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PL5933

T23

ASIA
^ir,

ELEMENTARY HAND-BOOK
OF THE

BURMESE LANGUAGE
BY

TAW SEIN

KO,

M.R.A.S.,

f.a

t.,

f.s.a.,

GOVEENMENT TKANSLATOR AND HONOKAIl AHCHJJOLOQK'AI,

OFFICEK, Bri:MA.

RANGOON:
PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRINTING, HURMA.

J^

1898.
-rc^->

^1!?^
[

Price, Rs.

2-8-0. ]

PL 3 f 33

r^3

hdf

CORNELL
UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY

DATE DUE

AUG-iHb ig?O^H

"IS Burmese lana


^'*'iiMliimiXii'' *

3 1924 022 058 931

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the

text.

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924022058931

ELEMENTARY HANDBOOK
OF THE

BURMESE LANGUAGE
BY

TAW SEIN

KO,

M.E.A.S., f.a.i., f.s.a.,

GOVEENMENT TEANSLATOB AND HONOEAKY AECHaJOLOGlCAIi

OFFICER, BUEMA.

RANGOON:
printed by the superintendent, government printing, burma.

i8q8.

PEEFACE.
Ars longa,
the

This book is divided into two parts

vita hrevis.

deals with the colloquial form of the

first

Burmese
Both

guage, and the second with the literary form.

tended for hard- worked

mercantile and other professions, to

whom

knowledge of Burmese may be essential

made

is

practical as possible.

There

learning

a certain

undergone

if it is

amount

are in-

and busy men engaged in

officials

reason that an attempt

lan-

to

an elementary

and

it is for

this

make the compilation

as

however, no royal road to

is,

of drudgery

must be faced and

desired to acquire any kind ot knowledge

and an acquaintance with the Burmese language does not


form an exception to the universal

The
by Mr.

compilation of this work


St.

is

rule.

due to a suggestion made

John, Burmese Lecturer, Oxford University, who

represented to the Local Government the need of a practical colloquial course in

Burmese

for the

Indian Civil Service

candidates undergoing their probationary training in


land.

The

Eng-

original scope has, however, been extended to

meet the gro-wing requirements


In the preparation

of foreign residents in

of this volume,

are due to

Maung Tun

who has

often acted as

my

Burma.

acknowledgments

Nyein, Extra Assistant Commissioner,

Government Translator during

my

absence on leave or deputation, for the valuable assistance


given by him.

Burma Secretariat: 7
1st October 1898.

TAW SEIN

KO.

TABLE OP CONTENTS.
Pages,

Introduction

Part

...

Colloquial

Key

to the

...

...

,..

...

...

...

...

...

...

1
1

pronunciation

Numerical Notation

Time
Days

...

...

week
Names of the months
The Heavens
Points of the Compass
of the

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

ibid.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Sea

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

..,

...

...

Persons, relationships, &e.

...

...

...

...

Members of the body ...


Movements of the body

...

...

..,

...

...

...

...

...

Ailments

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

17

...

...

...

...

18

...

Wearing apparel

...

Professions, Trades, &c.

...

...

56

...

Earth

Seasons, weather, &e.

vi

10 12
12 14
14 16
16 17
9

^10

18
19

Servants

...

...

...

...

...

...

19

Animals

...

...

...

...

...

...

1920

Beptiles

...

...

...

...

...

...

21

Fishes

...

...

...

...

...

...

ibid.

Birds

...

Insects
Articles of

...

...

...

Commerce

Metals

...

...

...

...
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...
...

Food

...

...

...

...

...

Fruits

...

...

...

...

...

...

Vegetables

...

...

...

...

...

...

Drink

...

...

...

Furniture

2122
2223

24

23

2425
2526
2627
27

2728
2829

...

...

...

...

...

Nationalities

...

...

...

...

...

29

Colours

,.,

...

...

...

...

...

30

Money

...

8031

...

...

...

...

...

Precious stones

...

...

...

...

...

Weights and measures

...

...

...

...

...

Army and Navy


Weapons
Eoad

31
31

32

...

...

...

...

...

32

...

...

...

...

...

33

...

...

...

...
Games, amusements, &o.
Words and phrases in constant use

...

...

...

3334

...

...

...

34

,,.

...

...

3536

35

ii

Pages.
Miscellaneous questions and answers

...

Weather
...
Time of day...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Salutations, &c.

...

...

...

...

...

Dining-room

...

...

...

...

...

...

Bed-room

...

...

...

...

...

...

Boat

...

...

...

...

...

...

Office

...

...

...

...

...

...

3738
38
39

42
43
43 44
42

4446
4649

50
56

Health and sickness

...

...

...

...

...

49

Miscellaneous phrases

...

...

...

...

...

50

Part 11 Literary
Chapter

I.

Chapter

II.

Chapter

III.

Chapter

IV.

Chapter

V.

Chapter

VI.

Chapter

VII.

Chapter VIII.

Chapter

IX.

Chapter

X.

Chapter

XI.

Appendices
I.

II.

III.

...

...

...

...

The Alphabet

...

...

...

...

Homonyms

...

...

...

...

Noun

...

...

...

...

...

The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The

40

40

57121

5760
60

62

6267
6871
7174
7478
7879
7980

Pronoun

...

...

...

...

Adjective

...

...

...

...

Verb
Adverb

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Preposition

...

...

...

...

Conjunction

...

...

...

...

80

Interjection

...

...

...

...

ibid.

...

...

...

...

81

Syntax

Extracts from J4takas

...

...

...

...

Petitions

...

...

...

...

...

Extracts from the " Selections from the Records of the

Hhitdaw"

97

95
107

109

121

83

INTRODUCTION.
It

is

generally admitted that the

to study, and

when there

competent teachers, the

are

few

Burmese language

be encountered and overcome

The method

appears to be considerably enhanced.

Burmese has yet


yet to be worked

to be systematised,

up with that

cessfully applied to

But before

of India.

must

some

try his best to study

and vernacular languages

consummation

brought about, one

is

Burmese according

The Burmese language can be made

l^as

which has been suc-

critical spirit

from a philological stand- point.

of teaching

and Burmese literature

of the classical

this

and very few

suitahle text-books

difficulty to

is difficult

to his

interesting

own

lights.

by studying

it

Philology means, of course, the

science which traces the origin and development of a language,

and indicates

its

Burmese

relationship to others.

a Turanian

is

language as contradistinguished from an Aryan language, and


belongs to that family of languages which has been described as

Thibeto-Burman.
ing

its

Some

A language,

like

long career of development

an organism, grows, and dur-

many

accretions cling to

of these accretions are thoroughly assimilated

and become

part and parcel of the organic growth, while others


their nature of foreign excrescences.

will illustrate this remark.

two words,

gj

The expression

The expression means

offering or to exercise charity.

main a

Now

still

gjal^s is

common word

8|gQii

of

(PMi or Sanskrit

to give as

the word

made up

al^s

a charitable

will ever re-

foreign excrescence and refuse to get assimilated.

take the

retain

The following examples

(Chinese lu) to give, and alh

3]^) giving or a gift.

it.

Then

This occurs as 8a5o in an old lithic

inscription of the twelfth century A.P,

It is

made up

of

two

ii

words 8$?
Thus,

8cS (Shan g) a wife,

woman

in

Burmese

and then in her capacity

+ q = (Thibetaa o)

conceived

is

first in

a mother.

her capacity as wife

Both the constituent parts

as mother.

composing the word 8$ so are Turanian in their naturfe and they


get thoroughly assimilated.

It

may

be said that these are tauto-

each of the component parts generally expresses the

logical, as

one and the same

idea.

But

in a state of society

difPerent tribes, such a stratification of

Each

section or tribe

must have

language was inevitable.

peculiar dialect, and their

must have the same tendency

living together

well defined strata in geology.

Tavoy localism)

(a

its

to bring,

composed of

as the formation of

Other instances, namely, a^cooaS

^=S

fate, 33Gogcj>ig,D(yoco^D a question, all

to look, godSo to assist,

oo@g3

tend to cori'oborate the above

view.

Allusion has been

made above

to the existence of

Pali derivatives in the Burmose language.

It is a

San skrit and

moot qu estion

whether priority should be accorded to one or the other.

There

however, reason to infer from the evidence available that San-

is,

skrit derivatives

before Pali was

known

Buddhism

the form of
of the

were introduced into the Burmese language long


in

Burma.

first

This evidence also shows that

introduced into this country was that

Northern School, which was subsequently absorbed and

assimilated

by the Southern School.

Like the Chinese, Thibetan, and other languages, Burmese


monosyllabic language,
every root

is

i.e.,

to say,

every word in

it is

is

a root, and

a word, each word consisting of a single syllable or

monosyllable to which a particle, and not an independent word


may be prefixed as in oools a door oo^^s power or glory sood
;

food.

cal

sentence

relationship

is

is

but an allocation of words whose grammatidetermined by their

respective

positions.

iii

The grammatical apparatus being thus


of the
first

deficient, the

Burmese language may be divided

The words

and those

like brick or stone,

the second, verbs

of speech, including particles,

placed in the third group.

The

into three groups.

group would include nouns and pronouns

and the remaining parts

vocabulary

would be

two groups are

in the first

in the third are like

cements the building materials together.

mortar which
apparent that

It is

most of the words in the third group were independent words at


one time, and that they have been ground down to their present

form through years

of attrition.

An

namely, that of goo 5, a Burmese honorific


transcribed as

changed to

means

o,

great,

Owing

tS.

and thus
and the

done by a great. personage

was originally

may
is

be taken to

that any action

necessaxily a great action,

is

to

adopt the ana-

Each expression should be analysed

method.

vowel a was

In Chinese ta

ta.

mean

In studying Burmese, one of the best ways


lytical

be cited,

This should be

affix.

to Bengali influence, the

this td

affix

may

instance

into its

com-

ponent parts; the relationship between these words, whether that


of allocation or agglutination, should be determined,

and the

gin o each word should be traced as far back as possible

ori-

and

its

phonetic changes and gradual development should also be noted.


If this method

is

followed,

Max

i,'tteresting tales.

we can make some

of the words tell us

Miiller has proved conclusively that the

English word daughter assumes in Sanskrit the form

milkmaid.
it

of

When

must have been

this

word came into

in a pastoral condition.

cows or goats, which

it

was the duty

family to milk every morning.

word

"

Mranmd," the national

can be made to

use, the people

tell

duliitCi,

who used

They had large herds


of the daughter of each

Similarly the derivation of the


appellation of the

an interesting

tale,

Burma

is

Burmese

known

race,

to the

iv

people of Bengal as Brahmodesh, which


the Pali designation " Brahmadesa

Brahma, the Creator

or the region or country of

"

Hindu

of the

Bengali form of

th^"

is

Now

Triad.

interchangeable in the Indo-Chinese languages,

became Mrahma and the

letter h being,

into

by

and y are interchangeable,

so

system of Chinese transliteration each word

is

syllables to suit the genius of the language

Mien (= Myam)

or

myan

always spoken of as

(g|c^Ss

neighbours, the Chinese

C3CO

=
=

Mran-ma, while

Mramma-desa

word g?oj

ma.

we

so

{a

the couatry of the

and

The Burmese

Prome

to the

is

the

to their
fo

rm
@g

of the

another form of

it is

another form of

is

Pyi

Prom

infer that

Frome means

= g^ =

pran

of the

and Burmese history

Mranmds

tells

arose and attained

the derivation of the above two words

Burma is the meeting-point

namely, that of India and of China

of

two

civilizations,

that the Mongoloid tribes

which were eventually amalgamated into a


first

known

Therefore,

call it

same source

a tribe called the

political eminence.

we may

Myan,

Both the Talaing and Burmese forms

Brahm.

that at

Burma

The derivation

Brohm

Again,

o being interchangeable).

word are traceable


VIS

form

works written in Pali the form

invariably occurs.

name Brohn.

the city of Brahma.


brail

get the

intimately connected with that of the word JProrne.

is

the Talaing

In the

and in Burmese prose we get the


in

cut up into mono-

In Burmese poetry

This word should be spelt Prohm, because

Brahm

Now,

Myammi.

national appellation by which the Burmese are

g^oD

changed

assimilation,

we get the form

are

and Brahm&,

word Mrahma assumed the form Mramma.

the

and

political society, Avere

brought under the influence of Hindu colonists who wor-

shipped

Brahma

and that the centre of Brahmanical influence

Burma was Prome.

in

In
other

a language,

stiidyinn,'

system of translating

tlie

a very good practice.

is

It

as the results obtained have

and

it

into an-

makes ns think in two languages,


had

to he achieved

by much

la-

bour and racking of brains, words, phrases, idioms, and the nicelanguage are retained in

ties of

otir

The great thing,

memory.

however, to be borne in mind in translation

is

that one should try

and place himself as much as possible in the same position


In

writer of the original.

this

way, the

as the

and energy

spirit

of

expression of the original would be retained in the translation.

Most students do

not, however, try to do so,

deavour to make the required rendering as

and the

result is that the translation

is

and generally en-

literally as possible;

not only tame, but hardly

conveys the thoughts and ideas of the writer in an intelligible

and

felicitous

At

manner.

One may

the present time, there are two kinds of Burmese.

be called Lower- Burma Burmese, and the other Upper-Burma Burmese.

The Burmese

of

Lower Burma,

in

some

places,

would be

something like the Prenoh patois in Jersey and the Channel


Islands

it

is

corrupt,

mese, however,
towns.

The

is

still

and

is

The pure Bur-

almost a jargon.

preserved in

chief characteristics of

Upper Burma

in the larger

Upper-Burmese

style are its

conciseness, the absence of dispensable particles and affixes,


its

comprehensive expressiveness, grace, energy, and elegance.

The Lower- Burmese


particles,

and want
of

and

and

differs

style is

from the other

of brevity.

Burmese can

tween the two

very diffuse

Any

readily

is

it

abounds in useless

style in its laboured simplicity

one with a tolerably good knowledge

distinguish the

marked

difference be-

styles.

The popular impression amongst


language

devoid of literature.

foreigners

This

is

is

that the

not true.

Burmese

It has

an ex-

vi

poetry

is

icnsivc literature, and

may

its

exceedingly beautiful, and

be compared favourably with that of other nations.

The

cheerfulness of the people, their healthy and peaceful enjoyment


of

their loyalty to sovereign authority, their devotion to their

life,

religion

and

institutions,

and the beautiful influence which Bud-

has exercised over their mind and character, are faithfully

dlii,sm

pourtrayed in their literature, and especially in their poetry.


it is

to

be hoped that more prominence may' be given to Burmese

literature in the curriculum of studies

To become a Burmese

scholar, a

iii

the province.

knowledge

of Pali

an intimate one.

on Pali

mese

literature,

studies

Burmese

Burmese

is

essential,

to a large extent based

and, without an acquaintance with Pali, Bur-

would not be

classics

literature

is

two languages

for the connection between the literatures of these


is

And

of

much

interest.

In

fact, to

study

without a knowledge of Pali, wou.ld be like

attempting to read and appreciate Milton without knowing

about the Bible and the mythology of Greece and Pome.

much

PART I.-COLLOQUIAL.
KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION.

Consonants.
oo

>

'k

aspirated.

tard.

-)

Tinaspirated.

ng

as in Za??^, English.

unaspirated as in spirit.

so

's

aspirated as in saw, sea.

go

00

00

m zenith.

as

as in

unaspirated.

semr, Corunha.

[ 't

aspirated.

'd

as in

OD

dawn.

as in napkin.

unaspirated.

'p

aspirated.

as

>

m SmZ^.

as in

oa

as in yes.

Gi

as in rural.

^1

as

mamma.

m lovely.

OD

th as in thaw.

oo

^/i

as in thee.

CO

as in heaven.

as in weather.

Note. There are no English equivalents


mayj however, be transliterated as follows
:

rmesG.

for certain combinations in

Burmese,

They

NUMERICAL NOTATION.

Time.
English.

The Heavens concluded.


English.

Earth concluded
English.

9
Sea.

English.

11

Persons, Relationships,

12

Persons, Eelationships, &c


English.

Bridegroom

Burmese.

13

Members op the Body continued.


English.

14

Members op the Bodt


English.

-concluded.

15

Movements of the Body


Burmese.

English.

Swim

...

Moat
...
To shoulder
...
To carry in the arms
To carry on the head
To carry on the back
Ride
Drive

To

strike

continued.
Transliteration.

GqojsoD^

...

Ye-ku:^M

o^cSgoIod^

...

Ko-'paw-^M

ooso3^

...

'Tan:^M

^o5oo^ or c^oOd^

...

Paik-thi or pwe-#M

gioSco^

...

Ywet-thi

...

ioo^ or ocj^g^soo^ ... Po:^M or g6n:po:^M


soo^
... Si:^M

...

godSsoo^

with the ogoSoo^

...

Maung:^M

...

Twet-thi

elbows sideways.

To

strike with

the goodSsco^

elbows downwards.
To strike (with the o^soo^
fist).

Slap

..

...

'Taung:fM

'To:^

16

Movements of the Body


English.

concluded.

Ailments
English.

17

concluded.

18

Weaking Apparel concluded.


Eii<;lish.

19

Professions, Trades, &c.-

21

Birds
English.

22

concluded.

23

24

Articles ov Commerce
English.

concluded.

Food
English.

26

concluded.

Fetjit
Jinghsh.

27

concluded

28

Drink concluded.
English.

30

31

Monet concluded.
English.

32

Weights and Mbasdiies concluded.


English.

Burmese.

35

Games, Amusements, &c


English.

concluded.

Burmese.

Transliteration.

Lottery

...

08

Dice

...

33^03

...

An-za

Dominoes

...

O^SC^OO

...

Th6n:b6n-bfe:

Cards

CO

...

T6:

Play at cards
Squares

...

'Pfe:yaik-thi

CtJ|DS

...

Kya:

...

Sit-da-yin

'Ti

Chess

Checkmate

...

'Kwe-thi

..

...

Sa:thi

Pootball (Burmese)

...

Chin:16n:

Capture a piece

Play football

...

Chin:16n:'kat-thi

Cycling

ooScSsSs

...

Set-bein:zi:

Hunting

33^C^o5

...

A-m5:laik

Shooting

Gooo5oS

...

Thin-nat-pyit

...

Byaw-bwfe:za:

Picnic

Words and Phrases


Yes

...

in constant use.

ocjoSra or o^oSoooS*

No
Very well

GOD3Ss(

This

^03Gp;iCX>^

*<XlOll3l

That

Many

ten terms.
;

cxiDS

33Gp
Gg|S

Ma-hok-'pu:

Kaung:byi
1-a-ya, or thi-ha, or

OgoSogDJGOOO *

on

OOc80OD8

words are but


Thus 00c5 := 00^ ;

colloquial

GC03

ocS

goddS

= 0^;

c^
;

TM-go-la-ge

Ho-go-thwa:

'Twet-thwa:daw
La-ge or Laik-la-ge

Myan-myan-lok

Tha-di-'ta:

Yii-thwa:

00^ orS=z^;

ooc^ii odg^-i

= c^SgssdS

da

'To-a-y4 or hb-ha

naodifications, generally in pronunciation, of


the writ-

cod5 or c^o5ooDb

Take care
Take away

(^

,.

Come here
Go there
Go away
Come along
Be quick

Kok-ke or hok-te

...

= co^^g

c^

^o

c^ = cx>^ii

J.S

^=

goooii gc[3
;

ODD or ol

C^;39S=:88-1

GOOD

ODD

oo^oacp

=
=

=cocS
j

q5

Words and Pheases


English.

36

in constant tse

Burmese.

concluded.

37

Miscellaneous Questions and Answers.


English.

Burruese.

Can (you) speak


Burmese ?

Transliteration.

@?od

ooods ooo5 cxdcq^s


or cxjodc^ cgDODcScx)

dat-tha-la:

coDsii

Yes, a little

What
(He)

...

did he say

?...

would

said (he)

Mya-ma-sa-gaitat-t hala: or Ba-ma-lo-pyaw:

^'^oocSooc^

...

N5:nfe:tat-te

ajooDGgDcoco

...

