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Chapter 1: Introduction

One of the important factors that lead one to their goals is the drive. This drive is
known as motivation. Motivation is term that refers to a process that elicits control
and sustains certain organizational behaviors. It is a group phenomenon which
effects the nature of an individuals behaviors ,the strength of the behavior and the
persistence of the behavior .It is the crucial element in setting and attaining goals
and research shows you can influence your own level of motivation and selfcontrol .It may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize
pleasure ;or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting or a desired
object , goal , state of being or ideal or it may be attributed to less apparent
reasons such as altruism , selfishness , morality or avoiding morality.
Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either violation or optimism.
Motivation is related to, but distinct from emotions.
For the research we have selected Engro Food Corp. as our research area, as we
found it as a very successful, competitive and employee friendly Company. We
have visited their Regional head quarter at Harbor Front Clifton, Karachi.

What is motivation?
The role of motivation in organizational behavior can have a critical impact on
productivity, workplace atmosphere, and many other areas that help determine an
organization's level of success. Understanding the psychological importance of
motivation can help businesses, schools, sports teams, and other organizations
create a healthy, supportive culture that helps meet organizational goals. Some of
the most important practices that can improve motivation this area include strong
leadership, incentive programs, and fair policies

1.1 Purpose of Research

Broad problem area:
What are the factors that affect employee motivation at workplaces?

Aim of research
This research aims to find out whether companies and organizations are giving
proper attention to employee motivation. As employee motivation is thought to be
a proficient tool to improve productivity.

Significance/Expected outcomes of the study

This study will draw attention to the fact that motivation leads to more
productivity, efficiency, effectiveness and many other positive factors within the
employees of an organization and it will also back the claims made in many
studies in the that factors such as pay-scale, recognition and job satisfaction
improve motivation of employees.

1.2 Problem Statement

What role does motivation play behind the success of Engro Food Corporation?

Reason of choosing this statement

The reason of choosing this problem is that the topic we have chosen is motivation
so with respect to motivation we will study all of the grounds of Engro Foods
where motivation can be applied. The main motive of any organization is to earn
profit and make its business successful. We will study in this report that just by
applying motivational theories in Engro Foods they can increase their profit and
can solve the problems as well. We will tell that how motivation is effecting the
Engro Foods success. The reason of choosing the motivation as a subject is that we
want to draw the attention of Engro Foods towards this factor which is highly
neglected not by only Engro Foods but most of the organizations do not consider
motivational problems so therefore they cannot find the absolute solutions for their

1.3 Research Question

Is their any relation between job satisfaction and motivation?

1.4 Scope of Research

The topic at which we are researching at is Motivation. As Most employees need
motivation to feel good about their jobs and perform optimally. Some employees
are money motivated while others find recognition and rewards personally
motivating. Motivation levels within the workplace have a direct impact on
employee productivity. Workers who are motivated and excited about their jobs
carry out their responsibilities to the best of their ability and production numbers
increase as a result.

1.5 Organization of Report

Engro Foods is among the biggest and fastest growing companies in Pakistan with
a vision to cater to local needs with products conforming to global standards.
Highly passionate about providing millions of people across the length and breadth
of Pakistan and beyond with the ultimate brand experience, our product portfolio
comprises some of the country's biggest and best selling brands including Olper's,
Olper's Lite, Omore, Dairy Omung, Olper'sLassi and Tarang.Engro foods has over
1500 Employees and strongly believe in the dignity and value of their people.
Engro consistently treat each other with respect and strive to create an
organizational environment in which individuals are fairly treated, encouraged and
empowered to contribute, grow and develop themselves and help to develop each
other. Who do not tolerate any form of harassment or discrimination?

In 1957, the search for oil by Pak Stanvac, an Esso/Mobil joint venture led to the
discovery of the Mari Gas field near Daharki a small, remote area in Upper Sindh
province at the time. Esso proposed the establishment of a urea plant in that area
which led to a fertilizer plant agreement signed in 1964. In the subsequent year,
Esso Pakistan Fertilizer Company Limited was incorporated, with 75% of the
shares owned by Esso and 25% by the general public.
The construction of a urea plant commenced at Daharki in 1966 and production
began in 1968. At US $43 million with an annual production capacity of 173,000
tons, it was the single largest foreign investment by a multinational corporation in
Pakistan at the time.

