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CHAPTER

20

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

Motion along a
Straight Line

1. (a) Distance OA = 5 m
Distance OB = 2 m

(c)
s , 0
t2 4t , 0
t(t 4) , 0

(b) Displacement of A from O = 5 m



Displacement of B from O = 2 m

2. (a) Displacement after 5 seconds



= 52 + 3(5)

= 40 m

(b) Distance travelled in the first 4 seconds


= s4 s0

= [42 + 3(4)] (0)

= 28 m


0 , t , 4 is the time when the particle is on the
left of O.
(d) s . 0

Based on diagram in (c),
t . 4 is the time when the particle is on the right
of O.

(c) s5 s3

= [52 + 3(5)] [32 + 3(3)]

= 22 m
(d) Distance travelled during the 3rd second
= s3 s2

= [32 + 3(3)] [22 + 3(2)]

=8m

4. (a) s = t(t 4)
= t2 4t
t

3. (a) s = t2 4t
When s = 0,
t2 4t = 0
t(t 4) = 0
t = 0, 4

After 4 seconds, the particle returns to O.

s
5

(b) When s = 4,

4 = t2 4t
t2 4t + 4 = 0
(t 2)2 = 0

t = 2

After 2 seconds, the particle is at 4 m on the left
of O.

t
2

4 5


(b) (i)

The furthest distance on the left is 4 m from


O.

(ii) Total distance travelled in the first 5 seconds


=24+5

= 13 m

(iii) The displacement after 5 seconds is 5 m on


the right of O.

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

(iv) The time when the particle passes through


O again is 4 s.

(c) When t = 1,
v = 2(1) + 6
= 8

Therefore, the particle is moving towards right.

(v)
t . 4 is the time interval when the particle
is on the right-hand side of O.

7. (a) s = 3t2 12t


ds
v =
dt
= 6t 12

5. (a) s = t2 9
t=0
A

When t = 0, s = 9
OA = 9 m

(b) Initial velocity = 6(0) 12



= 12 m s1

Its direction of motion is towards left.

(b)
s = 0
t2 9 = 0
(t + 3)(t 3) = 0

t = 3, t = 3 is ignored
(c)
s , 0
t2 9 , 0
(t + 3)(t 3) , 0

Substitute t = 2 into s = 3t2 12t,


s = 3(2)2 12(2)
= 12 m

(c) When v = 0,
6t 12 = 0
t = 2

When the particle is instantaneous at rest, the time


is 2 s and the displacement is 12 m on the left of
O.

(d)
v , 0
6t 12 , 0
t , 2

The time interval is 0 < t , 2 when the particle
is moving towards left.


0 < t , 3 is the time interval when the particle
is on the left-hand side of O.
(d) s = 42 9
= 7 m

8. (a) v = t(t 4)
t

(e) s4 s3

= (42 9) (32 9)

=7m

(f) s = t2 9
s

7
4


(b) (i) Minimum velocity is 4 m s1.

t
3

(b) When v = 10,



10 = 2t + 6
2t = 4
t = 2

After 2 seconds passing through O, its velocity
is 10 m s1.

(iii) v dt =

6. (a) v = 2t + 6

Initial velocity = 2(0) + 6

= 6 m s1

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(ii) The time interval when the particle moves


towards left is 0 , t , 4.
(t2 4t) dt

4
t3
= 2t2
0
3
43
= 2(4)2 (0)
3
2
= 10 m
3

Therefore, the distance travelled in the first


2
4 seconds is 10 m.
3

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

9. (a) v = 3t2 + 8t

(f) v = 3t2 + 8t

= (3t + 8t) dt

s = v dt

= t3 + 4t2 + c

When t = 0, s = 0

\c=0
s = t3 + 4t2

10. (a) v = t3 4t
When v = 0,
t3 4t = 0
t(t2 4) = 0
t = 0, t2 = 4
t = 2, t = 2 is ignored