Thu-ha-pyaw:;(^a-lfe:

cgDsac^db

...

Thwa:me-de

^dsoo^odcods

...

Na:lfe-tha-la:

go.

Do you

understand
partly

(I) do,

Did you not


No,

sir, (I)

What can
(you)

...

hear?...

did not

do for

(I)

Ta-cho-ta-wet-na:-l^-d6

og^sOi^scoDg

...

Ma-kya:hu:la:

ogDso^o5oloSc}|Di

...

ooc^^oog|^ocx)

...

whom

Ma-kya:laik-pa-'kinbya:

Bfe-p6n-ma-za-y a

m a-

Ife:

wish to serve the


Government.

(I)

To

co^ooooS^dsod^oocS

does (this)

A-so:ya-a-hmu-daw-

Gs^sqM^^GooSooSsgS

'tan:gyin-ba-d5

olcx)o6ii

cooSo^^Soocb

....

Bfe-thu-paing-f/^a-lfe:

ooc^ogDsoc^cx)

...

B^-thwa:ma-lo-lfe:

going home

gSSc^c^dsgoooocS

...

Ein-go-thwaidaw-me

How many times

ooc^j>8)lG(y3G|ocb

...

Be-hna-'ka-pyaw:ya-ma

belong

Where

you go-

are

ing?
(I)

am

now.

must

(I)tell

(you)?

Don't be angry,
for I

How

sir,

forgetful.

far is

going

As

am

he

8cSos^gol^^o6<5|Ds go

Seik-ma-'so:-ba-ne-'kinbya:-me-dat-lo-ba

ooc^c^olii

ojcooSaacS ogDso eg

Thii-be-a-'ti-thwa:ma-

CO"

far as

\h:

Mandalay

\q-\h:

o^gcos Gspo5 gs^dS

Man:da-le:-yauk-aungthwa:ma-lo

ogDsocgii

When

did he arrive?

cxjoooSccooGcpoSoDco

Thu-be-daw-yauk-tha1^:

(He) arrived just


now.

^aSoocxjcspoScooS

...

Gu-din-ga-bfe:yauk-t^

Who

ac^ooajcgsoora

...

Da-lo-ba-lu-pyaw:^Aa-

says so

...

38

Miscellaneous Questions and Answers concluded.


English.

They

all

Burmese.

say so

Transliteration.

aj{c^33:)8oqs3C^G(yD[^

How

deep

is it ?

Eour fathoms
Whose pony is

My

pony,

...

this

C30GOODo5^ dScOCO

Ba-lauk-net-tha-le:

GCOgCQ^oSoDcS

Le:lan-net-te

Da-ba-lu-myin:le:

sir

Tliu-do-a:16n:-da-lo-

pyaw:gya-da-b^:

ODDCXJII

c^^gcodQSsoIoScjIds

,,

Kyun-daw-m y i n b a

'kin-bya:

Weather.
(It) is

very warm..,

(It) is

very close

(It) is

very windy...

..

(It) is very rainy

..

Te-aik-te
coc6gcx)c8o5odo5

Te-le-teik-te

cooSgcoc^o5cooS

Te-ie-taik-te

cooS^sg^DODc6

cloudy

(It) is

raining hea-

(It) is

Te-mo:ywa-de
Mo:-6n-de

i^SCO^gG^COoS

Mo:the:ue-de

^s Gg3o5

Mo:'pyauk-'pyauk-ywa-

vily.

(It) is drizzling

G^orS 2.0Q^

oooSii

(It)

has stopped rain-

^sc8o5g or ^sbg

ne-dh
Mo:teik-pi

o)'

mo:

bi
(It) is cold

breeze

cold

is

qSsoooS

Chan:de

GODg33SC^o5g^00cS

Le-e:taik-ne-de

blowing.
(It)

beginning to

is

^Io:ywa-za-pyu-bi

rain.

rains have commenced.

The

The rainy weather

Mo:kya-bi
Mo:u-du-k6n-bi

is

over.
(It) is
(It)

hot today

...

(It) hails

(It) is
(It)

OG^C|JO0cS

foggy

was

day.

fair yester-

Ga-ne-pu-dfe

Mo:ch6n:d5

thunders
^goSs;(c200oS

Mo:tl)i:kyv,e-de

j>SgGOO0c5

IIuin:we-de

Q G ^OD G ^ CODCOt5

Ma-ne-ga-ne-tha-de

si:

39

Time oe Day.
English.

The day

Bui'mese.
is

breaking

Transliteration.

^scoSsogg

Mo:lin:za-pyu-bi

Just at sunrise

Ne-'twet-sa-ga

Early in the morning

Ma-net-saw:zaw:

What time was it ?


What o'clock is it ?
It is eight o'clock

It

is

half -past six

It

is

early

is

...

late (afternoon)

It is late (night)

Bfe-a-chein-ga-lfe:

coo5j>S^D^^ora

Be-hna-na-yi-shi-ba-le:
Shit-na-yi-shi-bi

...

It is late (forenoon)
It

O0oS33^$CXIcb

G@0o5^D^^@

Saw:-d&

G^gSg

Ne-myin-bi

G^?.^g

'Ne-nh-.hi

;^in-net-pi

...

It

is

noon

It

is

about midnight

cx)5sg315gcodo5^

past midnight

oo^SGolScoqjSg

It is

Come

in

Chauk-na-yi-gwfe:shi-bi

GODOOCS

Mun:te-bi

the

,,,

Tha-gaung-lauk-shi-bi

Tha-gaung-kyaw-bi
Mun:ma-te-gin-la

fore-

noon.
Is

in the forenoon

it

It

Mun:-ma-te-gin-la:

was only in the


afternoon.

g^gc^g 8cooS or ^G$


GODSsyjgScooS or $s
c8gg^Socio5ii

Mun:lw5:hma-'pyit-te
or na-ne-saung:hma'pyit-t5 or mun:tein:
hma-'pyit-te

It has struck nine...

It
It

is

nearly four

is

already dark,,,
half

It will take

...

c^s^o^c^sg

Ko:na-yi-'to:bi

Gco8->:D^c^soq(

Le:na-yi-'to:lu-bi

g^dSQ

Hmaung-bi

c^oooo^gDcSSooS

..

Ne-ta-wet-kya-lein-me

day.
(I) will stay

here the

whole day.
He will be back

at

breakfast time.

ooc^^oqsS^DG^o^

o?.o5coqS?o3s^^o;j@$

G^poScSSocSn

Ta-ne- 16n:di-ma-ne-m&

Ma-net-'ta-min: sa:
gyei

n-thu-pyan-

yauk-lein-m5

He

is

coming in time

for dinner.

He

was up

at

qod^g33d8

oijcoocSS

ocoii

dawn

aa^coS odoSoo oj cxjg^


cooSii

]^a-za-hmi-aun g
la-lein-m5
A-yon-det-ka-t h
ne-d5

h u-

ti -

'ta-

Time of
English.

40

Day concluded.

Burmese.

He came before dawn

Transliteration.

33^aS ococSaSzqoDD

A-yon-ma-tet-'kin-tM-

oocSii

Irt-de

Will he come again


this evening ?

sj^g^cxjcod^socods

...

Gu-iia-ne-th u
ma-la:

Did he say he was


coming this even-

;gG.?,a;[coDo6bco3s

...

Gu-fia-ne-thu

ing

He

-la

6 n

-ma

de-la:

was com-

said he

ing at sunset.

g^oS^^ oodocSc^

Ne-win-gyein-la-mfe-lo-

ajj

thu-pyaw: de

cgDcoc^ii

Age.

What

33odoSodoS GcoDo5^odb

A-tliet-ba-lauk-shi-ba-

were you
born ?

oooSo^sooGgsoora

Be-don: ga-mwe: tha-

be twenty
next June.

G^g)$co oq)S|S33ooo5
j>5coo5g^ooSii

is

(your) age

le:

When

Ih:

(I) shall

He

now but in

is

prime

How
son

(He)

of

old
?

...

the

cxjsjgoag^cSGooDSso^s

She

- zun-la-kya-yin-athet-hna-'se-pye-mfe

...

(your)

ooDsoocSGcaDoSgsoc^

Tha:ba-lauk-kyi: ba-le:

ooc6|iScoDgcxiD ^gods

'Se-linit-tha:iM-shi-the:

only ten

is

...

dh

cooSii

He

kaung: d6n:

life.

is

Thu gu -ma- a-ywe-

appears

young

for his age.

oj^co^cxxtS cc(^

Thii-//ii-det-n g fe-b 6 nya-dfe

g[

cooSii

He has a very youth-

cxjcooSa^g^oScoSoooS...

Thu-te-a-ywe-tin-de

oSscracoos^cgooDDs

Min-a-'pe-o-hla-ba-la:

ful appearance.
Is your father very
a2;ed

(He

is

...

about seventy q^SaooSicoDnS^g

...

'Kun-hna-s5-lauk-s h

i-

bi

The old man

hale

very

is

still

and

aac^slc^sooDcqi^so^i^soD
odcSo^gcosooc^ii

A-'po:gyi:ha-kyan:gyan:
ma-ma-b5:shi-i/ie:dfe

strong.

Salutations, &o.

Are you well?


Are you quite well

now

od&^co^s
sjgoodSs goodSs
02^211

...

odo

Ma-ye-la:

G u-ka ung:gaung:m4ba-la:

41

Salutation, &o.

continued.

Burmese.

English.

Transliteration.

How is your family ?

oDD8aooDsaD[co3s

Tha:ma-ya:ma-ye-la:

(They) are

333soqsoD@ol|^

A:16n:ma-gya-ba-ye

oSg^cqjDr^ocooi

Min-ni-pyauk -pa-la:

cnSoDDo1g

Thet-tha-ba-bi

oooScepolcS

B6-yaw:ga-lfe:

cSic^ijiasoooS

L5:lo-'pya:dfe

pGoicpSsd^s @8g$

Hna-zi:chaung:zo:'pyitne-d^

all

Has your

well

younger

brother recovered

(He)

is

What

improving...

ailment

is it ?

(He) had fever after


a

fall.

(He)

suffe

is

ring

cold and

from

cooSn

cough.
It

a long time since


I have seen (you).

is

I saw (him) in good

oGcgqoobgDcgg

Ma-twe-ya-da-kya-hlabi

oDODgjDqDocgbooc^i

..

Ma-ma-cha-gyk-t

Sit

down

My

compliments
your parents.

Have you

e-

o^Sol

to

aSsScoi^Dgc^ ^cBso::^
c^o5o|

breakfast-

time for

just in
dinner.

'Taing-ba

...

ed?
...
Not yet
(You) have arrived

What will (you)


take

ge-de

health.

i -

b a-mya:go-

hn6k-'set-laik-pa

ii

o^o5odods8oco3s

Ma-net- sa-sa:pi:ba-la:

ooDsqGcxDgoqs

Ma-sa:ya-if^e:bu:

^odcds^^j-SosgooSc^

]!?

GGpoSoDDcocSn

a - z a-s a: gyein-ne-ataw-b^: yauk-la-d^"

cododsoco

Ba-sa:ma-15:

gso%S8goooc56\

'Se:leik-thauk-pa

Have a

cigar

....

more

coo5ooo5q^GcoDo5oo3D! La-'pet-ye-thauk-ma-la:
oogDso^ol^gooDS
...
Tha-gya:yu-ba-6n:la:

I don't like
sweet.

my

oooSoooS

This tea

very

Will you take tea

Have some

sugar.

is

tea

strong.
It

g^^^

^4 "^

=q

is late (forenoon),
I must take leave
of you.

I'a-'pet-ye-cho-gyo-makyaik-'pu:

SodcS ooo5 g^^ cocS cq


cooS

Di-la-'pet-ye-te-kya-de

G^gScgguogDjcia^socS

Ne-myin-hla-bi-tliwa:

ya-6n:me
6

42

Salutation, &c.
English.

Go

concluded.

Burmese.

(as a polite reply

Transliteration.

Thwa:ba-6n:daw

ogDSola^sGooo

to foregoing).

P lease

send for a car-

riage.
(I)

for

(your) prosperity.

come again

qjSscxo

't a:

a -'iaw-kaing:

Chan: tha-ba-ze-lo-ne-

oIgoc^g^c^Si

daing: myit-ta-po-bade

go^d^oIoocSii

G^DoSooolcoDsfjsQcS

DiNING-BOOM.
Set the table

Ya

laik-san:ba

oln

wish daily

(I) shall

Gfo:> oa g oI^ S s c^o5o

..

Nauk-ta-'ka-la-6n:me

43

Dining -eoom
English,

concluded
Transliteration,

Burmese.

Pour (me) a cup

of

tea

cooSoooSq^cogoSoo^

La-'pet-ye-ta-'kwet-'t
laik-san:

c^oSoSsii

Bring me a boiled egg goSggoSooo^soqb

...

Kyet-u-by6k-ta-16n:yu-

Take

SgoSgojogDs

...

Di-kyet-u-yu-thwa:

ooosgoSoooSara

...

'Sa:gwet-b5-ma-16:

8o8co?(g3scSc^o5

...

Di-pa-gan-bya:le:laik

egg away

this

Where

the salt-

is

cellar ?

Change

this plate

...

Bring another plate

olgoa^gDsooqSooSoflb

Pa-gan-bya:

hat

'tat-yu-ge

Bring

fork and

oG[S).ooD8o;;[b

'Ka-yin:ne-da:yu-ge

So?8od|o^;cx3dooSo38,..

Di-pa-gan-16n:ha-ma-

knife

This cup

is

not clean

sin-bu:

Wash

it

This

table-cloth

properly

...

is

gcodSsgcodSsgoosc^oS

Kaung:gaung:'se:laik

Soos^oSsgoSg

Di-sa-bw&:gin:nit-pi

...

soiled

Take out that bottle


Bring (me) a cigar

Where is
box

the match-

c^c^asSsojoScQoS

Ho-pa-lin:'t6k-laik

G3osc8Sooc8Sa;|b

'Se:leik-ta-leik-yu-ge

^8q]ScxioSocx)

Ml:gyit-b5-ma-15:

SsqSo^oSoSs

Mi:chit-laik-san:

Strike a

match

..

Bed- ROOM.

Where is the blanket?

godSodcSscS

Saung-be-ma-16:

This bedroom

S^Ss^soojioScgojs

Di-eik-' kan:ma-kyfe-hla

c84,5gjo5c^o5o'Ss

'Pa-nat-chut-laik-san:

G@cx35qcoo5c^o5

Chi-din-gon-go-'pfe-laik

is

not

bu:

very roomy

Take off (my shoes)


Put the footstool
aside

Hang up tjiis

coat...

Ssaf^c^^coDsc^oS

Di-in:gyi-go- 'sw^:'ta:
laik

Put

drawer

tsagdb^D og5scoDsco5

An-zwe: d5:ma-thwin:

it

in the

'ta:laik

out
towel

Take

clean

^joSj-DoqcSoolsaccScxjcS

Myet-hna-thok-pa-waa-thit-'tok

U
Bed-room con eluded.
(

English.

Hang
Open

it

Burmese.

out to dry

the door

Shut the door

Leave

Open
Keep

a^o5cg5scQr>5

'T6k-hlan:laik

coolgcgSo^oS

Ta-ga:'pwin-laik

c6o1s8oSc^o5

Ta-ga:peik-laik

a jar

...

ODoooso^oS

Ha-'ta:laik

window

...

(yooSgcoloScgS

Pa-din:bauk-'pwin

CD^5oo58o5oODS

Ta-yok-kat-peik-'ta:

ooGooD6sc^6cg$8o^o5...

'Pa-yaung:daing-'tun:

(it)

the

Transliteration.

the Venetians
shut

Light the candle

. .

laik

Light the lamps

Mi:ein-mya:go-'tun:laik

...

Trim the wick


Turn up the light...
Turn the light down
a

Mi:za-hnyat-laik

Mi:hmyin-laik
Mi:ne:n6:hmein-laik

little.

Where

GQo5scx)o5oro

Pvaun;:be-ma-le:

The chimney is
smoking

:;(yDSsoo8g^gcgo5G|,cooS

PYaung:ga-mi:go:'twet
ue-de

Extinguish the light

s58co5 or SsgoSc^oS

Mi: nein:

ney

the chim-

is

laik or mi:

hmok-laik

Put down the mos-

gScooDSqc^oS

...

Chin-daung-cha-laik

quito curtain

am going to bed
Wake (me) early to(I)

aSScpoScoooQcS

...

4>o5cs^cilGO3G0D003|sra.

morrow.

Where do

Do you

Net-'pan-gH" saw:zaw:la

hno:hle

(you)sleep? cx3oSyD335oDcb

Are you a light


sleeper

Eik-ya-win-daw-me

...

Pe-ma-eik-tha-lfe:

oSso85coo5c^coDg

...

Min:eik-'sat-ke-la:

eSsGcoDoScocScocoDS

..

Min:hauk-tat-tha-la:

snore

Let (him) come

in...

oScODoGCOGO

Win-la-ba-le-zi

Boat.

Let us go by

boat...

Get the oar-boat


ready

Gcg^.CgD|(^

H]e-ue-thAva:gya-zo

soSccyc^gSc^oS

'Kat-]ile-go-pyin-laik

45

continued

Boat
English.

Where
boat

the paddle-

GC^SgoJCO oSgDtX)

Hlaw-hle-b5-ma-lo:

OcSoOo5(^ DSO^OjjSloCODS

'Kat-tet-mya:go-yu-ge

Have

(you) brought
the oars ?

Can

Transliteration.

Burmese.

is

(you)

ba-la:

the Gojc^ ^o5c^o5ooc8cocoDS

sail

boat?
Bring the steering

Hle-go

-ywet-taik-

tat-tha-la:
oooo5a^5>

Pe-det-yu-ge

paddle

Have you brought


rudder

Let us start
Get on the bow ...
Put it on the stern

Go up
Go down

O3o5olc300DDS

Tet- mSb-fa-tha-lk:

the river

ogoSgg

'Twet-kya-zo

SsGoTc^oooS

C:baw-go-tet

OGoTyOODDSC^oS

Pe-baw-ma-'ta:laik

Myit-ko-'san-thwa:

. .

Myit-ko-s6n-laik

the river...

Cross to the

Ho-bet-kan:go-ku:

other

bank
Stop at this landing

Di-'seik-ma-'saik

Row

Kyat-kyat-'kat

hard

Paddle

Enter

fast

this creek

...

There is a sandbank
ahead
Is the tide running

up or down ?
Get alongside the
bank
Is this boat steady
(It) is

boat

made

is

of

Myan-myan-hlaw

Sg^dSsc^oS

Di- chaung go- win

Gg^^DGOODSgSoOSJ^OOoS

Sbe-ma-thaung- b y i n

this

GQODo5

G^OOCOOSII CqjG^

ODCOD8II

Di-ye-te fc-ne-^fe-la :kyane-^Aa-la:

Di-hle-nein-ye-M
GG^C^CXlcS

Ye-yo-d6

SccgcoscoDScx)

Di-hle-ba-tha:le:

Pin-lfe-go-'twet-hnaing
tha-la:

sea?
it

not sink?

Can you

sv\rira ?

Kan:na:kat

Can you go out to


Will

ta-'ku-shi-dS

leaky

What wood

g^g^GogS

...

GC[og5o:||?CX)D8

Ye-ma-my6k-'pu:la:

...

GC|jsooo5o:coDS

Ye-ku:dat-tha-la:

46

B OAT concluded
English.

Unfurl

Burmese.

Have

|o5g|c^o5

...

Ywet-'pyan-laik

midstream

g:;ioooSc^o2Sc^o5

...

Te-le-go-'pwin-taik

brought

ccgDoSajsols^ccDs

...

Kyauk-'su:pa-ye-la:

tlie sail

Sail along

yoti

an anchor
I

Transliteration,

...

have brought two,

j^SraoSololaoSaScjjDs...

