of overlying structural layers.
Tests:
Same as for Item 104
ITEM 106 COMPACTION EQUIPMENT AND
DENSITY CONTROL STRIPS
* This item shall be used in determining the density
requirements of selected embankments, sub-grade, bases
and bituminous concrete.
Same as for Items104, 105, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204,
205, 206 and 300
ITEM 107 OVERHAUL
* This item shall consist of authorized hauling in excess
of free-haul distance.
Tests:
None
PART D SUB - BASE AND BASE COURSE
ITEM 200 AGGREGATE SUBBASE COURSE
* This item shall consist of furnishing, placing and
compaction of aggregate sub-base course on a prepared
sub-grade.
Tests:
For every 300 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 P, Plasticity Test (LL, PL, PI)
For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Plasticity and Abrasion)
For every 2,500m3 or fraction thereof:
1 CBR, California Bearing Test
For every layer of 150 mm of compacted depth based on
the result of compaction test trials:
At least one group of three in situ density tests for each
500 m2 or fraction thereof
ITEM 201 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE
* This item shall consist of furnishing, placing, and
compaction of aggregate base course on a prepared subgrade.
Tests:
For every 300 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 P, Plasticity Test (LL, PL, PI)
For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test

1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Plasticity and


Abrasion)
For every 2,500m3 or fraction thereof:
1 CBR, California Bearing Test
For every layer of 150 mm of compacted depth based on
the result of compaction test trials:
At least one group of three in situ density tests for each
500 m2 or fraction thereof
ITEM 202 CRUSHED AGGREGATE BASE
COURSE
* This item shall consist of furnishing, placing, and
compacting crushed gravel, crushed stone or crush rock
on a prepared sub-grade.
Tests:
Same as for Item 201
For every 1,500m3 or fraction thereof:
1 F, Fractured face
ITEM 203 LIME STABILIZED ROAD MIX BASE
COURSE
* This item shall consist of a foundation for surface
course composed of soil aggregate, lime and water in
proper proportions.
Amount of lime to be added:
3 12 mass percent of dry soil aggregates test
Tests:
A. SOIL AGGREGATE
For every 300 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 P, Plasticity Test (LL, PL, PI)
For every1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Plasticity and Abrasion)
B. MIX
For every 300 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test
1 UC, Unconfined Compaction Test
C. COMPACTED BASE COURSE
For every layer of 150 mm compacted depth:
1 D, Field Density Test for every 150 m or fraction
thereof
1 T, Thickness determination fro every 150 m or
fraction thereof
D. HYDRATED LIME
For every 100T or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test
ITEM 204 PORTLAND CEMENT STABILIZED
ROAD MIX BASE COURSE
* This item shall consist of a foundation for surface
course, composed of soil aggregate, Portland cement
and water in proper proportions.
Amount of cement to be added:
6 to 10 mass of dry soil aggregate
Tests:

A. SOIL AGGREGATE
Same as for Item 203
B. CEMENT
1 Q, Quality Test for every 2,000 bags or fraction
thereof
C. WATER
1 Q, Quality Test/Project Engineers Certificate
D. MIX
For every 300 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test
1 UC, Unconfined Compaction Test
1 CBR, California Bearing Ratio
E. COMPACTED BASE COURSE
For every layer of 150 mm compacted depth:
1 D, Field Density Test for every 150 m or fraction
thereof
1 T, Thickness Determination for every 150 m or
fraction thereof
ITEM 205 ASPHALT STABILIZED ROAD MIX
BASE COURSE
* This item shall consist of a foundation for surface
course, composed of soil aggregate and asphaltic
material in proper proportions.
Amount of asphalt to be added:
4 7 mass of dry soil aggregate
Tests:
A.
SOIL AGGREGATE
Same as for Item 203
B.
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
1 Q, Quality Test for every 40T of 200 drums or
fraction thereof
C. MIX
Same as for Item 203
C.
COMPACTED BASE COURSE
Same as for Item 203
ITEM 206 PORTLAND CEMENT STABILIZED
TREATED PLANT MIX BASE COURSE
* This item shall consist of a foundation for surface
course composed of aggregate Portland cement and
water in proper proportion.
Amount of cement to be added:
6 to 10 mass of dry soil aggregate
Tests:
A. SOIL AGGREGATE
Same as for Item 203
B. PORTLAND CEMENT
For every 2,000 bags or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test
C. MIX
Same as for Item 204
D. WATER
1 Q, Quality Test/Project Engineers Certificate
E. COMPACTED BASE COURSE

For every layer of 150 mm compacted depth:


1 D, Field Density Test for every 150 m or
fraction thereof
1 T, Thickness Determination for every 150 m
or fraction thereof
ITEM 207 AGGREGATE STOCKPILE
* This item shall furnishing and placing aggregate in
stockpiles at locations.
Tests:
Same as the specified Item No. of the Specification
PART E SURFACE COURSES
ITEM 300 AGGREGATE SURFACE COURSE
* This item shall consist of wearing of top course
composed of gravel or crushed aggregate and other
binder material.
Tests:
For every 300 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 P, Plasticity Test (LL, PL, PI)
For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Plasticity and
Abrasion)
For every layer of 150 mm of compacted depth based on
the result of compaction test trials:
At least one group of three in situ density tests for each
500 m2 or fraction thereof
For crushed gravel or crushed stone 1,500 m 3 or fraction
thereof:
1 F, Fractured face
ITEM 301 BITUMINOUS PRIME COAT
* This item shall consist of preparing and treating an
aggregate base course.
Quantity:
1 to 2 L/m2
Test: 1 Q, Quality Test for every 40T or 200 drums
ITEM 302 BITUMINOUS TACKCOAT
* This item shall consist of preparing and treating an
existing bituminous or cement concrete with bituminous
material.
Quantity:
0.2 to 0.7 L/m2
Test:
1 Q, Quality Test for every 40T or 200 drums
ITEM 303 BITUMINOUS SEAL COAT
* This item shall consist of an application of bituminous
material with or w/o an application of aggregate on an
existing bituminous surface course.
A. BITUMINOUS MATERIALS

Quantity:
0.2 to 1.5 L/m2
Test:
1 Q, Quality Test for every 40T or 200 drums
B. COVER AGGREGATES
Quantity:
5 to 14 kg/m2
Test:
For every 75 m3/200 kg or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
ITEM
304

BITUMINOUS
SURFACE
TREATMENT
* This item shall consist of either a single application of
bituminous materials followed by a single spreading of
aggregate (single surface treatment) or two applications
bituminous material each followed.
A. AGGREGATES
Quantity:
13.6 to 38 kg/m2 if using cut back asphalt or
asphalt cement
13.6 to 19.04 kg/m2 if using emulsified asphalt
Tests:
For every 75 m3/200 kg or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 P, Plasticity Test (LL, PI)
For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Plasticity and
Abrasion)
For every 1,500m3 or fraction thereof:
1 F, Fractured Face
B. BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
Quantity:
1.58 to 2.04 L/m2 if using cut back asphalt or
asphalt cement
1.58 to 2.04 L/m2 if using emulsified asphalt
ITEM 305 BITUMINOUS PENETRATION
MACADAM PAVEMENT
* This item shall consist of furnishing and placing one
or more aggregate
and one or more application of
bituminous material followed by a seal coat a with cover
aggregate constructed on a prepared base.
A. AGGREGATES
Quantity:
Using Asphalt Cement or Rapid Curing
Emulsified Asphalt
Course (crushed) 80 kg/m2
Key (crushed) 24 kg/m2
Cover (crushed or screened) 8 kg/m2
B. BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
Quantity:
7.2 to 11 L/m2
Test:
Same as for Item 301

ITEM 306 BITUMINOUS ROAD MIX SURFACE


COURSE
* This item shall consist of constructing a bituminous
road mix surface course on a prepared base.
A. AGGREGATES
Tests:
Same as for Item 304
B. BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
Quantity:
Using cut back asphalt 4.5 to 7 mass % of
total dry aggregate
Using emulsified asphalt 6 to 10 mass % of
total dry aggregate
Tests:
Same as for Item 301
C. MIX
Tests:
For every 75 m3/130T or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
1 Ext, Stability Test
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test
D. HYDRATED LIME
Tests:
For every 100T or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test
E. COMPACTED PAVEMENT
Tests:
For each full days operation:
D & T (Density & Thickness Test), at least one (1) but
not more than three (3) samples shall be taken
ITEM 307 BITUMINOUS PLANT MIX
SURFACE COURSE GENERAL
* This item includes general requirements that are
applicable to all type of bituminous surface courses
irrespective of gradation of aggregate or kind and
amount of bituminous material.
A. AGGREGATE
Tests:
For every 75 m3/200T or fraction thereof:
1 G & P, Grading & Plasticity Tests
For every 1,500m3 or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Plasticity and
Abrasion, Stripping and Bulk specific gravity)
1 F, Fractured face
B. BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
Quantity:
5 to 8 mass percent of total dry aggregates
Tests:
1 Q, Quality Test for each 40T or 200
drums or fraction thereof
C. MIX
Tests:
For every 75 m3/130T or fraction thereof:

1 G. Grading Test
1 Ext, Stability Test
1 C, Laboratory Compaction Test
D. HYDRATED LIME
Tests:
For every 100T or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test
E. MINERAL FILLER
Tests:
For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G & P, Grading & Plasticity Tests (LL, PL,
PI)
F. COMPACTED PAVEMENT
Tests:
For each full days operation:
D & T (Density & Thickness Test), at least one
(1) but not more than three (3) samples shall be taken
ITEM 308 BITUMINOUS PLANT MIX
SURFACE COURSE COLD LAID
* This item shall consist of constructing Bituminous
Surface Course (Asphalt Cold Mix) prepared in central
mixing plant, laid cold on a prepared base.
A. AGGREGATE
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
B. BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
Quantity:
Using cut back asphalt -- 4.5 to 7 mass % of
total dry aggregate
Using emulsified asphalt 6 to 10 mass % of
total dry aggregate
Tests:
1 Q, Quality Test for each 40T or 200 drums
fraction thereof
C. MIX
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
D. HYDRATED LIME
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
E. MINERAL FILLER
Tests:
For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G & P, Grading & Plasticity Tests (LL, PL,
PI)
F. COMPACTED PAVEMENT
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
ITEM 309 BITUMINOUS PLANT MIX
(STOCKPILE MAINTENANCE MIXTURE)
* This item shall consist of a bituminous stockpile
maintenance mixture composed of aggregate, mineral

filler, hydrated lime and bituminous material mixed in a


central plant.
A. AGGREGATE
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
B. BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
Quantity:
4 to 10 mass percent of total mix
Tests:
1 Q, Quality Test for each 40T or 200
drums fraction thereof
C. MIX
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
D. HYDRATED LIME
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
E. MINERAL FILLER
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
F. COMPACTED PAVEMENT
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
ITEM 310 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SURFACE
COURSE HOT LAID
* This item shall consist of constructing a bituminous
concrete surface course composed of aggregate, mineral
filler and bituminous material mixed in a central plant,
constructed and laid hot on prepared base.
A. AGGREGATES
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
B. BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
Quantity:
5 to 8 mass percent of total mix
Tests:
1 Q, Quality Test for each 40T or 200 drums
fraction thereof
C. MIX
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
D. HYDRATED LIME
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
E. MINERAL FILLER
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
F. COMPACTED PAVEMENT
Tests:
Same as for Item 307
ITEM 311 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE
PAVEMENT

* This item shall consist of pavement of Portland cement


concrete, with or without reinforcement, constructed on
the prepared base.
A. CEMENT
Quantity:
9.0 bags/m3 (40 kg/bag)
Test:
For every 2,000 bags or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test
B. FINE AGGREGATE
Quantity:
0.50 m2/m3 concrete if using rounded course
aggregate 0.54 m2/m3 concrete if using angular or
crushed coarse aggregate
Tests:
For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:
a.)
For a source not yet tested
or failed in previous quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Elutriation wash, Bulk
Specific Gravity, Absorption, Mortar Strength,
Soundness, Organic Impurities, Unit Weight, % clay
lumps and % shale)
b.) For a source previously tested and passed quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Elutriation wash, Bulk
Specific Gravity, Absorption, Mortar Strength)
For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
C. COURSE AGGREGATE
Quantity:
0.77 m2/m3 concrete if using rounded coarse aggregate
0.68 m2/m3 concrete
if using angular or crushed
coarse aggregate
Tests:
For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:
a.) For a source not yet tested or failed in previous
quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Bulk Specific Gravity,
Absorption, Abrasion, Soundness and Unit Weight)
b.) For a source previously tested and passed quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Bulk Specific Gravity,
Absorption and Abrasion)
For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
D. WATER
Test:
1 Certificate from Project Engineer or 1 Q,
Quality Test if source is questionable
E. JOINT FILLER
1. Poured joint filler
Test:
1 Q, Quality Test on each type of ingredient
for each shipment
2. Pre molded joint filler
Test:

1 Q, Quality Test on each thickness of filler for each


shipment
F. SPECIAL CURING AGENTS
Test:
1 Q, Quality Test for each shipment
G. STEEL BARS
Test:
For every 10,000 kg or fraction thereof for each
size:
1 Q, Quality Test (Bending, Tension and Quality
Analysis)
H. CONCRETE
Flexural Strength Test on concrete beam samples:
1 Set consisting of 3 beam samples shall represent a
330 m2 of pavement, 230 mm depth or fraction thereof
placed each day
Volume of concrete not more than 75 m3
I. COMPLETED PAVEMENT
Thickness determination by concrete core drilling on a
lot basis
Five (5) holes per km per lane or five (5) holes per 500
m when two (2) lanes are poured concurrently
PART F BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION
ITEM 400 - PILING
* This item shall consist of piling, furnished, driven or
placed, cut and spliced.
A. TIMBER PILES
1 Inspection Report for each size and shipment of
timber
B. CONCRETE PILES
a.) Concrete
Test: Same as for Item 405
b.) Reinforcing Steel
Test: Same as for Item 404
C. STRUCTURAL PILES
1 IR, inspection Report
1 Q, Quality Test or Mill Test Certificate
ITEM 401 RAILINGS
* This item shall consist of furnishing, fabricating or
placing, for bridges and other structures of the material
of combination of materials.
A. CONCRETE
Test:
Same as for Item 405, Class C
B. REINFORCING STEEL
Test:
Same as for Item 404

