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The single most important characteristic of any strucmral member is its actual strength, which must be large enough ~o resist, with some margin to spare, all foreseeable loads that may act on in during 11m life of the srruenire, withour.failure or other distress. It is logical, thetefore, to pFO[)Ortionmel.nb~Fs, i.e, to select: concrete dirnensions and reinforcement, so that member strengths are adequate to resistforces resulting from certain hypothetical overload stages, significantlyabove loads expected actually to ccear in service" This design concept is known as strength design.

Forremforced cceercte structures at loads close 1.0 and atfaill!ll1\ one OF both of the llfl,mrlals, concrete and sreel.are invadabJy i!1J. their nonlinearlnelastic range, That is.couerete ina structural member reaches ilS maximum strength and subsequent frac(JUre at stresses and srrams far beyond rile initial elastic rangein which stresses and strains are fairly proportional. Similarly. steel close EO and atfailnre of thememoer is usually stressed beyond its elastic domain into and even beyond Ille yield region,

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16 I}l1SI{~N OF OONCREl'l[; STRUCTURES Chapmr.l

CO!~lseqLH~lltly, the nominal. strengll1 oJ 11. member ITIUst be calculated on the basis of thus i~]elasti.c behavior of thematesials.

A member de.<;;igllBdi. by the s~rength method must also perfotrtl in a satisfactory way under 1l0tlTI[lI service Toamtlg, For example, beam deflections mlIl$n be limited to ilo('>eptabIe values, and the 11umlbef tI!11d width of flexaral cracks at service loads must becontrolled, Serviaeability limit c()t1ditiOlllS are fm important part of the Wtal(ille:s]gl'], all1l()hlgh aUel1!tion is focused initial~y 0[1 snrength.

Hi.sro[i.CEl~]y, members welie proportioned SO th<lt stresses in the steeland concrete resl].]fti[lg froennormal serviceloads were wi[iti.lll specified limits, These limits, known as (liloW'ablc ..\'tJ~SS«S, were ()Lily fractions of the failure stresses of the materials. for members pr()p<J~l:i(meil on :suc.b ~ service load basis, the margi.n. of .safety was pmvi,(ied by stipnl.ating allowable stresses mnder service loads that were appropriately small fractions of the Cl)rnpwes,sive concrete strengthand the steel yidd S:1Ie'SS. We now refer to this basis for design as service load d:esign, AHowtlole stresses •. il1 practice, were set at ubou[ one-half theconcrete compressive strength and one-half the yield stress; of the steel.

Beeanse o[ the difference in realism and rdiabihty, over [he past several decades the strength design method has diispl.1K-ed. the older service load design method. However, the older method is still ~tsed occasionallyand is the design basis for many oldieI' stmctt]re:.s. Thl'(mghO'L]t this text,strengtb design is presented ahnost exclL1si.vdy,


The design. of conerete structures such. as those of Fig'S, LI. toLl"2 is gettera.lly done within theframework of codes giving specific requirements [or materials, structural ana~ysis, member Pf<OpOF!iO[ling, ete. The InternaliomalBlIi]dillg Code (Ref. 1.2) is an example of a t:OHSe[(l$U$ code govenlin,g structural desig;t1 and is often adopted by local municip.alities. The respomsi.lbility of rrepmiIlg materiHI-specifit pl)l-ti!)t1S of the cod!:':s rests with varl(lililS pfofes,siona] groups, trade ass(lciarrion:s, and technical insti!~u~es, In contrast with many other industrialized! nations, the United States does n(111 l1ave 00 official, governmenft-sancti(lned, nati otlal code.

The American COilll(.Te<te Institute (ACI)l!I1l.s long been 21ieader it! sucheffurts. As one part of its nc:tivity, tlIle American Concrete ~n$litute has published the widdy recognized Building Code R~qui"emellis Jar Structm:al Concr{!t~ (Ref. 1.10), .• vhich serves as a guide in the and construction of reinforced ooncrete The AU Code has no official status in itself. However, it is generally regarded a') an authoriaative stateme!]t '(If current good pmcfilcein the field of reinfercedconcrete, As a result, it has been ]t!coq;mrated. into the Inrrematio!nal Bui.lding Code OlI'JJd similar codes, wbich in tlUr[l are adopted by law into nmni.cipal and Te;g~Olllal building C:(ldies that do have legal status. It.') provisions thereby attain, in effect, legal .s:tlll'l!dil1g .. Most reinforced concrete buildings and related constructio» ill the limited States are desigeed .in accordance with the current ACI Code.Jt has also served! as a model decurneut formany olher countries, A second ACI publicati.on,. CmnJlI(::.I1tary on B'uiJdir18 Cod« Re.qul.mnents for SJnu,.:WrtlI COIl(.'1-:ere (Ref .LIO, p~ovides background m~terial and rationale: for the Code provisions, The: American Concrete Jllslilute alsopeblisbes impertant jomnals and standards, as well as reeommendations fo[ the analysis and desig!] of special types ofermcrete stnsctuees such as the tanks of Fig. 1, II.