Hna-let-pa-ba-de-'kin-

c^(^scod^Sooo3ds

by a:
Ho-kyo: ha-'kaing-ba-

sir

Is that rope strong

enough

When

...

ma-la:

shall

we

to the village

get

i3c^ oooSgcoo GcpoSoo

Ywa-go-b^-daw-yauk

con

pa-ma-lfe:

Ophce.
Bring a lead pencil

S)c6ajS>

...

'Kfe:dan-yii-ge

Sharpen

go5GoDD5g|^c^o5

...

Di-hnget-taung-chun-

this quill...

laik

Where

my

is

holder

pen-

c1odgcod5c6ooc5qco

...

Nga-ka-laung-dan- b

fe-

ma-le:

Bring a pen also ... oDGODDSoo^sc^b


...
This pen is too blunt, oDGoo36o^scg?gcooSg)$
gi$oDsj33oDsa^&ii
change it for a sharp
pointed one

Ka-laung-lfe:yu-ge

Sharpen

Y6n:da:ga-le:thwe:laik

the

desk-

^soo^sooGcosGogsc^oS

Di-ka-laung-t6n:lun:de
Chun-gyun-ta-'ku-asa:
yu-ge

knife
rill these ink bottles

8o qooSs

<^

otc^

-^-"j5!i

Put ink

in both the

S@f^ Di-hmin-ba-lintmya-.o-ohmin-'pye-laik

oSo^s fh oqs ooqic^ oS

I[min-o:-hna-16n:

co^ii

pots

no red ink ?
The black ink is bad
Is there

za-

16n:go-hmin-'te

oS?a^o:;j2coDs

...

o6^o5o3Do^o5oqs

...

Hmin-ni-ma-shi-buda:
mi n-n e t- h a - a-

net-'pu:

Bring a sheet of
ting paper

Wash

this

blot-

inkpot

clean

Take out the ruler

...

o6|oo^[[OD9]5a^S>

...

Hmin-hneik-set-ku-tachat-yu-ge

q63^so^ oS gssdS goos


c^o5

Di-hmin-o:go-sin-aunff-

tjjgsooa^cxc^oS

Myin:dan-'t6k-laik

...

'se:laik

4.7

Ofpicb

has taken

Transliteration.

Ba-lu-yu-thwa:^Aa-lfe:

(it)

away ?
Go and search for

Put

continued.

Burmese.

English.

Who

Thwa:sha-gyi

(it)

near that

(it)

Ho-sa-6k-na:hma-'ta:

book
Take it away now..j
Put it down on the

laik

Yu-thwa:daw
Kyan:baw-hma-cha-'ta:
laik

floor

Copy

this letter

Di-sa-go-kii:laik

...

Give him a copy

of

ododoSdoogodSocJoO^gos

Sa-let-'kan-ta- z a

u n g-

thu-go-pe:laik

the letter

Did he apply

for

it ?

ajGcgDoSc OOOS S0DC03 s

Thu-shauk-taung: thala:

"Where

the appli-

is

cation

Shauk-hlwa-bfe-ma'l^:

QcgpcSi^DcocSocx)

Draft a reply

f^OD33(^5sGG1^80^o5

ileject this applica-

GC^Do5c5DO^OC^O^o5

...

Di-shauk-hlwa-go

pfe

laik

tion

Who

Pyan-za-a-kyan:ye:laik

is

the

appli-

Shauk-thu-ba-lu-le:

Gc^Do5a;jooojci)

cant?

Did he ever apply


before

Would he

Thu-a-yin-gaCODS

be

suit-

hauk

'pu:^Aa-la:

Thu-taw-ba-ma-la:

O^GOoScJOOODS

able?

Does he know the


work ?

Where

did he serve
previously ?

Why

did he leave

What pay

did (he)

Di-a-16k-ko-thuCODS

33oocSco oooSyaJogooSs

A-'tet-ka-be-m&-a-hmu'tan:^Aa-lfe:

ooD(^Sc^ogo5oora

Ba-'pyit-lo-'twet-tha-15:

O0OO0GOD0o5|O0d&

La-ga-ba-lauk-y a

get?

Aa

le:

Post this letter

ooc^oo^o^o5cbgD

Put a stamp on it...


Go and buy two re-

oosBSgoISsooSc^oS

ceipt stamps

na

^7?a-la:

^
...

GQoDooaSScol&SjtScjcgos
OC^G^II

Dl-sa-go- sa-bo-daik-'t6hma-'te-laik

Ta-zeik-gaung:kat-laik
Pye-za-ta-zeik-gaung:

hna-'ku-thwa:w6-gyi

^8

Oppicb

continued

Burmese.

English.

Buy

six

postage

TraDsliteration.

lialf-anna

^SJ5dsoo?odc6q85gs)16s

stamps

GgooSsjoo^sooS^ii

lc:\vc-ge

also

Has the mail

arriv-

Gq]ooDKgDgGGpc6coDocx3D

ed?

Go

Hna-pya:dan-s;i-b o - ta
zeik-gaung:cliauk-'ku

Chaw :za-mya:yauk-laba-la:

oDc^o5c^:^Ds

...

Sa-bo-daik-ko-thwa:

Don't be away long

(^DBG^Go^o

...

Kya-ma-ne-zi-ne

AVait for an answer

g^ODGODSc*

...

Pyan-za-saung-ne

When does the mail-

oDx)Gc5Doo'^Gcooago5

to the post office

steamer leave

Go and enquire
Go to the telegraph

Sa-bo-thin:baw:be-daw'twet-ma-le:

ocxiii

ogDSGosG^

...

Th\va:me:gyi

cgs^^s^c^c^Ds

...

Kyi:rian:y6n-go-tliwa:

office

Read

that telegram

c^gQs^^sodc^odoSoSs

Ho-kyi:nan:za-go-'pat

33GG|gL^So68(gao6sogDSo

A-ye: baing-min: yon:

san:

Has

Deputy

the

Commissioner

left

coD%

'sin:thwa:ba-la:

office?

When

(he)

is

ing back

com-

ooc5Goo?gcoDocb

...

Why are you so slow ?

ODD G[cgDS QGODDoS GODS

OD^ODC^II

Go

the treasury
this note

to

Be-daw-pyan-l^-ma-le:

and cash

Ba-gyauug-da-lauk

le:

gan-ya-^/?a-le:

Ggogg|[c^G5c^o5gDDgDs
cS^ii

Di-uwge- s e t - k u - g 0ngwe-daik-hma-thwa:
le:ge

Put

this

money

into

Scgc^^Sc^c&gDca^c^oS

the bag

Count

it

Di-ngwe-go

k-

't e:

ma-'te-laik

before do-

oc^35gg|o^o5.3^?

...

Ma-'te-giu-yi-laik-6n:

o3GooDo5cx)

...

Ba-lauk-le:

ing so

How much is it ?
How many bad ru...

pees are there

What

am

(I)

have no leisure

very busy

there

CODC^9)ScOCb

Ba-lo-gyin-^7a-le:

OD o5 33 0:^5 1^ D S OD c6

T5-a-16k-mya:de

033D8aj?.

Ma-a:bu:

le:

do you want

is

Ng we-a-ba-lauk-pa-^/(a

(I)

Who

Gg33coo5GcoD^^olcoco

...

Ba-lu-16:

49

Oppice
English.

concluded,

Burmese.

Sign here

...

Transliteration.

SG^spoacooS^cSo^s

...

Di-no-ya-ma-let-hmat'to:

come and

Don't

botlier

me

to-day

Bring the office-box

SoG^kcln^ooDQcpScgoS
>.

^8GcoggD9o^a;{5

...

Di-ga-ne-nga-go-la-maImaung-shet-ne
Y6n:tit-t'a-di-go-yn-ge

here
there no empty
box ?
Gather up these pa-

Is

ccogRDc^oSy^cxjjscoDs...

Tit-ta-lut-ma-shi-bu:la:

ojg|[4jDsc^o8S8c^o5

Dl-set -ku-

...

pers

my a -.g o

thein:laik

Bring an envelope...

od33o5coc8c5oC|}^

Let (him) come

^oSo^oIcxjdogcogos^s

Net-'pan-ga-la-ba-le-zion:

33^^cq]GC!oooI oDg^c^oS

A-chein-kya-da w

to-

...

morrow
(I) shall reply in

due

ocS

course

Health and
I

am not very well...


call

a doctor

Take

this

cq\8 gx-dSsgcodSs obd

did the Assist-

ant Surgeon say

Did you get

to the

gsos socp oogoddc5 ogDs

Kya-n6k-kaung:gaung:
'Se:'sa-ya- 1 a

yauk

thwa:'kaw-ge

oD3ospo$o8c^a;[ogDs...

Di-sa-'sa-ya--wun-'si-go-

yii-thwa:
aoGpo$ cogcoico ol g^d

'Sa-ya-wun-ga-le:ga-bapyaw:laik-tha-lfe:

co5cco
oj$Doo|so^G3po55i|[coDs

Lu-na-dan:go-yauk-'ke
ye-la:

hospital?

Show (me)

raa-ma-bu:

the Civil Surgeon

What

ga

Sickness.

GoTS>

letter to

sa-pyan-laik-mfe

cqs

Go and

Sa-eik-ta-eik-yii-ge

the pre-

caosoDgoSs

...

'Se:za-pya-zan:

scription

Where

is

the com-

goosgooSosodsooc^oc^

pounder ?

Ask

You

Ih:

for a renewal of

this

Di-'se:

oSascoosaaQGi^cooSGcjio

Min-a -tha: a -y e-tfe-

is

the matter

ye

't

t-

ta.ung:ge
.

'pyaw-d6

oooS

What

myo

G308Gi^t|soo5GOODSs^

mixture

are very pale ..

'Se;'paw-tha-ma:bfe-ma-

ooD@5ood&

...

Ba-'pyit-tha-16:
7

50

Health and Sickness


English,

Burmese.

Are (you) taking any


medicine

Are (you)

now

all right

ventilated

this

quarter

healthy

intermittent

it

Take

sjGqiDo5ooD3s

...

Gu-pyauk-pa-la:

og^,

gooSgcoS oooSodd

Ga-ne-taw-da w - thet
tlia-de

oooSii

oSsSSood GcooSccccgoS

oo^^ooljiSs^Ss^s^coos...

Min-ein-ha-le-win-ledwet-kaung:ye-la:
Than-^/iari-shin:shin:
shi-ye-la:

30G^5^fDGcpolooSs|[raDs

Di-a-yat-ma-yaw:

ga

kin:ye-la:

I am suffering from
an attack of jungle fever
Is

'Se:sa:ne-tha-la:

Goo^SsS^coDgu

(it) in a sanitary
condition ?

Is

...

your house well

Is

goosodsg^ooodds

a little better
to-day

Is

Transliteration.

am

concluded.

this febrifuge

g.->5q|Ds

cjjosg^cocS

33Qoo533cq]^cx)coDs

...

...

33(j|3go5G^osc^Gcx)Do5

B[nget-'pya:'pya:ne-de

A-tet-a-kya-shi-^^a-la:

Di-a-'pya:byat-'se:go-

thauk
your appetite im-

Is

paired

Try

or

33

oD?q|o5cooDDg

this tonic

oogSsqioSoooDDs

...

8 oaDsc^s goos c^ goodoS

(ggSoSs

do not
agree with (me)

These
(I)

pills

am troubled with
almost

asthma

SGaosoqs^.oco^o^s

...

'Ka-dwin:pyet-tha-la:
or a-sa:pyet-tha-la:
Di-a:do:ze:go-thaukkyi-zan:
Di-'se:-16n:ne-ma-te-bu:

goc^Ssc^:^ ciSgS^D 00
odoS

^a-daing:lo-b5:yingyat-na-'ta-de

oddg^dS godg@d6s gco

Ba-gyaung-le-byaung:

every night

Why

don't (you) go
for a

somewhere

c^GaciSoDoliaog^sraii

le-hlwfe:a-yat-ta-ba:

cliange.

ma-thwa:15:

MlCELLANEOTJS PhEASES.

What

is

the market

paddy ?
run very
prices
The
this
year
high
He trades in paddy
price of

oolsccys oogcodoS go1o5

oocou

Sa-ba:ze:ba-lauk-pauktha-15:

Sj.SoooSG'qjSGooDSsoooS

Di-hnit-t5-ze:kaung:d5

ojoolsajsoooS

Thu-sa-b4:ku:d6

...

51

MiscELLAKBOus Phrasbs
English.

Continued.
Transliteration.

Burmesfi.
I

man

Is that

a tim-

ber-trader
(I)

do not

c^c^oodooSgsISscods

...

Ho-lti-ha-thit-gaung:

oaoooSocSo^s

...

A-tat-ma-thi-bii:

...

og@ococ5o:;^s

...

...

os^^Sojs

...

as-

GcoSsoGp^ojjoocS

..,

Be-din-'sa-y4-ne-tu-d^

horo-

oS^ocaoood^s^odds

...

Min-ma-za-da-sbi-ye-

te:

know

for

a certainty

am

(I)

not sure

cannot say

(I)

Looks

an

like

Ma-pyaw:dat-'pu:
.

Ma-'so-hnaing-bti:

trologer

Have you
scope

Wby

la:

Tbis fruit
ous

Tbis

(you)

don't

bave one
'

poison-

is

Ssa c8s cod goodoS

odcjS

...

cbeap

GloasBcSaocfcSoqs

Sj.6g2G|s^sGoloooS

...

Da-a-'seik-ma-bok-'pti:

...

Di-bnit-du:yin:!^^i:

He

paw:

de

tbis year
(it)

Di-a-tbi:lia-tauk-tat-t5

oocS

Durians are

He bad

Ba-'pyit-lo-za-da-ma'pwe-^Aa-16:

cast ?

not poison

is

cx3Dg8c^O)DcoD^ooc2)

cheap...

arrived

while

mangoes were abundant


are
Mangosteens
scarce and dear
water-

Bring that

cxjjgoIgoIsiscS

...

odg[o5o8 c6o^so:jGGpo5

Tb1i-paw:baw:ya-de
Tba-yet-tlii:blaing-d6n:

thu-yauk-t5

cooS

oSgcgoSoSs^^Dsooc^

...

Min:gut-tbi:sba:d5

c^^sooDssfi^ajjb

...

Ho-mo:ga-in:gyi-yu-ge

proof coat

Does

it

rain daily

G?.cSsq8aDa>oDDs

...

Ne-daing:mo:ywa-^Aala:

When

will they start

ploughing

How many

pairs of

oxen has
plough
'
be ?
Look out for a milch

ajg^ ccoSog^DS ooo5j.5


cggs^oora

is

very

Be-daw-ga-15-sa-'tungya-ma-le:

Thu-ma-16-dun-nwa:
be-hna-shm:sbi-if/^a^^'

.^ods^dsq

oogodoS ^looSs

Sg5coSco5ooo5

No-za:na-ma-ta-gaungsba-zan:ba

ol

co^
This pony
small

oogSgooooI ooc^oog^^

...

Di-myin:t^-nge-d5

52

Miscellaneous Phrases
Englisb,

Does he

continued.
Trausliteratiou.

Burmese.

trot well

gcos odoS gcodSs goddSs

(His) head

The

mean

is

ears are inclined

Le:bet-kaung:gaung:
thwa:ye-la:

ogDsli^coDg

go16s as cocS

...

Ga\ing:a-d5

^oscgD^^GoqjooocS

...

Na-gya\v:ne:nfe:yaw-de

4]o5o^sgco5gc5^|[

..,

Myet-16n:taw-da\v-shi-

to droop

The eyes

are fairly

good

ye

Does he shy

...

His quarters
good

are

He

is

also thick-set

Has he been raced

He

does he

Tin-gya-kaung-.de

ocjoocSco^sgcwoSsodgS

Du-de-le:kaung:de

[^Soj^sodcods

...

Pyaing-bd:^/ta-la:

(5gSs^,oa|jcz^s

...

Pyaing-myin:ne-ma-tuEe-a-th\va:myo:tat-tha-

trot,

|cosq^3ii gcososoSii cqt

Hnwc:

ambling,

Gq]DSsGooDo5ii33 0Doq|ii

le:

gallop

ccj^gii

you

will

(him) for

coGcoDo5^.GGp68ocx)

sell

...

Has he a high
Of what breed
dog?

action? coo5good6sg|otds
this

is

olooDGgstHsco

...

Let-kaung:ye-la:
Da-ba-'k\ve:myo:16:

GgscSojs^. 5^s osoc^oS


GgsoSoqiooDobii

'

c^ GgsoS odsc^ odo5 66

You can

dog-

Ggsoloo^D^cocoDt

Ho-'kwe: win

z a

go

...

'Kwe:wa-t]ia-na-slii-^/?a
la:

liave that

c^GgsooGcosoj^Gcoo

...

Ho-'kwe: ga-le yu-daw

cgsoGoooSscooS

...

'K\ve:za-kaung:de

pup
It

has good points...

A.re big

game abnud-

ant in this jungle

that-pyit-laik

c^o5

(you)
fancier ?

'Kwe:ba-lu:ne-pa-go:-ame:laik- k we s a tkya-d-i-be

Kill that pariah dog

Are

Ba-lauk-ne-yaung:ma-

...

Pegu hound

Ian: do:, le: bet,

thon: gyaung: dauk,


a-tha-gya, don:

1^:

^He) is a cross betweeu ahull and


a

Thwe-dat-tha-la:

...

oooSsacgDs^scooBoDoi

Swinging walk,

What

...

bu:

What paces
know ?
canter,

look a

doesn't
racer

cogcocSoocoD;

cc&cqGcooB%aD(

GcoDgD33&@8Gc"| snoods

Di-taw: ma-a-me: gyi:


paw:ye-la:

63

Miscellaneous Phrases
Burmese.

English.

How many

beaters

are there ?

33>

Translitevation.

g^doSoood?

cooSjjiS

A-mfe: cliauk- tha-ma:


bfe-hna-yauk-slii-^Aa-

gcdo5ccSii

men on

Let the

continued.

the

outskirts beat well

ooo5$dsto oj ^ds goodSs

Let-na ga
:

-lu-mya:

kaung: gaung: chauk

GooaSssqiDoScpGon

pe-zi

Are you not


yet

He

tired

oSsoGODccso:;j?coDg

...

Min: nia-maw:

tired

is

the: bu:

la:

and pant-

cxjGODcc^o5G^g

...

Thu-maw:

GcicoSogg

...

Ye-ngat-hla-bi

lo-haik-ne-bi

mg
am

(I)

feeling very

thirsty.

Let us

rest

and take

little

tiffin

(33^

a well

Is'nt there

somewhere near
This

is

a very shady

SsoIsos^ds^d Gq<^Sso^

Are there any jungle


fowl here

'Ka-na-na: pi: n^-15-z&,sa: gya-6n: zo


a-na: ma-yedwin: ma-shi-bu: la:

Di-a-ni:

ccjjsco^g

odSo5 ooo53o^5goodSs
oocS

tree

What

oaD^Ds|i o^,coc^od ods

8yDGooD(a9o5^|[coDS

...

1 h it-pin-te-a-yeikkaung: dh

i -

Di-ma-taw: gyet-shi-yela:

foot-print

is

alcoDcgspcS

...

Da-ba-chi-ya-lfe:

this?

To whom does

this

ScgcgoSc^cxioj^ScDora

Di-mye-gwet-ko-ba-lupaing-^Aa-15:

piece of land beIons'?


^o

Can

(you) show (me)

its

boundaries

landholder a
cultivator?

Is the

Has he sublet

it ?

Gg^c?3o5ci]3Sc^

g^6| Mye-ne-na-meik-mya:
go-pya-hnaing-ye-la:

ooos

Ggj^SoDDoocSooaDscoDs

Mye-shin-ba-l^-^/jd-ma:
1^-

cgc^cMsoSgl sodsodoods

My e-go-ta-'sin

h n g a:

sa: fha-la,:

What

is

of this

What

is

the outturn

ScooSoo ool?

paddy field ?
(its) sowing

cgoSoocg)

capacity

Go and call the


groom

ca

gcodoS

i^sools odo5j^5cq5s

'twet-tha-le:

gc^

^d^
gSscS^sc^ogDscoTt"

Di-lfe-ga-sa-ba: ba-lauk-

Myo:

sa-ba: be-hna-tin:

kyi: ya-i^^a-lfe:
...