ITEM 402 TIMBER STRUCTURES


* This item shall consist of construction of timber
structures to the dimensions, lines and grades as shown
on the plans.
Tests:
1 Q, Quality Test or Manufacturers Certificate for
each type of material used
1 IR, Inspection Report for each type and shipment of
timber
ITEM 403 METAL STRUCTURES
* This work shall consist of steel structures portions of
composite structures, constructed in reasonably close
conformity with the lines, grades and dimension.
Tests:
1 Q, Quality Test or Manufacturers Certificate for
each type of material used
1 IR, Inspection Report for each type and shipment of
metal
ITEM 404 REINFORCING STEEL
* This item shall consist of furnishing, bending,
fabricating and placing of steel reinforcement of the
type, size, shape and grade required.
A. BAR REINFORCEMENT FOR CONCRETE
Test:
For every 10,000 kg or fraction thereof for each
size:
1 Q, Quality Test (Bending, Tension and Quality
Analysis)
B. WIRE AND WIRE MESH
Test:
1 Q, Quality Test
ITEM 405 STRUCTURAL CONCRETE
* This item shall consist of furnishing, bending, and
placing and finishing concrete in all structures except
pavements.
A. CEMENT
Quantity: (40 kg/bag)
Class A 9 bags/m3 of concrete 3,000 psi/20.7 MPa
Class B 8 bags/m3 of concrete 2,400 psi/16.4 MPa
Class C 9.5 bags/m3 of concrete 3,000 psi/20.7 MPa
Class P 11 bags/m3 of concrete 5,000 psi/20.7 MPa
Class Seal 9.5 bags/m3 of concrete 3,000 psi/20.7 MPa
Test:
For every 2,000 bags or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test
B. FINE AGGREGATES
Quantity:
ROUNDED
ANGULAR/CRUSHED
Class A 0.50 0.54 m2/m3 of concrete
Class B
0.45
0.52 m2/m3 of concrete

Class C
0.59 m2/m3 of concrete
Class P
0.47 m2/m3 of concrete

0.53
0.44

Test:
For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:
a.) For a source not yet tested or failed in previous
quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Elutriation wash, Bulk
Specific Gravity, Absorption, Mortar Strength,
Soundness, Organic Impurities, Unit Weight, % clay
lumps and % shale)
b.) For a source previously tested and passed quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Elutriation wash, Bulk
Specific Gravity, Absorption, Mortar Strength)
For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
C. COARSE AGGREGATES
Quantity:
ROUNDED
ANGULAR/CRUSHED
Class A
0.77
0.68 m2/m3 of concrete
Class B
0.82
0.73 m2/m3 of concrete
Class C
0.70
0.66 m2/m3 of concrete
Class P
0.56
0.65 m2/m3 of concrete
Test:
For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:
a.) For a source not yet tested or failed in previous
quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Bulk Specific Gravity,
Absorption, Abrasion, Soundness and Unit Weight)
b.) For a source previously tested and passed quality test:
1 Q, Quality Test (Grading, Bulk Specific Gravity,
Absorption and Abrasion)
For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
1 G, Grading Test
D. WATER
Tests:
1 Certificate from Project Engineer or 1 Q, Quality
Test if source is questionable
E. PRE MOLDED FILLER FOR
EXPANSION JOINTS
Test:
1 Q, Quality Test on each thickness of filler for
each shipment
F. STEEL REINFORCEMENT
Test:
For every 10,000 kg or fraction thereof for each size:

1 Q, Quality Test (Bending, Tension and Quality


Analysis)
G. CONCRETE
Compressive Strength Test on concrete cylinder samples,
one (1) set consisting three (3) concrete cylinder samples
shall be taken from each days pouring and to represent
not more than 75 m3 of concrete or fraction thereof
ITEM 406 PRE STRESSED CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
* This item shall consist of pre-stressed concrete
structures and the pre-stressed concrete portions of
composite structures.
A. CONCRETE
Tests:
Same as for Item 405, Class P
B. STEEL REINFORCEMENT
Test:
Same as for Item 404
C. WIRE STRAND
Test:
1 Q, Quality Test for every 20T or fraction thereof
ITEM 407 CONCRETE STRUCTURES
*This item shall consist of the general description of the
materials, equipment, workmanship and construction
requirements of concrete structures and the concrete
portions of composite structures.
Tests:
Same as for Items 403, 404 and 411
Elastometric Bearing Pads will be tested to determine its
quality
ITEM 408 STEEL BRIDGES
* This item shall consist of construction of steel
structure conforming to the lines, grades, dimension and
designs.
Tests:
Same as for Item 403 and 411
Painting:
1 Q, One 20 L can for every 100 cans or
fraction thereof
1 Q, One 4 L can for every 100 cans or
fraction thereof
ITEM 409 WELDED STRUCTURAL STEEL
* This work shall consist of the joining of structural
steel members with welds of the type.
Test:
Same as for 403 and Inspection Report
ITEM 410
TIMBER

TREATED

AND

UNTREATED

* This item shall consist of structural timber of the


specie size called on the plans either treated or
untreated as called for in the proposal.
Test:
1 IR, Inspection report
1 Q, Quality Test for preservatives
ITEM 411 PAINT
* This item shall consist of furnishing and applying all
paint materials including vehicles, pigments, pastes,
dryers, thinners, and mixed paints for steel and wooden
structures.
Test:
1 Q, One 20 L can for every 100 cans or
fraction thereof
1 Q, One 4 L can for every 100 cans or
fraction thereof
ITEM 412 ELASTOMETRIC BEARING PADS
*This item shall consist of the requirement for
elastomeric bearing pads whose main function is to
transfer loads or accommodate relative movement
between a bridge superstructure and its supporting
structures
ITEM 413 PRE MOLDED JOINT FILLER FOR
CONCRETE
PAVING AND
STRUCTURAL
CONCRETE
* Preformed sponge rubber and rock expansion joint
filler for concrete paving and structural construction.
PART G DRAINAGE AND SLOPE
PROTECTION STRUCTURES

* This item shall consist of constructing under drains,


using pipe and granular filter materials, under drain
pipe outlets, and blind drain using granular materials.
A. CONCRETE PIPE (NON
REINFORCED)
Test:
Quality Test for 0.5% of the number of pipes for
each size but not less than two (2) for Strength,
Absorption and Dimension
Alternative requirements:
1. Compressive Strength for one (1) set
consisting of three (3) concrete cylinder samples for not
more than twenty five (25) pipe cast in the field
2. Inspection Report for each size for not more
than twenty five (25) pipes cast in the field
B. CLAY PIPE
Test:
Quality Test for one (1) pipe for every 200
pieces of each size, with a minimum number of two (2)
specimens for Strength, Absorption and Dimension
ITEM 502 MANHOLES, INLETS AND
CATCHBASINS
* This item shall consist of the construction,
reconstruction or adjustment of manholes, inlets, and
catch basins.
A. CONCRETE
Test:
Same as for Item 405, Class A
B. LIDS, CAST IRON FRAMES AND
GRATING
Test:
Inspection Report

ITEM 503 DRAINAGE STEEL GRATING WITH


ITEM
500

PIPE
CULVERTS
AND
FRAME
STORMDRAINS
* The steel frame clear openings of drainage grates
* This item shall consist of the construction or
shall be 15 mm larger than nominal sizes of industry
reconstruction of pipe culverts and storm drains.
standard sized pits.
A. PIPES
Test:
ITEM 504 CLEANING AND RECONDITIONING
1 Q, Quality Test for one (1) pipe for every 50
OF EXISTING DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
pieces (Strength, Absorption and Dimension)
* This item shall consist of cleaning and reconditioning
Alternative Requirements:
existing pipes and appurtenant structures.
1. Compressive Strength for one (1) set
Test:
consisting of three (3) concrete cylinder samples for not
Inspection Report
more than twenty five (25) pipe cast in the field
2. Inspection Report for each size for notITEM
more 505 RIPRAP AND GROUTED RIPRAP
than twenty five (25) pipes cast in the field
* This item shall consist of the furnishing and placing
B. MORTAR AND JOINT FILLER
riprap with or without grout as the case maybe, with or
Cement, fine aggregates and water:
without filter backing.
Test:
Test:
Same as for Item 405
Same as for Item 506
(Cement Aggregate ratio = 1:3)
ITEM 501 UNDERDRAINS

ITEM 506 STONE MASONRY


Test:
* This item shall consist of stone masonry of minor
Same as for Item 200
structures, in headwalls for culverts, in retaining walls
B. STEEL REINFORCEMENT
at the toes of slopes.
Test:
A. CEMENT
Same as for Item 404
Quantity:
C. CONCRETE
2 bags/m3 of concrete
Test:
Test:
Same as for Item 405
For every 2,000 bags or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test
ITEM 511 GABIONS
(Cement Aggregate ratio = 1:2)
* This item shall consist of furnishing, forming wire
B. FINE AGGREGATE
mesh baskets, and placing rocks installed at the location
Quantity:
designated.
0.17 m2/m3 of concrete
Test:
Test:
1 Q, Quality Test for each shipment
3
For every 1,500 m or fraction thereof:
1 Q, Quality Test (same as for Item 405)
For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:
PART H MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES
1 G, Grading Test
C. STONE
Test:
ITEM 600 CURB AND GUTTER
Inspection Report
* This item shall construction of curb and gutter either
D. WATER
pre-cast of cast - in place made of concrete.
Test:
A. CONCRETE
1 Certificate from Project Engineer or 1 Q, Quality
Quantity:
Test if source is questionable
0.078 m3/m (curb only)
ITEM 507 RUBBLE CONCRETE
0.092 m3/m (curb and gutter, Type A)
* This item shall consist of construction of rubble
0.145 m3/m (curb and gutter, Type B)
concrete.
0.074 m3/m (curb and gutter, Type C)
Test:
ITEM 508 HAND LAID ROCK EMBANKMENT
Same as for Item 405
* This item shall consist of hand-laid rock embankment.
B. JOINT FILLER
Test:
Test:
Inspection Report
Same as for Item 311
ITEM 509 SHEET PILES
* This item shall consist of furnishing, driving cutting off
of sheet pile.
A. TIMBER SHEET PILES
Test:
Inspection Report
B. CONCRETE SHEET PILES
Test:
Same as for Item 400
C. STEEL SHEET PILES
Test:
Same as for Item 403
ITEM 510 CONCRETE SLOPE PROTECTION
* This item shall consist of furnishing and placing of
concrete slope protection including all necessary
excavation, a bed course and reinforced concrete to the
required thickness and extent to protect slope against
erosion.
A. BED COURSE

ITEM 601 SIDEWALK


* This item shall consist of construction of asphalt of
Portland cement concrete sidewalk.
A. CONCRETE
Test:
Same as for Item 405, Class A
B. PRE MOLDED EXPANSION JOINT FILLER
Test:
Same as for Item 311
ITEM 602 MONUMENTS, MARKERS AND
GUIDE POSTS
* This item shall consist of right-of-way monuments,
maintenance marker posts, kilometer posts and/ or
guideposts.
A. CONCRETE
Test:
Same as for Item 405, Class A
B. REINFORCING STEEL
Test:

Same as for Item 404


C. TIMBER
Test:
Same as for Item 410
D. PAINT
Test:
Same as for Item 411
ITEM 603 GUARDRAIL
* This item shall consist of furnishing and constructing
posts and guardrails.
A. STEEL POSTS
Test:
Same as for Item 403
B. TIMBER POSTS
Test:
Same as for Item 410
C. CONCRETE
Test:
Same as for Item 405
D. REINFORCING STEEL
Test:
Same as for Item 404
E. RAIL
Test:
Inspection Report
F. PAINT
Test:
Same as for Item 411
ITEM 604 FENCING
* This item shall consist of furnishing and constructing
of post and barb wire or chain link fences.
A. BARB WIRE, CHAIN LINK FABRIC
Test:
1 Q, Quality Test
B. CONCRETE POSTS
Test:
Same as for Item 405
C. STEEL REINFORCEMENT
Test:
Same as for Item 404

ITEM 607 REFLECTIVE PAVEMENT STUDS


* This item shall consist of furnishing and installing
reflective pavement studs on the surface of the
pavement.
Test:
Inspection Report
ITEM 608 TOPSOIL
* This consists of topsoil furnished, transported and
spread, or topsoil removed from designated areas, haul
and spread.
Test:
Inspection Report
ITEM 609 SPRIGGING
* This item consists of planting sprigs of living grass
plants.
Test:
Inspection Report
ITEM 610 SODDING
* This item shall consist of furnishing and laying of live
sod on the shoulders, slopes, ditches, or other locations
as designated, construction of sod ditch checks or
similar appurtenances.
Test:
Inspection Report
ITEM 611 TREE PLANTING
* This item shall consist of furnishing and planting
deciduous shade, flowering trees evergreen trees less
than 150 mm diameter on the areas.
Test:
Inspection Report
ITEM 612 REFLECTIVE THERMOPLASTIC
STRIPPING
* This item shall be applied to the road surface in a
molten state by mechanical means with surface
application glass beads at a rate not less than 350g/L.
PART I MATERIALS DETAILS

ITEM 605 ROAD SIGN


* This item shall consist of furnishing and installing
road signs.
Test:
Inspection Report
ITEM 606 PAVEMENT MARKINGS
* This item shall consist of placing markings of the
finished pavement.
Test:
Same as for Item 411

ITEM 700 HYDRATED CEMENT


Test:
Same as for Item 405
ITEM
701
(HYDRATED)
Test:

CONSTRUCTION

LIME

1 Q, Quality Test for every 100T or


fraction thereof

10

ITEM 702 BITUMINOUS MATERIALS


Test:
Same as for Items 301, 302, 303, 306, 307, 308,
309 and 310
ITEM 703 AGGREGATES
Test:
Same as for item of work in the Bill of
Quantities
ITEM 703A MINERAL FILLER
* This item shall consist of finely divided material
mineral matter such as rock dust, slug dust, hydrated
lime, hydraulic cement, fly ash or other suitable mineral
matter.
Test:
Same as for Item 307

Test:
Same as for Item 404
B.WIRE ROPE
Test:
Same as for Item 406
ITEM 711 FENCE AND GUARDRAIL
A. FENCE
Test:
Same as for Item 604
B. GUARDRAIL
Test:
Same as for Item 603
ITEM 712 STRUCTURAL METAL
Test:
Same as for Items 403 and 406

ITEM 704 MASONRY UNITS


Test:
1 Q, Quality Test for every 10,000
units or fraction thereof

ITEM 713
TIMBER
Test:

ITEM 705 JOINT MATERIALS


Test:
Same as for Items 311 and 500

ITEM 714 WATER


Test:
Certificate from Project Engineer or 1 Q, Quality Test,
if source is questionable

ITEM 706 CONCRETE, CLAY, PLASTIC AND


FIBER PIPES
A. CONCRETE
Test:
Same as for Item 500
B. CLAY AND OTHER TYPE OF PIPES
Test:
Refer to applicable requirements of
AASHTO Test and Specs

TREATED

AND

UNTREATED

Same as for Item 410

ITEM 715 GEOTEXTILES


* This item covers geotextiles fabric for use in
subsurface drainage, hydraulic filter, erosion control,
sediment control, pavement superstructures as a water
proofing and stress relieving membrane, and as
permeable separator to prevent mixing of dissimilar
materials.