A full-fledged marketing organization was established which undertook agronomic

programs to educate the farmers of Pakistan. As the nations first fertilizer brand,
Engro (then Esso) helped modernize traditional farming practices to boost farm
yields, directly impacting the quality of life not only for farmers and their families,
but for the nation at large. As a result of these efforts, consumption of fertilizers
increased in Pakistan, paving the way for the Companys branded urea called
Engro, an acronym for Energy for Growth.
Engro Chemical Pakistan Limited then started a journey of venturing into other
sectors including foods, energy, industrial control and automation, PVC resin
manufacturing and marketing, and chemical terminal and storage.
In 2009 plans were announced of demerging the fertilizer business into an
independent operating company. The expansion and growth in the company
necessitated a change in the way the company operated and conducted business.
Keeping in view the operations of multi category businesses, expansion strategy
and growth vision, the management decided that the various businesses would be
better served if the Company was converted to a holding company. As a result it
was decided to demerge the fertilizer business and establish a holding company
structure to manage the affairs of various businesses.
Engro Fertilizers Limited was incorporated in June 2009 to manage the fertilizer
business post demerger. The demerger required the approval of the High Court of
Sindh, which was granted on December 9, 2009 after obtaining the requisite
approvals from the creditors and shareholders of the Company. The demerger
became effective from January 1, 2010. Consequently, all fertilizer business assets
and liabilities have been transferred to Engro Fertilizers Limited against the issue
of shares to the Company.
To reflect the change in the scope of mandate and scale of operations, Engro
Chemical Pakistan Limited was renamed as Engro Corporation Limited with
effect from January 1, 2010. Engro Corp, as the holding company is responsible
for the long term vision of the company, overseeing the performance of the
subsidiaries and affiliates, allocation of capital, management of talent, leadership
development, HR guiding policies, leadership role in public relations and CSR
activities, control structures, legal and IT support.
Engro Corp will maintain a lean structure with a focused scope, allowing
maximum empowerment to the subsidiaries and affiliates to drive the operations of
their respective organizations.

Mission Statement
Engro Foundation is committed to make positive impact on lives of communities
around its supply chain through provision of improved basic services (health,
infrastructure, water and sanitation); education and skill development; environment
and livelihood training. In addition, it will work with partner organizations to
provide financial and technical support in response to natural calamities.

At Engro Foods, at the heart of our operational strategy is an unwavering
commitment to make investments geared towards bolstering the economy in ways
that can translate our growth into heightened prosperity for Pakistan and beyond.
Keeping this as our core focus, we have always strived to create value by making a
meaningful contribution to our economy, our stake-holders and all the
communities that we engage and do business with

Motivation, Innovation and Engro Foods

At Engro Foods, innovation is valued, encouraged and rewarded in all aspects of
our operations. As we continue to deliver quality products, we strive to think
outside the box to create products that will help us gain preference and provide the
greatest value to our consumers. For which they need their Employee at full
potential and for that employees should be kept motivated with all the aspects so
that their skilled can be employed at most.

Most of the revenue generated Engro is generated from its food
products, some of which are
Dairy Products
Olpers Lite
Olpers flavored milk
Olper's Cream
Omung Dobala
Dairy Omung

Frozen Desserts
Frozen Desserts are manufactured under the
name of Omore. The variety of products
consists of cups, sticks, cones, family tubs, etc.

Efficient management of all administrative affairs of Engro Foods Limited is the
job of the administration department. From legal matters to general day to day
operations of the office, the Administration department ensures that all affairs run

Finance and Accounts

The finance and accounts departments at Engro Foods are responsible for the total
financial management of the different businesses of the company. From the usual
accounting statements and sheets to risk and portfolio management, the team
ensures that every rupee coming into and out of the companies pocket is properly
documented and audited.

Human Resource
The human resource department at Engro Foods limited spearheads their
recruitment process to ensure that the finest human resource is taken on board at
Engro Foods. Resumes of candidates are carefully filed and documented for
current or future reference. The department, besides carrying out succession
planning, maintains and implements HR policies pertaining to employment,
retention, superannuation. Assessing training needs of employees and ensuring
adequate training is also carried out by the professional HR team at Engro Foods.

