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Cambridge International Examinations

Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

* 4 3 9 0 9 2 9 0 8 7 *

0680/12

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Paper 1

February/March 2015
1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates answer on the Question Paper.


No Additional Materials are required.
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
Answer all questions.
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 14 printed pages and 2 blank pages.


DC (LEG/SW) 107151/4 R
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[Turn over

2
1

(a) Look at the diagram below, which shows a food web in an ecosystem where rice is grown.
A

detritivores
e.g. worms

Key
flow of energy

rice crop
grown in water,
providing leaf litter
e.g. detritus
(i)

other plants,
providing food
and shelter

Complete the diagram by naming the feeding type of the organisms found at feeding
levels A and B.
A ....................................
B ....................................

(ii)

[2]

State one advantage and one disadvantage for farmers of the presence of plants other
than rice in the ecosystem.
advantage...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
disadvantage ......................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
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adult daily
requirement
of vitamin A

500
400

Key
daily vitamin A
intake
expected increase
if Golden Rice used

300
200
100

without Golden
Rice

Ba
ng
la
de
s
C
am h
bo
di
a
In
di
a
Ja
p
D
PR an
Ko
re
a
M
al
ay
si
a
M
ya
nm
ar
N
Ph epa
l
ilip
pi
ne
s
Th
ai
la
nd
Vi
et
na
m

amount of vitamin A / micrograms

(b) People whose diet consists mostly of rice often do not get enough vitamin A. Genetic
engineers have created a form of rice, called Golden Rice, which contains a substance that
the body can make into vitamin A. The graph below shows the daily intake of vitamin A in
certain countries where rice forms part of the diet and the expected increase if Golden Rice
were used.

country

(i)

State the name of the country where Golden Rice will give the highest and the lowest
daily increase in vitamin A.
highest ................................................................................................................................
lowest .............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

To what extent does this information support the view that Golden Rice should be used
instead of traditional rice?
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(iii)

Describe the protection that genetic engineering might give to plants.


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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2

(a) Look at the map below, which shows the path of Cyclone Phailin. It reached the north east
coast of India on Saturday, 12 October 2013.
N
BANGLADESH

INDIA

Key

Monday

MYANMAR

Sunday
Gopalpur
Berhampur
Srikakulam

cyclone strength
path of cyclone
town

Saturday
Friday
Thursday

15

Bay
of
Bengal

500
km
(i)

15

Wednesday
Andaman
and Nicobar
islands

Describe the path and change in strength of Cyclone Phailin shown on the map.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

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(ii)

Explain how a cyclone forms.


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[4]

(b) When Cyclone Paradip hit this same area of India in 1999, over 10 000 people died. Cyclone
Phailin led to the deaths of fewer than 100 people. Suggest reasons for this difference in the
number of deaths.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[3]

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3

(a) Look at the diagram below, which shows the two lower layers of the atmosphere.

altitude / km

60

40

stratosphere

20
troposphere
0
60

(i)

40

20
0
temperature / C

20

State the name of the layer in which weather takes place.


.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Describe how temperature changes with altitude between the surface of the Earth and
the top of the stratosphere, as shown in the diagram.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(b) (i)

Ozone is a gas in the stratosphere which absorbs ultraviolet light. Explain how damage
to this layer of ozone gas has been caused.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

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(ii)

Explain how ultraviolet light is harmful to people and the environment.


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

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4

(a) Look at the graph below which shows world copper prices from 1989 until 2014.

copper price per kg / US$

10
8
6
4
2
0
1989

1994

1999

2004

2009

2014

year
(i)

Describe how world copper prices changed between 1989 and 2014.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(ii)

Suggest what might have caused the changes in the price of copper.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(iii)

In late December 2008 the company Anvil stopped mining at their Dikulushi copper
mine, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Using information from the graph, suggest a
reason why they did this.
.......................................................................................................................................[1]

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(b) (i)

The mining of minerals, such as copper, can cause environmental damage.


State two ways in which environments damaged by mining can be conserved.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Suggest how quarries or large holes left after mining might be used.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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5

(a) Look at the graph below, which shows world population from 12 000 years ago until the
present day.

world population / billions

7
6
5
4
3
2
250 million

1 5 million

0
12 000 10 000

(i)

8000
6000
4000
years before present day

2000

present
day

Describe the pattern shown on the graph.


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]
Birth rate is the number of births per thousand people per year. The graph shows the
countries with the highest and lowest birth rates in the world in 2010.

birth rate / births per thousand


people per year

(ii)

60
50
40
30
20
10

ng

st
Si

ni
ha

Af
g

ap
o
H Bo
er sn re
ze ia
go a
vi nd
na
Ja
pa
n
G
er
m
an
y
H
Ko ong
ng

an

d
ha
C

nd

i
ga

al
M

ig

er

country
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The birth rates for the five countries with the lowest rates are shown below.
country

birth rate / births per


thousand people per year

Singapore

8.9

Bosnia and Herzegovina

8.9

Japan

8.6

Germany

8.4

Hong Kong

8.2

Plot the values for the five low birth rate countries on the grid below, choosing an
appropriate scale so that the differences between them are clearer.

[3]
(iii)

Suggest two reasons to explain why some countries have very high birth rates and
others have very low birth rates.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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(b) If birth rates are higher than death rates, populations will grow. Populations also change as a
result of the movement of people (migration). State two push factors that explain why people
might move from rural to urban areas.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[2]

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BLANK PAGE

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6

(a) Look at the sign below, which shows information about rainwater collection in a park in
Zambia.

This is a corrugated iron roof with an area of 25.5 m2


It is equipped with a good gutter system and storage tank.
Its run-off coefficient is 0.9.
The maximum possible volume of water which can be collected is:
V=CAd
C = run-off coefficient
V = volume
A = area
d = average annual rainfall

(i)

Calculate the annual volume of water available (V) from this roof using the data on the
sign. The average annual rainfall (d) in this region is 1 m per year.
The formula is V = C A d
Space for working.

...................................... m3 per year [3]


(ii)

Explain how water from oceans, seas and lakes falls on the Earths surface as rain.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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(iii)

Explain why people in some parts of the world should not use water from ponds and
lakes for drinking or washing.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(b) Oceans are a source of food. Explain why some of the worlds most important fishing grounds
are found on continental shelves.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[2]

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