ITEM 707 METAL PIPE


Test:
Same as for Item 400
ITEM 708 CONCRETE CURING MATERIALS
AND ADMIXTURE
* This item specifies the classification, sampling, testing,
packing and marking of concrete admixtures.
Test:
1 Q, Quality Test for each shipment
ITEM 709 PAINTS
Test:
Same as for Item 411
ITEM 710 REINFORCING STEEL AND WIRE
ROPE
A. REINFORCING STEEL

11

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBMISSION OF SAMPLES


MATERIALS

MNIMUM TESTING
REQUIREMENTS

1. Cement

1 sample per 2000 bags


1 sample per 40T or 200
drums
1 sample per 130T
1 sample per 1,500 m3

2. Asphaltic material
3. Aspahlt mix
4. Aggregates
a. coarse aggregate
b. fine aggregate
5. Soil aggregates
a. Classification
b. Routinary tests
c. MDR test and CBR
6. Non Reinforced Concrete Pipes
7. Reinforced Concrete Pipes
8.Steel pipe (galvanized)
9. Concrete hollow blocks (CHB)
a. strength
b. moisture content
10. Steel bar
11. Steel sheet (galvanized)
12. Wire strand
13. Gabion
14. Paints
15. Joint filler (pre molded)
16. Curing compound
17. Concrete cylinder
18. Concrete beam
19. Concrete core
20. Asphalt core
21. Water
a. Chemical analysis
b. Sediment load analysis
22. Structural steel/sheet
23. Hydrated lime

MINIMUM
QUANTITY/VOLUME OF
MATERIALS FOR EACH
SAMPLE SUBMITTED
10 kg
5L
20 kg
70 kg
50 kg

1 sample per 1,500 m3


20 kg
50 kg
50 kg
2 pipes min./0.5% of no. of
pipes
1 sample per 50 pipes or 2%
of # of pipes
1 sample per 500 lengths

2 pipes
1 pipe (1 m length)
2 pcs Of 100 mm long taken from
both ends w/ thread

1 sample per 10,000 units


1 sample per 10T
1 sample per 100 sheets
1 sample per 20T
1 sample per 100 cans
1 sample per 75 m3
1 sample per 75 m3 or 1 day
pouring
5 holes for every km/lane
1 core for every 100m

3 units
3 units
1m
3 pcs 60mm x 60mm
2m
1m x 2m
1 - 4L can
1 400mm x 400mm
1L
1 set (3 cylinders)
1 set (3 cylinders)

500 ml
500 ml
1 sample per 50T
1 sample per 100T

Reduced section as prescribed

12

COMPOSITION AND STRENGTH OF CONCRETE FOR USE IN STRUCTURE


Class of
concrete

Minimum
cement
content per
cu. m

Maximum
water
cement ratio

kg (bags)

kg/kg

360 (9)

0.53

320 (8.5)

0.58

380 (9.5)

0.55

440 (11)

0.49

Seal

380 (9.5)

0.58

Consistency
range in
slump

Designated
size of coarse
aggregate

mm (inch)

square
opening
std. mm

50 -100 (2
4)
50 -100 (2
4)
50 -100 (2
4)
100 max ( 4
max)
100 200 (4
8)

37. 5 4.75
(1 - No. 4)
50.0 4.75 (2
- No. 4)
12. 5 4.75
( - No. 4)
19.0 4.75
(3/4 - No. 4)
25.0 4.75 (1
- No. 4)

Minimum
compressive
strength of
150mm x
300mm
concrete
cylinder @ 28
days
MN/m2 (psi)
20.7 (3000)
16.5 (2400)
20.7 (3000)
37. 7 (5000)
20.7 (3000)

PAYMENT ADJUSTMENT FOR PAVEMENT WITH DEFICIENCY IN STRENGTH


Deficiency in strength of concrete pavement
Percent (%)

Percent (%) of
contract price
allowed
100
80
70
60
50
0

Less than 5
5 to less than 10
10 to less than 15
15 to less than 20
20 to less than 25
25 or more

PAYMENT ADJUSTMENT FOR PAVEMENT WITH DEFFICIENCY IN THICKNESS


Deficiency in the
average thickness
per lot(mm)
05
6 10
11 15
16 20
21 25
more than 25

Percent (%) of
contract price
per lot
100
95
85
70
50
removed and replaced (no payment)

COMMON LABORATORY TESTS


Kind of material

Type of test

Cement
Coarse aggregate

Physical and chemical


Grading
Specific gravity
Absorption

Test duration per sample (min.


# of days)
8
3
3
3

13

Abrasion
Unit weight

1
1

Fine aggregate

Grading
Specific gravity
Absorption
Unit weight

3
3
3
1

Soil aggregates mixture


(subbase, base and surfaces
courses

Grading

Liquid limit
Plastic limit
Compaction
CBR
Abrasion

3
3
3
7
1

Asphalt
Paint

Physical
Physical and chemical

4
4

Concrete cylinder

Compressive

Concrete beam

Flexural

Concrete core

Cutting of sample

LIMITATIONS/VARIATIONS
ITEM
104

ITEM
105

ITEM
200

1TEM
201

50% max

50% max

12% max

6% max

6% max

35% max

25% max

25%
max

20mm

10mm

+15mm,
-5mm

+20mm,
-30mm

+10mm,
-20mm

-5mm,
-10mm

+15mm,
-5mm

30mm

20mm

5mm

5mm

0.5%

0.3%

0.2%

+0.2%

Abrasion loss
Plastic index
Liquid limit
Permitted
variation from
design
THICKNESS
OF LAYER
Permitted
variation from
design LEVEL
OF SURFACE
Permitted
surface
irregularity
measured by 3m straight edge
Permitted
variation from
design cross fall
or camber

6%
max
30%
max

ITEM
202
45%
max

ITEM
203

ITEM
300
45% max

4% to
10%

4% to 9%
35% max

14

Permitted
variation from
design
longitudinal
grade over 25m
length
California
Bearing Ratio

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

25% min

80% min

+0.1%

80%
min

100%

80% min

DIMESION OF PILES
Length of pile
less than 12m
12m to 18m
more than 18m

(1m from the butt)


minimum
maximum
300mm
450mm
320mm
450mm
350mm
500mm

Minimum
tip
200mm
180mm
150mm

REMOVAL OF FORMS
Scope of work
Centering under girders,
beams, frames or arches
Floors slabs
Walls
Columns
Sides of beams and all other
vertical surfaces

Minimum time

Minimum % of design
strength

14 days

80%

14 days
1 day
2 days

70%
70%
70%

1 day

70%

SIEVE SIZES
NO. 200
NO. 100
NO. 60
NO.50
NO. 40
NO. 30

0.075mm
0.150mm
0.300mm
0.250mm
0.425mm
0.600mm

NO. 20
NO. 16
NO. 12
NO. 10
NO. 8
NO. 4

0.840mm
1.180mm
1.700mm
2.000mm
2.360mm
4.750mm

DETAILS OF WELDS
Size of fillet weld
Maximum thickness of part
5mm
13mm
6mm
19mm
8mm
32mm
10mm
51mm
13mm
152mm
16mm
152mm and above
MINIMUM LAP FOR SPLICING
Tension
Compression

GRADE 40
24 times bar
20 times bar

GRADE 60
36 times bar
24 times bar

MINERAL FILLER SHALL BE GRADE WITH IN THE FF. LIMITS (703-A)

15

Sieve size
NO. 30
NO. 50
NO. 200

Mass % passing
100
95 100
70 - 100

HYDRATED LIME SHALL CONFORM TO THE FF. REQUIREMENTS (701)


Sieve size
NO. 20
NO. 200

Mass % passing
100
85 - 100

MINIMUM WEIGHT OF SAMPLE FOR MOISTURE CONTENT


Sieve No. (passing)
NO. 40
NO. 10
NO. 4

1
2

Weight
25 grams
50 grams
200 grams
300 grams
500 grams
1000 grams

16

1.

What is the sample for compressive strength


determination of a structural concrete? Answer:
concrete cylinder sample
2.
What is the test to determine the consistency of
concrete?
Ans: Slump test
3.
What is the length required for RSB sample for
quality test?
Ans: 1.0 m/10,000 kg/size/shipment
4.
How many samples should be taken for every 75
cu.m fresh concrete?
Ans: 1 set consist of 3-pcs sample
5.
What is the required size of test specimen for
G.I. sheets?
Ans: 3 pcs-60 mm in 1 sht/100 sheets
6.
What kind of paint that has a reflectance or
beads?
Ans: Reflectorized Paint
7.
What is that construction material that has a
property of being a dark brown to black cementitious
material in which the predominating substance is
bitumen?
Ans: asphalt
8.
For how long or how many hours shall a
bituminous prime coat be left undisturbed?
Ans: 24 hours
9.
What is the rate of application of bituminous
tack coat?
Ans: 0.2 to 0.7 L/sq.m
10. What is the penetration grade of blown asphalt?
Ans: 0 to 30 penetration grade
11. What kind of sample is taken for flexural test?
Ans: Concrete beam sample
12. What are the tests needed for the 2.650 cu.m Item
201 (Aggregate Base Course)?
Ans: CBR, abrasion, GPCD
13. How many grading tests are required for a 3,200
cu.m selected borrow topping (Item 104)?
Ans: 3 grading tests
14. As a materials Engineer, what will you recommend if
you find out that the materials to be used as Item 200 if
finer than the required materials?
Ans: blend Item 200 with coarser materials
15. What is the standard specification for LL and PI of
Item 201?
Ans: maximum of 25% and maximum of 6%
respectively
16. What is the CBR requirement for Item 201?
Ans: 80% minimum
17. What asphalt is used for sealing weaken plane joint
of concrete pavement?
Ans: Blown Asphalt
18. What is Item 311 of the DPWH Specification (Blue
Book)?
Ans: Portland Cement Concrete Pavement

19. What is the machine used for abrasion test?


Ans: Los Angeles Abrasion Machine
20. How to determine the degree of compaction of Items
104, 200, & 201?
Ans: by Field Density Test
21. What is the formula in obtaining the value of PI?
Ans: Liquid Limit minus Plastic Limit
22. What are the other terms for sieve analysis?
Ans: Grading Test, Particle Size Distribution
Test, Mechanical Analysis
23. What is the degree of compaction of the soil if the
wet density is 2,200 kg/m3, with an actual moisture
content of 10.2% and a maximum dry density of 1,960
kg/m3?
Ans: 101.23%
24. How many concrete cores shall be taken for one (1)
kilometer concrete pavement?
Ans: 5 holes/km/lane
25. What is the moisture content of the soil having an
original weight of 162.5 grams and an oven dried
weight of 138.2 grams?
Ans: 17.58%
26. If the group index of a soil is high, what indication
does it mean?
Ans: the soil is clayey
27. As a Materials Engineer, how can you determine that
the sample placed in the oven is already oven dried?
Ans: if the sample reaches its constant weight
28. In oven drying a sample for test, what temperature
shall be maintained?
Ans: 110 5oC
29. Why is it that cooling an oven dried sample before
weighing is advisable?
Ans: because it can affect its weight
30. What is the difference between hygroscopic moisture
content from natural moisture content?
Ans: hygroscopic moisture content is the
moisture content of an air- dried sample while
natural moisture content is the moisture content of
the original sample from the field.
31. For how many bags of cement does a 10 kgs. sample
represents?
Ans: 2000 bags
32. For 15, 000 kgs RSB, how many samples shall be
submitted for Quality Test?
Ans: 2 pcs 1 m sample
33. An admixture is being introduced to the fresh
concrete mixture for heavily reinforced concrete
structure using a pumpcrete to pump out the fresh
concrete mix, what admixture should it be?
Ans: Superplasticizer
34. What is the use of blown asphalt?
Ans: as joint filler and water proofing
35. What asphalt is commonly known as hot asphalt or
penetration grade asphalt?

17

Ans: Asphalt Cement


36. How many days does the sample for Immersion
Compression Test be soaked in water?
Ans: 4 days @ 50 oC
37. If ductility test is for asphalt, _____ is for cement?
consistency
Ans: Magnesium Oxide, Insoluble Residue,
Loss on Ignition
38. Paint is composed of _____
Ans: 35% vehicle, 50% pigment, 15% beads
39. What is the size of tamping rod used in tamping
concrete sample?
Ans: 16 mm and 610 mm long with
hemispherical tip
40. What is the temperature to be maintained when
curing sample after its initial curing?
Ans: 23o C 1.7o C
41. Concrete cylinders are cured and ready for test.
Temperature between 63F to 85F are permitted for a
period not to exceed _____ hours immediately prior to
test if free moisture is maintained on the surface of the
specimen at all times.
Ans: three (3)
42. The molds of specimen not to be transported shall be
removed after initial curing of _____ hours and should
be cured to the standard curing temperature of 73.4 F
3F
Ans: Twenty-four (24)
43. High plasticity index means _____ of a soil?
Ans: high degree of compressibility
44. Sample to be used for liquid limit and plastic limit
tests should pass to what sieve?
Ans: No. 40 (0.425 mm)
45. What compaction rammer shall used if the specs
given for Moisture Density Relation Test (MDR) is T
180?
Ans: 4.54 kg with 457 mm drop
46. A bean mold measuring 6 x 6 x 20 is to be used for
sampling concrete, how many blows/tamps per layer
shall be applied?
Ans: 60 blows/layer
47. If asphalt mix having a weight of 3,020g and an
aggregate weighing 2,865.98g, what is the % asphalt by
weight of mix?
Ans: 5.10%
48. What is the material used for Bituminous Prime
Coat?
Ans: Cut-back asphalt
49. In Item 303, application of cover aggregates shall be
evenly spread over the surface at the rate of
approximately _____?
Ans: 0.004 to 0.007 m3/m2
50. Applying the tolerance of 0.4% for asphalt content to
your answer in prob. 47, what is the acceptable range of
asphalt content?