Consisting of leading market professionals of the industry, who are graduates of
top business schools of Pakistan, the marketing department ensures that from
product need identification to product development, launching and post launch, all
strategic decisions are made based on authentic information and research.
Identifying the target markets, effectively communicating to them and building the
image of the brands as well as the Companies, is the job of the professionals
running the marketing at Engro Foods.

As all of our food products are milk based the entire Milk procurement department
plays a critical role in defining the quality of the end product that reaches our
customers. Ensuring regular collection of fresh and pure milk right from the farmer
to the factory and ascertaining the freshness of milk all across the milk
procurement process, is the responsibility of Milk Procurement department,
consisting of food technologists working at the collection centers and veterinary
doctors providing service to the farmers.

Management Information System

The MIS department at Engro Foods ensures that all automation is running errorfree at all times. Regularly modifying and updating the Companys accounting
software is also the MIS teams responsibility.

Modern technology is part and parcel of Production at Engro Foods. The state of
the art plan set up near Sukkur has a processing capacity of more than 300,000
liters of milk per day, making it one of the largest in the country. Professionally
qualified human resource efficiently works night and day to maintain highest
hygiene standards.

Quality Assurance
Quality Assurance is strictly followed in Engro Food. Qualified food technologists
at this department ensure that highest quality parameters are adhered to through all
steps of production and that the products reach the consumers as per promise.

Supply and Distribution

This department ensures timely and effective distribution of the products to
different shops and stores spread all across Pakistan. From transportation
management to obtaining route permits and approvals, is done by this department.

CHAPTER 2: Literature Review

Several studies focusing on organizational behavior have given extensive
consideration motivation, employee job satisfaction and organizational
performance. All these variables are interdependent on each other. Simply the
association between motivation, job satisfaction and organizational performance
can be viewed as:
Motivation can be elaborated as what individuals strive to achieve better. However,
not everyone gets motivated by the identical factors. Someone may get motivated
by or satisfied by achieving higher authority and responsibility where some other
person merely needs flexibility in work schedule, or someone may be motivated by
sense of accomplishment. When we talk about motivation this only effects people
when they are ready for it and when it is applied the best way suitable for them.
That is, when it feeds the needs of the person to be motivated. Still the motivation
will not have effect on individuals if they are unable to perform a task or if they
ar3e not willing for certain tasks. Here comes the role of leadership as leaders have
to decide what foundation requirements are there to apply motivation and what sort
of motivation is needed. Motivation is going to work if the right person with
suitable skills is made responsible for the job or otherwise it will be wastage of
resources and time, and may lead to an opposite side that creates an incapable and
non-willing job performer.
The term motivation is derived from the Latin term movere, which means to
move (Baron, Henley, McGibbon and McCarthy, 2002). Motivation refers to the
reasons underlying behavior (Guay et al., 2010). Campbell and Pritchard (1976,
p.78) defined motivation as a label for the determinants of the choice to initiate
effort on a certain task, the choice to expend a certain amount of effort, and the
choice to persist in expending effort over a period of time. Motivation, therefore,
closes the satisfaction-performance loop, and has to do with a set of interrelated
factors that explain an individuals behavior, holding constant the variables
controlled or influenced by management, as well as by individual skills, abilities
and knowledge (Campbell & Pritchard, 1976). Spector (2003) saw motivation as
an internal state that induces a person to engage in particular behaviors, and held
that motivation may be viewed from two angles. To Nelson and Quick (2003),
motivation is the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior. Gouws
(1995) defined motivation as an inner wish or urge that originates with an
individual, either consciously or unconsciously, to complete a task successfully
because it is enjoyable, and not necessarily for what will be received in return. In
an age where retaining talent is crucial to their prosperity, companies realize that

they need to do a better job at letting employees know that their work matters, by
stepping up employee recognition (Clarke, 2001).
By reviewing different articles and search engines on the above general research
question the following statements have been observed:

Salary motivates employees to work more effectively

Rynes, Colbert, and Brown (2002) presented the following statement to 959
members of the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM): Surveys that
directly ask employees how important pay is to them are likely to overestimate
pays true importance in actual decisions (p. 158). If our interpretation (and that
of Rynes et al.) of the research literature is accurate, then the correct true-false
answer to the above statement is false. In other words, people are more likely to
underreport than to over report the importance of pay as a motivational factor in
most situations. Put another way, research suggests that pay is much more
important in peoples actual choices and behaviors than it is in their self-reports of
what motivates them, much like the cartoon viewers mentioned in the quote above.
Yet, only 35% of the respondents in the Rynes et al. study answered in a way
consistent with research findings.