Myin: dein:
'kaw-ge

go-thwa:

54

Miscellaneous Phrases continued.


English.

Burmese.

Get the carriage

Transliteration.

la-'ta: pyin-laik

G[CODS[y8c^o5

ready
Is tliere

room

stable

CODS

Has

the pony been


given his feed ?

Do not water him yet


Harness him now
Drive to

Myin:zaung: ma-ne-ya-

in the

...

post

the

shi-the:ye-la:

gSsC^330DG^s(SOCODS

Myin: go-a-sa-kywe:pi:
ba-la:

GqOC^o5^o3^S

Ye-ma-taik-ne-6n:

OD^gaD^SOODSoScOOO

Ka-gyo: ta-za-sin-daw

odi^cSoSc^godSs

Sa-bo-daik-ko-maung:

office

Turn
Turn

to the right

to the left

Drive straight

on

Let-ya-bet-ko-hle

...
...

OD o5 b 00 06 c^ c 0^

Let-we: bet-ko-hle

...

ooj^oq^godSs

Te-de-maung:

Put out the saddle in


the sun
Bring the reins and

ocjs|sc^G^cggc^o5

...

the mart-

is

The tail

0)o5(c^so68ccSc^DSol (X^

^5s C^DSC^

gQdS G33d5

Zet-kyo: wun: bat-mya:

Nin: mya: go-pyaungaung- talk -laik

gqsodoocSqcx)

Me: dwa-be-ma-le:

sci^5sgcSogD8(

Mi: ifAaing: pyat-thwa:

strap

(crup-

per) has snapped.

Put

go-ne-hlan:

ba-yu-ge

Burnish the stirrups

ingale

hni:

laik

girths also

Where

Kou:

the bridle on

B/emove the

bi

...

head-

335oo5oo^

6k-'ket-'te

olsq8c^g)c^c^o5

Pa-chat-ko-chut-laik

stall

Do

not go to

merely for
(I) shall sue
court

(I)

shall

law

3lGCODo5^og80COc5^o

this

him

...

in

prosecute

tet-ne

Thu-go-ta-ya: swe:

cx^oO^sa^joqSooS or aj-

T h u -go-a-hmu-lok-m^
or thu-go-ya-za-wut-

hmu-sw6: me

What

^sjjoScxioSc^ CO

S\Ye:gyet-be-lo-le:

the complain-

COGpJO^OOCCjJCX)

Ta-ya-lo-ba-lu-le:

is

Who is
ant?

the charge

me

cxjcO^cocpsgoc^

o8Gp(>iOcSooocS

him

Da-lauk-ne-yon: ma-

55

Miscellaneous Phrases

continued.

Burmese.

English.

The accused has ab-

Transliteration.

coGpsSogoScgs^

...

Ta-ya-'kan-'twet-pye:

...

Thu-pyit-si: go-wa-yan:

sconded

Attach

his property

cxj.og^?c^ole|soo5

kat
Issue a warrant for

Thu- go

oqoCoosc^olG[S8cxjcS

'pan: ho-wa-

yan: 'tok

his arrest

Issue a summons for


the attendance of
that witness
Is this

man a revenue

defaulter

^st^^cxjo cspoSsj^

o^oooS

cooc^oogD^oDg
ScxjcoDsag^cooS og^odS

ho-thet-the-go-tha'n
han,-za-cha

Di-lu-ha-a-'kun- d a w-

qjoSogcSojcoDg

Yon: go-la-yauk- y a n

ma-'saung-pyet-kwetthu-la:

Show me the tax

re-

He has come to apply

A-'kun-daw^-pye-za
pya-zan:

33g|Gcx)S ogcS g&g qjSs

A-'kun-daw-lut-n e i n

for a remission of

coDgScajDoSc^

revenue

cocS

On what grounds
does he apply

What evidence
there

is

33Gg

che-pyu-shauk-tha-lfe:

cc5c^oon5GOD^coc2)

B6-lo-thet-the-shi-^ ^ a

...

16:
is

in-

will be brought

for perjury

Is not this dacoited

property

oDo5GOD5q]o5 oo^goodoS

Thet-the-'kan-gyet-malon-lauk-'pti:

oqs

sufficient

up

shauk-'po-thu-la-d5
Be-a-c h e t-mya-go- a

The evidence
(He)

ooi^sagr^Syjasc^

chan:tha-g win-

cxjood

Gcg]3o5cocd

-go

sag^cooScgoDc^goSg

ceipt

sago

Hmu-^Aa-thet-the-'kanhmu-ne-a-swe: 'k a nya-lein-m6

og^so

Da-da-mya-taik-ya,-b a pyit-si:
ma-hok-'pu:

(^oodsodoSgosq^^'^o

e^cSSaoS

alcxjDsgc^oSGpol
ot^oSo^scods

la:

Were

the

armed

dacoits

Da-mya-mya-m a

ooDsgc^osgooooS^oSoloo
=>^'

'

et

net-pa-^Aa-la

This opium-eater is c8|soDsooD^spologgS5 Di-bein: za: ha-'ko: jkcoo55cx;}@8cooS


ha-pyit-si:
let-'kana receiver of stolen
thu-'pyit-t6
property
cxjcxjs^scods
Thu-lu-zo: la:
...
Is he a bad eharacter?

56

Miscellaneous Phrases
English.

Hand

over to

liim

track law
the

aj.c^c^cSS odoh^ds coo5

the

headman

of this village

Gp!, gooac^ ^dsco^Ii

S[Dcogi3ocjgsoDc(;{c&

ii:

Chi-ya-gan-u-pa-de- gona: le-ye-la:

CODS

TLu-go-pa- lei k-th


raya: let-at-laik

saSd^oS

Do you know
is

Transliteration.

Burmese.

tbe police

^V ho

concluded.

...

Di-ywa-^a-ywa-tha-gyi:
ba-lii-16:

PART

II

-LITERARY.

CHAPTER

I.

The Alphabet.
The

following are the letters in the Burmese alphabet

Vowels.
Short

Long

iV.5.
33D

and

g^ *

g u

^
.
c e 33 e:

333

6t

g[^5 aw (long) 3^

Long

'

..

.3

or ...y

G....3

Palatals

zt

The symbols

Short

(with the heavy accent)

ing, not a vowel.

Gutturals

^ or gi^d
_ aw:
^

33

but a modified form of


being a niggaliita or nasal breathing is, strictly speak-

33DS

33,

00

of the

is

vowels

are-

68

which has superseded o in


used in g^s * a
o. in ooicS {cassia floridci) and of
are not
bazaar, as well as the cerehral letters and the liquid g
used in words of purely Burmese origin. The pronunciation of
When a word
the classified consonants needs some explanation.

ception of 3 in

most

a peacock, of

gcolSsii

od

eases, of

jj

is

preceded hy another which ends with the

first letter of

the classes of classified consonants, that word retains

its

any of
normal

pronunciation, f

Examples.
( (go5ooos
(.

33)CX)Ds

ame

ko

thk

[abnormal.)

[normal.)

'ku

rj^Ss} shit
(c^ss{

{normal.)

kyet tha

gu

[abnormal.
(normal.)

r oooBoof^ tat thi

oSoD^

rs^Bq^B 6k

l^qiS

[abnormal).

'kin thi

chok

[normal.)

myo gyok

[abnormal.)

The following tables show the combination


vowels, and of consonants with consonants
:

Consonant with Vowel.


Consonant.

of consonants with

The combinations with


00
00

+
+

The forms

36

GO

33Dg

cooi ka:

good

may

oo 08

cxj

3^
3^o5

3^5

is

and coot are formed


kan

33

oDo5 ket c85 keik

When

69

ocj5

take consonantal finals

k6k

goo^S

kaung

combined with any consonant

it is

= aik.
= aing.
Consonant with Consonant.

Consonant.

as follows

pronounced

ai.

ciation to them, the

thography

is

60

understanding Burmese

in

difficulty

The words, whose

greatly enhanced.

spelling

is

sidered doubtful, are those having for their final consonants oo

An

intelligible differentiation can, however, be

mind

or-

con4.

o o.

made by bearing in

that the idea of contact or contiguity runs through all Bur-

mese verhs ending in 5 and S,* and that the


which this idea is not involved take the final

CHAPTER

rest of the verhs in


o5 or ?.

II.

Homonyms.
The borrowed alphabet

of

Aryan

origin

is

inadequate to repre-

sent phonetically the sounds of a tonal non- Aryan tongue and has

probably reduced the number of tones in the Burmese language.


This reduction mu.st have affected the

mon

homonyms which

are

com-

to the Indo-Chinese family.


ooSs =:
ooSs

coSs

0%%
o^s

A small unripe fruit.

= A scorpion.
= To be free.
= A flower.
= To be fatigued.
Phonetic Changes.

The literary form of the Burmese language is slightly different


from the colloquial. Certain words are not pronounced as they
are written, and there are laws which regulate such phonetic
changes.
("aj

ized

When

a final consonant

is

followed by a nasal

it is

by assimilation

=
G330pS(2a =
$S*3
=

335qo5

* o5

to

join.

OdSs

or

gBSooS

...

G330SSGO

....

^S^D

og6?

to stretch

...

out

(so as to

To

di^eam.

To lOUO foV.

To

be aiigrkccd.

be in close contact).

nasal-

61

(b)

Somet-imes the inherent vowel u or u

c^G^^oS

as

G|

...A native
...A

Scoqps

...A queen.

oc^s

...A pagoda,

ajsc^

=: coc^

cjd^g

The

oG[^o5

cx^

Scqcps

g)

sha

...A
is

soldier.

ferry.

omitted and the letter

is

pronounced

ya.

38SGg\oSg= ^Scs^oSs

...

...

An

33Gp^
(d)

(e)

The

The

official.

pa and o* ma are interchangeable

008 (pronounced oo8)...

sA;'W.

ooDsg

QODsg

dacoit.

initial

oB

...

consonants are aspirated

=
=

3^o5

...To draw.

=
=

|5

...

To

5S

...

Ink.

...

+ oo + c)is
Gcg|Do5 = GjjDoS

cg)(=cQ

pronounced

c^go5 =: ^go5
oac^Ss

33^Ss

before.

6e able.

jis/ia.

...

To

...

To conceal.

...

^<

petition.

all.

In words beginning with u or

for its final the initial

changed into u

ii the initial
vowel takes
consonant of the following syllable and u is

go8
SsGSDoS
gsGolSs

=
=

g^S

...A

g^S

cave.

B<2|3o5

...

The

gGcgoSs t

...

The head.

Mersui O
In the dialect of the people of Tavoy and
Tosee.
pony.
A
@5
@5
^Bs
igSi
*

prince.

^S

(g)

cr 01071

cncS

^c6

(/)

s3GpS[

letters co ba ot o

is

brain.

invariably changed into

gGC^oSsil the final consonant of


t In the case of
0011

book.

king.

...A

o3i

aspirate in

elided

is

ooG^S

=
=
=
=

o:jC[6

(c)

is

the unaspirated form of

i. e.,

62

The

(h)

consonant

initial

gS

...

To

throio.

Qcq<^%

Gc^g?

...

To

he thorough,

of

an

cools

o?sco$(g3s

dropped

initial syllable is

= aoo5 =
= oddTs =
= ooo@D8 =:

0606

{j

sometimes softened

is

08

The inherent nasal

{i)

sooS

...

cools

...

oo>^(?s

...

Hair.

A door.
A plate.

Various phonetic values are assigned to ^.

^=
^=
^=

as Gi^ yi

^>^

as

as

...

q^pyiii
30^ se

...

To

allude

to.

A plank.
A weir.

Punctuation.
Three marks are used in
I

II

The

and
first

II

II

Burmese punctuation, namely,

corresponds to the English

comma,

the second to the

period at the end of a sentence, and the third to the period at the

end

of a paragraph.

mark

first

is

A paragraph may

In separating the constituent elements


the

mark

also begin with

11

"

The

falling out of use, the seccnd being substituted for

is still

it.

compound, however,

of a

used.

CHAPTER

III.

The Noun.
Nouns may be divided

and concrete, according to


into
or
simple
and
meauing,
compound,
according to their
their
form. Abstract nouns are formed by prefixing aa or affixing q|o5 or
gSs to a verb

to do,

into abstract

becomes sag or

(3Ss or

o:S(^33gj.533Gg30DgSo^

^o5 deed, action,

e.g.,

His dccd and word do not


correspond.

=^^=@Ss

o^ogSsaa^js

^o^oojoSu

d^"^^^'^^"

If there

were no such action,

there would be no results.

Such an action

is

improper.

63

The

prefix 3d does not always convey an abstract idea, as for

instance

33god833(^5

a watchman.

Nouns are simple, ascqa man, oSS a


may he formed
(a)

by uniting

nouns

t-wo

a village

[D

O0D3

a sword

= A villager.
+ aSS a house = A scabbard, e.g.,
-\-

oods

a son

g]^Dap^I^DooDgc^c^o5coD@co^ii=

oDDSsSSgoS^cqioD^ii
(6)

by uniting a noun and a verb


a road

od6s

a debt

G^

the sun

Compound nouns

house.

-j-

to

(q

+
+

show

ods to eat

oS

to enter

coSsgooGcaDoSglgGjo^ii

The villagers came out.


The scabbard slipped down.

= A guide.
= A debtor.
= Sunset, e.g.,
= (You) must

engage

guide.
(5y6j>S(oDgc:^ooG(x>Dooj

The

He

creditor
and the
debtor cannot come to
an agreement.

|5^ii
G^oS^^ocjGGpoSoDDoo^ii
(<?)

by uniting a verb and a noun


G^

to dwell

c^5 to sit

+
+

sSS a house

a place

'^

= A dwelling-house.
= A seat, e.g.,

c^cjc^G^cSSoqS^ooDgco^ii

That cave has been

G^Do5cqigoq3Gpo5oo3^iic8S

Hc Came

converted into a dwellinghouse.

by uniting a noun, a
an agent or doer
gSs a horse

late

and had

go without a

GpoG|[G$oo^ii
(d)

arrived at sunset.

verb, and a

noun

or a

to

seat.

word signifying

8 to

ride

+ oq^ a soldier = A

cavalry

man

+ o8| ^0 watch + ^^ signifying an agent


= A potter, e.g.,
= (He) came opportunely
(gSs8saj5l jooj.833qo5odS
a pot
or doer

3^s

GGpoScoDOD^ii
cxjjc^GaoqSsao^Sgoa^scS^s

cjopSgSoo^ii

with 200 cavalrymen.

= He

is

sion.

a potter by profes-

64

Number.

The plural
gular.

and

c^ii

4iDsi:

is

is

formed by adding

i^osii

or

many,

cii

generally used in connection with inanimate things,

in connection with persons or animate things.

bination of the two affixes as in


colloquial

to the sin-

form

of the language.

Singular.

c^^jdsc^ii

men

is

Tlie

com-

admissible in the

65

In the case of rational beings different words

may be

express the masculine and feminiae genders, or the

afl&x

used, to

may

be joined to the masculine form in order to denote the feminiae


gender.

Masculine.

66

nominative case

affix of the

godSgodSoo^codoo^h

Maung Maung

comes.

The

affix

may

he omitted

god6god6coooo^ii
It denotes

of the Ablative Case.

OD is also one of the affixes

that an action issues from an agent and also indicates narration.

^D

is

aj(X)SDODf5ii

...

ojcocoDolccjiGoTco^ii

...

Se
He

speahs.
calls

"please come."

generally used in an explanatory sense, and should he dis-

tinguished from the Locative affix yon


cxjjgDogDSG^o^ii

cogD HOODS

II

As regards

him, he must go.

dcuotc contradistlnction.

(^ooD 811

{OD^DII
COD8II
(j^CODSII

As
c^

")

CODC^O^u

>

Maung Maimg, he must


The Accusative Case.

regards

needs no explanation
c]cGosolii

The natural tone


always changed

to

Give

...

noun

of a

me.

(it) to

or pronoixn

which takes

Case.

may sometimes

the affix of the Genitive Case

with, and the noun or pronoun standing in that case

nounced with an abrupt tone


oSscogt^Dii

...

Hoy al property,

clog^sii

...

My property,

ajj.0D3;j5ii

...

Sis

affixes of the

be dispensed
is

always pro-

book.

The Dative
Of the

this affix is

an abrupt one.

The Genitive
(^

come.

Dative Case

Case.

332? is generally

used to express

the Pali dative.


ajo33DSG08olii

The natural tone


of the genitive case

...

noun

(it)

to him.

pronoun which takes the affixes


always changed to an abrupt one. But this

of a
is

Give
or

67

change as well as the other in the case of the accusative affix


is not generally indicated in the literary form of the language.
o signifies

motion towards a place

@^^c^DsoogSii
CO signifies

...

motion towards

33GG[S^5Q0335qo^ii

si,

[Se) goes

person

...

c^

to

Prome.

Must be

delivered to the

Deputy

Commissioner.

The Ablative Case.


from a place, person

5 indicate motion

0011

G|$a:|$^ooooDoo^ii

...

^33G|5gogDSG[o^ii

...

or object

(Se) comes from Rangoon.


Must go from here.

The Instrumentative Case.


j>S

or 8 denotes an instrument with which an action

formed

is

per-

CXDDS

(Se)
39D8gSii

ODOSOO^II

kills ivith

a sword.

g(35 denote the cause of an effect

Maung Pyu
The tone
changed

pc

to

of a

noun

dies on account of him.

or pronoun which takes

gQdS

as its affix

is

an abrupt one in the colloquial form of the language


ocjJoG^dS

...

By

him.

The Locative Case.

"t

Strictly speaking, the affixes of the Locative Case are Prepositions

of place.
-ojS

j^S

-l

I'

in a house.

68

CHAPTER

IV.

The Pronoun.
Personal Pronouns.
The Burmese language

is

prolific iu

Personal Pronouns

they are generally dispensed with in polite speech and

but

official writ-

In writing or conversation they vary according to the social

ings.

or official status of the addressee.

Personal Pronouns of the First Person.


cl is

the primitive foi'm.

It

used by superiors to inferiors.

is

It frequently occurs in royal orders and religious works.

means a little slave. This form may be conThe modern tendency being to hide the origin
the word, Upper Burmans now write cq]^5 (masculine) and

og]|^5 or o^ll^

tracted into
of
cq)o

cq]^5ii

(feminine) for ogj|5 and ogjio respectively.

means the

og$Gco5

royal

and

oqcpsii

ogj^cooSt^s

* the

slave of a

means of

word used

Mgh

personage, not necessarily

the family of such slates.

in addressing a high personage

may

be

prefixed to o^jfccoS or cg?GooSi^sii


cgGco5c^3s in the singular is intermediate
og]^Gco5<^8ii 33og]^ J,

both in the masculine and feminine,

Arakan and some


meaning " self," is used

of the rural parts of

in

tion of clc we,

between ogj^cxS and

for "

Burma

" in both genders,

sometimes used both in

is

tlio

is

Proper.
c^ii

in use
c^cSn

a contrac-

colloquial and

literary forms of the language.

Personal Pronouns of the Second Person.


odS is the general

inferiors
polite

* This

who

form

is

of

form in

use.

^5

used to children or to

is

are low in the social scale.


^Sii

g^

o5s or godSoSs is a

and ac^aSs are the feminine forms of

a degeneratecl form of q|oi

top, pinnacle.

A Buddha

(oqepg)

is

the highe.st

king (oaj^ScqGps) and queen


(osj^SSoCjGps) are the
of all sentient beings; a
personages
rtspeetively in a kingdom
female
oSo^Gpgll which is tlie
highest male and
;

shortened form of CXDoSoqGpSU (written oS(yos and pron.mnced oScjjDs) is UM/d to


an addressee, placed in a higher position I'.y the rui|uiremeuts of etiquette and conventionality.