Ans: 4.7% to 5.5%


51. An embankment having a PI of 30%, LL of 40% and
GI of 0, what is the degree of compaction for this kind of
soil?
Ans: 95% degree of compaction
52. The minimum cement factor for concrete Class A
is 9 bags/cu.m, how about for concrete Class B?
Ans: 8 bags/ cu.m
53. Quality control testing in a DPWH project is the
responsibility of the_____?
Ans: Contractor
54. As Materials Engineer, when is the right time to start
sampling and testing aggregates?
Ans: Once the source is identified
55. The minimum compressive strength for concrete
Class P is 5,000 psi, what is the minimum
compressive strength for concrete Class C?
Ans: 3000 psi
56. The volume of concrete mixer per batch shall not
exceed the mixers nominal capacity in cu.m as shown
on the manufacturers standard plate on the mixer,
except that an overload up to _____ percent above the
mixers nominal capacity may be permitted provided
concrete test data for strength, segregation, and uniform
consistency are satisfactory, and provided that no
spillage of concrete takes place.
Answer: Ten (10)
57. Where do we take additional cores when the
measurement of any core taken from pavement is
deficient in thickness by more than 25 mm?
Answer: at no less than 5 meter intervals
parallel to the centerline in each direction from the
affected location
58. Under what climatic condition do we use lower
penetration grade or hard asphalt?
Answer: hot climate (cold climate higher
penetration grade or soft asphalt)
59. What is the basis for the acceptance or rejection of
any construction material?
Answer: Materials test results/reports
60. Penetration test is for asphalt: cement is to _____?
Answer: consistency
61. Slump test is a very important test in fresh concrete
to determine _____?
Answer: consistency of concrete
62. How many samples should be taken for an asphalt
mix for each full days operation?
Answer: at least one but not to exceed three
samples

18

63. The thickness of asphalt core using a caliper is based


on how many measurements?
Answer: four (4)
64. The thickness of concrete core using a caliper is
based on how many measurements?
Answer: nine (9)
65. Failed samples do not necessarily mean that the
structure it represents is defective, why?
Answer: may be the sampling is incorrect
66. The specification calls for a 1: 2:4 concrete mix. In a
one bagger mixer, which of the following amount of
water is most likely required for the mix?
Answer: 20 liters
67. The spot test on asphalt is used to determine ______.
Answer: overheating during the process of
manufacture
68. How many samples shall be submitted for test if 315
pails of flat wall enamel paint are to be used in the
project?
Answer: four (4) pails
69. Aggregate Sub base course has a volume of 5, 000
cu.m and to be laid in a 15cm compacted depth. How
many samples shall be submitted for CBR test and for
sieve analysis?
Answer: 2 samples for CBR and 17 samples
for sieve analysis
70. How many samples shall be submitted for quality
test if 60 tons of Bituminous Prime Coat is to be used in
the project?
Answer: Two (2) samples
71. How many compaction tests shall be conducted for
Item 201 having a volume of 8,250 cu.m?
Answer: Six (6) compaction tests

Answer: 1 part cement and 2 parts sand by


volume with sufficient water
75. Before the project starts, the materials Engineer or
the technician must have a program on how many
samples for each item of work should be tested based on
the minimum testing requirements. What program or
report is this?
Answer: Quality Control Program
76. If sample splitter is not available for use in reducing
samples for test, what is the alternative way of reducing
sample for testing size?
Answer: apply quartering method and get
two opposite sides as sample
77. The road will not be opened to traffic until test
specimens molded and cured have attained the minimum
strength requirements. If such tests are not conducted
prior to the specified age the pavement shall not be
operated to traffic until _____ days after the concrete
was placed.
Answer: Fourteen (14)
78. As the work progresses, the Materials Engineer
should know how many sample has been submitted and
tested and how many samples are to be submitted, in
other words the ME must refer to what report so that
he/she may be updated on the balance and on file quality
test of the construction materials being used in the
project?
Answer: Status of Test
79. It is the minimum moisture content at which the soil
can be molded without breaking or crumbling up to 1/8
(3.2 mm).
Answer: Plastic Limit
80. The _____ is expressed as the moisture content
corresponding to 25 blows.
Answer: Liquid Limit

72. What composed of Materials Quality Control


Monthly Reports?
Answer: Summary of field tests and status of
test

81. The concrete has been tested for consistency by the


use of a slump cone with base and tamping rod. After the
test, the height of concrete measured is 178 mm. what is
the slump of the concrete?
Answer: 127 mm

73. What is the required mixing of mortar for Item 505


(Stone Masonry)?
Answer: 1 part cement and 2 parts sand by
volume with sufficient water

82. What is the rate of revolution per minute of an


abrasion Machine used for testing the mass percent of
wear?
Answer: 30 33 rpm

74. What is the required mixing of mortar for Item 500


(Pipe Culverts and Storm Drains)?

83. If the design of concrete mix has the following


corrected batch weights: cement = 40 kgs, fine

19

aggregates = 65 kgs, coarse aggregate = 115 kgs, and


water = 15 liters. What is your actual batch weights for 1
cu.m Class A concrete?
Answer: 360 bags of cement; 585 kgs of fine
aggregates; 1035 kgs coarse aggregates; 130 liters
water
84. After the soil has been tested in an Abrasion
Machine, the mass % of wear computed is equal to 21%.
If this material is for Item 201, does it pass the DPWH
specs?
Answer: Yes, because the specs is 50%
maximum
85. Quality Control Assurance Report should be
submitted every _____?
Answer: week
86. One of the duties of Materials Engineer is to see to it
that all the construction materials be tested:
Answer: before it is incorporated into work
87. What is the maximum depth or roadway
embankment per horizontal layer in loose measurement?
Answer: 200 mm loose measurement
88. Why is it that 6 samples are needed for quality test of
concrete masonry?
Answer: 3 samples for compressive strength
and 3 samples for absorption
89. Sample submitted for test should have a tag bearing
the name of the project, the quantity represented, kind of
sample, original source, who sampled and who
submitted it, the date sampled and date submitted and
etc. What is the common name of that tag for you as
Materials Engineer?
Answer: Sample Card
90. If course aggregate like embankment is to be placed
in layers, how many layers should a 40 cm thick
Aggregate Base Course is placed?
Answer: Three (3)
91. The ME should always be alert of his schedule with
regards to the number of days of a quality test that takes
place. Since not all construction materials can be tested
just for a day or even a week so, what is the lead time
should he consider for a quality test of a cement sample?
Answer: One (1) month
92. CBR Sample for test has been compacted but it
should be soaked for how many days before testing?
Answer: Four (4)

93. If sieve analysis and plasticity test are used for Soil
Classification, what test that its result be used in field
density test?
Answer: Compaction Test or Moisture
Density Relation Test
94. Heavy rains occur the night before prior to your
scheduled field density test, are you going to pursue your
schedule? Why?
Answer: No, because the moisture content is
high and can affect the result
95. Checking the gradation of composite aggregates and
asphalt content of asphalt mix can be done by what test?
Answer: Extraction Test
96. What is the device used in testing for liquid limit
test?
Answer: liquid limit device with grooving tool
97. What apparatus is used in plastic limit test?
Answer: glass plate
98. How long does a vibrator be inserted in a concrete
mix?
Answer: not to exceed 15 seconds at 50 60
cm interval
99. Along the slope of high embankment _____ is
provided as an erosion control measures and also to
improve the stability of the slope.
Answer: Berm
100. In soil and sub surface explorations for flood
control design of foundation condition, a soil sample
was taken for field and laboratory tests. The test required
for soil was taken, except
Answer: specific gravity, abrasion, water
content, Atterberg Limits, gradation, compaction,
relative density
101. Structure crossing above such covered underground
drainage conduit shall be laid at least _____ above the
top of the conduit.
Answer: 1.0 m, 0.5 m, 1.5 m, 2.0 m
102. Class of stones for riprap ranging from 30 kgs to a
maximum of 70 kgs with at least 50% of the stones
weighing more than 50 kgs.
Answer: Class B
103. Class of stones for riprap ranging from 15 kgs to a
maximum of 25 kgs with at least 50% of the stones
weighing more than 20 kgs.
Answer: Class A

20

104. Class of stones for riprap ranging from 60 kgs to a


maximum of 100 kgs with at least 50% of the stones
weighing more than 80 kgs.
Answer: Class C

118. In Atterberg limit, the following are determined,


except
Answer: shrinkage limit, liquid limit, plastic
limit, group index

105. Class of stones for riprap ranging from 100 kgs to a


maximum of 200 kgs with at least 50% of the stones
weighing more than 1500 kgs.
Answer: Class D

119. Minimum time for removal of forms and false


works for centering under girders, beam, frames and
arches.
Answer: 14 days (minimum % of design
strength 80%)

106. The maximum size of stone for stone masonry.


Answer: 150 mm
107. The maximum size of aggregate for item 300.
Answer: 1 inch
108. Required maximum liquid limit for Item 300.
Answer: 35%
109. Required plasticity index range on Item 300.
Answer: 4% to 9%
110. Range of sand size.
Answer: 2.0 mm to 0.050 mm
111. The ratio of the volume of voids to volume of solids
Answer: void ratio

120. Minimum time for removal of forms and false


works for floor slabs.
Answer: 14 days (minimum % of design
strength 70%)
121. Minimum time for removal of forms and false
works for walls.
Answer: 1 day (minimum % of design
strength 70%)
122. Minimum time for removal of forms and false
works for columns.
Answer: 2 days (minimum % of design
strength 70%)

112. The ratio of the weight of water to the weight of


solids
Answer: moisture content

123. Minimum time for removal of forms and false


works for side of beams and all other vertical surfaces.
Answer: 1 day (minimum % of design
strength 70%)

113. Significance of grading test are, except


Answer: Gives particle size distribution,
measures permeability, capillarity, measures the
potential cohesion of soil

124. Amass of solid reinforced concrete cast around the


head of a group of piles to ensure that act as a unit to
support the imposed load
Answer: Pile cap

114. Significance of plasticity index are, except


Answer: indicates compressibility, permeability,
indicates the clay fraction of a binder material, measures
the shearing resistance of soil

125: An embankment shall be compacted layer by layer.


Answer: 150 mm

115. Properties of concrete are, except


Answer: workability, strength,
cracking

durability,

116. In roadway construction test on sub grade, the


following will determine the economical thickness,
except
Answer: embankment, base, surfacing, subbase
117. The relative consistency of a cohesive soil in
natural state.
Answer: Liquidity Index

126. Class of concrete deposited in water.


Answer: Class Seal
127. Class of concrete used in all superstructures and
heavily reinforced substructures. The important parts of
the structure included are slabs, beams, girders, columns,
arch ribs, box culverts, reinforced abutments, retaining
walls, and reinforced footings.
Answer: Class A
128. Class of concrete used in footings, pedestal,
massive pier shafts, pipe bedding and gravity walls,
unreinforced or w/ only a small amount of
reinforcement.
Answer: Class B

21

129. Class of concrete used in thin reinforced sections,


railings, pre-cast piles, cribbing, and for filler in steel
grid floors.
Answer: Class C
130. Class of concrete used in pre stressed concrete
structures and members.
Answer: Class P
131. Height of dropping concrete to the point of deposit
Answer: 1.50 m
132. Reflectorized Thermoplastic Pavement Markings
Answer: Item 612
133. Permitted variation from the design thickness of
layer for Item 300
Answer: + 15 mm and 5 mm
134. Item 310 shall have a mass percent of air voids with
range of _____
Answer: 3% to 5 %
135. Dowel bars for PCCP shall be _____
Answer: plain bars
136. Concrete beam sample when tested by Third
Point Method shall have a flexural strength of _____
when tested in 14 days.
Answer: 3.80 MPa
137. When the required thickness of Item 200 is more
than 150 mm, the aggregate sub base shall spread and
compacted in ____
`
Answer: two or more layers
138. Item 202 shall have a minimum soaked CBR value
of _____
Answer: 80%
139. Permitted variation from design thickness of layer
for Item 201.
Answer: 10 mm
140. Sieve designation standard (in mm) for 0.425 mm
to alternate US standard
Answer: No. 40
141. If slag is used as course aggregate for Item 311, the
minimum density is _____
Answer: 1,120 kg/m3

142. Minimum price allowed of contract for deficiency


in strength of concrete specimens for PCCP which 10%
to less than 15%
Answer: 70%
143. This joint is also called cold joint. It is constructed
when there is an interruption of more than 30 minutes in
the concreting operation
Answer: Transverse Construction Joint
144. Minimum variation of the surface from the testing
edge of the straight edge between contacts with the
surface in Item 310
Answer: 6.0 mm
145. Portland Cement Treated Plant Mix Base Course
after the completion of the final rolling, the surface will
be treated with bituminous curing seal, how much is the
rate of application?
Answer: 0.5 L/m2 to 1.0 L/m2
146. In Item 201, the volume required in the project is
10,000 cu.m. The required number of CBR test is _____
Answer: four (4)
147. Slump test of concrete determines the following,
except
Answer: workability, fluidity, consistency, job
density
148. The significance of liquid limit are the ff., except
Answer: measures the shearing resistance of
soil, measures the potential cohesion of soil, fineness
and shape of grain, Atterberg limits
149. In soil classification, 35% or less passing No. 200
sieve are the ff., except
Answer: A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4
150. To evaluate the performance quality of a soil as a
highway subgrade material
Answer: Group Index
151. If the paving of concrete pavement will be done at
the rate 200 ln.m, half width per paving day, how many
sets of concrete beam samples shall be required. Given:
A = 115,000 sq.m, width = 6.50 m, thickness = 230 mm
Answer: 353 sets
152. The required liquid limit for selected borrow
toppings
Answer: 30%
153. The maximum plastic limit for selected borrow
toppings
Answer: 6%