Satisfaction leads to motivation

The relationship between job satisfaction and motivation at work has been one of
the widely researched areas in the field of management in relation to different
professions, but in Pakistan very few studies have explored this concept especially
on banking sectors employees. According to Khan (1997), in the current business
environment, organizations in all industries are experiencing rapid change, which
is accelerating at an enormous speed. Finck et al. (1998) also stated that companies
must recognize that the human factor is becoming much more important for
organizational survival, and that business excellence will only be achieved when
employees are excited and motivated by their work. In addition, difficult
circumstances, such as violence, tragedy, fear, and job insecurity create severe
stress in employees and result in reduced workplace performance (Klein, 2002).
According to Watson (1994) business has come to realize that a motivated and
satisfied workforce can deliver powerfully to the bottom line. Since employee
performance is a joint function of ability and motivation, one of managements
primary tasks, therefore, is to motivate employees to perform to the best of their
ability (Moorhead & Griffin, 1998).


Recognition can help motivate employees

Motivation through recognition can and does work. It will provide your company
with many benefits and advantages, some of which cannot be measured on a
tangible scale. Recognition can be an incredibly powerful tool to foster a close-knit
team environment, encourage employees to achieve high levels of productivity,
increase your employee retention rates, and reduce incidental expenses relating to
inattentiveness to job duties that result in dissatisfied customers, safety issues, or
on-the-job downtime.
Recognizing your employees for the work they do also costs you nothing at all
other than your time and effort, and if they are working that hard for you, surely
you can demonstrate your appreciation in ways that let them know you are aware
of their efforts.
Amabile et al. (1994) concluded that employee who reveals high job satisfaction is
motivated by rewards, and rewards supported work engagement
(VandenbergheandTrembley 2008). According to Zainis (2009) satisfaction of
rewards in public and private sector employee has been established certainly
associated with job satisfaction. Furthermore, Zaini et al. (2009) and Chew (2005)
preceding research found that job satisfaction is associated with the monetary
compensation (pay, promotion, and bonus) and non-monetary compensation isone
of the most important explanatory variables in both sectors (A. Furham et al.
2009). William James said, "The deepest desire in human nature is to be
appreciated." It does not matter how much you pay someone, everyone want to
know that their efforts are being seen and appreciated, especially by their manager.
Don't just send them a thank you e-mail - that just means you care enough to hit the
"Enter" key. If you really want to thank someone buy them a real "Thank You"
card and describe how their behavior and performance has added value to the team
and organization.


Chapter 3: Research Methodology

One of important factor in determining the organizational efficiency is
motivation. Motivation is the factor that stimulate desire and energy in
people both internally and externally to be continually interested and
committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.
Without it all organizational facilities will go to waste. Motivation is an
effective instrument in the hands of management in inspiring the
workforce. Motivation increases the willingness of the workers to work,
thus increasing efficiency and effectiveness of the organization.
1. There is significant relationship between pay scale and work motivation.
2. There is significant relationship between recognition and work motivation.
3. There is significant relationship between incentives and rewards with employee
4. There is significant relationship between job satisfaction and work motivation.

For experiment we visited Engro regional The Harbour Front Sea View Road,
Karachi where we took interview from various managers and asked them about
how motivation played a role in the success of their organization.
We also made questionnaire in order to collect a survey of information from the
employees there. The sample size we selected was 25 employees at Engro.