Most highway bridges in the United States are desigl~ed according to thereqeirements of the AASHTObr.idge speci.fic<lniol1s (ReLI.3)whic.h [lot only eontain the

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provisIons I:e:btil~g to loads and load distributions mentioned earlier, bUI alsninclude detaded P(\(JViS~OI'IS fl)l! the design and oonstruction of concrete bridges. Many of the provisioflS follow ACt Code proViSI(JIlS dosdy, n.1frhougiha Ilmllber of ,~ignificant differenees will be found.

The des]g~'] of r,aihvay bridges!s done aocording to Hie specifioati.ons of the AREMA Manual o:fRailw(1'y Engineering (Ref. ].4). It, t,oo., is patterned aner the ACI Code 1111 most re .. spects, but it cQrutainsrrmcfu additional material pertainimg to 11iilway structures of alilypes.

N!) code or desigl1$pecificatiJm can be construed as a substitute f(1m: sound engiIlee;rirlg judgment in. the design of concrete Sm,;lcture$·_ In SfiruclilJfril practice, sped<l~ circumstances are r[eque~ldJ1 encountered where code p[(w.iJsi(Ulf;. can serve orl~y as !l! guide. and the engineer must [ely upon a firm Ill1iderstatlding of the basic prirll:::ipleS(Jf structural mechanics applied toreinforced (lr prestressed concrete, and an intimate knowledge-of the natore of the rrHti;eFials"


The safety ;provisions ofthe ACI Code are _give,n in the [(Km of Eqs, (L3b) and (l.3c) using strength redlucliOrl fll.Ct(}I~ andjoad factors. These factors fU.'e based to some extent 011 statistical inr[(Kmation butto a 'I,arger degree {)ne:xperi.e[lce, engineering judgment, and compromise .. In words, the design. strength . S,,. of a snuenne ('J,t member must be at least equal. to the required strength U calculated f[Om the factoredkl<ic(h;, l.e.

Design strength ~ required strength


The nominal strei1lgth S" is C(lmputoo (usuaJly somewhat Don.servativeJy) by ac(~pled methods. TFierequired str,ength V is ·c~lkl,]Iated by ~Ippjying appi1Jpriareload fact(lJ$ to Ihe respective service loads: dead joad D: live load L, wind! load! tv, e~Ult.hq1!llilk:e ~ofld E, earth pressure H,fl1!lid pressure F., .impa.ct an()wa~t(;e l, and eil!vi~onm'e[[tal effects T that may Include seulem.ent. creep, shrinkage, "li1Id~empet<it!1te change.. Loadsare defined ina gene:n:al sense, to inClude either lond's or tile related internal effects such as moments, shears, and thrusts, T1IIlIS., in specific tenus fora member SlLlbjec~ed, say, tn moment, shear, and axial load:

U.S.a) O.Sb) U.sC')

where the SLlbs;clipts n denote the nominal Stlfengtil5infleXIIl"e, shear, and ,axial. load, respectively, and the S11bscrip!s l<l denote the factoredload moment, s:hear, ;md axial load. In computinglihe factored load effects 01] the right, load factors mi'J!y be applied either to the service loads themselves or to theinternal load effects calculatedfrom the service loads,

The load factors speeifiedinthe ACI CAj('Je, lobe applied to cH!ou]ated dead roads and those live and errviroumerual loads specified in the ~lppmptia.te codes or standards, are sammarizedm n.ble 1.:2" These me coasistent will] the concepts introduced in

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18 I}l1SI{~N OF OONCREl'l[; STRUCTURES Chapmr.l


IFalctored load combinati,ons for det,ermining required :stnanglth ii'll the ACI Code


Ilasid' Deadplus fluid"

Snow, Rain, 'femJil~la¢U:re, and Wind

U= .~.W + IJjL U = L4(l) + r")

U '" 1J .2«0 -I> F cf> T) .,. 1,6(1. 4' H) 1 05([., Of .s Q]' R) U '" ] .2,0 -1> L6(L, Of.s or R) -I- (1 ,OL Of Q,8W)

U "" 1,lD <I~ 1,6W"," LOt ·1· O.5·L or S orR·

U "" n.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H

U = 1.1D + 1.00E + tOL + O.2S U = O.9D +1.0.£ + L6H

~ lI;rhilru rhe l'ollm'vil]g represem the luads ur[CGla[£ti illmrnail\m~ or f(l1"c~~ .H~sl!lltung from !h~ ILu{)jt fal:H1LS' D '" dead ~(1llil; E .. ear1~K!Ullkc;, F' '" fhliJ~; H =\'i/\':(i~M or prt:'~Hllll from suit. I .. livelead; L, =mof ii'll] load, Ie -- ruill~ S -- snow, 'f -- cumulative ~,flb'C!" UJ'II'.lI!pGfl1tlrrIJ., cttl6[J, shrinkage, aiiKl diffm1!.JJliaL 1'lIl!:tII:lI.liliJm; W = wind.