After 2 seconds, the particle stops instantaneously.
(b) The distance travelled in the first 3 seconds
=

(d) Distance travelled =

3
8

31 2

(0)

(e) The maximum distance of the particle is when


8
v = 0, that is, t = .
3

Maximum distance = t3 + 4t2
8 3
8 2

= +4
3
3
13

= 9 m
27

1 2

1 24

v dt +

v dt =

2
0

3
2

v dt

(t3 4t) dt
2

t4 2t2
=
4
0
4
2
= 2(2)2 (0)
4
= 4

3
3

t4 2t2
v dt =
4

2 3
2

(3t2 + 8t) dt

8 3
8
= +4
3
3
13
= 9 m
27

v dt

= 3t3 + 4t 4

Time interval when the particle travelled in the


8
right direction is 0 , t , .
3

8 3

The time when the particle stops instantaneously


8
for the second time is s.
3

(c)
v . 0
3t2 + 8t . 0
t(3t + 8) . 0

1
5
3

1
5
3

(b) When v = 0,
3t2 + 8t = 0
t(3t + 8) = 0
8

t = 0,
3

3 2(3)2
24 2(2)2
=
4
4
1
= 6 m
4

4 3

The distance travelled in the first 3 seconds


1
= 4 + 6
4
1
= 10 m
4

(c)
v , 0
t3 4t , 0
t(t2 4) , 0

From the graph,
0 , t , 2 is the time interval when the particle
is moving towards left.

1 2

(d) When t = 5,
Velocity, v = 53 4(5)

= 105 m s1

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

11. (a) s = t3 2t2 + t

(g) v = 3t2 4t + 1
= (3t 1)(t 1)

ds
Velocity, v =
dt

= 3t2 4t + 1
dv
(b) Acceleration, a =
dt

= 6t 4

3
0

v
5

(c) When v = 0,
3t2 4t + 1 = 0
(3t 1)(t 1) = 0
1

t = , 1
3

The acceleration of the particle when it stops at
second time

= 6(1) 4

= 2 m s2

1
1

(h) a = 6t 4
t

(d) When a = 8,
6t 4 = 8
t = 2

The displacement when a = 8

= 23 2(2)2 + 2

= 2 m on the right of O

a
8

(e) Minimum velocity is when a = 0.


6t 4 = 0
4
t =
6
2
=
3

Minimum velocity

= 3t2 4t + 1
2 2
2

=3 4 +1
3
3
1
1

=ms
3

1 2

(i) Distance travelled in the first second


1

3
1
= v dt + 1 v dt

v
1

1 2

(f) s = t3 2t2 + t
t

s
2

(3t2 4t + 1) dt
1

4
= m
27

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v dt =

= 3t3 2t2 + t4 3

t
1

3113 2

1 2 1
2 + (0)
3
3

1 2

v dt = 3t3 2t2 + t4 1
3

= [1 2(1) + 1]
4
= 0
27
4
= m
27
3

1 2

3113 2

1 2 1
2 +
3
3

1 2

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

Distance travelled in the first second


4
4
= +
27
27
8
= m
27

(iii)
s = t3 + 12t
= 43 + 12(4)
= 112 m
13. (a) v = 6t 10
dv
a =
dt
a = 6

12. (a) a = 6t

= 6t dt

v = a dt

s = (6t 10) dt
(b) s = v dt

= 3t + c
2

Given t = 0, v = 12,

\ c = 12
v = 3t2 + 12

s = 3t2 10t + c

Given t = 0, s = 0, \ c = 0

\ s = 3t2 10t

= (3t + 12) dt
(b) s = v dt

(c)
s , 0
3t2 10t , 0
t(3t 10) , 0

= t3 + 12t + c

Given t = 0, s = 0,

\c=0
s = t3 + 12t
(c) (i) Displacement = 13 + 12(1)

= 13 m on the right of O


(ii) Velocity = 3(1)2 + 12

= 15 m s1


(iii) Acceleration = 6t

= 6(1)

