IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) vol.12 issue.6 version.2

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IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) vol.12 issue.6 version.2

© All Rights Reserved

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e-ISSN: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 12, Issue 6 Ver. II (Nov. - Dec. 2015), PP 08-14

www.iosrjournals.org

Spinning around their Stationary and ParallelAxes in an

IdealFluid

Abdullah Baz1, Salman M. Al-Kasimi2

Assistant Professor College of Computer and Information System

UQU, Saudi Arabia

Associate Professor The Research Institute UQU, Saudi Arabia

Abstract: This paper derives the equations that describe the interaction forcesbetween two non-identical

cylinders spinningaround their stationary and parallel axes in a fluid that isassumed to be in-viscous, steady, invortical, and in-compressible. The paper starts by deriving the velocity field from Laplace equation,governing

this problem,and the system boundary conditions. It then determines the pressure field from the velocity field

using Bernoulli equation. Finally, the paper integrates the pressure around both cylinder-surface to find the

force acting on their axes.All equations and derivationsprovided in this paper are exact solutions. No numerical

analysesor approximations are used.The paper finds that such cylinders repel or attract each other in inverse

relation with separation between their axes, according to similar or opposite direction of rotation, respectively.

Keywords: Rotating non-identical cylinders, ideal fluid, Laplace equation,velocity field,Bernoulli equation,

pressure, force, inverse law, repulsion, attraction.

I.

Introduction

Determining the force acting on an objectdue to its existence in a fluid is an important topic, and has

several important applications. One of these applications is evaluating the lift force acting on an aeroplane wing

due to the flow of the air. The solution to such a problem might be analytical or numerical, depending upon the

complexity of the system and the required level of accuracy of the solution. Cylindrical Objects in fluid-flows

constitute one category of such problems and have vast applications.

According to the literature reviewed, several such systems have already been studied both numerically

and analytically,while other systems have attracted no attention. An example ofsuch studiedsystems[1]is the lift

force acting on a cylinder rollingin aflow. Another example[2] is the interaction forces between two concentric

cylinders with fluid internal and/or external to them. A third example[3]is the interaction forces between two

cylinders rotating around two parallel floating axes.A fourth example [4]is the interaction forces among two

identical cylinders rotating in an ideal fluid around their fixed and parallel axes.No study to the knowledge of

both authors has been done on the interaction forceswhen the two cylinders are non-identical.

This paper is dedicated to investigate such a system. For simplicity, the cylinders are assumed infinitely

long, so asto have a two-dimensional problem in -plane, where rotational axes are parallel to the ignored axis.

Fig.1 shows an example of the system targeted by this paper. It depictstwo non-identical circles (for the

two non-identical cylinders)of radii & . The distance between the two centres (for the two axes) is:2,

where: 2 > + .

DOI: 10.9790/1684-12620814

www.iosrjournals.org

8 | Page

The Interaction Forces between Two non-Identical Cylinders Spinning around their Stationary...

Bothcircles (cylinders)are rotating around their centres (axes) with fixed angular velocities, & (for

Cylinder-A and Cylinder-B, respectively); in a fluid that is in-viscous, steady, in-vortical, and in-compressible.

The aim of the paper is to derive the exact equations describing the forcesboth cylindersexert on their fixed axes

after the entire system reached steady state.

The next section uses the Laplace equation[5]governing such problems, to find the velocity field of the

fluid, satisfying its boundary conditions, which are:

1. the velocity of the fluid at circle-A resemblingthe surface of Cylinder-A is tangential to it, with a magnitude

of: ;

2. the velocity of the fluid at circle-B resemblingthe surface of Cylinder-Bis tangential to it, with a magnitude

of: ;

3. the velocity of the fluid at infinity is zero.

As the governing Laplace equation is linear, super-position can be applied to simplify the solution.

Considering Cylinder-A alone,the steady-state fluid-velocity vector:

, = , , , ,(1)

isknown [6] to be as shown in Fig.2, where its two components are givenby:

, =

, =

2

2 + 2

2

2 + 2

, and:(2)

, provided:

2 + 2 > 2 .(3)

These velocity equations satisfythe boundary conditions mentioned above. Furthermore, the velocity of

the fluid due to the spinning of Cylinder-Ais seen to be directly proportional to , and inversely proportional

tothe distance from the cylinder axis;i.e. the further from cylinder axis, the slower the fluid is.