Following is the interview that we took from assistant manager Muhammad
Hussain of Engro Corporation in order to find the answer of above hypothesis.
1. What is the mission of your company?
Mission of our company is Engro Foundation is committed to make a positive
impact in the lives of those living in communities around its supply chain through
the provision of improved basic services (health, infrastructure, water and
sanitation); education and skill development; environment and livelihood training.
In addition, it works with partner organizations to provide financial and technical
support in response to natural calamities.
2. What is your vision?
Engro Foundation brings realization to the dreams of our people to make a
difference in lives of those around us. We believe in the power of Pakistans
human capital to change the face of communities and economies and make them
agents of a wider change.
3. What are your views about motivation?
According to my point of view motivation always played as the most integral
instrument in order to create a satisfied behavior of employees at work.
4. How do you motivate your Staff before starting any project?
We use a variety of different methods to motivate staff. When a project is about to
start and I am delegating tasks, I supply some type of mild reward, such as I will
treat you all to coffee once this is over.
5. Why is it important to motivate employees in the workplace?
The foremost reason that calls for motivating employees in the workplace is:
Lack of motivation that is low productivity


6. How do you motivate employees?

We have several ways to motivate our employees such as providing personal care,
feedback for performance and providing bonuses for their performance. Apart from
that we also have some programs like reward program, employee benefit program
and professional development program. All of these do improve our employees
motivation one way or another.
7. Over the years have you seen your company giving special attention to
employees motivation?
Yes. Our company always believed in betterment of employees and betterment of
the organization and it is general truism that motivation helps an organization grow
and perform better that is why we also started to give special attention to the
motivation of our employees.
8. What kind of work culture do you think increases the motivation level of an
A culture in which:
I. Suggestions of employees are listened to.
II. Employees are well informed about the decisions being taken which might
affect them.
III. Communication between all employees is open.
IV. Employees are trusted and treated with respect
V. Employees work and deliver as a team
VI. Employees see a path to grow and are regular trained for development
9. Do you think challenges increases the motivation level?
Yes, giving challenges to the employees increases the motivation level because by
giving challenges to them their interest level will increase and it will help
increasing their performance.


10. What makes your company different from others in aspect of motivation
for the employees?
Engro believes that its employees are its most important assets. Being assets, they
are provided with the best facilities and incentives to motivate them and increase
both their creativity and productivity at work. This makes Engro different than
other competing organizations
11. Is motivating your employees providing any benefits?
Yes. Motivating our employees has benefited Engro in several ways such as
increased productivity and innovative ideas by the employees which is a source of
long term benefits to the company.

3. 1 Nature of the research

We use the exploratory research in order to find out find out the answer of above
Qualitative Research has been used in order to identify the factors affecting
motivation .It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or
hypotheses for potential quantitative research.

3.2 Target population

Our targeted population is employees of Engro Company. The number of people
that we selected for filling the questionnaire is 25.


3.3 Data collection

The Data we have gathered at Engro Foods was catered to us by two sources of
data Collection.

Primary Data
Primary data was collected via questionnaires which were given to 25 Engro

Secondary Data
Several websites and articles were used to collect secondary data for our report, of
which some are listed in the references and bibliography.

3.4 Data treatment

Data was collected through questionnaires and also from several websites and
article. Not much analysis was needed on the data, so figures were converted on
Microsoft Word into charts for better understanding.


CHAPTER 4: Data Analysis

As mentioned earlier, 2 sources of data collection were used.
Primary Data: Using questionnaires, we had 25 Engro employees fill out questionnaires to
understand their personal thoughts on the issue of our research
Secondary Data: Several articles and websites were used to collect qualitative data relevant to
our report.
The following results were collected using our questionnaires, over the concerned Variables;

Good Pay Scales Motivates Individuals to Work Efficiently

Our Questionnaire asked whether the pay scales play a vital part in motivating an employee and
we received the following answers from the Employees at Engro.

Effect of Pay Scale on Motivation





Figure 1
Analysis of Figure 1
According to the answers of the questionnaire, we found out that 60% of the Employees strongly
agreed with this hypothesis, while 21% agreed. Disagreement was displayed by 13% of the
Sample Population while the rest remained neutral.
We found a positive relation between the above statements for the Employees of Engro. Money
is important for all the employees, whether it is in the form of Benefits or various increments and
bonuses that organizations implement in order to promote healthier working environment. But
we also had many employees who disagreed with the fact that money is not what employee looks
at. Many of them consider job satisfaction as the most prominent member from this family of
variables to encourage and motivate the employees.


