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Matrix Converter Used For UPS Application

Critical loads such as data storage and computer systems, life support
equipment, process equipment controllers, telecommunications equipment and
emergency systems require continuous operation when there is a power failure.
Associated problems such as poor overall power factor, heating effects, device
malfunction and destruction of other equipment caused by nonlinear loads have
been recorded. This trend reflects in the increase use of uninterruptible power
supply (UPS) to provide uninterrupted and reliable power supply with the
provision of unity supply power factor. UPS systems have progressed from rotary
to hybrid and static type. Rotating type uses motor-generator sets that are often
used in high sinusoidal output applications. Hybrid type combines the use of
motor-generator sets and static type. In this system the static UPS are used to
bridge the gap between the loss of the primary source and availability of a
secondary source such as a manually started diesel generator.
Generally static UPS system are as shown in Fig.1 comprising three basic
elements; a rectifier/charger unit that converts input AC power into DC power, an
inverter unit that converts DC power of a battery to AC power and a static bypass
switch that transfers the critical load to the back-up supply and isolating from the
mains. A manual bypass switch is also normally added to cater for maintenance
or repair purposes of the UPS unit. The rectifier or charger normally uses a
bridge-diode in implementation without affording any control function. A
transformer is used to step-down voltage during rectification operation, whilst
during mains-failure the transformer performs as a step-up transformer. However
due to the presence of blocking switch operation there will be some distortions in
the voltage and current. In order to minimise this distortion we now use matix
converter instead of rectifier and inverter.

The single phase matrix converter (SPMC) requires 4 bi-directional switches


as shown in Fig. 2; each capable of conducting current in both directions,
blocking forward and reverse voltages. It requires the use of bidirectional
switches capable of blocking voltage and conducting current in both directions.
The IGBT were used due to its popularity amongst researchers that could lead to
high-power applications with reasonably fast switching frequency for fine control.
The SPMC topology has been presented to operate as an Uninterruptible Power
Supply Circuit (UPS) incorporating Unity Power Factor Control. A single circuit is
developed that performs both the rectifier and inverter operation may also
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incorporate active power filter operation. The inverter transforms a DC input into
an AC output using the well-known Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM)
technique, while its offering a reverse power flow through controlled rectifier
operation.

A systematic switching sequence is required that allows for the energy


flowing in the IGBTs to decay in order to minimise the stress on the switches. In
conventional converters, free-wheeling diodes are used for this purpose. In SPMC
these free-wheeling diodes do not exist, hence switching sequence needs to be
developed to allow forced controlled free-wheeling. This is to protect the
converter from being damaged as a result of voltage and current spikes.
Proposed UPS Using SPMC:
Using SPMC the proposed system comparable to typical static UPS system is
as illustrated in fig.4. In comparison only a single-circuit are required to perform
both the inverter and rectifier operation. Since SPMC is characterised by pure
controllable switching function, the need for the blocking switch is eliminated
and maybe replaced by sophisticated control algorithm that could be developed
in the future. Observe also the use of SPMC reduces the need of having two
separate circuits. In the proposed UPS, typical static UPS system shown in Fig.4 is
used.

In comparison only a single circuit is required to perform both the rectifier


and inverter operations during normal and back-up modes respectively.
Inverter Operation:

During power failure the SPMC operates as a inverter. The battery of SPMC
topology will supply for the load. By this approach during positive half cycle, S1
and S4 will be on and S2 and S3 will be off. During negative half cycle at S2 and
S3 will be on, and S1 and S4 will be off.

Rectifier Operation:
When there is no power failure, the main will supply for the load. The battey
In Fig.12 -13 the upper switch of the first leg which is closer to the
capacitor is used to charge up the battery while the lower switches of both the
first and second leg ensure close tracking of the supply current to a sinusoidal
reference current. In this, the switches of the first leg operate in alternate
sequence. This boost-charging strategy involves fast switching action of the
switching devices which are piloted by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique.
All of these switching actions are carried out in the current control loop (CCL).
Since instantaneous switching actions is required of the SPMC to make the
supply current follows the sinusoidal reference current closely, the current
control loop time response has to be fast. In the simulation works an operating
switching frequency of 20 KHz is used.

Meanwhile the other upper switch on the second leg is used to divert the
boost energy away from the battery to ensure the voltage level of the battery
does not exceed the limit. This is achieved by actively and continuously
monitoring the battery voltage level using a voltage control loop (VCL). In this
control loop the voltage of the battery is compared with a set reference in order
to provide for the appropriate action of the switch. The switch is turned on upon
detection of equality of both voltage levels. On the other hand, if the voltage
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level of the battery is lower than the set reference the switch is turned off and
the boost energy is directed back to the battery. Therefore, this control loop is
vital in ensuring the battery life is sustained.