= 6 m s2
(d) When v = 24,
3t2 + 12 = 24
3t2 = 12
t2 = 4
t = 2, t = 2 is ignored


Therefore, the time interval when the particle is


5
moving towards direction of left is 0 < t , .
3

(e) v = 0 when s is the maximum


6t 10 = 0
5
t =
3

Maximum displacement on the left
5 2
5

= 3 10
3
3

s = t3 + 12t
Distance travelled after 2 seconds
= 23 + 12(2)
= 32 m

(ii)
s2 = 32 m
s1 = 13 + 12(1)
= 13 m



Therefore, the time interval for the particle on the


10
left of O is 0 , t , .
3

(d)
v , 0
6t 10 , 0
10
t ,
6
5
t ,
3

Acceleration when v = 24
=62
= 12 m s2

(e) (i)


t
10

1 2

1 2

50
25
=
3
3

Distance travelled during the second second


= s 2 s1
= 32 13
= 19 m

25
= m
3

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

(f) Distance travelled from t = 3 to t = 5


5
v dt
=

3
5
3

(b)
v , 0
t2 8t + 12 , 0
(t 2)(t 6) , 0

(6t 10) dt

= 3t2 10t4

5
3


= [3(5)2 10(5)] [3(3)2 10(3)]

= 25 (3)

= 28 m
(g) (i) v = 6t 10

v
(4, 14)
B
0
10

12

2 1

2
0

(t2 8t + 12) dt +

4
2

4 u3 t3

a = 2t 8,

v = (2t 8) dt
Given t = 0, v = 12

\ c = 12
v = t2 8t + 12


Minimum velocity, v = 42 8(4) + 12

= 4 m s1

4(4)2 + 12(4)

= 10 2 + 5 1
3
3
= 16 m

After 4 seconds, the particle travels from point O


to point R.

dv
(b) a =
dt
= 2t + 3

v = t2 8t + c

4u

2. (a) v = t2 + 3t + 4

At the point R, v = 0
t2 + 3t + 4 = 0
t2 3t 4 = 0
(t 4)(t + 1) = 0

\t=4

1. (a) Given a = 2t 8

For minimum velocity, a = 0

\ 2t 8 = 0
t = 4

4u

4 u3 43

(t2 8t + 12) dt

4t2 12t

= 2 4(2)2 + 12(2) +
3
3
2 4(2)2 12(2)
3

2
3
= t 4t2 + 12t +
3
0

Total displacement
(ii) Average velocity =
Time
8

=
4

= 2 m s1

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Total distance travelled in the first 4 seconds


= Area of shaded region

From

74

3

Average speed =
4
1

= 6 m s1
6

\2 , t , 6

(c)




Total distance travelled in the first 4 seconds
5
7
1
1
= 10 + 14
3
3
2
2
49
25
= +
3
3
74

=
3

The acceleration at point R


= 2(4) + 3
= 5 m s2

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

(c) For maximum velocity,


a = 0
2t + 3 = 0
3
t =
2

Maximum velocity
3 2
3

= +3 +4
2
2
1

= 6 m s1
4

1 2

3. (a) v =

(i)

(c) The total distance travelled during the first


7 seconds
=

1 2

1
0

1
0

v dt +

7
1

v dt

(t2 + 8t 7) dt

1
t3
= + 4t2 7t
3
0
1
= + 4 7 (0)
3
1
= 3 m
3

3
1

t + 8t 7
Initial velocity
= (0)2 + 8(0) 7
= 7 m s1

v dt =

7
t3
v dt = + 4t2 7t
3
1
1
73
1
2
= + 4(7) 7(7) + 4 7
3
3

(ii)
v . 0
t2 + 8t 7 . 0
(t + 1)(t 7) . 0

4 1

= 36 m

1
Total distance travelled = 3 + 36
3
1

= 39 m
3


t
1

4. (a) vQ = 2t2 4t 16

dvQ


= 4t 4
dt

Therefore, the time interval during which the


particle moves towards right is 1 , t , 7.