~ TheACl Clltl1l includes For fllmlds .in the toad ollml:!iu<'Itiuns_ TI:w .c[la~~~" Iead Ixmditimil u[ 1.2D + UlL reflects HOE fad. 'lIm. mo&t ooitdin:\f" haveneither F nor H ]D.lld~ pm,'>lillt and ~ha~ .' ~ .. 4D rarely (l0vl.\m, flesi!)JI.

Section L4 and w.lth SEI/ASCE 7, Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (Ref: !.1), and all.ows design of composite structures using {K)Iirlibin ation s of stmctueal stool. and reinforced()()nt'~e~e, Forindividua] loads, lower factors are used. for Jbacls kn!()WKlwith gJ!eater certainty, e.g., dead l.oad, compared wiffh loads ofgreaJter variability, e.g., live loads, Flltther, for load 'C(lmbill.atkms such as dleadplus live loads p~I]S wind f"Orces, reductions are applied to one load O[ the other that reflect ilie impf'0balbility that an excessiye[y b'l.Ii:e live ]()H(! coincides with an I1D1J$l.mily high windstorm, The factors mwreflect, in a ge~let'4!way, uncertainties with whichil1te:rna~ load effects are cak:ulatedfrom externalloads in systelll.~ as comp,[ex as highly indetemlinate, .il~dasftk reinforced COIl!CI'Ere stmctares which, ill addition, c(J.L"lSl$t of variable-secnoa members (bBCllU$eof tension cracking, discontinuous rei.n£orceme:n.t, etc.), Finally, the load factors also Oll$ between two si!uati()ns, paFhcl:I~.arly when horizontal forces are presenj inaddition to gravity, i.e., thesituationwherethe effects of all. simultaneous Toads are additive, as distinct from thaft illwhiClh various lead eff-ects counteract each ether; For example, in a. retai.ning wall the soil pressere pr(fdmces an. (wertumi~iJg moment, and the gravity f"(]fees prQduc;e ao(}unte[tlcti~i1g stabilizing moment.

In tuJil cases in. Tahle .1.2, the cOl1!u( e{pJltltion is the one tibat gives the largest Itlct!)fed load effect U.

The strength redllct9(m factors· in the ACI Code are given different values depending en the state of knowledge. i.e •• the accuracy with which various stremgth:s cam be calculated, 'rhus, the value fOt: bendillg is higher than thatfor snearo[ bearll1g. Also,' vaJ!lles [e:fiect the probable iunpo¥tance •. F(lr the smrviva] of the structure,. 'of the particular raember and of the probable quality c()ntr()!achievable, For both these reaSOI1lS, alcwer value is used [OrOOlm11]]S tfua~] for beams. 'fable 1..3 giveslhe· values specified. in the ACI Cede,

The joitlt application of stre[1Lglh redncrionfactnes (Tabl.e 13) and load fa.GWrs (Tabl.e 1.2) is aimed. at producing a.pp~"()x.iItlat:e prfibahi.lities of lUlderstrBllgth of the outer of 1/1.00 tmdlof overloads of 111000 .. TIlisruSlilib in a. probabifity of structural EtI.ilure of the order of TIlOO,OOO,

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Strength raduetlen factors ill the .ACI Code

Strength Redlllctioiril F,actor'

Tension-controll ed secrions Compreasion-controlled seetions"

M emberswith spiral reinforcement Other relnforeed members

Shear and! torsion

Bearing on concrete

P(H,t·temiQlloo anchotugG zones Stnsr-and-tieracdels"

().70 0.65 (1.75 0.65 ()'S5 0.75

• CllalllCt 3 eontalns a dlscusslon uK thclincer W[ri~I:h8IT1 oil'· 'between rensionand cf~.mll[(;SsjOliH;fml1I(I!~cd fi.CCi.imls. O,ialli('T!l discusses the (~):Il{JJ~iOI],1 t~~1 ~IIi()W (1)1'1 ~llCreH~(;in' ~'Qr r;.piimlJl''''rlnlf(~l"e~xl cohmms. ~ Stwt·fUt(j;,llie ulOdd~are ~rnlXc-tl.i[]. CMp!('1: In,

III addition to the values given in Table 1.3, ACt Code Appendix 8, '''Mretnativtl Provlstens for Rcinfm'($d and Prestressed Coucrere Flexural and Compression Members:' allows the use of load factors anel strength reduction factors from.previous editions of H-H~ AC.[ Code. The load factors and strength. rednenon facrcrs of ACl Cod!~ Appendix B are calibrated in.eonjunctioawnh the delaHed requirements of IJUlU appendix .. ConseqUlmnJ!y, theymay not be interchanged with theprovisions of the main body of jhe Code ..