22

154. Soil is considered unsuitable material when the


liquid limit and plastic limit exceeds
Answer: 80% and 55% respectively
155. Soil is considered unsuitable when the material
density is
Answer: 800 kg/cu.m or lower
156. The plasticity index is determined in accordance
with
Answer: AASHTO T 90
157. The liquid limit is determined in accordance with
Answer: AASHTO T 89
158. The required compaction of embankment, layer by
layer
Answer: 95%
159. The minimum compaction trial of embankment
Answer: 10 m wide by 50 m long
160. At least how many in situ density tests should be
carried out for each 500 m 2 of each layer of compacted
fill?
Answer: three (3)
161. Maximum plasticity index for Item 200
Answer: 12%
162. Maximum liquid limit for Item 200
Answer: 35%
163. Maximum size of grading requirement for Item 200
Answer: 2
164. The Los Angeles Abrasion Test for aggregate subbase course is determined in accordance with
Answer: AASHTO T 96
165. The required abrasion loss for Item 200
Answer: 50%
166. The minimum CBR required for Item 200
Answer: 25%
167. The required soaked CBR for aggregate sub-base
course is determined by
Answer: AASHTO T 193
168. Minimum required percent compaction of each
layer of aggregate sub-base course
Answer: 100%

169. In place density determination of aggregate subbase course material shall be made in accordance with
Answer: AASHTO T 191
170. In some areas where the conventional base course
materials are scarce or non available, the use _____
allowable percent weathered limestone (anapog) blended
with crushed stones or gravel.
Answer: 40% (60% - crushed stones or
gravel)
171. Maximum size of aggregate for base course
material under grading B
Answer: 1 inch
172. Maximum required percent abrasion loss for Item
202
Answer: 45%
173. Maximum required mass percent shall have at least
one (1) fractured face of Item 202
Answer: 50%
174. Minimum required soaked CBR for Item 202
Answer: 80%
175. Maximum size of aggregate for Item 202 under
grading A
Answer: 1 inch
176. Maximum size of aggregate for Item 201 under
grading A
Answer: 2
177. Maximum size of aggregate for Item 202 under
grading B
Answer: 1 inch
178. This item consists of a foundation for surface
course composed of soil aggregate, lime, water in proper
proportion, road mixed and constructed on a prepared
subgrade/subbase.
Answer: Lime Stabilized Road Mix Base
Course (Item 203)
179. The required plasticity index for Item 203
Answer: 4% to 10%
180. Maximum required mass percent of wear for the
aggregate on Item 203
Answer: 50%
181. Maximum size of aggregate for Item 203 under
grading A and B
Answer: 2

23

Answer: Rebar Locator


182. Item number for water?
Answer: Item 714
183. In Item 203, how much is the required mass percent
of lime to be added to the soil aggregate?
Answer: 3% to 12%
184. Minimum soaked CBR for Item 203
Answer: 100%
185. Required percent compaction for Item 203
Answer: 100%
186. Equipment to be used for initial rolling
Answer: Pneumatic tire roller
187. Equipment to be used for final rolling
Answer: 3 wheel tandem type steel wheel
roller
188. The test on asphalt cement consisting of heating the
asphalt in an open cup and passing a small test flame
Answer: flash point
189. It is a manually operated device for deriving a
measurement of roughness from the surface profile
which may be expressed in terms of International
Roughness Index.
Answer: Merlin Road Roughness Measuring
Device
190. It is used for the rapid in situ measurement of the
structural properties of existing pavement with unbound
granular properties.
Answer: Dynamic Cone Penetrometer
191. What is the thinnest cut back asphalt?
Answer: MC 3000
192. In the construction of bridges projects, what is the
method used to determine the casting length of the
regular piles?
Answer: Test Pitting
193. It is an equipment which is used to measure
differential deflection between joints of a concrete
pavement, to determine the modulus of the existing slabs
for use in the design of an overlay, and to determine the
remaining life of existing pavement.
Answer: Falling Weight Deflectometer
194. What is the equipment used to pinpoint rebars,
conduits, pipes, nails and other metals embedded in
concrete before cutting or drilling?

195. What is the instrument or equipment used to


measure for surface test of concrete and asphalt
pavements as soon as he concrete has hardened
sufficiently or as soon as the asphalt mix has been
initially compacted?
Answer: 3 meter straight edge
196. What is the latest state of the art equipment
consuming radioactive material which is commonly used
in the compaction control of earth and asphalt road
construction and in the measurement of moisture
content?
Answer: Nuclear Density Gauge
197. It is an instrument used to measure pavement
deflections resulting from vehicle wheel loadings. The
results of the elastic deformation tests are used to
evaluate the structural condition of roads, and to help in
the design of road strengthening measures and road
capacity improvement.
Answer: Benkelman Beam and Deflection Logger
198. What is the instrument that is used for examining
the quality of rigid materials such as rocks and concrete?
This instrument is a non destructive portable
instrument with dimensions of 110 mm x 180 mm x 160
mm and its main uses includes the determination of
concrete strength (either in situ or pre cast),also to
determine the presence of voids, cracks and other
imperfections.
Answer: Pundit Ultrasonic Concrete Tester
199. Soil stabilizing agent
Answer:
Lime for silty and clayey soil
Cement for sandy soil
200. Water content at which soil passes from plastic to
liquid state.
Answer: LIQUID LIMIT
201. Water content at which soil passes from semi
solid to plastic state.
Answer: PLASTIC LIMIT
202. Water content at which soil passes from solid to
semi solid.
Answer: SHRINKAGE LIMIT
203. Steel bars placed along longitudinal joints to hold
the adjoining slabs together are called _____
Answer: tie bars

24

204. The concrete pavement surface shows high spots of


15 mm in a 3 m straight edge. The concrete in the area
represented by these high spots _____
Answer: shall be removed and replaced (but
if high spots being noted exceeds 3 mm but not
exceeding 12 mm, it shall be ground down only.
205. The calibration of the Universal testing machine is
conducted _____
Answer: Once a year
206. What is the sampling requirement of bituminous
mixture?
Answer: 1 sample per 130 tonnes
207. What is the depth of the thermometer inserted in the
bituminous mixture?
Answer: 2
208. In the design of bituminous mix, the design criteria
for stability under the Marshall Stability Method for
heavy traffic is ____
Answer: 1800 lbs
209. The stability criteria of the Marshall Stability
Method is the maximum load resistance that a specimen
will develop at _____
Answer: 60
210. Bituminous mix specimens are compacted at how
many blows at each end for a heavy traffic design under
the Marshall Stability Method?
Answer: 75 blows
211. In a penetration test, if the penetration is 9. What is
the grade of the asphalt?
Answer: 85 100
212. In case of scarcity or non availability of Type I
Portland cement, what type of pozzolan shall be used?
Answer: Portland Pozzolan Cement Type 1P
213. The required flexural strength of concrete beam
sample of Item 311 when tested by the midpoint method.
Answer: 4.50 MPa
214. The required forms to be used in concrete pavement
are _____
Answer: Steel forms of an approved section
215. Sowing of the weakened plane joints shall be done
usually at _____
Answer: Within 24 hours
216. Removal of forms of concrete pavement

Answer: 24 hours
217. The required slump of concrete using slip form
method of paving is _____
Answer: 1 inches
218. Deficiency in strength of concrete specimen
wherein no payment of contract price allowed is _____
Answer: 25% or more
219. What is the length of a lot of pavement when a
single traffic lane is poured?
Answer: 1,000 ln.m
220. What is the length of a lot of pavement when two
lanes lane are poured concurrently?
Answer: 500 ln. m
221. What is the required size of concrete beam sample?
Answer: 150 mm x 150 mm x 525 mm
222. What is the required number of set of concrete
beam specimens to be taken from each 330 sq. m of
pavement of fraction thereof placed each day?
Answer: 1 set
223. What is the required compressive strength that
concrete piles be moved?
Answer: 80% of the designed 28 day
compressive strength
224. The required circular pin diameter used to bend 10
20 mm reinforcing steel.
Answer: 6d (20 mm 25 mm = 8d: 28 mm
and above = 10d)
225. The mixing speed of the transit mixer during
batching.
Answer: 4 to 6 rpm
226. What is the slump of concrete Class A deposited in
water?
Answer: 10 to 20 cm
227. This item shall consist of preparing and treating an
aggregate base course preparatory to the construction of
a bituminous surface course.
Answer: Prime Coat
228. What item no. is Bituminous Surface Treatment?
Answer: Item 304
229. What is the required tolerance for bituminous
material in job mix formula for Item 310?
Answer: 0.4%

25

230. This item consists of an application of bituminous


material with or without the application of aggregate on
existing bituminous surface?
Answer: Seal Coat
231. Job mix tolerance for temperature in the mixture
for Item 310.
Answer: 10C
232. What is the size of the sample in Item 310 taken for
each full days operation?
Answer: 150 mm x 150 mm or 100 mm
233. What is the required temperature of mix in item 310
when placed?
Answer: 107C
234. The required speed in rolling in Item 310.
Answer: 5 kph
235. It is the resulting difference in elevation across a
joint or crack.
Answer: faulting
236. In core specimen asphalt mix thickness
determination, it shall have a diameter of at least ______
Answer: 100 mm
237. In batching concrete mix, the accuracy of cement
content shall be _____
Answer: 1.0 mass %
238. Minimum thickness measured perpendicular to the
slope using Class D stones for riprap.
Answer: 800 mm (Class A 300 mm; Class B
500 mm; Class C 600 mm)
239. This item shall consist of preparing and bearing an
existing bituminous or cement concrete surface with
bituminous materials preparatory to the construction of
bituminous surface course.
Answer: Tack Coat
240. What is the rate of application of bituminous seal
coat using asphalt cement?
Answer: 0.9 to 1.8 lit/m2
241. What is the rate of application of bituminous seal
coat using cut back asphalt?
Answer: 1.5 to 3.0 lit/m2
242. What is the maximum tolerance of the variation of
the surface of Item 310 from the testing edge of the

straight edge between any two contacts with the


surface?
Answer: 6 mm
243. What is the minimum dry compressive of Item 310?
Answer: 1.40 MPa
244. What is the required Index of Retained Strength of
Item 310 when tested by AASHTO T 65?
Answer: 70% minimum
245. Job mix tolerance in Item 310 for grading,
passing No. 4 and larger sieve.
Answer: 7
246. Job mix tolerance in Item 310 for grading,
passing No 8 to No. 100 (inclusive).
Answer: 4
247. .Job mix tolerance in Item 310 for grading,
passing No. 200 sieve.
Answer: 2
248. The property of asphalt mix to resist deformation
from imposed load.
Answer: stability
249. The property of asphalt mix to resist the detrimental
effects of air, water, temperature and traffic.
Answer: durability
250. The property of asphalt mix to withstand repeated
flexing caused by the passage of wheel loads.
Answer: fatigue resistance
251. The property of asphalt mix to bend slightly
without cracking and to conform to gradual settlements
and moments of the base and subgrade.
Answer: flexibility
252. The range of aggregates composition in Item 310.
Answer: 92% to 95%
253. What is the test on asphalt in order to determine the
effect of water on the cohesion of the mix?
Answer: Immersion Compression Test
254. In temperate countries like the Philippines, what is
the most commonly used grade of asphalt cement?
Answer: 60 70 and 85 100
255. To determine the thickness _____ of asphalt,
Immersion Compression Test is performed.
Answer: stability

26

256. Percent air voids will _____ as percent asphalt


increases in Marshall Stability.
Answer: decrease

use core samples to determine the strength. What is the


required compressive strength?
Answer: Yes, 3,500 psi at 14 days

257. To determine the temperature of delivered asphalt


mix, what apparatus is used?
Answer: armored thermometer

269. Tact coat must be at what condition prior to the


application of asphalt mix?
Answer: tacky

258. Peat and muck soils are considered as:


Answer: highly organic soils

270. The use of sea water in reinforced concrete may


_____
Answer: induce risk of corrosion in
reinforcing steel

259. Why is it that a trial section is conducted in sub


base or base course construction?
Answer: to check the suitability of materials,
efficiency of the equipment used and the construction
method.

271. Subgrade having a CBR value of 2% or less is


considered _____
Answer: weak subgrade

260. What does it mean when there is bleeding in a


newly paved asphalt road?
Answer: excessive asphalt content

272. Subgrade having a CBR value of 15% or more is


considered _____
Answer: very stable

261. A good subgrade soil should have the following:


Answer: low liquid limit and low plastic limit

273. Subgrade other than those defined in the two above


categories is considered ___
Answer: normal

262. Concrete samples may be tested at an earlier stage


in order to _____
Answer: determine the trend of its strength
development
263. What is the test criterion for reinforced concrete
pipe tested in a three edge bearing test machine?
Answer: 0.3 mm crack
264. In testing concrete cylinder sample, the applied load
should be continuous without shock at a constant rate
within the range of _____
Answer: 20 to 50 psi/second (compression);
125 175 psi/second (flexural)

274. What are the three (3) major groups of soil?


Answer: granular soil, fine grained soil,
organic soil
275. What is the significance of field density test?
Answer: to determine the degree of
compaction of soil. It is also a control test in
embankment construction to ensure adequate
compaction.
276. Weighing hot sample is not advisable because it
affects the accuracy of the result. True or false?
Answer: true

265. Cement which has been in storage for a long period


of time and that there is already doubt as to its quality
should:
Answer: be retested prior to use

277. How to prepare or to come up with an air dried


sample?
Answer: air dry the sample under the heat of
the sun

266. It is a process of improving the properties of soil to


make it more suitable for a particular purpose.
Answer: Stabilization

278. If it is impossible to air dry the sample under the


heat of the sun, what alternative should be used?
Answer: oven dry the sample @ 60C

267. Two tests are done in one lot sample. The test
differs from each other, third test is taken. What will be
this test?
Answer: referee test

279. Sample for compaction test should pass to what


sieve size?
Answer: Method A & B use sample passing
No. 4
Method C & D use sample passing
inch

268. If no beam sample taken to determine the strength


of concrete pavement, is it allowed in DPWH specs to

27

280. What is the difference between T 99 and T 180


compaction test method?
Answer: T 99 uses 2.5kg (5.5lbs) rammer
with a 12 drop while T 180 uses 4.54 kg (10lbs)
rammer with an 18 drop.