(iii)
a ,
2t + 8 ,
2t ,
t .

dvQ
vQ is minimum when = 0,
dt
4t 4 = 0
t = 1

0
0
8
4

Therefore, the time interval during which


the acceleration is negative is t . 4.

(b) v = t2 + 8t 7
= (t + 7)(t 1)
t

(b) Particle Q stops at C,



\ vQ = 0
2t2 4t 16 = 0
t2 2t 8 = 0
(t 4)(t + 2) = 0

t = 4, t = 2 is ignored
vQ = 2t2 4t 16

0 1

Therefore, the minimum velocity of Q


= 2(1)2 4(1) 16
= 18 m s1

sQ = (2t2 4t 16) dt

2
= t3 2t2 16t + c
3

Given t = 0, SQ = 0, \ c = 0
2

sQ = t3 2t2 16t
3

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

When t = 4,
2

BC = (4)3 2(4)2 16(4)
3
1
= 53 m
3

(d) Maximum distance is when v = 0,


6t 12 = 0
t = 2


Displacement from O = 3(2)2 12(2)

= 12 m

1
AC = 60 53
3
2

= 6 m
3

(e) When s = 15,


3t2 12t = 15
3t2 12t 15 = 0
t2 4t 5 = 0
(t + 1)(t 5) = 0

t = 5, t = 1 is ignored

(c) When Q at C, t = 4

Displacement of P = 4 3

= 12 m


Therefore, the maximum distance from O is


12 m.

Difference in distance between P and Q


2
= 12 6
3
1
= 5 m
3


The velocity = 6(5) 12

= 18 m s1
2. (a)

P
A

(b)
s , 0
3t2 12t , 0
3t(t 4) , 0

Substitute t = 5 into sP = t2 + 4t,



sp = 52 + 4(5)
= 45 m

t
4

Therefore, the time interval for the particle to be


on the left of O is 0 , t , 4.

Substitute t = 4 into sQ = t2 8t,


sQ = 42 8(4)
= 16 m

After 4 seconds particle Q passes through B, it
reverses its direction at a distance of 16 m on the
left of B.
(c) Velocity of object P, vP = 2t + 4
When t = 4,
vP = 2(4) + 4
= 12 m s1

The velocity when the particle passes through O


again
= 6(4) 12
= 12 m s1

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The two particles meet after 5 seconds they pass


through A and B respectively and it is at 45 m on
the right of A.

(b) When Q reverses, vQ = 0


2t 8 = 0
t = 4

(c) When the particle passes through O again, s = 0


3t2 12t = 0
3t(t 4) = 0
t = 4, t = 0 is ignored
ds

v =
dt
= 6t 12

sQ = t 2 8t

sP = t2 + 4t, sQ = t2 8t
Assume P and Q meet at C after k seconds.

Distance travelled by P + Distance travelled by
Q = 60
(k2 + 4k) + (8k k2) = 60

12k = 60

k = 5

1. (a) s = 3t2 12t



Displacement = s1 s0

= [3(1)2 12(1)] (0)

= 9 m

The distance travelled in the first second is 9 m.

60 m

sP = t 2 + 4t ,

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

(d) sQ = t2 8t

10

20

20

Distance travelled during the first 2 seconds


4

3
2
= v dt + 4 v dt

8 10

(e) vQ , 0
2t 8 , 0
t , 4


When the particle reverses, v = 0
4t 3t2 = 0
t(4 3t) = 0
4
t = , t = 0 is ignored
3
Given v = 4t 3t2,
a = 4 6t