69

In the colloquial form of the


with the plural ogoSc^ii (also pronounced ro^J, and
plural cc6cii (also pronounced os^o), are used in
the first to denote familiarity with, and the second

and god6o6s

oSs

language

c^oSii

with

cocSii

its

both genders

respectively.

inferiority of, the addressee.

with

c^oSii

its

plural c^oScg or

used colloquially mostly

c^o5,oii is

among women.
5[5

a novice, with the prefix god6 or

c^ii

ity or otherwise of the speaker, is used

men.

(^f^S

(pronounced '^<^)

is

according to the senior-

by women in addressing

used colloquially

among men

without any distinction as to the age of the speakers.


5^8

or

godS'I

* a lord, master, owner,

by women

address

a is used only

to

men

as well as

by husbands

is

"cljiSii

used as a polite form of

gooS

to wives.

sidered to be inferior to <^W

is

among

themselves, while gS

is,

however,

now

con-

used as a literary form of

among monks.

address

contracted from qIodcod a giver, with

oocoDii

used by p6ngyis in addressing the

oocoDoii is

its

feminine form

laity.

In addressing superiors or equals oS(yDs=:oSciqqps (masculine),

and

(feminine), f are used.

5^5

5^So::^spsii

families,

(xi is

c^gSgcoSsd^iSii c^oScooSssj^SgoSii os

335|5gcSoqGpsii are reserved for pongyis,

and

members

Personal Pronouns of the Third Person.


used either in the masculine or feminine. Eor

qSscg and ooSsc^

may be

tended to be conveyed.

of royal

high rank.

officials of

ocjc^

they,

when a deprecatory meaning is inThe enemy in the field is always spoken


used

88 is used in the Possessive Case Eor ccjc^ii There


no Pronoun in Burmese to express the Neuter Pronoun it,
which is always indicated by the repetition of the noun with the

of as

ooSscgii

is

word

qSsii

prefixed to

it.

Pronouns op

Cotjiitest.

Burmans

address people of oflBcial or social standing by the name


of the trade or profession followed by them.
They seldom use
*

A Burmese

kiog would sign himself as

335[S4]DSll in the singular,

is

GCoS

higher than

always addressed as GCq|8<J)S5^Soqspjll

or

GOoS^SII

SSj^Sll

minister of high standing

is

70

but say sacqs^SoSs in addressing a Deputy


Commissioner, cosp in speaking to a teacher, doctor, or master
oSgDSii

or

sir,

5[Sii

In speaking to monks they describe themselves as ooo^

mechanic.

GooS or ooo^godSq your disviple.

man

able elderly

cxjcpsooooD tlie

It is polite to call a respect-

builder of a pagoda, gojidSsododd

the builder of a lajanng or monastery, oqScoooo the builder of a


zayat, cogoodSscocxjd the builder of a tazaung

sponding feminine forms

oqspssaaii

and to use the corre-

os|5330ii oDGaoDSssaon

Gaj]Ds33oii

Besides these, terms

in speaking to a respectable elderly lady.

signifying blood relationship are used to express intimacy, endear-

ment, or politeness; as oao^s grandfather; ssa^oi grandmother


33QCO father

^ younger

33go mother

brother

^q

gQs grandchild, Sfc,

osSc^ elder brother

younger

sister

odds

ssSo elder sister

son; ods daughter

Sfc.

The Relative Pronoun.


The Relative Pronoun

expressed by godd and co^ii which are,

is

strictly speaking, adjectival

odod5

GOOD

<

^e

and verbal

aj

He

...

affixes respectively, as,

who

teaches.

The Reelexive Pronoun.


c^cSc^S or simply o^c^ self,
c1>-:^oS

is

the sign of the Reflexive

myself

Pronoun

s^.c^cS himself.

The Interrogative Pronoun.


ooc^o^jii

o^o^

wliO

o^od^

oocS or

The following pailicles are used


gative Pronouns as well as Verbs

which or what.

in connection with Interro-

GODD or ODGODDii
ODDS

or

^^s or

The use
thus

ojoDDSii

...

oD^^sii

CO

or

o^s

or oDo^s

is

used

negation, and the latter

In spoken, language.

...In written language.

oDC&ii

of ccds or ododdsn

the former

...In written language.

...

and

2n spoken language.

cb or oocoii

may

be differentiated

when the reply is a simple


when it is otherwise
:

affirmation or

71

)-

OD^33G(^DS8y$ODCOD8

...

cxio5ooco3cx)OT

...

tMs tvue?

Is

Where do you come from

The Demonstrative Pbonoun.


The Demonstrative Pronouns
oD^ii^iiqSs this,

and

are

o^ (Coll.

c^)ii

odSs that.

The Compound Relative Peonoun.

Compound

Relative Pronouns are formed by preiixing

o^

to a

Pronoun and adding 3^ not say, to the combination thus farmed


B^cx^os^

...

whosoever.

o^oD^33Gpo3^

...

whatsoever.

The

Distribtitive Pronoun.

The Distributive Pronouns are


every, c^o5iic^oScii33o8s3oo8s each.

cf^Ss

The Indeeinitb Pronoun.


The

Pronouns are

Indefinite

dSoSSsH OoSsiI

some

330qgll

330^8^ H pOO^U 333618sil ODOODII OOC^DS all;

33(93511 codsii

c^o^GcDD
that sort

this,
;

such

oo61
;

o^c^goodii

what sort; co^^w

odojs other

o^cx^good

of

ssc^goodii 33cx)c^cgoo3ii oooSo^good

of

g^fc^cooD

coi^coQ^

GCJODoSlI cogsgsil OoJlSoTsil

33^
3d(^S whatever

of this sort

anything

odi^cogoddoSii cogoo3o5

03gs03GC3o5ll 33[gScCj^ ally OUC.

CHAPTER

V.

The Adjective.
The sign of the Adjective is co^ or gcodh as
Comparison denotes the gradation of increase
observed in the employment of the Adjective.

goddSs godo good.

or decrease to be

The degrees

of

comparison are expressed by

Comparative
better

Superlative

Sometimes

o:>o

aqs

surpassing or excelling,

extremity, as sogc^dSss^s best.

comparative degree, 33ooo5 over, above,


be used according as the standard of com-

to denote the

or 933?o5 below,

m&j

as, ood^'goodSsgood

72

parison

or greater in quantity or quality tlian the thing

is lesser

eompared with

aDo5qn5ooo5t^GO(^o^ shall be

more than

days

ten

ooc6g[o5g330o5go5]ogog[q^ shall he less than ten days.

The

suffix

pressed in
is

in English, as in yellowish or reddish,

isli

Burmese by the

particle oo oo Avhose vocalic

assimilated to that of the word to which


ol

^
&

The

particle

-|-

coco

+
+
+

coco =: |c8cB

o5ii

=
=

coco
coco
is

is

...
...

Reddish.

...

Whitish.

iobcb

...

SlacTiish.

same

latter is reduplicated as

component

attached

signification

When

different.

ex-

Yellowish.

|5|o:jcq

of the

coalescence with a word

word the

olcoDooD

it is

is

^5^^

o5

but

its

mode

of

prefixed to a

is

sweetish.

These two

particles are used in the colloquial form of the language only.

Quantitative Adjectives.

The Quantitatives Adjectives


33cqs

tohole, all;

many

are

ss^^snsa^^scoSii S^so^Jn feio, little; ssq^dsh

oa^ssooSii some.

Ntjmeeatives.

Numeral Adjectives one peculiarity is to


number expresses twenty or more the
Adjective is preceded by the noun, and the ])article 33 is inserted
before the numerative of the class to which the noun belongs.
In the use

be noticed.

of Cardinal

When

the

qco$s3Dolsj.Ssoc6

Sometimes the
is

particle sd

...

omitted and the word

is

placed after the numerative

Sometimes

Tioenty pongyis.

...

Tioenty men.

gSs

...

Twenty ponies.

goISs or

inimber,

cjgsGG[ JO or 5.80^5*
8sGS|

gg|

JO
{^'E^go'ISs

is

used to denote the aggregate

number
ojcolSg |.8cooS
c(jjgsGC|{j^Gol5s

...

JO

* ODO^S

...

Ten.

Twenty men.
Total number

of

men

20.

73

In expressing Ordinal Numbers, Pali words are generally used,


as

og

...

First.

qc8oo

...

Second.

ooc8oo

...

Third,

8fG.,8i-c.

Sometimes cgDoS may be used


^8s{G(gDo5

...

to express

an Ordinal Number

Second.

In connection with Numeral Adjectives the nature of what has


been conveniently termed numeratives

may

be explained.

These

numeratives are a peculiar feature of the Chinese and Indo-Chinese


languages.

connote

its

common

They express the nature of the object denoted and


The following numeratives are in

physical attributes.

use

GooDoSu in

head

cxjcgsooSs...

human beings
jGooDoS ... Two men.

8^so 9 Gcx)Do5

In speaking

...

is

Three women.

of rulers, pongyis,

or official rank, this particle

man.

speaking of
GooDoSoqjos

olsii

A rich

is

and persons

of high social

used

oSsoools

...A

G|co^soools

...

aospoools

...A teacher.

ruler.

A pongyi.

used in speaking of inaaimate objects which, have no other

numerative
oDs^clssj

s to ride.

3CJI1

...

Five

tables.

Vehicles and riding animals take this numerative


G^ooDSjs

...

Two

gSscnSs

...

One pony.

carriages.

Buddhas, pagodas, images, and parahaihs (native books)

take tbis numerative

ajsps 9acj

...

Four Buddhas, pagodas, or images.

c{G|^o5jaj

...

Two parahaihs

Numeratives explain the physical attributes of the objects they


qualify

10

74

ioi

flat

^o5a6oD(yDg

one pice.

and thin; tjgcoqS one plank ; o^\[coqS one sheet

q^flrit

of p)cip)er.
o^s

round or cylindrical;

t^s^'H' five pots ; ^%c\icxi% five

]}ipes.

o5 elongated

coyoooSs a hoat-

sword ; c^odoSs a spear.

cjoDScooSs

g^dSs long and


g30d8

oS

stiff; afGSoocqDSs

building;

^r^e or

ft

any

gSSoogcodS

s^^'c^.

a house;

gojidSsoogoodS

tiling long, as thread, hair,

&c.

co^sdsoS five palmyra trees; cooS')oE: five hairs;


qi^ goS ^e threads.

In the absence

of specific numeratives the

noun

used

itself is

as such
gjDo^sQD
[go^sg

...

Three

villages.

Three towns.

CHAPTER

VI.

The Verb.
The Verb

is

modified by mood, tense, and voice.

There are two moods


three tenses

the Indicative and the Imperative

and

the Present, the Past, and the Future.

THE INDICATIVE MOOD.


Present Tense.
Plural.

Singular.
cqj^SogDSco^

...

...

TFe go.

ooSogDjoo^.

I go.
You go.

cgs^Scgc^DggoD^

...

coScgogDsgoD^

...

You

cQDg^soo^

...

Se goes.

^^W^^

...They go.

Note. C^

is

the plural affix of the Pronoun, and

is

that of the Verb.

go.

75

The Past
o^ii oSSa^ii

tense
3311

is

G033II

expressed by
or

ii*

^iif

o^sii

and the Future by

8Sll COgg.ll

The bare Verb without any affix is used to


ative Mood, as coSogDs you go ; or godo (Coll.

indicate the Impergodo)

maybe

affixed

to the Verb, as coSogDsccoo or ooSogDSGooon

The other moods

are expressed

by

affixes signifying

power,

permission, conditionality, &c.

The Potential Mood

is

expressed by |8 denoting power or

and the Conditional by cgjS if.


There is no difference between a Substantive and a Substantive

ability,

Infinitive.

Bathing

(or to bathe) is

good

...

GG|^s(gSsGoo3S8oo^ii

Voice.

no Passive Voice in the Burmese


og^h however, express passivity and
language. The particles 5ii
may be construed as signs of the Passive Voice.
he absence of
this Voice is compensated by the peculiar way of forming Active
Verbs from Passive and vice versa. The Active form of a Verb
is expressed by the aspirated initial consonant; and this form
may be modified into a Passive one by dropping the aspirate
Strictly speaking, there

is

c^ii

'J

thus,

to let fall (Active)

og to he fallen (Passive).

This rule
holds good throughout the whole range of the Burmese languao'e,
except in the single instance of ^cS to draw out, which retains the
q|

same form both in the Active and Passive. There are two other
words in which usage has permitted some deviation from the
general rule, in that the conjunct consonant ya

form

is

changed

into ra

cqooS

(g[)

the Active

cgooS

To frighten.
To crush or pulverise.

{oo) in

in the Passive.

To

be frightened.

To be crushed or pulverised.

* The Past tense is sometimes expressed by


signs of the " aorist " or-" historical teuse."

CX)^ and

(^ which

may

l,e

called the

speaking, 2) and cq% express the Pluperfect Tense and ^sf


These lenses, however, are not recognized by the Bvirmese
These two Verbs are pronounced by the Arakanese with the sound of Gl (ra).

t Or

strictly

Perfect tense.

the

76

Verbal Appixes.
(pronounced

s
cqj

|5ogDsgso^ii

3^s

the colloquial)

in

I shall go

again ; otherwise,

signifies

repetition

a/orm

of entreaty

it is

please come.

ooDolsii

Gp

ooS

Signify suitability or expediency.

'

GOOoSs

Cp

Should not be

oo5

ooo c^

killed.

GcooBs J
oq?n

j5(^ii cocogSgii oq?cx!co^sii goii goc^ii

(^11

oo^ are

all assertive

afl&xes denoting the conclusion of a sentence.


Gqjii

GC0911 gsGoooii Gcoii Gcooii

coS signify a

command

Gq)

GODO
BsGCXJO
o

jSc^o

You

_,

GCO
GODO
coS

go.

signifies prohibition or priority

j>S

oaps^S

Do

...

not go.

... J)o you go before.


or command couched in polite
an
entreaty
signify

ooBapt^B

08

oil)

guage

Gos

GO

is

<

sense

c^oSii
;

Give or please give.

the sign of causation, and


GoiGoii

bii

lan-

GODO

Give, or
or

GG|o

l6t

is

official

orders

(him) be given.

are used colloquially in an imperative

as
oDob

...

Come.

cqcS^cS

...

Take.

...

Go,

;^osGco3 or GS|o

used in

77

ttjjoJii

an

act,

G^oa^ii

ogii

signify the continuance of

abu cod

(Coll.)

'o^sii

and are the signs of the Progressive tense


r

OgDS

CCJjoS

Going.

3b
003
G[

signifies obligation

cx)

is

ogosqo^ must go.

always used in a negative sense


o3S5a)ogD2oDgS

...

{Se) goes without sleeping.

8 signifies that a fault or offence

o3oS8c^
1D

...

is

admitted or implied

(J) killed.

denotes commiseration,
o^ajo3GoogGco^3(

...

That poor boy

is

@8 denotes ^^a^ a /ac^ ^as passed from a


to that of reality

state

of contingency

cgDsgSoo^

...

(2) did go.

coc6 or oojoSii signifies ^^/Jess, suitability

ro)5ii

dead.

oDsogoS

...

datable.

oDs^SocgoS

...

Tempting food.

godS^i GpDGooSii

coo5god5 are gerundial affixes

as

r,
GCX)5ll

o5s@s^o5(y^6Goo5ijj

gcogodSii

or
C53o5gOd5|1

After the king had died.


|5
oooS

can: c^ds^Sco^u
(1) habit: odsodoSco^
(2)

...

(iZe)

Congo.

(Se)

eats.

natural propensity

(A) bird flies.

goSqjcocSoD^
(3) ndtural q^uality

8GCODo5<X>o5cX)^

...

Arsenic

is

poisonous.

78

GOGODD or oIgogodd (also written gcsodS or gocdddSh to indicate

prolonged articulation) olcocoos and goxicd^sh are imprecative


affixes expressing a desire for an event to happen, and are used at
the end of oaths, introductions, prefaces, &c.
goooIgogodd or gcxioIgocxjds .., May (i) die

Vehbs op Courtsey.
The polite nature of the Burmese language admits of the use of
a variety of expressions to denote the same act done by persons
of different social or ofQcial rank, as

ODSOD^

...

To

eat.

^6oqG^5-^Gcx3Soo^GooSijji-oo^

...

qaD$s-o:j[^sGosGoo5i^-cx)^

...

Gcocx)^

...

To die

5|Sa:^cS-^cSgiDCGoo5i^-oD^...

G[oD$s-cjj*Gco5(^-OD^

...

A Mng eats.
A pongyi eats.

enjoys
king dies : (literally
the pleasures of the nat
country.)
2)d'iigi/i

dies

(literally flies

away.)
gc6gDorjGp8-o^gD|oa:j

...A

BtiddJia

GcoSi^-oD^ii

cgDScx)^

...

king goes

golden

oD^ii

qcx)^s-(Gco5i^-0D^

...

gcSg^oqeps-GaoDODlJcxji^cog
GcoS^-oD^ii
...

(enters nir-

Togo

5[6o:^si6-s,oo5Goo5g^^^Gco5(;j^-

aSSoo^

dies

H^ana.)

To

sleep

(moves

tlie

feet.)

A pdiui'ji goes.
,4

BiiddJia goes (on. a


sionary tour.)

mis-

...A Icliig sleeps.


... Apxjngyi sleeps.
When the three classes of personages, namely, the king or anv
member of his family, the monk and the Buddlia are spoken of,
the honorific affix qco%<^ must be invariably used.
5[6QrjG[8-orGcoBGoT-oo^

g^cx)$s-c8$god5i^-co^

CHAPTEll

VII.

The Adverb.
Sometimes an Adjective or a Verb
may be changed into an Adverb by reduplication
3

is

the Adverbial

affix.

* ^^.iw -enerally wiiltbi.

[q|

tu

return.

Adjectiv

79

80

Those of place are


ogSii

|ii

ooS at, in, on;

^311

33%i\\

sa^Ds about,

near

3o*"5

or

among, out of

ogS

before; g^doS behind; sacooSn fxsGuT over,


above; g33do5 below; aaogSsn cgS among, loitUn ; ooSoo^

coGog^ooS along

around ;

g[

aagDSii

o5g3g

33@S or 330 without

betioeen, betwixt

into

obc

sacg?

beyond
cScod

amidst ;

oocooS

across.

CHAPTER

IX.

The Conjunction.
Copulative

Disjunctive

nor

and ; ocdooo not only

j-Sii^
:

but

also.

qSsgSn @S besides; gSoo eithe)

yoaolsii

or, neither

c^oojcS or.

Adversative:

GooSoo^siic^GooSoogSgii

::opo2Sii

od8ooo3s * but, al'

though,

lUatire
Telic

cggS^n c^g^dS therefore.

liSsa^ii co^Shod^ssc^Ssii g(c^dSiigoddgQd8ii g^odds *

CHAPTEU
The

Because.

X.

Interjection.

Interjections express sudden emotions which


in expressions differing according as

tlie

may

feeling

is

find utterance

one of admir-

ation, delight, pity, dislike, astonishment, or desire.


0DCO38

Indeed!

ssooSg^s

done

Oh!

Oh mother!

aac^coDsn sacooSii @S3iGOoSg

gsoogoos

Oh father

Alas!
Well

oodi^ii

Good

g denotes a sudden feeling of delight


^SsoDDg ... Oh happiness!
Interjections are used more frequently in the colloquial than in

the literary form of the Burmese language.


*

Are archaic forma.

81

CHAPTER

XI.

Syntax.
In a Burmese sentence the subject is followed by the object,
and the predicate is placed last. For the sake of emphasis, the
object

may

precede the subject.

cyoo^cgc^o5co^ii or cgc^c&ooo5oo^

...

Nga Me

heats

Nga

Fyu.

may

Either of these sentences

be expanded by adding an at-

tribute or adjunct to each of the nouns and to the verb, thus

GooD5sGcoDc6cx>gSscxD^g3^o5oo^
the

Adverbial

...

Me

The good Nga

Nga Fyu severely.


clauses may be further added

beats

bad

GCX)3SsG00DC&a>^a^gGCX)DC^0^ CoS8COoSog5o^SG|>O^QSs

Cl^C^3^(S0g)Sll

oolgo^oSoo^ii

After having said

beats the bad

Nga Pyu

so,

the good

severely, while

Nga Me

seated in the

middle of the road.