292. What is the highest point in the moisture density


curve of the moisture density relation test or compaction
test?
Answer: Maximum dry density (MDD) and
Optimum moisture content (OMC)

281. What is particle size analysis?


Answer: It is the determination of particle
size distribution in soils by sieve, hydrometer or a
combined analysis

293. What is the required size of calibrated sand used for


field density test (FDT)?
Answer: Any clean, dry, free flowing,
uncemented sand passing No. 10 and retained No.
200 sieve

282. What kind of water shall be used in laboratory test


especially if it deals with chemicals?
Answer: distilled water
283. Liquid limit brass cup w/ sample is raised and
allowed to drop sharply on the base through a height of
_____?
Answer: 10 mm
284. How many rotations per second will the crank of a
liquid limit be rotated?
Answer: 2 rps
285. In doing a plastic limit test, to what will the soil
thread begin to break?
Answer: 3.2 mm (1/8)
286. What is specific gravity?
Answer; It is used in a gravimetric
volumetric relationship in soils (or defined as the
ratio of the wt. in air of an equal volume of water at a
stated temperature)
287. What is the approximate area for density control
strips?
Answer: 335 sq. m
288. What Item of work is embankment?
Answer: Item 104
289. What kind of material for Item 200?
Answer: Aggregate sub base course
290. What is the required particle size for selected
borrow for toppings under Item 104?
Answer: All particle size will pass sieve 75
mm or 3 openings and not more than 15 mass %
will pass 0.075 mm. (AASHTO T 11)
291. What is the minimum degree of compaction for
Item 200 and 201?
Answer: 100%

294. What is the standard diameter of an orifice of an


FDT sand cone?
Answer: inch (12.7 mm)
295. What are the apparatus used in FDT?
Answer: sand cone, jug (at least 4 liters),
guide plate, moisture cans, calibrated sand, weighing
scale, oven with temperature control, chisel or
digging tool, plastic bags and labeling materials (tag
name)
296. How many hours does a fine aggregate tested for
specific gravity and absorption be soaked in water?
Answer: 15 to 19 hours
297. How to determine if the fine aggregate reaches the
saturated dry condition?
Answer: It is determined by the use of cone
test for surface moisture. If the molded shape of fine
aggregate slumps slightly, it indicates that it has
reached a surface dry condition
298. What are the tests required for concrete aggregates?
Answer: Fine aggregate = grading, specific
gravity, absorption, dry unit weight: Coarse
aggregate = grading, specific gravity, absorption, dry
unit weight an d abrasion
Note: Soundness test is also performed as per
request
299. What are the size or diameter and weight of cast
iron spheres used in abrasion test?
Answer: Approximately 46.8 mm and each
weighing between 390 455 grams
300. What is the required total weight of sample for
abrasion test of coarse aggregate, grading A with 12 as
number of spheres?
Answer: 5,000 grams 25 grams
301. What is significance of abrasion test?
Answer: It evaluates the structural strength
of coarse aggregate. It gives an indication of quality

28

as determined by resistance to impact and wear. It


also determines whether the aggregates will have
degradation during traffic or rolling.
302. What is the sieve used in sieving materials for
abrasion test?
Answer: No. 12 (1.70 mm)
303. At what age should a concrete beam sample be
tested for flexural test?
Answer: 14 days
304. How to compute the flexural strength of concrete
beam sample tested at third point?
Answer:
R = PL
bd2
305. How to compute the flexural strength of concrete
beam sample tested at center point?
Answer:
R = 3Pa
2bd2
306. What is the size of the tamping rod used is
sampling concrete?
Answer: 16 mm and 610 mm long with the
tamping end rounded to a hemispherical tip of the
same as the rod.
307. Concrete masonry (hollow blocks) if subject to test,
how many samples are required?
Answer: 6 pcs/10,000 units (12 pcs if more
than 10,000 units)
308. What is the strength requirement for load bearing
concrete masonry units?
Answer:
Individual = 5.5 MPa (800 psi)
minimum
Average (for 3 samples) = 6.9
MPa (1000 psi) minimum
309. What is the strength requirement for non load
bearing concrete masonry units?
Answer:
Individual = 3.45 MPa (500
psi) minimum
Average (for 3 samples) = 4.5
MPa (600 psi) minimum
310. What is the significance of testing reinforcing steel
bars?
Answer: To determine the yield and tensile
strength of the bar as well as its elongation and is
used to classify the bars into grade.

311. What is the significance of bending test for RSB?


Answer: To evaluate the ductile properties of
RSB
312. What is the required testing requirement for paints?
Answer: 1 can (gal or pail)/ 100 cans (gal or
pail)
313. SS l or SS lh is what kind of asphalt?
Answer: slow setting emulsified asphalt
314. For how many hours or how long shall a
bituminous prime coat be left undisturbed?
Answer: 24 hours
315. What kind of asphalt is used as tack coat?
Answer: cut back asphalt
316. One (1) set of concrete cylinder sample shall be
taken for every how many pieces of RCCP?
Answer: 25 pieces
317. What is being determined in a core sample from
asphalt pavement?
Answer: thickness and density of pavement
318. All records regarding quality control such as
accomplishment, daily activities, weather, etc. are
recorded in a _____
Answer: Materials logbook
319. The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is an in situ
test that measures what?
Answer: depth of soil layer
320. The main problem associated with wrong practice
of conveying concrete is called _____
Answer: segregation
321. A one lane road with a pavement width of 3.5 m
and shoulder width of 0.5 m on each side of the
pavement was designed to have subbase and base
courses with a combined thickness of 300 mm. If the
thickness of the subbase is 125 mm, the spreading and
compaction of the base and subbase courses shall be
carried out in _____?
Answer: three (3) layers over the full width
of 4.5 m
322. During the application of the first half of the
anticipated load a _____ rate of loading shall be
permitted?
Answer: higher

29

323. Quality of factory produced RCCP may be best


established through what?
Answer: Test of concrete pipe samples
324. Soft and unstable soils were encountered during the
course of subgrade preparation. If you were the ME
assigned to the project, what is the most effective and
cheaper method that you would recommend to stabilize
the soil prior to the construction of the subbase course?
Answer: geotextiles
325. How many times per layer should a concrete
specimen molded in a 6 x 6 x 21 beam mold be
rodded?
Answer: 63 blows/layer
326. Rolling of bituminous mix shall be discontinued
whenever it begins to produce excessive _______ or
_______.
Answer: pulverizing of the aggregate,
displacement of the mixture
327. In placing concrete, the required temperature
should be less than ____
Answer: 29C
328. How many concrete cylinder samples is required
for a 300 pcs RCCP?
Answer: 12 sets
329. If concrete cylinder is not available for a 300 pcs
RCCP, how many pipes shall be subjected to test?
Answer: 6 pcs RCCP
330. If there is a necessity to add water to the concrete
mix in order to increase its workability (provided
concrete does not excced specified slump), how many
minutes after the initial time of mixing does adding
water be permitted?
Answer: not exceeding 45 minutes and that
water cement ratio is not exceeded.
331. What are the two (2) types of bitumen that are
commonly used in the bituminous mixture?
Answer:
TAR is a viscous liquid obtained from
the distillation of coal or wood.
PETROLEUM ASPHALT are the
products of the distillation of crude oil.
332. What are the three (3) major petroleum asphalts?
Answer: Asphalt cement, cut back asphalt,
emulsified asphalt
333. What are the solvents of cut back asphalts?

Answer:
GASOLINE for rapid curing type
KEROSENE for medium curing type
DIESEL for slow curing type
334. Emulsified asphalts are either _____ or _____.
Answer:
CATIONIC EMULSION works better with wet
aggregates and
in cold weather. It is a
positively charge electron.
ANIONIC EMULSION - adheres
better to aggregates which have positive charge. It is a
negatively charge electron.
335. What is the bituminous material used in Item 310?
Answer: asphalt cement
336. What greatly affects the service of asphalt cement?
Answer: grade and quantity of asphalt
337. What influences primarily the grade of asphalt
selected?
Answer: climatic condition
338. How many weeks do the producer of asphalt mix or
the contractor shall submit the job mix formula?
Answer: three (3) weeks
339. Who will approve the job mix formula?
Answer: DPWH PE and ME
340. The job mix formula contains provisions the
following:
Answer:
a. grading of aggregates
b. percentage and type of asphalt
c. temperature of aggregates and asphalt
d. temperature of mixture upon delivery or time of
compaction
341. When tar is used, what is the temperature that the
mixture shall be placed?
Answer: 66C to 107C
342. When is the right time to compact in order to attain
the required density?
Answer: when the mixture is still hot and
workable
343. What is to be done in order to determine the
number of passes that would attain the required density?
Answer: trial section
344. What needs to be controlled during the mixing and
compaction and is of great significance in the strength of
the resulting pavement?

30

Answer: temperature
345. In Item 310, how is rolling be done?
Answer: It should begin from the sides and
proceed longitudinally parallel towards the center
line, each trip overlapping one half the rollers width.
346. After the final rolling, what will be checked?
Answer: degree of compaction
347. The compacted pavement shall have a density equal
to or greater than _____
Answer: 95% of the laboratory compacted
density
348. When will the traffic be permitted to utilize the
pavement?
Answer: when the pavement has cooled to
atmospheric temperature

357. What is the depth of the weaken plane joint when


sawed with a concrete saw?
Answer: not less than 50 mm
358. The width of the weaken plane joint is _____
Answer: not more than 6 mm
359. What shall be done if cracks appear at or near the
joint prior to the time of sawing?
Answer: sawing shall be omitted
360. Tie bars shall not be coated or painted with _____
Answer: asphalt or other materials
361. What is the material that is used as a load transfer
device held in a position parallel to the surface and
center line of the slab of pavement?
Answer: dowel

349. How do we take sample from the finish pavement?


Answer: by the use of core drill or saw

362. To protect dowels from corrosion and to facilitate


sliding in concrete, it shall be coated with _____
Answer: thin film of bitumen

350. What is the allowable slump of a workable concrete


if not vibrated?
Answer: 40 mm 75 mm

363. The surface of the pavement shall be roughened by


means of _____
Answer: brooming

351. What is the allowable slump of a workable concrete


if vibrated?
Answer: 10 mm 40 mm

364. What is the depth of corrugation produced by


brooming in the surface of the pavement?
Answer: 1.5 mm

352. When concrete is mixed in a central mixing plant,


what is the time of mixing?
Answer: not less than 50 seconds or more
than 90 seconds

365. The surface of a newly put concrete when has


sufficiently set shall be cured for a period of _____
Answer: 72 hours

353. In transporting concrete, what is the time elapsed


from the time water is added to the mix until the
concrete is deposited in place at the site?
Answer: It shall not exceed 45 minutes if
hauled in non agitating trucks and 90 minutes if
hauled in truck mixers or agitators
354. How is concrete consolidated?
Answer: by the use of vibrator inserted in
the concrete vertically
355. If the lanes are concreted separately, what kind of
joint in a form of a keyway is used?
Answer: longitudinal construction joint
356. What kind of bar is placed perpendicular to the joint
stated in the preceding problem?
Answer: deformed steel tie bars

366. The curing of the pavement is done by means of the


following:
Answer:
a.
by covering the concrete with mats saturated
with water
b.
by thoroughly wetting the pavement
c.
by ponding
d.
by applying curing compound immediately
after finishing of the surface
367. When is the right time to seal the joints?
Answer: after the curing period or before it
is opened to traffic
368. What is the difference between Item 504 and Item
505 (bluebook 95)?
Answer: the placement of stone or boulders
and the ratio of cement and fine sand

31

369. The ME of the contractor is directly under the


supervision of the _____?
Answer: Materials Engineer of the DPWH
370. The requisites in transporting samples of the
laboratory is _____
Answer: Well packed in durable containers
to avoid damages in transit, accompanied by a
sample card filled up in detail and duly signed by the
ME
371. Who has the power to recommend the acceptance
or rejection of construction materials for use in the
project based on test results?
Answer: Materials Engineer of the DPWH
372. It is a chemical composition of asphalt that gives
color and hardness.
Answer: asphaltene
373. The mineral filler which is used in the bituminous
mix is passing sieve?
Answer: No. 200
374. Cold mix asphalt is used in _____
Answer: pothole patching
375. VMA means
Answer: Voids in Mineral Aggregates
376. The compaction temperature in molding the
bituminous mixture specimen
Answer: 124C
377. The mixing temperature of bituminous mix is
Answer: 163C
378. The heating temperature of bituminous mix is
Answer: 121C - 188C
379. The heating temperature of aggregates ranges from
Answer: 177C - 191C
380. The maximum absorption content of CHB
Answer: 240 kg/m3
381. The maximum moisture content of CHB
Answer: 45%
382. SPT means
Answer: Standard Penetration Test
383. A tube sampler is used in sampling undisturbed
sample
Answer: Shelby tube

384. Used in sealing undisturbed sample


Answer: wax
385. A tube sampler used in sampling disturbed sample
Answer: split spoon sampler
386. It is a dynamic test used in the field to obtain rapid
empirical results which can be used to estimate shear
strength and bearing capacity
Answer: Standard Penetration Test
387. A type of coring bit used in rock coring
Answer: diamond bit
388. CQCA means
Answer: Certificate of Quality Control
Assurance (submitted weekly)
389. The specific gravity of asphalt ranges from
Answer: 1.01 1.04
390. The type of electron present in rapid curing
emulsified asphalt?
Answer: cationic
391. How many group of three in situ densities are
required if the compacted volume of embankment laid
was estimated to be 1,500 cu. m with a thickness of 200
mm/layer?
Answer: fifteen (15)
392. The allowable % variation in mass of deformed
reinforcing steel is
Answer: 6% maximum under nominal stress
393. The maximum allowable % phosphorous content of
a deformed and plain billet steel bar is
Answer: 0.05%
394. Tensile and yield strengths of steel bars?
Answer:
TENSILE
STRENGTH YIELD POINT
GRADE 40
483
MPa
276 MPa
GRADE 60
621
MPa
414 MPa
GRADE 75
689
MPa
517 MPa
395. Plasticity index is an indication of percent
Answer: clay content

32

396. The condition of the soil to be tested in the


laboratory compaction test is
Answer: air dried condition
397. The method in the determination of density of soil
in place
Answer: Sand cone method
398. Air dry sand used in the density apparatus is
passing
Answer: sieve No. 10 retained No. 200
399. Which of the following items does not need CBR?
Answer:
a.
subbase materials
b.
surfacing materials
c.
base course materials
400. In abrasion test, the abrasive charge shall consist of
cast iron spheres or steel spheres.
Answer:
GRADING A 12 spheres
GRADING B 11 spheres
GRADING C 8 spheres
GRADING D 6 spheres
401. In truck mixing, the minimum number of
revolutions after all ingredients including water is in the
drum is
Answer: 100 rpm
402. A maximum time of _____ shall be permitted for
wet mixing, lay down and finishing when this method is
used (Item 206)
Answer: two (2) hours
403. Traffic shall be prohibited from traveling at the
speeds in excess of _____ until the asphaltic material has
set.
Answer: 40 kph
404. Mortar shall be used within _____ after its
preparation
Answer: 90 minutes
405. In placing concrete for slab, using buggies, the
correct method that should be followed is
Answer: concrete should be dumped into the
face of the previously placed concrete.
406. There is a failure of flexural strength in the
pavement, if you are the ME of your firm, what will you
recommend?
Answer: conduct recoring