Considering Cylinder-B alone, the steady-state fluid-velocity vector:

, = , , , ,(4)

can be obtained from Eqs.2&3 (with a positive shift of: 2, along the -axis) as:

, =

, =

2

,and:(5)

2 2 + 2

2 2

2 2 + 2

, provided:

Fig.2: The velocity field of the ideal fluid due to the spinning of Cylinder-A

DOI: 10.9790/1684-12620814

www.iosrjournals.org

9 | Page

The Interaction Forces between Two non-Identical Cylinders Spinning around their Stationary...

Hence, applying super-position;the fluid velocity for the system of both cylinders shown in Fig.1, can

be found using Eqs.1-6 as:

, = , + , = , , , ,where:(7)

, = , + , =

, = , + , =

2 + 2 > 2 , and:

2

2 + 2

2

2 + 2

2

,

2 2 + 2

2 2

2 2 + 2

and:(8)

,provided:

(9)

A case of the above fluid-velocity is plotted as shown in Fig.3 below.The next section uses these fluidvelocity equations and Bernoulli equation to obtain the pressure field.

Fig.3: The velocity field of the ideal fluid due to the spinning of Cylinder-A and Cylinder-B in the same

direction around their stationary and parallel axes

In this section, the pressure at the boundary of both cylinders is derived, in readiness to find the forces

exerted on both axes. Ignoring the effect of the gravitational force in the fluid, Bernoulli equation relates the

pressure magnitude, , , to the velocity field, , , as:

1

(, ) + 2 (, )

= , where:

The above equation can be read as:the summation of both static and dynamic pressures is constant

everywhere in the fluid. In this respect, it is the square of the magnitude of the fluid velocity, | , |, is what

really matters for the fluid pressure.

Applying Eq.10 at Cylinder-A border & infinity (where velocity diminishes), then:

2

(, ) + 2 (, )

(, ):

:

= , where:

is the fluid pressure at . Hence:

DOI: 10.9790/1684-12620814

www.iosrjournals.org

10 | Page

The Interaction Forces between Two non-Identical Cylinders Spinning around their Stationary...

2

, = 2 (, )

, =

2 , + 2 ,

, = 2

2

2 + 2

2 + 2

2 + 2 = 2

+

2 +44

, = 2 2 2 +

2

1+

2 4

2 +4 2 4

to:

2 2 2 4 2

2 +4 2 4

2 (2 2 + 2 4 )

2 2 ( 2 +4 2 4 )

1+

2 +44

2 +44

2 2

2 2 2 4 2

2 (2 2 + 2 4 )

, = =

2 2 + 2

2 2

2 2

2 +44

+ + 2 +44

2 4 2 +44

, = 2 2 2 +

2 2

, = 2 2 2 +

, =

2 2 + 2

, = 2

, giving:

, then to:

, where: Circle-.

= cos ,

then:

2 (2 2 + 2 4 )

2 2 ( 2 +4 2 4 )

, 0,2 . (11)

The fluid pressure, ,expressed by Eq.11 is acting perpendicular to the surface of Cylinder-A as

shown in Fig.4, and can be seen to cause infinitesimal force, , in the same direction, given by:

= , where:

:

is the Length of either cylinder, which is assumed to be equal and infinitely long.

Decomposing: into two components, and ignoring its y-component due to the symmetry of

about the -axis; then:

DOI: 10.9790/1684-12620814

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11 | Page

The Interaction Forces between Two non-Identical Cylinders Spinning around their Stationary...

= cos .(12)

Integrating around Circle-A (the surface of Cylinder-A) yields the force, , exerted on the

axis of rotation of Cylinder-A. Hence:

2

0

.

2

0

2 2

2

1+

2 (2 2 + 2 4 )

cos .

2 2 ( 2 +4 2 4 )

The first two of the above three integrandswill integrate to zero, leaving as:

= 2 2,

where:(13)

2 2 2 + 2 4

0

2 +4 2 4

cos .

The integral, , can be solved [7] by usingthe complex transformation:

= = cos + sin , where:

1

cos =

+

2

2 +1

2

2 = 1,

= 1,

, and:

whereby it converts to an integral over the closed contour, , of the unit circle: = 1, in the complex -plane.

Hence, removing, then:

2 2 2 + 2 4

0

2 +4 2 4

cos =

2 2 + 2 4

2 +1

2

2 +1

2 +4 2 4 2

2 +1

2

(2 2 + 2 )2 2 +1

=2

2 2 2 ( 2 +4 2 )+2

(2 2 + 2 )2 2 +1

= 4

2 + 1 ,where:

2 2 2 + 42 + 2 = 0, given by:

=

,and:

(14)

= = .