The following

rales of

Syntax may be deduced from the above

arrangement of words
(i)

The adverbial

clause of time

is

placed at the head of a

sentence,
(ii)

The subject

or object (as stated above) precedes the

predicate,
(iii)

(iv)

(v)

The nominal or verbal adjunct immediately precedes


the noun or verb to which it relates,
The adverb precedes the verb or another adverb,
The verb or predicate comes last.

Additional examples

o^oo^saolgi

Ever

j.Sgoodo5

c^c(j

that

man

two

(^DgSgD
^gogSoG^ii

long
apart this town in
'

not

Those two
,

men

G$Do5oOG%OD3^ GCOdSsS^^
Subsequent ask only

OjjocBSsgSs

bim

was only on

riding

GCOdS

Cq)

pony

my

^5g^G08C^o5oD^II

presence give.

two

day come
It

live.

never reside long apart in this town.

a subsequent day that, at his request,

ponies were given

him

in

my

two riding

presence.
11

APPENDIX
The grammatical

I.

principles explained in the foregoing chapters

by the analyses of passages taken from some


(Jatakas) which are widely read by the Burmese peo-

will be best illustrated


of the o=3c5
ple.

I.

G5|8Cg|GCo(8GOOD333lllODGpCtDo8g^^li [g0g3c8oSsODgSoSs00O3o5ll

C^tOjTIll

O0DSGCo533@33DS33G^33GpO^GOSGO0S(jj^ll 0^;8SGg[oSs(^33g33I^O^85918
OOD QlylsOO^C^il qSs^J (g8&OD5<^C5)Sll o8s^l(^ 33^^GpoSo^ ^^GCo5

(jJGODD

GQD6i:q|SoO?SIIOoSoO^(y^50go5^ j>5oOo5Gp3SG[5G^GCOGOOOIlclog^4J|i33'^8<^
cl(^^33GgSGODDCg|o8sG)^|sC^ ^sg^SG^ScXJ Q38|GCo5^cgSlloSs0038CO^g

ggDII

as8^,Gco5gc5c^g8c8S goS^ii (y^yoDGcxjDoSoo^sogoSGCOGOoSiisao^aac^Ssiioosj


^D[3ScDOl^gGpc8<^3S)COoSil ODSJGO03GCODS(^D8|llG^GpO0588G[6^llG^G0Li33m6@6

GC03CX)&d8ooScjc^a^GcoD5aja^8GD3Sajjo5 G^GCoc^u

ii(ajj^3o5

aocSGOoS^i

Old, ancient.

1.

Ggs

2.

cg^Gcoggn cg^

To pass

ccogs

sign of the past tense.

(Cp. Pali: 33cgGoo).


3.

Goooii

4.

3so\

Sign of the Adjective.

ODD CO

Time

5.

oDGpcoDcS

6.

^ =

ill

8.

(gcgaoB

9.

oSs

11.

12.

The

past.

Baranasi, Benares.
capital of a kingdom.

Sio'n of the

oD^

Op.

II

In times

10.

used also as the sign of the Adverb.

Isia.i

Locative Case.

Brahmadat

(Pali: Brahmadatta.)

= A ruler, king.

Sign of the Nominative Case.

To make

oDODoSii

oooD^sii

This form

which

Cp. Pali

o6g" to rule.

is

is

obsolete.

the same as

cS"

the conclusion of a sentence,

G[^ oddgg^cSh

It is the

an

equivalent of

assertive affix denoting

84

King Brahmadat ruled the kingdom of


c^ = Demonstrative Pronoun that.

Benares.

13.
14.

33ol =:

15.

CODS

16.

GooSii

Time.

See

= A child,

4.

son.

An honorific afl&x used

royal,

in speaking of

Buddhas, saints,

and other personages of high rank.

oddsgcoB

=A

king's son.
3s(8

17.

ao

33

the nominal particle, by prefixing which, an

is

adjective

is

changed into a noun.

+ @8 (good) = Big,
+ goodSs (good) good.

Op. 33goodSs

great, eldest.

sa

Sign of the Dative Case.

18.

33Di:i

19.

33G^=literally means the " house -front ; " an heir-appa-

20.

33Gp ^=

21.

c^ii

22.

Gos

23.

Goo5(j{i;

erown prince,

rent,

An

stib-king.

appointment.

Sign of the Accusative Case.

To

give.

An

honorific afiix always affixed to verbs denoting

the action of those described in 16.


24.

^11

An

abbreviation of

a connective particle corre-

q,^\

sponding to the Copulative Conjunction kc? in English.


Sometimes it has an illative force.

At

that time, (he) conferred

on his

appointment of heir-apparent

tlie

eldest son.

See 13.

25.

c^ii

26.

^Sg^:i See 19.

27.

oSs

See

9.

aSScgj

and

aSs are to

word meaning an heir-apparent.

be construed as one

q6s implies the exer-

cise of delegated sovereign authority.

Sign of the Genitive Case.

28.

(^ji

29.

33@t33G^

33g

33G|ii

Hcre

lar to that descrbed in 17,

33 excrclses a function simii.e.,

fixed to a verb, that verb


cx)^ or G^oD^

means

following.
30.

o^s8S

Enjoyment,

is

to surround

by its being prechanged into a noun. @


to say,

s3@33G|

means a

retinue,

85

31.

qSsoDD

Happiness

o^sSSqSsooo means, in the present

story, the prosperity derived

32.

^.gl3 is

made up

and

ed,

yls

of

from one's

two vevhal

to increase.

roots

(y^

position.

to be scatter-

an

QIgTs means, therefore;

increase of a pervading nature.


33.

oo^ii

34.

0^11

verbal sign denoting the present or the past tense.

35.

See 21.
oSsgs
The king.

36.

@6

37.

GooS^ii

38.

cgjSii

To

See 9 and

(Pali: ocoDGpO)D).

17.

see, notice, observe.

See

23.

The gerundial

sign,

having an adverbial force

should be distinguished from

ogiSii

it

a sign of condition-

ality.

When

the king observed the increasing influence and prosperity

enjoyed by the heir-apparent.


c6s$?gii literally o8

40.

c^ji

41.

cra^cpoS

42.

d^ii

See

21.

43.

^8S|5

44.

GQoSij^ii

45.

See 28.

danger (Pali: aa^cpco).

to be apprehensive of.

See
GooDGg^S

23.

a Telic Conjunction denoting a cause.

He became
46.

an umbrella, Sf%% = a throne; S%Sf%%


= kingship. A white umbrella is here referred to. It
is one of the regalia of Burmese royalty.

39.

qSooDs

anxious about the security of his kingship.

^i8 (to

love) -f odds (a child, son)

Note that besides 3^ there


The bare form
Case.

is

no

if it is

if it is

Thou, you.

035

48.

oo^ii

49.

g^ii See 6.

50.

9"

51.

See

10.

Sign of the Ablative Case.


ooo5
To go out of, leave, depart from,

in the singular,

in the plural,

to express this Case.

47.

Beloved son

special sign of the Vocative

of the noun,

or with the plural sign, c^n

is

used

86

52.

|ii

53.

j.8coo5

54.

Gp

See

24.

=A

noun

To be

pleased.

place; here used in the sense of a E,elative Pro-

^5ooo5Gp33G^5

j>8cco5oDgS33G[5ii Gp

has the force of

indefiniteness.
55.

33G|5

56.

11

57.

G^

58.

= A place.

See

7.

To

GcoGODo

remain.

live, reside,

GOD

command.

force of an order or

My

beloved son

Either of these particles has the

GODoii

do you leave the kingdom and reside at any

place with which you


59.

60.

c\

First Personal

See

cglii

form
61.

cg$ also

2.

may

be pleased.

Pronoun I.
means to die,

of existence to another

i.e.,

to pass

from one

to pass

away.

This particle has the same force as cgSn co^oodco or

911

when

oD^saol

but

it is

more intensive than

either of

these.

62.

33^ J

Pamily, race.

63.

^\ See 28.

64.

ggo

65.

chi

See

59.

See

28.

Property.

66.

(^ji

67.

33Gg

68.

@S

69.

GODDii

70.

^c8s^,v?

= Patrimony, inheritance.
= The verb to be
;

See

is.

3.

Ggi

means

gold.

See 39.

Cp. ^pocScocB dur-

ing the reign of a king.


71.
72.

c^ii

See

%(g^

21,

To govern,

c8S@?sii

73.

G^Sii

rule.

The

root g?3

occurs also in

and conveys the idea of permanency.

This particle denotes that an action

is

to be per-

formed in the absence of the speaker.

When

patrimony

am

dead, take possession of the kingship,

(left to

you) by

me and your

ancestors.

which

is

the

87

74.

cq denotes the conclusion of a direct narration,

commas

responds to the last set of inverted

75.

338|

76.

GooSa

77.

78.

cgiSii

79.

oSsoDDs

order

See 16

To

A royal

cor-

in English.

order or rescript.

338|goo5^oo^

exist.

and

(a king) speaks.

See 38.

=A

Note the absence

See 9 and 15.

prince.

of

the Genitive sign in oSsoodsh the son of a king.


80.

The Copulative Conjunction and. This word


used after the second of the two persons mentioned

oD^s
is

especially in judicial writings.


81.

338|god5ii

82.

(gc5

See 75 and 76.


This word

excellent.

is

always used

to qualify

an

sn8|Goo5ii

See 21.

83.

0^11

84.

gsc85g^o5

the head; o85 the top; g^o5 to carry on the

To bear a royal mandate on the head means to


obey it. The modern form of the expression is gso85
head.

00 o53o6\o5c^:i

"When (the king) spoke


mandate on his head.
See

the prince bearing the royal

24.

85.

1!

86.

gggii

See 49 and

87.

coGcxiDoS

ative

thus,

50.

00 is equivalent to ooS

one

goodoS

always used when human beings

88.

oo^s

89.

ogcSii

See 51.

90.

GODGooSii

is

the numer-

are spoken

of.

alone, solitary.

The gerundial sign used

in

an Adverbial

sense.

Departed from the kingdom alone.


91.

33og33C^5sii

ogoD^

See 29 for the force of the particle

To arrange,

to put in order;

saii

c^Ssoo^

measure.
33o5'33c^5sii in

92.

ootj^D

93.

@S

The

due course.

river

= A river.

Jamna

Pali; sa^c^Gg^iiaaamgo^i

(Pali.)

to

88

94.

oD(^gp=rAn ocean, sea, river

Burmese form

Tlie

of the

Pali

oDt^gu

Sanskrit

oot^gii

word is derived directly from

the Sanskrit.
95.

Sign of the Plural number.


See 28.

c^ii

96.

<^ji

97.

33cocS= middle.
or ooS

98.

oDii

99.

sjii

is

The sign of the Locative Case

omitted after

|ii

ogSii ^dh

sacocSii

See 87.

numerative used when no specific attribute

is

indi-

cated.

See

100.

Gcoou

101.

gcod6(^ds- gcodS motmtain or hill

3.

^:)S space

between

ogccpoSJ' (after reaching)

gcx)d6(^di a valley.

is

omit-

ted after goddS^dsii


102.

11

See

7.

G^Gp a place

103.

G$sp2o55s

104.

8g^8=To prepare, make, form, construct.

105.

od&Ss a dwelling.

See 24.

II

In due course, (he arrived) at a valley surrounded by the Jamna and other rivers, and having prepared a dwelling-place.
cjGOD=A hermit, anchorite, rishi. Pali: moSii Sanskrit:
106.
qc^ii

107.

33og5

= Appearance,

condition, estate.

Sign of the Instrumentative Case.

108.

6ii

109.

GooD=A

110.

co8o8s=:

111.

cd6cj

forest; here used in

A fruit

c^

co8 a tree

means a swelling

an adjectival sense.
o8s

odSi^

fruit.

denotes the tuberous roots

of certain herbs.
112.

c^i"

See 95-

118.

c^ii

See

114.

gsodSc^^To carry; procure.

21.

let in

which

gsodS

is

goodSo^

is

a phonetic coup-

an obsolete member.

ever, in the sense of to bring

is

still

howused in Arakan,
gsodS

Tavoy, and Mergui.


115.

a^sG30DS=to eat; to subsist,

116.

cqjoSii

d^i to

Sign of the Progressive Tense.

use; goddS to carry.

89

See 57.

117.

G"

118.

Goo(^ii (i

and

ccoci are assertive affixes

denoting the con-

clusion of a sentence as well as the past tense.

Eemained there as a hermit, procuring


and subsisting on them.

forest fruit

and herbs

{Translation of the above passage.)

In times

At

King Brahmadat

past,

kingdom

ruled the

of Benares.

the time, (he) conferred the appointment of heir-apparent on

When

his eldest son.

the king observed the increasing influence

and prosperity enjoyed by the

heir -apparent, he

about the security of his kingship, and said

"

became anxious

My

beloved son

do you leave the kingdom and reside wherever you please

when
is

but,

have passed away, take possession of the kingship, which


the patrimony (left to you) by me and your ancestors." When
I

the king had spoken thus, the prince, in obedience to the royal

from the kingdom alone. In due course, (he


a valley surrounded by the Jamna and other rivers

behest, departed

arrived) at

and having prepared a dwelling-place remained there as a, hermit,


procuring forest fruit and herbs and subsisting on them.

II.
d^ocoDsc^ii

o3oc8G38oSsco8s@DscgSii gJoSgooDSGcooc^DsgcSc^t^ j.oqscgSs

(g5s^Sg^iqGC(^c^(oqio5ii coccc^q5ssj|Ssc^oSii GoTcsnggc^Goc^oSglc^ii

^c

(SOOD^^SfSSlI cqgj^C^5G33D8G0^il OCODOo5gCo5^o53COOSI1 330g|c)q|s^GODO

GCOdo5|DJGOOQ^81I clcS^OjJOcSSsil 0:joS6gyclolGlG;j]O^OOCX)DSa^330C|{^GOO(illO:j

GpSGCODSg OCX)DC3)^ODq6sCX)^iI ^SQo5o|aODo5c^^S OOODSG(yDGCX33^8GgGCoSi^


G(X)D33oloil33c8GO0533GCq]3o5ll[3o0GCOGCODO2Dg(gSs(gSl|^CJ0c8oScODGa3DQGoSo

ySsra:^" coo5(^^s|G[6gSs5>6(^^gDii Gccjj3SsGco5sgii o5soos^gp$iqgsodS


CCX)o5(G00Sl^G O0(^ll

(OO0DO)^CO)Dc5gCo5QsO^[)
1.

o^=that.

2.

oco3s=a word

3.

0^11

4.

;^oc8g98

5.

Gcs=A

See

See
;

I, 13.

also used in the plural

number.

I, 21.

= Sivalidevi.

ruler, king.

See

I, 79.

12

90

6.

= A daughter;

co8s

See

also written csiioSscas a Princess.

1,79.
7.

@Dg=To

8.

cgiSii

See

hear.

I, 38.

Princess Sivalidevi heard those words.

When
9.

^11

Demonstrative Pronoun

10.

oSsii

11.

ODDS

See

See

this.

I, 85.

I, 5.

oD^oDDgii

coDSii

i^coDSii

are

co^p

contradistmctive

all

affixes.

12.

GCX)DO)DS=:GODDo5cq|DSII

13.

go5=Superior, excellent.

14.

c^u

15.

i See

16.

5.cqgog6?gSs

a UiaU.

See

82.

I,

Sign of the Nominative Plural.


118.

I,

(the

^.oqs

heart)

(sign of the Verbal substantive)

6gii

put inside)

(to

ogSs

character, dis-

position.

17.

5.5= Sign of the Instrumentative

18.

%^\

^6

(gG (to

filled)

({

(to

loith.

be in pair, complete)

endowed with, possessed

plete with,

re-

of.

Affix denoting the admission of, or the acquiescence in,

19.

Goii

20.

411

See

I,

21.

ojii

See

I, 74.

a statement.
118.

This affix also denotes the

of a person as in this case.

"This king

is

22.

(^=To

23.

ccjjoSii

endowed with the

intend

See

I,

Bearing

oooo= Again.

25.

c^=that.

26.

oSsqjSs= An

27.

0^11

29.
30.

to bear in

self-

communing

gJcBii)

disposition of excellent

men."

mind.

116.

(this) in

24.

28.

(Pali

See

I,

mind.

13.

attendant on a royal personage

Sign of the Accusative Case.

See

a page.

I, 21.

o5=Even, very, same. c^oSscgSsoSu that very page.


GoT=To call. The object of the verb is understood.
cqgs GqiiiGcoDiiggu are signs of order or command
this instance signifies repetition.

s in

31.

See

aji.

91

I, 24.

Go=:To send, commission, depute.


an action whose object is projected as it
were, from the actor.
Cp. odgos c^oSoo^ii to send a

32.
33.

o^o5u Signifies

84.

(qii

letter.

When
an

as
35.

See

(^ji

used as a verb means

means

affix

to return

^cGooD

and when used

118.

I,

The same attendant was again sent (with the


agam.
36.

to repeat.

this

o like

order) " call

godd adjectival sign

him

like this,

such.
37.

*^s=:Means, way, manner.

38.

g8 See

89.

oDs= three

Ar\

roc

t
)

41.

c^6G33DS=:till (Preposition).

42.

Goii

40.

108.

1,

i.-

(cgS=time
See II,
See

three times.

43.

11

o=Sign

45.

coD=To come.
cooSgodS.) same

When

is

a sacred number.

32.

44.

46.

Three

I, 24.

of negation or prohibition.

as ^ooSn godgod5ii

he did not come, though sent

See

Op. Pali

odii

I, 90.

for, in this

manner,

for the

third time.

See II, 36.

47.

^i:

48.

oSs,!

49.

ooDsii

50.

sscgl

See II,

See

5.

II, 11.

3311

a particle

og^ to pass,, exceed, surpass

very,

exceedingly.
51.

a^s Glory, power.


See

I, 77.

52.

^11

53.

GC30DII

54.

GcoDo^^sii

55.

Goii

56.

oD^sii

See

See

II, 3.

See II, 12.

II, 19.

This particle

of a sentence.

is

assertive

It differs

from

and denotes the conclusion


(iiiGco^"

^<^, or

gcocx^^c^h

92

in that the idea of a sudden emotion, wish, or acquies-

cence

involved in

is

57.

cl

I.

58.

cS

sg to draw.

59.

^11

60.

cq\\

See

particle here has

The

I, 24.

it.

may

Third Personal rronoun;

an

illative force.

be used either in the

Masculine or Peminine gender.


61.

See

oil

II, 44.

62.

c8Ss

63.

a;{ii

See

64.

o8Ss

65.

To

incline.

II, 60.

To take

When.

possession

See

tinction also

Cp. c8s^5so8Ssg$sii

of.

It has the

I, 61.

force

of

contradis-

and may he construed as the adversative

conjunction hut.
66.

cl

67.

"1

68.

-G[ii

= I.
= To go with,

means

Literally

drawn towards.

to be
to

obtain

sign of obligation, compul-

sion.

69.

Euphonic

Gqjii

particle

having the same force as goh

See

II, 19.

70.

o^ii

Sign of the Euture Tense.

71.

coodds

72.

a^ii

See 11,

330^

73.

Indeed.

33

21.

(nominal particle)

-j-

cx^j

(to take)

belief, view,

opinion.

See

74.

^11

75.

Goac^ii

I, 77.

See

I,

118.

(The princess) was of opinion (and said to herself)

king

is

indeed possessed of great glory.

him, he would not be drawn


shall
76.

have to go

-with

c^cpjGcoDSs

but

if

When

" This

I (tried to)

draw

he takes possession of me, I

(him)."
o^sps

a Buddha; gcosSs an embryo

dhisatta.

Cp. oSsgcodSs =^

A pretender.
A claimant to a throne.

oSsocjjD

=z

4.8cxj|D

= An heir to a throne.

a Bo-

93

77.

ooDDOi^oo

78.

oSsii

Mahajanaka.

See II,
See

79.

00^11

80.

j^8c^

<^i

5.

I, 10.

minister)

oo5

(from Pali

assembly.