4
At t = ,
3

4
a = 4 6
3
= 4 m s2

1 2

v dt =

3. (a) v = t(4 3t)


v = 4t 3t2

2
4

(4t 3t2) dt
4

= 32t2 t34 3
0

4 2
4
= 2
3
3
5
= 1 m
27

3 1 2 1 2 4 (0)
2

v dt = 32t2 t344
3

4 2
4
= [2(2)2 23] 2
3
3
5
= 1 m
27

3 1 2 1 24

Total distance travelled in the first 2 seconds


5
= 1 2
27
10
= 2 m
27

(d) The average velocity in the first 2 seconds


Displacement
=
Time

When t = 2, s = 2(2)2 23

=0

(b) s = (4t 3t2) dt

= 2t2 t3 + c
Given t = 0, s = 0, \ c = 0
s = 2t2 t3

When t = 1, s = 2(1)2 (1)3



=1m

0 < t , 4 is the time interval for object Q moves


in the direction of left.

Therefore, the average velocity is 0 m s1.

4. (a) v = t2 6t k

Given v = 0, when t = 3

0 = 32 6(3) k
k = 9

Distance travelled during the first second is


1 m.

(b) v = t2 6t + 9
When t = 0, v = 9 m s1

The velocity at O is 9 m s1.

(c) v = t(4 3t)


t

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

(c) Distance travelled during the third second

3
2
3
2

=
=

v dt
(t2 6t + 9) dt

t3
= 3t2 + 9t
3

(t2 3t 10) dt

3
t3
= t2 10t
2
3

4 3

= (2t 3) dt

v dt
6

3
53
(5)2 10(5)
2
3
5

= 3 m
6


For minimum velocity, a = 0

2t 3 = 0
3

t =
2

5
5
Total distance travelled = 45 + 3
6
6
2

= 49 m
3

Minimum velocity = t2 3t 10
3 2
3

= 3 10
2
2
9
9

= 10
2
4
1

= 12 m s1
4
(ii) a , 0
2t 3 , 0
3
t ,
2

1 2

6. (a) a = 10 m s2
v =

10 dt

v = 10t + c

Given t = 2, v = 15, \ c = 35
v = 10t 35

(i) At point O, t = 0,

Its velocity = 10(0) 35

= 35 m s1

The range of time for particle to decelerate


3
is 0 < t , .
2

(b) (i) v = t2 3t 10

= (t 5)(t + 2)

10

3
6
= (6)2 10(6)
2
3

Given t = 0, v = 10, \ c = 10
v = t2 3t 10

= t2 3t + c

3
t3
= t2 10t
2
3

1 2

v = a dt

3
5
= (5)2 10(5) (0)
2
3
5

= 45 m
6

Distance from t = 5 to t = 6

5. (a) (i) a = 2t 3

(ii)
s = (10t 35) dt
3

1
12
4

s = 5t2 35t + c

Given t = 0, s = 0, \ c = 0
s = 5t2 35t

When v = 25,
10t 35 = 25
t
=6

8
0

10

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v dt

33
23
= 3(3)2 + 9(3) 3(2)2 + 9(2)
3
3
1
= m
3

(ii) Distance from t = 0 to t = 5

3 12
1
,
2
4

10

The displacement of the object


= 5(6)2 35(6)
= 30 m
= 30 m on the left of O

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

2. (a) s = t3 + pt2 + qt
Given s = 0, t = 3

(b) When the object reverses its direction, v = 0


10t 35 = 0
35
t =
10
7
t =
2


0 = 33 + p(3)2 + q(3)
9p + 3q + 27 = 0
3p + q + 9 = 0.......................... 1
s = t3 + pt2 + qt
Given s = 6 when t = 1

s = 5t2 35t
7 2
7
= 5 35
2
2
1
= 61 m
4

1 2

1 2


6 = 1 + p(1) + q(1)