Employees satisfaction leads to Motivation:

We asked the people at Engro if they felt that job satisfaction also affects their motivation level.
We found the following results

Effect of Satisfaction on Motivation



Strongly Agree

Figure 2
Analysis for Figure 2
According to the answers of the questionnaire, we found out that 73% of the Employees strongly
agreed with this hypothesis while 19% agreed. Disagreement was displayed by 8% of the Sample
In this variable of research as well, we found a positive answer to our research question. the
employees of Engro Foods also agree with the fact that only a satisfied employee can be driven
to a level of Motivation where he adopts an organization citizenship behavior. Therefore, its
imperative that an organization should make the Satisfaction of their employees at the work
place, the top priority.


Recognition of Efforts plays as an important factor for Motivating an

Recognition of work has been always been regarded as the key element in motivating an
Employee to his best potential. The thoughts of employees at Engro are as follows:

Effects of Recognition on Motivation




Strongly Agree

Figure 3
Analysis for Figure 3
According to the answers of the questionnaire, we found out that 68% of the Employees strongly
agreed with this hypothesis, while 17% agreed. Disagreement was displayed by 6% of the
Sample Population while the rest remained neutral.
According to the information collected through our questionnaire, we can conclude that
Organizations should be focusing on recognizing the efforts of their Employees, as that plays a
vital role in encouraging company employees and helps them realize their true potential and


Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations

Conclusion: Engro is well aware of the importance of motivation in a workplace

and also of the fact that motivation helps energize, maintain and control the
behavior of employees. Due to which Engro takes special care of its employees by
giving them all facilities possible and also compensating them on the basis of their
work, this helps to keep the employees of Engro motivated and productive. Engro
also tweaks the pay-scales of its employees according to their work and also
recognizes its employees efforts and hard-work and makes sure that they are
benefitted according to their efforts. Because of all of these constant efforts to
motivate employees Engro always ends up with a workplace full of satisfied,
motivated and productive employees.

Recommendations: It is highly likely that all employees may have different

needs from one another; some might be motivated by monetary bonuses while
others by recognition. Therefore, to satisfy all of its employees with different needs
Engro should motivate their employees in different ways, such as:
Give information regarding new products, new strategies being implemented
and how employees fit in the overall plan.
To avoid mistakes in the future and boost productivity, provide feedback
about the performance of employees.
Thank employees when they do a good job either personally or in written
form. Do it as just after the job has been completed.
Try to bond with each employee, give them a chance to grow and acquire
new skills. Also show them how you can help them achieve their
organizational goals.
Use performance as the basis for recognizing, rewarding, and promoting
people. For example, an employee performing better gets a better salary than
one who is not.
Make sure that enough time is being given to employees and their
suggestions are being listened to.
Always take out time for celebrations if the company, a department or some
individuals succeed in achievement of a major goal as this will boost the
morale of employees.
Make sure that team and morale-building meetings and activities are held at
least monthly.
Rather than an autocratic environment, create an environment which is
trusting, fun and open to new ideas.


Moorhead, G. & Griffin, R.W. (1998). Organizational behavior: Managing people
and organizations (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Oshagbemi, T. (2000b), Correlates of Pay Satisfaction in Higher Education,
International Journal of Educational Management 14(1):31-39.
Pearson, C.A.L., Chatterjee, S.R. (2002) Gender variations in work goal priorities:
a survey of Chinese managers. International Journal of Management, 535-543.
Pinder, C.C. (1998). Work motivation in organizational behavior. Upper Saddle
River, N J: Prentice-Hall.
Sempane, M.E., Rieger, H.S. &Roodt, G. (2002). Job satisfaction in relation to
organizational culture. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 28(2), 23 30.
Ali, R., and Ahmed, M. S. (2009). The impact of reward and recognition programs
on employees motivation and satisfaction: an empirical study. International
Review of Business Research Papers, 5(4), 270-279.


Questionnaire *
1. Do pay scales play a vital part in motivating employees at Engro?
a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

2. Do you think that job satisfaction improves motivation?

a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

3. Is recognition at work positively correlated with the motivation of employees?

a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

*Several other questions were asked, but were later removed as they werent providing much to the final report.