(15)

Noting that:2 > , then:

< 1, and is inside , while:

the integrand in has three poles within , two at the origin and one at .

Using Cauchy Theorem in complex integrals[7], is found as:

(2 2 + 2 )2 2 +1

= 4

1

@=

2 + 1

+

@=0

(2 2 + 2 )2 2 +1

2

2 +

DOI: 10.9790/1684-12620814

www.iosrjournals.org

12 | Page

The Interaction Forces between Two non-Identical Cylinders Spinning around their Stationary...

This gives:

= 2

2 2 + 2 2 2 +1

2 2 + 2 2 + +

2 + 1 .

= 2

2 2 + 2 2

2 +1

2 2 + 2 2 2 +1

2 1

2 + 1 .

=

2

2

2

4

=

2 2

2

2

2

4

(16)

= ;

(17)

then the force,, will be zero (i.e. no attraction or repulsion) at a critical case, when:

= =

2

4 2 2

.(18)

This means that for any system of spacing (2) and sizes ( & ); it is possible to cancel the force, , at = .

If > , will be negative, i.e. the cylinders repel each other. On the other hand, if < , will be positive,

i.e. the cylinders attract each other.

For a given system of sizes and spin ratio, Eq.16 shows that at far enough spacing; the force goes

asymptotically to:

=

2 2

2

This is a repulsive force with an inverse relationship with the separation between axes of rotation.

VII.

Eq.16 shows that the effect of sense of rotation does not yield a different relation. can have the

same sense as , or it can have different sense.

VIII.

Conclusion

This paper derived the force acting on twonon-identical cylinders spinning atdifferent constantangular

velocities around their stationary and parallel axes in anin-viscid, steady,in-vortical, and in-compressible

fluid.The obtained equations showed that each cylinder axis,in such a system,experiences a repelling, attracting,

or critically noforce.At far enough spacing, the magnitude of that force is inversely proportional to the

separation between the two axes. It is also proportional to the density of the fluid, their radii, and the product of

the angular velocities of the cylinders.

Nomenclature:

This section summarizes the symbols used in the paper in alphabetical order as follows:

:

:

:

Angular speed of spinning of either cylinder

Half the distance between axes of cylinders

DOI: 10.9790/1684-12620814

www.iosrjournals.org

13 | Page

The Interaction Forces between Two non-Identical Cylinders Spinning around their Stationary...

: Infinitesimal force acting on Cylinder-A

:

Component of: along the -axis

:

Interaction force acting on the axle of Cylinder-A

1:

Value of: F when both cylinders are about to touch each other

2:

Value of: F when both cylinders are spaced2 apart

3:

Value of: F when both cylinders are spaced4 apart

4:

Value of: F when both cylinders are spaced6 apart

:

Peak value of: F

:

Length of either cylinder

(, ): Pressure magnitude of the fluid

:

Pressure magnitude of the fluidat

, :

Pressure magnitude of the fluidat Cylinder-A boundary in y-coordinates

():

Pressure magnitude of the fluidat Cylinder-A boundary in -coordinates

R:

Radius of either cylinder

, : Velocity vector of the fluid due to the spinning of both cylinders

, : Component of: , along the -axis

, : Component of: , along the -axis

, :

Velocity vector of the fluid due to the spinning of Cylinder-A

, :

Component of: , along the -axis

, :

Component of: , along the -axis

, :

Velocity vector of the fluid due to the spinning of Cylinder-B

, :

Component of: , along the -axis

, :

Component of: , along the -axis

References

Fluid Mechanics: An Introduction, E. Rathakrishnan, 3rd edition. 2012.

Fluid Mechanics for Engineers: A Graduate Textbook, M. T. Schobeiri, 2010.

Hydrodynamics, Sir H. Lamb, 1945.

The Interaction Forces between Two Identical Cylinders Spinning around their Stationary and Parallel Axes in an Ideal Fluid, A. Baz,

S. Al-Kasimi.

[5]. Solutions of Laplaces Equation, D. R. Bland, 1961.

[6]. Vortex Dynamics, P. G. Saffman, 1995.

[7]. Complex Integration and Cauchy's Theorem, G. N. Watson, 2012.

[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

DOI: 10.9790/1684-12620814

www.iosrjournals.org

14 | Page

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