p + q + 7 = 0................................ 2

1 2, 2p + 2 = 0

p = 1

1
\ The distance travelled is 61 m.
4

Substitute p = 1 into 2,

1 + q + 7 = 0

q = 6

(c) At O, s = 0
5t2 35t = 0
5t(t 7) = 0
t = 0, 7


Therefore, p = 1, q = 6
(b) s = t3 t2 6t

v = 3t2 2t 6

a = 6t 2

Velocity when the object at O again


= 10(7) 35
= 35 m s1

When a = 0,
6t 2 = 0
1
t =
3

1 2
1
Velocity = 3 2 6
3
3
1
2

=6
3
3
19

=
3
1

= 6 m s1
3

1. (a) For sA = at t
When t = 4, sA = 0

\ 0 = 4a 16

a = 4
2

(b) sA = 4t t2.................................... 1

sB = t............................................. 2

When A and B meet,


sA = sB
4t t2 = t

t2 4t + t = 0
t2 3t = 0

t(t 3) = 0

t = 3, t = 0 is ignored as it is the starting

time
(c) sA = 4t t2

vA = 4 2t

1 2

3. (a) (i)


v = pt qt2
When t = 4, v = 0
0 = 4p 16q
p = 4q................................... 1

a = p 2qt
Given a = 4 when t = 4
4 = p 2q(4)
4 = p 8q......................... 2

Substitute 1 into 2,
4 = 4q 8q
4 = 4q

q = 1

For sA to be maximum, vA = 0

4 2t = 0
t = 2


1 2

Maximum displacement of A
= 4(2) 22
=4m

Substitute q = 1 into 1,
p = 4
Therefore, p = 4, q = 1

11

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

1
(b) s = 2t2 t3
3
When t = 0, s = 0

(ii)
v = 4t t2
1
s = 2t2 t3 + c
3
When t = 0, s = 0
\ c = 0
1
s = 2t2 t3
3

When at O again, s = 0
1
2t2 t3 = 0
3
1

t2 2 t = 0
3
1
2 t = 0, t = 0 is ignored
3

t = 6

When s = 0,
1
2t2 t3 = 0
3
1
2

t 2 t = 0
3
1
2 t = 0
3

t = 6

(iii)


For maximum s, v = 0
v = 4t t2

0 = 4t t2

t(4 t) = 0

\ t = 4

When t = 4,

1
s = 2(4)2 (4)3
3
32
=
3

Distance travelled from t = 0 to t = 4


1
= 2(4)2 (4)3 0
3
2

= 10 m
3

32

Distance travelled from t = 4 to t = 6


1
1
= 2(6)2 (6)3 2(4)2 (4)3
3
3
2

= 0 10
3
2


= 10
3
2

= 10 m
3

4 3

t
4

4. (a) When t = 0, vB = 02 4

= 4 cm s1
(b) vA = 0 for A turning back
4 + 6t 4t2 = 0
4t2 6t 4 = 0
2t2 3t 2 = 0
(2t + 1)(t 2) = 0