407. When loads have been arriving at the spreader with


the material peaked or doomed up and a load suddenly
appears in which the material lies flat, it indicates
Answer: excessive asphalt
408. Where and when was the first use of Portland
cement?
Answer: Bellafontaine, Ohio (1893)
409. The curve in the logarithmic scale where the 25 th
blow is projected in order to determine the liquid limit
of the soil.
Answer: Flow curve
410. Percentage of wear represents the value of _____
Answer: abrasion loss
411. In the design of concrete mix, what is the volume of
water in the concrete mix that produces a slump of 76.2
mm?
Answer: 24.7 liters
412. The standard fineness modulus of sand is about
_____
Answer: 2.75
413. The standard packaging weight of cement
Answer: 40 kg/bag
414. It is an impervious membrane applied to concrete
pavement before its initial setting that prevents rapid
evaporation of water from the mix.
Answer: curing compound
415. The type of paint that is used for zone marking,
traffic lanes and parking spaces which is rapid drying,
resistant to abrasion and weather conditions and possess
improved visibility at night.
Answer: reflectorized paint
416. An ingredient in the paint that gives reflection
during night time.
Answer: glass beads
417. The paint which is used on concrete or masonry
units.
Answer: Latex
418. The average loss in weight of three specimens in
zinc coating test.
Answer: Triple spot test
419. One the three specimens in the triple spot test with
lightest coating.
Answer: Single spot test

33

420. The type of paint that is used in wood surfaces. It is


a special type of paint made with varnish as the vehicle.
Answer: Enamel
421. Group index is an empirical number ranging from 0
to 20 under average conditions of good drainage and
adequate compaction. The supporting value of a material
as subgrade may be assumed as an inverse ratio to its
group index, that is a group index of zero indicates
Answer: good subgrade material
422. It determines the target density which is constructed
at the beginning of the work on each course of material
to be compacted.
Answer: Control strips
423. The instrument used in placing concrete in water in
a compact mass in its fina position.
Answer: tremie with 250 mm
424. The maximum specific gravity of thermoplastic
paint.
Answer: 2.15
425. The softening point of a thermoplastic paint.
Answer: 102.5C
426. The maximum drying time of thermoplastic paint.
Answer: 10 minutes
427. The rate of application of traffic paint.
Answer: 0.33 lit/m2
428. The maximum drying time of traffic paint.
Answer: 15 30 minutes
429. The minimum weight of sample for reflectorized
paint.
Answer: 10 kg
430. The apparatus used to measure the thickness or
height of compacted bituminous paving mixture.
Answer: vernier caliper
431. It is used in calculating the unit weight of the
mixture of the degree of compaction of the asphalt
pavement.
Answer: Bulk specific gravity of compacted
bituminous mixtures using saturated surface dry
specimens.
432. The solvent in the extraction of bitumen.
Answer: gasoline

433. The percent of bitumen is computed based on


Answer: mass of dry aggregates
434. The method used to determine the grading of
aggregate extracted from bituminous mixture.
Answer: Mechanical analysis of extracted
aggregates
435. A device used to determine the relative hardness of
asphalt.
Answer: penetrometer
436. Volatization test which measures the relative
proportion of asphalt to oil.
Answer: Distillation
437. The measurement wherein the asphalt begins to
melt.
Answer: Softening point
438. The Index of Retained Strength (IRS) is computed
through the formula
Answer: (Wet Stability/Dry Stability) x
100%
439. The temperature requirement in initial rolling for
Item 310.
Answer: 200F to 225F
440. What is the color of asphalt when it is overcooked?
Answer: yellowish brown
441. How many gradation ranges for Hot Plant Mix
bituminous pavement are there in the blue book?
Answer: seven (7)
442. How many gradation ranges for Cold Plant Mix
bituminous pavement are there in the blue book?
Answer: two (2)
443. The cored sample of asphalt pavement is measured
at
Answer: approximately quarter points
444. Too much asphalt in the bituminous mixes causes
Answer: bleeding
445. What is the plasticity index of mineral filler?
Answer: not greater than 4
446. The wearing away of pavement surface caused by
dislodging of aggregate particle.
Answer: raveling

34

447. The interconnected cracks forming a series of small


blocks resembling an alligators skin or chicken wire.
Answer: alligator cracking
448. It is prescribed in each project based on estimated
quantities and specifies the kind and number of test of
each item of work.
Answer: Minimum Testing Requirements
449. If the coarse aggregates are subjected to five cycles
of sodium sulfate soundness test, the weighted loss shall
not exceed
Answer: 12 mass %
450. If the fine aggregates are subjected to five cycles of
sodium sulfate soundness test, the weighted loss shall
not exceed
Answer: 10 mass %
451. Additives used in concrete mixing.
Answer: admixtures
452. The test that determines the resistance of aggregates
to disintegration by saturated solutions of sodium sulfate
or magnesium sulfate.
Answer: Soundness test
453. The design of concrete mix specified in the
bluebook is based on
Answer: Absolute Design Method
454. The initial setting time of Portland cement is not
less than
Answer: 45 minutes
455. The final setting time of Portland cement
Answer: 10 hours
456. The standard sand used in testing the mortar
strength of Portland cement
Answer: Ottawa sand
457. The apparatus used to determine the fineness of
Portland cement by air permeability
Answer: Blaine Air Permeability Apparatus
458. A mixture of cement and water is
Answer: cement paste
459. The apparatus used to determine the initial and final
setting of Portland cement in the laboratory.
Answer: Gillmore needle
460. The compressive strength of cement mortar samples
in 7 days is

Answer: 19.3 MPa


461. What is the appearance of the molded cement paste
which fails to meet the autoclave?
Answer: crumbled
462. The critical number of days of curing of concrete
Answer: first seven (7) days
463. It is the equally as important as testing, and the
sampler shall sue every precaution to obtain samples that
will show the nature and condition of the materials
which they represent.
Answer: sampling
464. A soil sample received from the field for subsequent
tests by reducing aggregations of particles into sizes
which will pass certain sieves.
Answer: disturbed samples
465. A procedure to recover relatively undisturbed soil
samples suitable laboratory tests of structural properties.
Answer: thin walled tube sampling
467. The representative who will witness the testing of
materials in an accredited laboratory.
Answer: government
468. Samples obtained from the field with minimum
disturbance by using any drilling equipment that
provides clean hole before insertion of thin walled
tubes that is, both the natural density and moisture
content are preserved as much as practicable.
Answer: undisturbed samples
469. The type of additive that is used to delay the setting
of fresh concrete.
Answer: retarder
470. The type of additive that is used to attain maximum
early compressive strength of concrete.
Answer: accelerator
471. The best enemy of construction.
Answer: water
472. The following are considered unsuitable materials:
Answer:
a. Materials containing detrimental quantities of
organic materials such as grass, roots and sewage
b. Highly organic soils such as peat and muck
c. Soils with LL exceeding 80% and/or PL
exceeding 55%
d. Soils with a natural moisture content exceeding
100%

35

e. Soils with very low natural density, 800kg/m3


f. Soils that cannot be properly compacted as
determined by the engineer

485. Super plasticizers can reduce the water content by


_____ and increase the 24 hour strength by _____.
Answer: 25% to 35%, 50% to 70%

473. What is the spec of mass % passing in sieve No.


200, grading A for aggregate base course?
Answer: 0 12%

486. Loose material is removed from all joints, cracks


and areas that have previously patched by asphalt by
_____ with nominal _____ air pressure.
Answer: power sweeping and air blowing,
100 psi

474. The rate of application of special curing agent


Answer: 4 liter per 14 sq. m
475. The method of measurement for determining the
depth of the river channel.
Answer: sounding
476. If the type of soil in Item 200 is non plastic, what
Atterberg limit test can be performed?
Answer: Liquid limit test
477. The minimum penetration of the preservatives into
the surface of timber is
Answer: 20mm
478. The engineer shall be notified at least _____ before
the treating process of timber.
Answer: 10 days
479. All grout shall pass through a screen with a _____
maximum clear opening.
Answer: 2mm
480. The allowable height of fall in driving piles to avoid
injury using gravity hammer.
Answer: 2.5m 3.5 (concrete)
4.5m (timber)

487. Admixtures which can help incorporate a controlled


amount of air on the form moist in concrete during
mixing without significantly altering the setting or the
rate of characteristic of concrete.
Answer: air entraining admixtures
488. It is the activity of monitoring planned scheduled
against actual and by speed task to make up for the
past or future loss of time.
Answer: Delivery control
489. Bowl shaped holes of various sizes in the
pavement surface.
`
Answer: potholes
490. A form of plastic movement typified by ripples
(surface waves) across the pavement.
Answer: corrugation
491. A form of plastic movement resulting in localized
bulging of the pavement.
Answer: shoving
492. Longitudinal surface depression in the wheel paths.
Answer: rutting

481. This increases the shearing strength of aggregates


of any size, shape and gradation.
Answer: Compaction

492. It is the chief load bearing of gravel road?


Answer: base or subbase course

482. In general, soils high value of this and plasticity


index are poor as engineering materials.
Answer: liquid limit of fines

493. The maximum distance of the discharge point from


the point of deposit by pneumatic means.
Answer: 3 meters

483. The recommended thickness of Hot Mix asphalt


overlay depending on the expected traffic and the
modulus of the cracked and seated pavement section.
Answer: 3 to 5

494. It reduces the vertical compressive stress induced


by traffic in the subbase and subgrade.
Answer: base course

484. Stabilization and under sealing are recommended if


the mean deflection is ____ or the differential deflection
is ____.
Answer: greater than 0.14, greater than
0.002

495. Minimum separation of splices when staggered.


Answer: 40 times bar
496. Consist of furnishing, placing and finishing
concrete in all structures except pavements conforming
to the lines, grade and dimension.
Answer: Structural concrete

36

497. Minimum grouting pressure of bonding tendons.


Answer: 0.6984 MPa (100 psi)

Answer: 1 bore hole at each corner of the


structure and one on the interior (9m below lowest
foundation)

498. The main cross member of Bailey bridge that carry


the roadway structure.
Answer: transom

511. For buildings less than 930 m2


Answer: two (2) boring at opposite corners

499. Coring sampling shall be done at _____ interval by


using split spoon sampler and the depth needed is _____.
Answer: one (1) meter, 30m

512. This reflector shall be the short type having a


minimum base area of 180mm x 140mm.
Answer: Flush Surface Reflector

500. What is the diameter of split spoon sampler?


Answer: 50mm

513. Occurs on PCCP when the cutting of weakened


plane is delayed.
Answer: shrinkage cracking

501. The uniform sampling run in core drilling.


Answer: 1.50m length
502. The initial diameter of bore hole.
Answer: 76mm

514. What is the primary purpose in establishing design


criteria in design?
Answer: consistency

503. What is the core bit diameter?


Answer: 67mm

515. Positional tolerance of duct tubes during casting


operations.
Answer: 4mm

504. The required spacing of bore holes along centerline


of roads for 300 VPD traffic.
Answer: 250m (1.5m below subgrade)

516. This method is usually adopted when there is no


visible evidence of termite infestation.
Answer: Cordoning

505. The required spacing of bore holes along centerline


of roads for less than 300 VPD traffic.
Answer: 500m (along centerline)

517. This method is used when soil shows termite


infestation.
Answer: Drenching

506. The required spacing of bore holes along centerline


for new road on swampy or marshy ground.
Answer: 100m (2m along the centerline of
new road)

518. Moisture content of rough lumber should not


exceed _____
Answer: 22%

507. The required spacing of bore holes for bridge


project
Answer:
1 deep drill for each abutment (30m run)
1 boring for each pier for multi span (3m
into the bed rocks)
508. The required spacing and depth of bore holes over
foundation area of dam.
Answer: 60m spacing, 30m intermediate
along centerline
Depth = times base width

519. Moisture content of dressed lumber should not


exceed _____
Answer: 14%
520. Design pressure of glass in glazed position.
Answer: 244 kg/m2
521. The minimum pressure of testing water tank.
Answer: 1,033.50 KPa
522. The minimum energy per blow of diesel hammer on
concrete/steel pile at each stroke.
Answer: 831.48 kg/m

509. For ports and harbors projects:


Answer: 30m to 150m; 1m below dredged
bottom (12m minimum for piers & wharves)

523. The minimum distance allowed for the top portion


of the splice below ground line or seabed.
Answer: 2.5 meters

510. For buildings (large area greater than 930 m2):

524. Consist of the excavation of river beds, bottom of


creeks or esteros and other bodies of water.