As the word

control,

? or sawg a noble,

is

Pali:

Sanskrit: o^cgSii

o|oodi

derived directly from the Sanskrit

etymological form should be

its

o^ooSii

See II, 14.

82.

c^ii

83.

^-S

84.

oooDSu

85.

gQd

86.

to

a hybrid denoting a minister.

= An

o|cDo5

gs^googS

(as in gsoD^ii j^sod^i or

supervise)

81.

Copulative Conjunction with.

See

II, 2.

= To speak, converse.
GcoD = To speak in a formal manner as in delivering a discourse, sermon, or lecture.

See

I, 24.

To be

87.

88.

(SG

89.

GooS/j^ii

90.

GooDii

See

I, 3.

91.

S3sl

See

I, 4.

"

See

II

tired of or cloyed with.

I, 23.

was only when the embryo Buddha, King Mahajanaka, had


tired of conversing with the ministers and the assembly (of
It

people).

Wish,

92.

03 c^

93.

GooSii

94.

33GC(5i3o5

See

I, 16.

According to

agency.

That
95.

desire, free-will.

Cp.

he, according to his

gcoGco

= natural.

own
Pali

calic element in goo

96.

GODDii

97.

ogDsgSs

See

I, 3.

apt

stantive)
98.

gSn

Ggi

own

Gold.

uninfluenced by any external


one's

own will or accord.

will.

ooo^n

is

Sanskrit

an instance

goD^ii

The vo-

of gunation.

Ss (sign of the Verbal subgait, manner of walking.


(to go)

;S'eeI, 108.

and, with his


99.

sdgcxjjdoSoddoodii of

natural gait.

See II, 70.

94.

100.

=a

The word is pronounced cq and


but in order
is apparently of purely Burmese origin
this
form
has been
to impart to it a classic appearance
Cp. 33c^ top, from QC9q;ii
adopted by the Burmans.
cave.

Pali

c^codh

a gourd, from

cjs

104.

= Entrance.
= To, towards
o6 = To enter.
COD = To come.

105.

GooDii

106.

Gc^=

107.

oSs

101.
102.
103.

sscoDtjn

Preposition of direction.

See

Adjectival sign.

108.

= A lion. Pali
= A king. See II,
c^o = Like, as.

109.

oo^(og^ =: Pirm, steadfast.

110.

iG|8

111.

gSsii

112.

j>5ii

113.

4^3

Sanskrit

oScxdii

Sinha.

5.

Brave, courageous.

Sign of the Verbal substantive.


Sign of the Instrumentative Case.

== 4
g3ii

replete or

+^

be even)

(to

endowed with

pos-

of.

Go^DSsGooSgs
affix)

b i^ pair, complete)

(^0

(adverbial sign)

sessed

114.

I, 3.

r=
s

gccjjdSs

oriental palace,

(to

rccline)

gcoS

(honorific

an
which occupies the foremost and most

(first,

foremost)

the audience-hall in

prominent position.
Sign of the Ablative Case

115.

911

116.

o5soo8s

117.

118.

Gp

119.

from.

= A princess.

= To be, to exist, to be present. See II, 52.


= A place. See I, 54.
^^sogoodS =
(a palace) + o (main, chief, central)
Sf^t

gsodS (a building, apartment)

apartment

the

main

-f

or central

of a palace.

See II, 103.

120.

cii

121.

oooSg

ooo5 (to go up, ascend)

ascend.
122.

GcoS^ii

123.

ocDciii

See II, 89.

See

I,

118.

+ g

(to lift

up)

to

Like a lion-king entering

tlie

95

entrance of

its

golden cave, he was

possessed of firmness and courage in going from the audiencehall to the central apartment of the palace,

where the Princess

was.

{Translation of above passage).

When

Princess Sivalidevi heard those words, she surmised that

the king, was endowed with the disposition of an excellent man,

and again sent the same attendant for him. When he did not
come, though sent for three times in this manner, the Princess
said to herself " This king is, indeed, a prince of great might and
power. When I tried to draw him, he would not be drawn but
:

if

he takes possession of me, I shall have to submit to him."

It

was only when the embryo Buddha, King Mahajanaka, had tired
of conversing with the ministers and the assembly (of people) that
he, of his own free will, and with the firmness and courage of a
lion-king entering

went
was.

its

to the central

golden cave,

left the audience-hall

and

apartment of the palace, where the Princess

APPENDIX

II.

PETITIONS.
Petition

(i).

33GG|SGCo5^Soa3DO$5[SG(X)So6SOgc5GOo53300$Ds5ogD|lS

coGpso

c(y|ii

0qGpSC^|GCoBcOSpg3cQ$ODll0g)?GCX>5l^S33GoTc^SGp0-COo5c{59-9O0-33G[ll

^c5^6o|g0ODo5oSs ^SGCoSoO g|GOSGCX5D 8G[6g[o5o^ OOGOODOOJ^II oSs

G(gcb|
tII1

o^j^SccoSoSs^t ^SGooS^oSaoajjoGpii qSsOODOqolGCODG^DSlI G33Do5ol

33q|o5^DS33G[ll33(ySgq]8O0DC|533O0$D3O05GGpo5dlcO^0:{GpSII

l|Ogj$GODS(^SCOo5ooSG02^GCOD |D20O^|l

Oil

j;>6oo5o^G[Gcx)D |3s(g5dloD^ii

CO^gll

C^SC^OOIISSO^SGg

98

^so^GcpSsoDSoD^ ooGpgc^^S g^DigSoo^ c^oo8

GODOG(^DSllgJDO;j(^SGgj^ll0^o5cD^GODD330^SjSooSa;[OloO^II
J

n^saj^G^DSs

II

ogj|Gco5oo5a^oD^ajj^ii cocpso^cwcxj^so

oS^qjoSjiSii

G^DoaS^Sdlii oo8^oo58^^|.Sii ODSjq]GOSGooDGcoDS 30600^11 gSscx)|cgolGOOD


G^DSliq]8C03G^$33D3?iDSDoSGGpo5oloO^CCqi8(JiSGCo55[ScX)3So^pSll

= Burma.
= A pronnce.

g^oD
|6c

= The Chief Commissioner; 33gg^s


= affairs (political) gtoSii an honorific affix QS = to possess,
oood = Pali maha = great o = a burto be empowered
oSs = an administrator, a ruler,
=
possessor
a
den 5^5
a king; gs = great; o^ScooSoSsgi =; a Commissioner.,

33gg[sgodS^Socodo$5)Sgco5oSs(^s
;

(^(god5 =:
33oo^D85ii

The Supreme Court.

oo^Ds5? =

Pity, compassion

hence

sacxa^DsS

pray-

ing for clemency.


(^3 or aac^D
ooGpsc^

a paper, petition.

a plaintiff, complainant

oocps

justice, oQ

= to de-

mand.
13

98

= A defendant cocpg = justice 5 = to suffer, to receive.


= Feminine of cooepS) (Pali ekaraja) = an empress.
=z Feminine of
= a queen.

cDqDjS

co3^

oc^'^^Sa

cg^

cxjsiS

= A slave.
(<^) =

og^GcoS^s
33GoTcg5

c^So

GpQjooc^

33G|

used in addressing high personages.

My.

On.

The Penal Code.

= A section (of the Code).


= Under, according to.
Name

cgobii

of a

town

^ = A town,
^c^ii
A territorial

Q5

= An honorific a&x
=z Name of a man.

c^cpj

fg?

Having

o$GCD3o5oSs

in the

=A
=

district.

jurisdiction.

Assistant Commissioner

^oS^So^GooDoSoSs 1=
^s

Thayetmyo

division.

to support, to assist, oSs

CO

o$ := a burden, gosdoS

an administrator.

Subdivisional Officer.

Court.

From.

= Given, passed g = down, go = to give.


GOOD = 00^ = The relative pronoun which.
Sg^S^oS = A decision, judgment,
c^ = To (sign of the accusative case).
ooGODDocxj = To disagree, to disapprove, to be dissatisfied with
oDGooo = Wish, will, o = a negative prefix,
= to be equal
q]G08

cxj

to.

The causative as.


oSsoj^sii
The headquarters
^11

|d5

saojjo

of the

Minbu

district or division.

In.

To

appeal.

= When an adverb of place used


qSsooD = Happiness, redress.
= To obtain.
Gp

as

an adverb

(^

ol

11

An

affix of

ccoG(raD

courtesy or of polite request.

Because.

of time.

99

633DoS
61

Below.

To be mentioned, written, included.

309jo5

= Point.

cj]3Sii

Plural

affix.

Here stands
9 = Prom.
ql = In order to.
oS = To enter.
GGpoS = To arriye.
oooS = The hand.

oagSii

for QSacoSu punishment.

= In.
Gcg = To meet, to find.
^ = To exist.
= A bullock.
otS

.D8

Names

cG^siic^sii
c^ii

Plural

of

men.

affix.

A preposition of direction.
33o^s = Price, value.

0011

eg

Gg 98

Silver.

40 rupees.

= With.
= To buy= To obtain.
ooScx^ = To buy.
= To obtain (here by purchase).
8 = To steal.
GcpSi = To sell.
CDS = To eat.
GGpSsoDg = To sell (and enjoy the proceeds of the sale).
08 = To know.
g^Docj^gs = Village headman
a^ = village, oj = 03 = man,
= great.
Ggi = Before.
o^c5oo?GooD = Adequate.
Denotes the termination of an oratio obliqua.
m<^ =
co^8 = Also.
J.S

oc5
a;}

Gi

crjii

100

= Say.
= A verbal affix implying

cgDd^
8

inadvertence, misadventure, or the

admission of a fault or crime.

^g

oDJ}

Merely.

Now.

GOODSaoS
gSioo^
eg

imprisonment.

Severe,

Very.

Gaj]scj>iSGODS5i5

oDoS

Prison punishment

JSenef actor.

Lord.
Translation of Petition

(i).

To

The Chief Commissioner or Burma.


The humble
Being
tion 411

dissatisfied Tvith the

petition of

Nga Pyan.

judgment passed on him under

sec-

by the Subdivisional Magistrate,

of the Indian Penal Code,

Myedfe, he preferred an appeal in the Court of the Commissioner


of

Minbu, but

failed to obtain

any

redress.

Petitioner, therefore,

approaches the Chief Commissioner for clemency.

The bullock found in petitioner's possession was purchased by


him from Nga Po and Nga Mo for Rs. 40. Not knowing that it
was stolen property he bought the animal in the presence of the
village headman giving an adequate price for it.
The complainant could not say that, petitioner purchased the
animal with the knowledge that it was stolen property. Petitioner
submits that for merely buying it unwittingly the present sentence
of

imprisonment passed on him

is

very severe.

Petitioner, where-

fore, prays for clemency.

(Signed)

Nga

Pyan.

101

Petition

(2).

GgD5g@g^c6^SoGOODo5GOo56s^8GOD5coglDo5c2Dll
OOgSs}ll i^OOOOGpi^|,olo5

coGpsa

co^sgodS

gll

cgoSsgl^

Oq^O^SGg J908

qSiii

C^G^C^J^Il

oqcpsogj^GODScjoSSj^G^cxj^cxj^co^SoqcS^^saaSi^SGooB
60I cx>^a:jGpsii
on

ii33ooo5330^olooGpgo cc^sgodSod^ii o jgSqu^cx^^cooo^g 2

Og8llOgj?GOQ5o6llc8llOgSsoSg||G008CXj5(^DSC^IIGg

cqjGGpoScxD^saoliiog

ao8

GosGqii Gg

clso^8sa^$4jDS|>5 qj[oo"lsm3Sc^Gg

joo8^6 330oo5oq?c^s cq^cg

908

'l"^s%

OOoSo^g Oo5aj^gsG$3o5ll^|sG[oS

a5j.|l^o|GQD5sii

qSsG^DoS clsGJqDoS

joo8 G^gooSoooSo^g^Gpii qSsCXJ^C^SGgODS

;5o8ol(i j>SG|5Gg

j?o8 c^oocolSsoo^s

GCOdSsS^00^3331iI GOSGq)&^ll OCJ^GGpSg g(59o6 ODSJ[533GOO

33Sj)0

^oqSii

q^Ss^OOoS

yoSGqgc^sSo^olGf^DSsu
Jll

llCjSsG43o5G|o5o033GOD5(^3(gSll 023gGGpo5GODDSsG[5sGpllOG080Gq]c8S

G^jdS 8g^o1oO^J>S|I OOS^ OJ^OKJll ola^CO CqjGGpCTSgil

C33[^533CO^g O^DgGGpoS

G0035sqgepliq5gOq$0^gGg(^DgC^OGOSOGg^3^gjll33CX)g^OGgDd^olG(^D6fll
c^(c^Sol^ii 330oo533s^o1cc^sgod6c^ii

ooSGoToBcaog gcdSijjoI^n a^^oSgGg

J9o8(jjDgC^G|^olG33D5ll 3o8^9cO^ OOoSoCO^DSGOoSl^olo^ 33g(^dSs^^S338g|S

GooS 6oloogSoqep8ii
gbdSc^sojoSii

GgDSsgll

3d8(^SgO0Bo

102

po$
33GooS

(33@S
GcosSsG^Ss
c88G5^d8
j.6

odQS

103

= To undertake.
= Considerable.
= Lapse of time.
= To demand.
= To shun, avoid.
= goodg^dS = As.

33(cg533oo^i= Stringently.

g33dS

= Wilfully, forcibly,
= To resist.
= Therefore.
= To summon.
= To examine.
= In order to.

33%

saooSj
sjs)

c@8ol
sx)6goT

oSgsos

00^11

oDoSo
oo^DS

Order.

Transliteration of "decree."

= To help, to assist.
= To pity.
Translation of Petition

(2);

IN THE COUET OP THE SUBDIVISIONAL OEEIOER,

MYAUNGMYA.
Civil R^bgtjlab No. 9 op 1896.

Nga Po Tok, trader, Bassein


Nga Po Maung, trader, Myaungmya

. . .

Plaintiff.

...

Defendant.

Suit for the recovery of Es. 2,800, being the amount dae for the value of goods sold.

The humble
Respectptjllt showeth

petition of

Nga Po

T6kj trader, Bassein.

That on the 7th waxing of Nayon 1256, B.E., the abovementioned Nga Po Maung bought of petitioner oil, betel-nut, and
1.

bundles of tobacco to the value of Rs. 1,000, but paid Ss. 700 only
on the day appointed for payment. Subsequently he further purchased Rs. 2,000 worth of dried-fish, smoked-fish, and wheat, and

when

petitioner

demanded payment

of this

sum and

the balance

104

300 preyioTisly remaining, or a total of E-s. 2,300 in all, he


duly executed a promissory note undertaking to pay the amount
on demand.
of Es.

2.

After the lapse of a considerable time, payment was demand-

when the said Nga Po Maung avoided meeting the demand,


and on making a stringent demand last Wazo, he stubbornly reed,

fused to pay the money.


Petitioner, wherefore,

humbly prays

summoned and examined, and


2,300 may be passed in petitioner's

be

that

Nga Po Maung may

that a decree for the said Es.


favour.

Maung Po

(Signed)

Petition

T6k.

(3).

g50D^ScGCo5c^3:j5^s8G[SG00S^GC0DOC0DO^5jSGCo5QSs@S
COoS(XjSpS^5GODS^o5GCq|3o6aDD3Q^|l

r
GCgJDoScXiJ

GQdB'TicS

^g50^SoDODo333G^c:^68G^ll

...jOCDoS

CjSsil

{_co<Xj

qSsii

0:jGpSC5J^GCo5 GOdScXDoSoI a;j-9-GCODo5c^OOII 3aC04,Dg)GCQl3o5c2DGQSC03g

aoo5o2Ssoloo^iiGcqig(;^SG(x>55^5coo8Q6g(go5[^ta:^epsii

='J33^il'S,^^Ssii t^ggo^Sii ooJ^Sg^OG^ ocjoDDSa;;i=gg goToSodqoSooii


90011 33CSCS Gg 903

J.S

GqsGg

11

Jf^Gg

908

c-o's

C^ )C^GgD6? J.61I COGpSC^ ^^Gp

GolSga^jSoSs^SGOoSogSoosps^Gpii qSscoGpsd|^qo533qii ooli ^ooc^ gosgo8gjS


qjo6o:5oloD^ii O9]gsG^3o502]?GC05c^SCOII

33o8c833ggG|6q]c6cq) Oolsi^DEC^

GOS335GpllCDGp?C^COOa^oll'qS'03Gpgc^oa^C0^33C^o5i!|g3;^So88C^

jgSc^5c^8

rg^GcoSc^s GcgDoScoDSSpii q5?cocpg gc;^ j>8yDu8ii ^oq^ ODao^g

sjoSc^m

^^ocqcgjSii ogoG|8qc6,o (g[SgG0G|Ofii (^a^SoSgoo 338?,GQSgG^Do5ii 9 03


GCO0cS\^0<^\\ (3q533Co8co|"ll qSg33^ci^33^Coijgo:j5coepSa^g^Gpil GOgGO]8

g^olcx:^!! 8Gi8[gGDo5 cg$G00Sc^gaD0o|S)ll Go5oDg8[33GqS^8o6s^GOD5


O2833a;]G00S5Gpil (3^8088 l8qo533C^SgGOgG0338|qG08GODDG(o}DSll

^S^DCgOD^gSol^ll 33518

C038@S

OCJ^^pSCX)!!

33m|

G33Da5^5Q8g 33^C^ ?g|l'^St^DSC^

GCODSsOjg^glGCoSi^ggajjSli 00GpgC^y^OD^QpL,olGlG33DS CSC^oSGp33g)8c038


5o'lll33X)^DSGCoS3GC51Do5qg3GGlSODDSCOo5og68olc0^llGoqig(fS5^SoOo8QSs(So5
Sll
(^SOqGpSlI

105

Translation of Petition

(3).

To

The Chief Commissioner of Burma.


The humble petition of Maung Pet, Ma Thet, and
Nga San Hla, of Kamathi-ashe kioin village,
Martaban (Amherst
Respectftjllt showeth

district).

That in 1255 B.E., Goolam Mahomed, a native

of India, resid-

ing in Kadaing village, Martaban, sued petitioners for the re-

covery of 300 baskets of paddy, valued at


E,s. 5,

E.s.

405, and a debt of

or a total of Rs, 410, in the Court of the

The Myook accordingly ordered the delivery


and, in compliance therewith,

Myook, Paung.

of the

300 baskets,

petitioners repeatedly offered to

The plaintiff, however, refused


and petitioners twice represented his conduct to
the Township Officer. The Township Officer thereupon passed

deliver the paddy in instalments.


to take delivery,

orders to the effect that,

if

the plaintiff failed to take delivery of

the paddy by the 7th waxing of

Nayon

same year, the


decree should be deemed to have become null and void. About
four months after this, on the arrival of a new Township Officer,
the plaintiff sued petitioners de novo and obtained a similar
of the

Being thus aggrieved petitioners preferred an appeal in


the Court of the Deputy Commissioner, Moulmein, but the
Deputy Commissioner confirmed the Township Officer's judgment.
decree.

Petitioners, wherefore, pray that the proceedings of the lower

Courts

shown

may
to

be called for and perused, and that justice

may

be

them.
Petition

(4).