t 2 = 0

Total distance travelled in the first


6 seconds
2

= 2 10
3
32

= 2
3
64
=
3
1

= 21 m
3

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1
t = 2 s, t = is ignored
2

(c) vA = 4 + 6t 4t2
4

sA = 4t + 3t2 t3 + c
3
When t = 0, sA = 0

\c=0
4
sA = 4t + 3t2 t3
3
When t = 2,
4
sA = 4(2) + 3(2)2 (2)3
3
1
= 9 cm
3

12

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

Distance travelled from t = 2 to t = 3,

3
2

4
v dt = 4t + 3t2 t3
3

(b) aA = aB
4 = 10 + 6t
6t = 6

t = 1 s

4
1
= 4(3) + 3(3)2 (3)3 9
3
3
1

= 6 cm
3
1
1

Total distance travelled = 9 + 6
3
3
2

= 15 cm
3

4 1 2

(c) sA = (30 4t) dt


= 30t 2t2 + c

When t = 0, sA = 0

\c=0
sA = 30t 2t2

aB = 10 + 6t
vB = 10t + 3t2 + c

(d)
vA = 4 + 6t 4t2

a = 6 8t


For maximum vA, a = 0

6 8t = 0
6

t =
8
3

t = s
4

When t = 0, vB = 20

\ c = 20
vB = 10t + 3t2 + 20

sB = 5t2 + t3 + 20t + d
When t = 0, sB = 0

\d=0
sB = 5t2 + t3 + 20t

(e) vB = t2 4

When vB = 0,

t2 4 = 0
t = 2

When A and B meet



sA = sB

30t 2t2 = 5t2 + t3 + 20t



t3 3t2 10t = 0

t(t2 3t 10) = 0

t(t 5)(t + 2) = 0

t = 5 s, t = 0 and t = 2 are ignored

sB = (t2 4) dt

1
= t3 4t + c
3
When sB = 10, t = 0

\ c = 10
1
sB = t3 4t + 10
3
When t = 2,
1

sB = (2)3 4(2) + 10
3
2
= 4 cm
3
When t = 2,
1
sA = 9 cm
3

The distance between A and B
2
1

= 9 4
3
3
2

= 4 cm
3

(d) When A at rest, vA = 0



30 4t = 0
30

t =
4
15

t =
2
15
15
sA = 30 2
2
2
= 112.5 m

1 2 1 2

6. (a) v = 6 2t
v . 0
6 2t . 0
2t . 6
t , 3

5. vA = 30 4t
aB = 10 + 6t

Therefore, 0 < t , 3 is the range of time during


which the particle is moving towards B.

(a) Initial velocity of A



= 30 4(0)

= 30 m s1

13

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

7. (a) a = k

(b) s = (6 2t) dt

= 6t t2 + c

= kt + c

When t = 0, s = 0

\c=0

s = 6t t2

10 = 6t t2

t2 6t + 10 = 0

b2 4ac = (6)2 4(1)(10)
= 36 40
= 4 , 0

When t = 1, v = 8

8 = k + c................................ 1
When t = 3, v = 18

18 = 3k + c............................ 2

2 1,
10 = 2k

k = 5

It shows that the particle never reaches B.

(b)


(c) When s = 0,
6t t2 = 0

t(6 t) = 0
t = 6 s

Therefore, t = 6 s is the time when the particle is


at A again.

When t = 0, v = 30

\ c = 30
v = 10t + 30

This is time when particle turning back

When t = 5,

v = 6 2(5)
= 4

(b) For maximum height, v = 0


10t + 30 = 0

t = 3


Maximum height = 5(3)2 + 30(3) + 35

= 45 + 90 + 35

= 80 m
(c) When s = 0,
5t2 + 30t + 35 = 0
t2 6t 7 = 0
(t 7)(t + 1) = 0

t = 7, t = 1 is ignored

Total distance travelled in the first 5 seconds


1
1
= 3 6 + 2 4
2
2

= 13 m
t

Substitute t = 7 into v = 10t + 30,



v = 10(7) + 30
= 40 m s1

sp

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t
3

s = 5t2 + 30t + c

When t = 0, s = 35

\ c = 35
s = 5t2 + 30t + 35

(e) s = 6t t2

s = (10t + 30) dt

From (a), substitute k = 5 into 1,


8 = 5 + c
c = 3
\ v = 5t + 3

8. (a) a = 10

v = 10t + c

(d) When v = 0,
6 2t = 0
t = 3

v = k dt

14

Therefore, the velocity just before it hits the


ground is 40 m s1.

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

9. (a) h = kt2 + pt

v = 2kt + p

(b) v = 2(4)t + 10

v = 8t + 10


For maximum height, v = 0
8t + 10 = 0
10
t =
8
5
= s
4

When t = 0, v = 10

10 = p

\ v = 2kt + 10

a = 2k

Given a = 8
8 = 2k

k = 4

(c) h = 4t2 + 10t



At the surface of the sea,
h = q when t = 4

Therefore, p = 10, k = 4

q = 4(4)2 + 10(4)
= 64 + 40
= 24

q = 24

15

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