37

Answer: dredging
525. The slope of batter piles
Answer: 1:6
526. Longitudinal gutter grades shall not be flatter than
____
Answer: 0.12%
527. Allowance for sediments or debris provided in
design
Answer: 20%
528. It is the digging of soil after the final marking of the
building outline has been established on the ground.
Answer: Minor excavation
529. It requires wide excavation of total extraction
bearing capacity.
Answer: footing
530. This shall be conducted for buildings three (3)
storey and above.
Answer: Boring test
531. The minimum depth of CHB wall footing of other
minor structure on the ground.
Answer: 700mm
532. The minimum depth of footing on a well compacted
fill.
Answer: 100mm
533. Typically a plain or reinforced concrete that is
usually provided to support a column.
Answer: Spread footing
534. Gabion dimensions are subject to tolerance limit of
_____ of the manufactured state.
Answer: 3%
535. A field density result of 88% degree of compaction
obtained on the subgrade indicates that
Answer: compaction of the subgrade fails
the compaction specs and needs additional
compaction
536. Liquid limit is usually
Answer: greater than plastic limit
537. The blue book requires that the base course be
compacted at least
Answer: 100% modified proctor

538. As construction work progresses, you noticed that


the delivered materials are different from the on tested
passed. If you are in doubt, what will you do?
Answer: conduct immediate re testing for
verification
539. Which of the following is not the responsibility of
the Materials Engineer?
Answer:
a. sampling of material
b. analysis of test result of material
c. scheduling of delivery of materials
d. design of concrete mix
540. Measure of construction materials for concrete
structure shall be
Answer: volume
541. The moisture density curve if different from each
soil. Which of the ff statement is true?
Answer:
a.
granular, well graded soil generally have
fairly high maximum density at low optimum
moisture content
b.
clay soil have lower densities at OMC than
granular, well graded soil
c.
granular, well graded soil have greater densities
than uniform soil at OMC
d.
none of the above
542. What should be done on the subbase course with
existing moisture content of 10% higher than the
optimum moisture content?
Answer: dry out to reduce moisture, spread
to the required thickness and compact
543. The DPWH specs provide _____ tolerance for
asphalt pavement thickness
Answer: - 5mm
544. Geosynthetics may be used for
Answer:
filtration
reinforcement, erosion control

or

drainage,

545. Which of the ff. is not included in determining


moisture content?
Answer:
a. beam balance
b. oven
c. moisture can
d. extruder
546. Steel bars are considered undersize if
Answer: its nominal diameter as determined
by caliper doesnt meet the manufactured size

38

Answer: colloids
547. Samples of aggregates for base course when tested
for quality the requirements
except grading. What will you recommend?
Answer: reprocess the materials by blending
548. Concrete curing refers to
Answer: procedure
concrete strength

done

to

maximize

549. What is the most inferior type of soil as to its


engineering properties?
Answer: organic
550. What is the testing soil that involves the application
of energy and addition of water as lubricant?
Answer: Moisture Density relation test
551. The dividing line between gravel and sand in
concrete pavement is
Answer: No. 10
552. What is the volume of the mold using 6 for
AASHTO T 180 D method in compaction test?
Answer: 0.002124 m3
553. A material resulting from the disintegration,
grinding or crushing of rock and which will pass
2.00mm sieve and be retained on the 0.075mm sieve
Answer: sand
554. What is ASTM?
Answer: American Society for Testing &
Materials
555. What is AASHTO?
Answer: American Association of State
Highway & Transportation Officials
556. DPWH thru Bureau of Research & Standards has
prepared a revised laboratory
testing procedure manual, in order to have be consistent
with the latest methods as prescribed under
Answer: ASTM & AASHTO
557. What is the category of contractor that are required
by DPWH to have laboratory equipments or apparatus in
pre bidding qualifications?
Answer: large
558. What is the maximum size of aggregate used in
Item 104?
Answer: of the thickness

560. In soaking sample for CBR, the water should at


least _____ above the specimen
Answer: 25mm
561. A natural or prepared mixture consisting
predominantly of stone, gravel or sand and containing
silt clay materials
Answer: soil aggregates
562. A rock fragment usually rounded or semi rounded
with an average dimension between 75mm 305mm
Answer: boulders
563. The process of cutting the branches around a tree on
the roadside to make them denser and grow straight.
Answer: Pruning
564. The road near or abutting a bridge.
Answer: Approach
565. Settlement of right of way problems should be done
Answer: before the construction work
566. Material that has the greatest load carrying capacity
Answer: sand and gravel
567. In hydrographic survey, sounding joints should be
made at a maximum interval of
Answer: 20 meters
568. The use of geofabric material to increase the
strength of the subgrade
material for road construction is classified as
Answer: Soil Reinforcement Method
569. What to recommend if the surface test of newly
asphalted which showed a lump
Answer: remove and replace the pavement
area with irregularity
570. Controlled Density Method in embankment
construction involves
Answer: Depositing and spreading materials
in layers of not more than 225mm depth, loose
materials and extending to the full width of the
embankment
571. What type of cracks will appear on concrete if it
was not cured immediately after final placement
especially during the first seven days?
Answer: Plastic shrinkage cracks

559. What kind of material that passes .001mm sieve?

39

572. What is commonly used as curing media for fresh


concrete?
Answer: Liquid membrane forming

Answer: this involves the introduction of


water into the embankment to accelerate
consideration

573. What is the work sequence on cylinder specimen?


Answer: cylinder shall be prepared, cured
and tested at the specified date

582. Mixture of fine grained aggregates, bituminous


binder and water for surface sealing
Answer: slurry seal (bituminous slurry)

574. When to remove the false work of continuous


structure?
Answer: when the 1st and 2nd adjoining span
on each side have reached the specified strength

583. What is the formula for percentage of wear?


Answer:
Percentage of wear, % = (orig
wt. wt. retained @ sieve # 12) x 100

575. It is generally either a soft soil composed largely of


silt, clay, organic deposit or loose sand having high void
rather and usually not high water content
Answer: Weak Subgrade
576. What is Twelve Inch Layer Method
Embankment?
Answer: the material shall be deposited and
spread in layers not more than 300 mm in depth (12)
loose measure, parallel to the finished grade and
extending to the full width of the embankment
577. What is Rock Embankment Method?
Answer: the material shall be deposited on
the fill and push over the end of the fill by means of
bulldozer. This method is only applicable to fill 1.2
m in depth. It shall not be placed within 600 mm of
the other grade
578. What is Hydraulic Fill Method Embankment?
Answer: the material shall be taken from
borrow locations and shall be deposited so as to form
the grade and cross section and shall be thoroughly
compacted
579. What is the principal factor used in determining the
thickness of the pavement?
Answer: STRENGTH OF SUBGRADE
(deterioration due to frustration move also be
considered)
580. What is Placing and Removing Surcharge Method
Embankment?
Answer: were unsuitable material is present
under the embankment corrective work consists of
placing a surcharge constructed to the full width of
the road bed. The surcharge shall remain in place
until the embankment has reached stability or the
required settlement
581. What is
Embankment?

Hydraulic

Construction

original wt.
584. Free bitumen on the surface of the pavement which
creates a shiny, glass like reflecting surface that
usually becomes quite sticky
Answer: bleeding
585. Occurring usually at the transverse cracks joint
caused by excessive expansion of the slabs during hot
weather
Answer: buckling
586. The splitting of concrete surface material from the
concrete pavement
Answer: crushing
587. The authorized hauling of materials in excess of the
of the free haul distance
Answer: Overhaul
588. If slurry (wet) lime is employed, what is the typical
slurry ratio?
Answer: 1 tonne lime : 2 cubic meter of
water
589. What is the amount of cement to be added to the
soil aggregates in Item 204?
Answer: 6 10 mass % of the dry soil
590. Who is the father of Soil Mechanics?
Answer: Dr. Karl Terzhagi
591. What is quality?
Answer: It the degree of excellence
592. What is control?
Answer: Is to regulate
593. What is quality control?
Answer: It is conformance to requirements

Method
594. What is assurance?

40

Answer: it the degree of certainty


595. What are the two kinds of control activities?
Answer: Inspection and Testing
596. What is the minimum distance of water table from
subgrade level?
Answer: 4 5 feet
597. What is the process of combining two or more soil
in suitable properties to produce good grading on gravel,
sand, silt and clay?
Answer: Mechanic Stabilization
598. What is the common material employed in
stabilizing the moisture content of soil or liquid and
hydroscope in nature? It is an aid in the compaction
process by slowing the rate of evaporation of moisture
from the soil
Answer: Calcium chloride or rock salt
599. When do clay and granular soils become unstable?
Answer: Clay soil becomes unstable if
moisture content increases. Granular material
becomes unstable if it has dried
600. Why do liquid asphalt was introduced in road
construction aside from asphalt cement?
Answer: It was introduced in order to save
heating costs and from convenience in road mixing
or priming

Answer: Type IV
607. What type of cement is the High Sulphate Resistant
Portland Cement?
Answer: Type V
608. What type of cement is the Portland Blast Furnace
Slag Cement?
Answer: Type 1S
609. What type of cement is the Portland Pozzolan
Cement?
Answer: Type 1P
610. Type I is for general use such as
Answer: pavements & sidewalks, buildings
& bridges and tanks & water pipes
611. Type III cement is used for
Answer: early stripping of forms & high
early strength
612. Type IV is used for
Answer: massive structures such as dams
613. Type V cement is used for
Answer: when sulphate
groundwater is very high

content

of

614. The inventor of Portland cement was


Answer: Joseph Aspdin

601. The theory of concrete design mix is to


Answer: Optimize aggregate packing and
optimizes properties of cement mortar

615. Portland cement is composed of blended materials


containing
Answer: calcium, alumina, iron and silica

602. To optimize the properties of the cement mortar,


one has to depend on
Answer: cement type, cement content and
water content

616. The simple recipe of Portland cement is


Answer: 2 parts of crushed limestone, 1 part
clay/pulverized shale, 1 pinch of iron ore, then 1
pinch of gypsum added to clinker

603. What type of cement is the Ordinary Portland


Cement (OPC)?
Answer: Type I

617. Pozzolan cement is composed of a raw material


called
Answer: volcanic earth

604. What type of cement is the Moderate Sulphate


Resistant Portland Cement?
Answer: Type II

618. The 75% compressive strength of Portland cement


is composed of
Answer: C3S and C2S

605. What type of cement is the Rapid Hardening


Portland Cement?
Answer: Type III

619. The 25% setting time of Portland cement is


controlled by
Answer: C3A and C4AF

606. What type of cement is the Low Heat Portland


Cement?

620. When water is added to Portland cement, _____


process is developed

41

Answer: hydration

Answer: 85% of fc, 75% of fc

621. Calcium Silicate Gel (CSH) and lime [Ca(OH) 2]


are developed when _____ is added to Portland cement
Answer: water

634. Fine aggregate shall be rejected when it fails in the


_____ for organic impurities
Answer: Colormatic Test

622. When Portland cement contains a low C 3A, it


means
Answer: the setting time is larger

635. Portland cement may be/shall be rejected if:


Answer: it has partially set, it contains
lumps of cake cement and it comes from a discarded
or used bag

623. Surplus lime [Ca(OH)2] in Portland cement when


mixed with water takes care of the concretes
Answer: alkalinity
624. Coarse aggregates can be taken from
Answer: crushed rock, slags and river gravel
625. The water required for concrete mix should be
Answer: fresh water
626. Sea water is deleterious to concrete mix unless on
admixture is added because it contains
Answer: chloride
627. The entrapped air in concrete is
Answer: accidental and unwanted
628. The entrained air in concrete is
Answer: deliberate and desirable
629. We use aggregate in concrete as
Answer: filler materials in concrete
630. Aggregates are important in concrete because they
strongly influence:
Answer: the properties of concrete, its mix
proportion and its economy
631. Which of the following is not deleterious material
to concrete?
Answer:
a. calcium
b. chloride
c. coal
d. sulphate
632. Over sanded and under sanded mixture
require more water to be workable, but
making
it so will only result to sacrifice in
Answer: strength
633. Concrete in the area represented by the cores will
be considered adequate if the average strength of the
cores is equal to or at least _____ of the specified
strength, fc and no single core is less than _____

636. A measurement of the coarseness or fineness of


aggregates
Answer: fineness modulus
637. An excess water needed for absorption of coarse
aggregates
Answer: free water
638. What do you mean by SSD?
Answer: Saturated Surface Dry
639. A general term relating to the character of a mix
with respect to its fluidity
Answer: consistency
640. More silt and clay content to fine aggregates is
Answer: objectionable
641. Type A admixture is classified by ASTM C494 as
Answer: Water reducing admixture
642. For core specimens, each lot will be divided into
how many equal segments?
Answer: five (5)
643. The unit pressure greater than which progressive
settlement occur leading to failure
Answer: bearing capacity
644. The recommended thickness of hot mixed asphalt
overlay
Answer: 2
645. In the test to determine the moisture content of
samples, the beam balance should be sensitive up to
Answer: 0.1g
646. If a sample can not be weighed within the
prescribed time after being removed from the oven, it
will placed inside a
Answer: desiccator
647. Plastic and finely grain soil will require at least how
many hours to dry at constant weight/mass

42

Answer: 4 hours
648. A sample may be cooled at room humidity and must
be weighed after it has been removed from the oven
within
Answer: 1 hour
649. Drying the material sample in the oven to constant
weight at a prescribe temperature; the drying time
depends on the kind of soil and size of sample. A 25gram sample of sandy material will be dried in about
Answer: 2 hours
650. Test conducted for buildings 3 storeys and above
Answer: Boring Test
651. A test to determine the moisture content of soil
Answer: calcium tri chloride
652. The aggregate crushing value of strong aggregate is
Answer: low
653. The kind of asphalt used in overlaying seated
pavement
Answer: hot mix asphalt
654. The minimum width of paved sidewalk
Answer: 1.5 m
655. The limit of water cement ratio of concrete
Answer: 0.50 0.60
656. A cement which has a cementitious effect
Answer: Portland cement
657. A concrete where compression is induced before the
application of working load so that tension under these
loads is reduced
Answer: Pre stressing
658. What laboratory test is used in determining the
phosphorus content of steel materials?
Answer: Phospho - molydate
659. What chemical property in the composition of steel
material that will cause brittleness or cold shortness
when its content goes beyond 0.05% to 0.10%
Answer: phosphorous
660. Base or sub base is extended beyond each edge of
proposed concrete pavement
Answer: 0.60 m

Answer:
10 mm slump = 2 kg/m3 from (water)
air entrapment = 3 kg/ m 3 of average
(water)
662. In non entrained concrete, what is the range of %
air entrained?
Answer: 3% - 0.2% (small bigger aggregates)
663. In air entrained concrete, what is the range of %
air entrained?
Answer: 8% - 3% (small bigger aggregates)
664. For a constant water cement ratio, what will
happen if air content is involved?
Answer: the strength of concrete is reduced
665. What will happen if you lower the water cement
ratio and maintaining other values of its ingredients?
Answer: it will acquire strength
666. What is the mixing time of concrete?
Answer:
1.5 m3 capacity mixer, T 60 seconds
Above1.5 m3 capacity mixer, T 90 seconds
667. When cement is in contact with moist aggregates,
batch made by mix will be disallowed beyond ____
Answer: 1 hours
668. How many hours should an aggregate be washed
and stockpiled before batching starts?
Answer: 12 hours prior to batching shall be
stockpiled or binned for draining
669. When will truck mixing start?
Answer: mixing shall begin within 30 minutes upon
cement has due added
15 minutes when wet aggregates is used, as
32C temperature is present
670. Concrete delivered by agitation of truck mixer must
be discharged within 1 hour or 250 revolutions of the
drum or loader. Why?
Answer: to avoid over mixing and initial
setting of concrete
671. In final computation of concrete in road to be paid,
what is the maximum size of pipe that is negligible in
the volume computation?
Answer: pipes with of 4 or less

661. If you want to adjust the slump and the air content,
how do you it?

43