33O^GD^gH5o|^800oSoqop8g?G0o5ll0GgSqil33g^G00ScOo5
GODG^D^IolcS

gll

GC

33^0g5ll

||oSc^5sO$5^8G005o5s@S^grDII OOgS^II GOD3^D5J^o1c6


9

14

J.Sq]

106

5CoSo8s^Sqyc8GODD338|j>8ll G33Do5^So5s338|8G[Sqoll

?.C^3C^o"l^llGO0DSgCXj)

^^Oc5i5)o5QS3o5g|^II 33OD^3SQO060O05d1OD^il GGqjSlJSGOoS J^SoooSoSsgoS


j^gocjopsii

(g6?C^GOOD33qjo5ll
Oil

llgJsa^JOgSlI

33gSsQ8 C^8sg[^OD^ 33^SG[^ y|oD^

33C:^8glICn|bGODD

j,5gco3o5oOo^ii oj5Gqj>8o^8ii c^^goo5<^s coo5^ cxjSc^Sii sag^coSs good8q

GOODG(gOD4)DSOo85JDS^^II CO^} j>830o5cOo5aq5c^5GCX)D OoScj]DSGolo5GCpo5glg8s


gilC|Ss33oS(^D8j.ScOCgll SsgoSOjJC^C^ GSaDoS^jSC^DSOOgGO ^c8o85sG02(g8s00^1l 33

gGC05 9 |olc8

gCIG0C,i5o

5.S1I

4,^SgOG3330^S

Jll

C^Sq

90

33G|

OC^oS 0$D

OD^3302o5ll^S$DOG|oloD^ll
jii

ii33oooS^GO Gosc^cr5oD^co8g8olcgi6ii o^o5o(^8oo8ajs^ OcS5[D8

^oScBSsgSsc^ cogSsogOTii ^8o coglGcoS

cgcgGGaDS

a^8JjSG'33DSocq5c^o5G(g3Ssg8l

G33Do5^S38l(^ 03(^03 SJGODD^oSsgS

C^olcNqjoSll

G@d8sCX)^ 33Gqs0a;{gcO^3302O?ll OoSqioSoDSoloO^II

(^(^D8C^G<X)D5sa^g^

G00S(,^(SC5lSll

oo5sg^o5cxjjc^ii

ogegoS

gjracg

G33Do5i^S33Q

3384ei8q)o54jDgc^ocSq)o^gSaoSGOD5i^

olQgSoSG(D8sil^^S33CO^DSGCo5gcS5oloD^llGOq|S(jJ)S5^SoOsSoSjgo5gscqGp8ll

Translation of Petition

(4).

IN THE COURT OF THE FINANCIAL COMMISSIONER,


RANGOON.
Revenue Appeal No. 9 op

Nga

So, cultivator of

Sinbut village,

1896.

Appellant.

Subject .-Praying that the orders of the Commissioner of Sagaing, in Bevenue Appeal
No. 3 of 1896, may either be cancelled or modified.

Appellant most humbly prays that the proceedings in his case


may be called for and perused, and that the orders of the Commissioner of Sagaing passed on the 20th of January 1896, as well as
those of the lower Court, may either be cancelled or modified.

Geounds op Appeai/.
The kaing * land in dispute is State land. He has been
cultivating it and paying revenue thereon for the last five years
and up to the year 1256 B.E., and holds receipts for the same.
1.

* Alluvial land

on which vegetables are generally cultivated.

107

was only when the pea and bean crops he has sown this year,
had grown and matured, that the lower Courts withdrew and
It

allotted the land with the standing crops to others.

trary to the provisions of section 25 of the (Upper

and Revenue) Regulation No.


the rules thereunder.

He

is,

Ill,

and

of

Rule

This

is

con-

Burma Land

30, section (v) of

therefore, aggrieved.

was considered proper to allot the land to others, he


He
should have been ejected before he had sown his crops.
2.

If it

represented to the lower Courts that a regular revenue -payer like

him

But no notice was


The orders passed by them should,

did not deserve being put to such a

taken of his representation.

loss.

therefore, be cancelled.

Appellant, wherefore, prays that the proceedings of the lower

Courts

may

be called for and perused, and that their orders

either be cancelled or modified.

(Signed)

Mating

So.

may

APPENDIX

III.

Extracts from the " Selections from the Kecords of the

Hlutdaw."
(a)
qc8oDo|sii29c6iii;^o5j>D|olcS 9011

OOGpGpO)Oc5^4]DSC^oSQa088G[SoD^OIOc8c33Sp^C^

GODSo8^8GOqg003ll
IICOGpSpO)Oc8^(jjDSC^ oSg30s8g[cGOO^II GpOCj^SJ.6 OCJGCOdSs

OgOII

QgcoS^

OD^II5flOo533Gp^C^33$o5lia3Gp8^|>Sd^5o0^33Sp^C^^DoSGOs8Sj5GO<^^nQgD?8
^5s:)SOD^gD^(^3sg8ll33gDSgD^i^DSyDll^o5;ooep8000DS(^D8C^o8GOs8G[8o^ll 33^

OO^Sg^GOOdSc^ OODGGpo5G(yD3^GCglDo5o038 CX)gSc^DS0^C0^8 O0o5oOGOG[ll GOoS


o8S8GOO^II

llGpO)OoS5^jS3^SoD^335p^C^g3lia^sgo58q5G[|ggD$8^5sg3SOO^

gD$(^Ds(ySin3(gDsg3^(^os^Dii cpO)Oo5^c^8^5a^sQo5o^ii

GpaooB^gScc^saoSSsii

GC^3o5 0038^3^ OO^C^ CO o56^ll33^J|^58O08C^gDSG33D8o0sd88oSGOSGOQ^II


qcSxiU

iiC^cSgOoSi:

^8GODSl^3SOg8llgGcglDo5|Jo0^33^oQsoQo5330g8sil330

C^:^q80^II CXDSpSGpthOcS o6gX)s8g[8oD^ JJSaoSsaSp^C^ 33 0gD833GGpC^II ou

33G033C2cSo8|IGOdSc8$8GOO^iI
ODo8cX)a

IIGpO^SjiS

0:jG00D8s(yG005i^^ ODGp8GpO)Oo5^C^D8C^ oSgS0s8g|Sod^

33O2S8ll33^OD^C0OGO80D^3g)Gg33CX)^33cS5oOo5^COo5oOa^SCOo5Ga0064)D8C^
33038330^0811003808^8000^11

ooj^u

iiooGpsqpO)OcS^i;jl3Sc

a^sgcSSqS aoSa^eioo^

j^socS 33Gp^c53ii

335^O3^C052^Gg 8?OCqi3c5 33do^33c85g8scg)|3SCOo5^03o5ogg30g^2t^380^


33GGpS8330o533Gq|S33gls0^llG038d8^8GOO^Il

ogoH
GOSl^:i

iic^oSgcoS ^sgcoS

(;^3g(^8ii

(y^cxjfc^ 03epscpQ)Oo5^tj|3sc^ raGogjsoS

3D8|GO0Sgo5^S S003SO3^ 338|GajSG^C^gSll Ggl^GODDSg

CXJ'SojC^^Dll

sSSspgD^^Sj^sGOoSocSGCoSc^ooii COGp8gCOo5cgS8Cq)8^3SCO^O;|^C^G^SqoSll o5

385cOo55cG08335cOGcg3o5Gg3^GS036g^o5GOO^II
COQII

I13384gOd5g|C^J>S|I

o5s85cOC^go5G^aj G^GSX)3Scy31l ODOOoSsS^OO^

C^CDII3D^Gg33^Ga338g[o5GOi^|G[6gg8g$^03o55@Sgil CQOOo5Ga;^SGg3Ss33GD

333^330033833 g^o5a|^llG03So88GOO^II
oomoit

iioDCps cpo)OoS^(^38c:^

aoSs^oSsojGG^sgoB gG0TG|C0^ 03GG[80qSc8

53ll^o'8833Gajj3oSc(g8GgG003689G[| ^OD^(^32C^ll g3|8^SsgDSOODSOO^

gOGs

110

(a)

CHAPTER

II, 7,

page 40.

Mules for the guidance of Ministers and other

Officials acting as

Judges.

No Judge

1.

appointed for

tlie

administration of

criminal justice shall take cognizance

of,

or deal with,

civil

or

any case

not belonging to the department under his control.

While a case

2.

Judge
3.

from

is

pending in the Hlutdaw or Yondaws, the

shall not visit or send

The Judge

shall not,

litigants, in the

men

to the

houses of the parties.

during his incumbency, receive bribes

shape of gold,

silver, cloth, or

other property

animate or inanimate.

The Judge shall have no business transactions with litigants


{lit. buy and sell, lend and borrow gold, silver, precious stones,
cloth, horses, cattle, and other property animate and inanimate).
4.

Besides the duly licensed advocates, only such law-agents


shall be allowed to practise in the Courts as are conversant with
5.

the Dhammathats, and are selected and appointed by the


departments.

Heads

of

The licensed advocates and law-agents shall not, when engaged by one party, act for the other party.
The Judge shall see that the clerks and peons receive no
7.
more than the fees prescribed in the table of costs. (Chap. II, 5.)
6.

(b)
ocqggD$sii(oo) o ycSiii^o5j.D|,olo5 gjii

5?i^'=l|s332S03G^D050Do5ll(yS0gG0l6sil8^O?8llC0^8llGgsC$

g^DGgsCcSs@SC^^^8o3GO0SgCoc^D||
on

iioqepsrg^GcxjS q^^^^g^^qssoS sog^ocSoocSw @SogGol5sii8|o?siico?8ii

Ggsoo^goGgscoSsgs

ccooSn cgcoGc^sn ca^SGOii

coodg^ii

cqSog^SGaGolSsol

111

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112

(b)

CHAPTER
Petition of

TVfaJ,

1,

Nga Myat Yo, Nga So

Chit Tun, Kyedangyis

Kanzi, and

Kyegan

page 92.

Nga Ta

Pe,

* of the

Yb, and

Nga

Pyinzigaung, Seinban,

villages, respectively, of the

Shwe-

pyiyanaung,t Anauklet township,


E,ESPECTPTJLLY SHOWliXH

That Nga Nyan Baw, the Kyegan Ywathugyi,* has abused his
position, and, in violation of his oath of allegiance to His IMajesty,
has mortgaged his thugyiship for a sum of Pts. 300 odd, levied over
Es. 1,000 in excess of the laAvful demands

who

the mortgagee,

is

an

outsider, has

and that Xga. Than,


oppressed

Petitioners, therefore, pray that the said Nga-

Than may be

the people.

Nyan Baw and Nga

legally proceeded against.

Order recorded by the Moda Wundauk.


Institute

an enquiry.
(Sd.)

KiNWUN MiNGYI.
Taunggwin Mingyi.

Hlttdaw
The 7th

loanl'tifj

Wagaunrj 1345.

>

(25th August 1883.)

Deposition of Theikdi Ponnaka, the Shwepyiyanaung Myinw^un, dated 9th Avaning

Tazaungni6n 1245 (25th Novem-

ber 1883).

With
directed

reference to the above petition, I sent for the Thugyi as

by the Hlutdaw.

I find that he has absconded.

Nga

Than, the mortgagee, who has taken the Thugyi's place, is not approved by the people. They are insubordinate to him and do not

perform their duties satisfactorily. The thathameda and other


matters connected with Kyega,n village ^vill, therefore, be placed

The village
the appointment one Nga Thaw, who is re-

in the hands of the Kyedan^^yi and Ywathugyis.


elders
*

recommend

The Kyedangyi

is

for

the

headman

of a village.

important Tillage or a group. of villages.


f Name of a cavalry regiment.

The Ywathugyi

is

the

headman

of

an

113

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abmudan.

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(c)

CHAPTER
Petition of

and

V,

3,

ahmudan Nga Yan

his sister-in-law

Mi

page 153.

Lin, of the Yweletya regiment,

Ket.

States on oath that Nga Shwe Bein, of the said regiment, and
hushand of Mi Ket, served with the Monfe column under Nga Set,

While so serving the ea;-Myo6k seized


Nga Shwe Bein's property and murdered him. Petitioners, whereea-'-Myook oE Tantahin.

fore,

pray that the said e.i-Myook

Nga

Set

may

he legally pro-

ceeded against in the Hlutdaw.

Examination of accused, dated 11th waning


(20th June 1883).

1st

Wazo 1245

DO not know whether the man, Nga Shwe Bein, mentioned in


the petition of Nga Yan Lin and Mi Ket was a Yweletya ahmudan or not. When I was ordered to serve with the Mone column,
I

I bought

Mm

116

under a bond and


Arrived there, Nga Yan,

for Rs. 70 as a personal slave

him away with me to Mone.


a Natsuletwfe ahmudan, who Avas in charge of the transport bullocks, complained to me that Nga Shwe Bein had stolen some of
the animals.
Nga Shwe Bein was accordingly sent for and extook

He

amined.
them.

admitted the complaint and added that he had sold

Over 10 bullocks were

and a few had already been

stolen

recovered, when, while demanding *

mainder,

Nga Shwe Bein

the

recovery

unfortunately succumbed.

of

the

re-

I did not

take any property belonging to him.

Okdbr eecobded by the Nyatjngwun


In order

to ascertain

whether the deceased

Wtjndal'e:.

Nga Shwe Bein met

e^-Myo6k while he was forcibly


demanding the recovery of the bullocks stolen from the hands
of Nga Yan, the Natsuletwe ahmudan, let Nga Yan and the
Thenat Saye, who was with the Mone column, be summoned and
examined, and resubmit with their depositions.

his death at the hands of the

(Sd.)

KiNWUN MiNGTI.
Taunggwin Mingyi.
Taingda Mingyi.

Hlutdaw

-N

Dated 4ih waning 1st Wazo 1345.


C23rd June 1883.)

>

Deposition of Nemyothurakyawthu, Natsuletwe Thenat Saye,


dated 12th waning 1st

Wazo 1245

(1st

July 1883).

Bo, who was commanded to march against


Sawbwa,
ordered that each amhudan should be
the ex-^ionh
supplied with three baskets of rice, and that each thwethauk
should have a bullock to carry the rice. The c.i--Myo6k of Tantabin, who was the Tatbo, supplied the bullocks and gave them in
charge of Nga Yan. When the e^^-Myook's man Nga Bein sold
some of the animals, Nga Yan came and made a report to me
first, and, because Nga Bein was not an ahmudan, I directed Nga

The Shwehlan

Accompanied

of course with blows.

117

Yan

to go and complain to the ex-Mjook, his master.


I heard
from the ahmudans afterwards that when Nga Yan made his complaint, the

ex-Mjo6k punished

Deposition of
I

WAS

Nga Yan,

his

man

Natsuletwfe

ahmudan (same

date).

entrusted by the Tatbo, Thenat Saye, Tathmu, and thwe-

thauks, with the keeping of 10 bullocks.

and sold by

Nga Bein and

Eight of these were taken

I reported the matter to the Thenat

I was directed to complain to

Saye.

with death.

Nga

Bein's master

and I did

so.

Bond executed by Nga Bein and Mi Ket, produced by the


eo^-Myook of Tantabin.

On

the 3rd waxing day of Tliadingyut 1244 (14th September

1882),

Mi Ket came and offered to become


Tantabin Myook and his wife for Us. 70, as they

Nga Bein and

the slaves of the

his wife

pay two debts of Es. 35 each, which they owed to Me


Unit, wife of the Theinni Sitkfe. The Tantabin Myook and his
wife accordingly paid Es. 70 and kept Nga Bein and his wife Mi

wanted

Ket

to

as their personal slaves.

Witnesses

Writer

(Sd.)

Mating Saw.

(Sd.)

Nga Shwe

Nga Po

Thin.

At. )

Judgment recorded by the Bind alb Wtjndatjk.


In

this case,

it is

clear that the deceased died of the injuries he

received at the hands of the ex-M.jobk,

who had

occasion to punish

on duty with the Eoyal troops. Mi Ket, one of


the complainants, states that her husband, the deceased, served with
the troops of his own accord and that he was not the ea?-Myo6k's

his slave while

slave.

But the bond produced by the e^-Myo6k

documentary evidence against her.

We, however,

is

sufficient

consider that

The exMyook shall forego the sum of Es. 70 mentioned in the said bond
which shall be cancelled, and he shall pay to the complainant,
no master has the right

to cause the death of a slave.

118

Mi

sum of
husband, Nga Bein.
Ket, the

Rs. 160 as compensation * for the death of her

(Sd.)

KiNWUN MiNGTI.
Taunggwin Mingyi.
Taingba Mingyi.

Hlutdaw

~j

Bated 9th waning Wazo 1246.

fl6th Julij 1884.J

(d)

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(d)

CHAPTER

VII, 15, page 179.

From

the Malunlemyo Wun, dated 1st waning Tazaungm6n


1246 (19th Octoher 1884), presented by Myogan Nga

Po Tu.
In compliance with the

by Government, I
beg to report that I have issued orders to the myothugyis, ywathugyis, and taikbmus within my wunship, direetinL,"- them to preserve the peace

vA'ithin

instructions issued

their respecti^'e jurisdictions, to establish

patrols night and day along the trade routes, to prevent bribery

and corruption, and generally to see to the welfare and prosperity


My clerks and myself conform to the first 9 paraof the people.
graphs of the instructions, and do not receive any illegal gratifi-

from the people. We do not harbour bad characters and


have not appointed any thugyi other than those duly appointed
by Government. The clerks are not jiermitted to issue summons
at will. These documents are formally drawn up in open Court
cation

and

served.

Court-fees are

of paragraphs 16, 17,

120

demanded according

to the provisions

committed to jail
and 18.
always with the previous sanction of the Kayaing Wun. Under
paragraphs 10 to 25, the thugyis and taikhmus are always directed to execute their bonds at the Myoyon and copies of these are
always submitted. By virtue of His Majesty's power and glory,
there

is

Prisoners are

peace and prosperity throughout

price of paddy

is

my

jurisdiction.

The

Rs. 110 per hundred baskets, rice Rs. 250 per

hundred baskets, fegya beans Es. 130 per hundred baskets, oil
Rs. 70 per hundred viss, cutch Rs. 30 per hundred viss, crude cotton Rs. 10 per hundred viss, prepared cotton Rs. 50 per hundred

wheat Rs. 160 per hundi'ed baskets, pegyi beans Rs. 150 per
hundred baskets, sessamuta Rs. 280 per hundred baskets, gram
Rs. 130 per hundred baskets, jaggery Rs. 17 per hundred viss,
pounded ngapi (fish-paste) Rs. 13 per hundred viss, salt Rs. 6 per
viss,

hundred

viss,

hundred

viss.

is

and dried murrel or snakehead (fish) Rs. 60 per


A list of irrigation works within my jurisdiction

being prepared and will be submitted when ready.


(e)

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(e)

CHAPTER
Erom

VII,

the Sagaing Kayaing

21,

page ISi.

Wun, Maingkaing Myoza,

dated

10th waxing Thadingyut 1216 (29th September 1884),

submitted by Royal Messenger,

In order

to properly assess

went personally

to

and

Nga Kaing.

collect the thathameda-tax, I

Konbet village, Ye-u township, Tabayin

district,

and, to avoid causing hardship, issued orders directing the people

pay in the tax in two instalments. The people, however, preferred to pay it in full at once, and I acceded to their request.
I
have accordingly been collecting the tax, and, to ensure the safe
arrival of remittances, have appointad a guard consisting of 30
armed men at the mango-grove, a mile south of my camp, another
of the same strength at Wettogyaw, a mile to the west of it, and
to

number of men at Natyegan-sakan


The collections in camp are guarded by a body

a third consisting of the same


a mile north of
of

it.

P6ndawdo ahmudans, and

night and day.

40 armed men

Besides these,
to act as guards

sentries are placed at each

my
and

sentries.

over a lakh of rupees and shall remit


the

month

of

Thadingyut (October).

I have

now

G. B. C. P.

O. No.

them

collected

all collections in full

within

There are no cases of da-

The people enjoy peace, the


and the agricultural operations are extensive.

coity within the Tabayin district.


rainfall is good,

guard

subordinates have with

3018, B. S., 29-9-982,000.

16

PARAGON
GALLERY

jm

{"The Ofitntal Boehslon]


of Amtrica"
||14I)

CAST

5tli

NEW YORK

mfm

SmCETl

23, H. V.

'^'

^^

ELEMENTARY HANDBOOK
OF THE

BURMESE LANGUAGE
BY

TAW SEIN
(iOVEBNMENT T]lANSLAT(jn

KO,

A.;D

M.R.V.S., f.a.i.,

f.s.a.,

HONOKAUY AKCHAJOLOGICAJ^

OFFICE!,,

BURMA.

RANGOON:
PRINTKD BY THE SUPKRI JTENUENT, GOVERNMENT PRINTING, BURMA.

n^

1898.

U-

-a
I

Price, Rs.

2-8-0.

>&H.