Waste Management

Meaning Of Waste
Waste is exclusively human problem. Virtually every pound of natural resources we take from forests, mines, wells, aquifers, and earth ends up sooner or later in an unmanageable pile of trash with no place to go or in other forms of pollution. Waste are two major type • • Solid waste Liquid waste

What Is Solid Waste?
The sight of a dustbin overflowing and the stench rising from it, the all too familiar sights and smells of a crowded city. You look away from it and hold your nose as you cross it. Have you ever thought that you also have a role to play in the creation of this stench? That you can also play a role in the lessening of this smell and making this waste bin look a little more attractive if you follow proper methods of disposal of the waste generated in the house? Since the beginning, humankind has been generating waste, be it the bones and other parts of animals they slaughter for their food or the wood they cut to make their carts. With the progress of civilization, the waste generated became of a more complex nature. At the end of the 19th century the industrial revolution saw the rise of the world of consumers. Not only did the air get more and more polluted but the earth itself became more polluted with the generation of nonbiodegradable solid waste. The increase in population and urbanization was also largely responsible for the increase in solid waste.


Waste Management

Each household generates garbage or waste day in and day out. Items that we no longer need or do not have any further use for fall in the category of waste, and we tend to throw them away. There are different types of solid waste depending on their source. In today’s polluted world, learning the correct methods of handling the waste generated has become essential. Segregation is an important method of handling municipal solid waste. Segregation at source can be understood clearly by representation. One of the important methods of managing and treating wastes is composting. As the cities are growing in size and in problems such as the generation of plastic waste, various municipal waste treatment and disposal methods are now being used to try and resolve these problems. One common sight in all cities is the rag picker who plays an important role in the segregation of this waste.

Types of solid waste
Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source: a) Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste, b) Industrial waste as hazardous waste, and c) Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.

Municipal solid waste
Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tonnes of solid waste, in 1997 it was about 48 million tonnes. More than 25% of the municipal solid waste is not collected at all; 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity to transport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose of the waste. The existing landfills are neither well equipped or well managed and are not lined properly to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater. 2

Waste Management

Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans, aluminium foils, plastics, and other such nonbiodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success. For example, today one will not see a single piece of plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban on plastics in 1998. Other states should follow the example of this region and ban the use of items that cause harm to the environment. One positive note is that in many large cities, shops have begun packing items in reusable or biodegradable bags. Certain biodegradable items can also be composted and reused. In fact proper handling of the biodegradable waste will considerably lessen the burden of solid waste that each city has to tackle.


Waste Management There are different categories of waste generated, each take their own time to degenerate (as illustrated in the table below).

The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it takes to degenerate Type of litter Organic waste such as vegetable and fruit peels, leftover foodstuff, etc. Paper Cotton cloth Wood Woolen items Tin, aluminium, and other metal items such as cans Plastic bags Glass bottles Approximate time it takes to degenerate the litter a week or two. 10–30 days 2–5 months 10–15 years 1 year 100–500 years one million years? undetermined


Waste Management

Hazardous waste
Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substances. Certain types of household waste are also hazardous. Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things e.g. gases. India generates around 7 million tonnes of hazardous wastes every year, most of which is concentrated in four states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. Household waste that can be categorized as hazardous waste include old batteries, shoe polish, paint tins, old medicines, and medicine bottles. Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals used in hospitals is considered hazardous. These chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols, which are used as disinfectants, and mercury, which is used in thermometers or equipment that measure blood pressure. Most hospitals in India do not have proper disposal facilities for these hazardous wastes. In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries. Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.


Waste Management

Hospital waste
Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities in these fields or in the production or testing of biological. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected. Surveys carried out by various agencies show that the health care establishments in India are not giving due attention to their waste management. After the notification of the Bio-medical Waste (Handling and Management) Rules, 1998, these establishments are slowly streamlining the process of waste segregation, collection, treatment, and disposal. Many of the larger hospitals have either installed the treatment facilities or are in the process of doing so.


Waste Management

What Is Radioactive waste ?
Radioactive waste, arising from civilian nuclear activities as well as from defenserelated nuclear-weapon activities, poses a formidable problem for handling and protecting the environment to be safe to the present and future generations. This article deals with this global problem in its varied aspects and discusses the cause for concern, the magnitude of the waste involved and various solutions proposed and being practiced. As nuclear power and arsenal grow, continuous monitoring and immobilization of the waste over several decades and centuries and deposition in safe repositories, assumes great relevance and importance.

What Is Liquid waste?
By virtue of unchecked withdrawal of underground water, the community tends to generate disproportionately high volume of liquid waste. On one hand it develops enormous pressure on the sewage system that are not designed to carry such a large volume, on the other hand it depletes the precious underground water table at an alarming rate. Defective water supply systems, leaking outdated supply lines and lack of effective maintenance, irresponsible and lavish consumption habits, use of potable water for horticulture & farm operations, round the clock supply as against intermittent supply etc. are some of the identifiable factors that contribute in no small measure in generating excessive liquid waste. Whereas a large segment of our population does not have access to potable drinking water, the privileged community of a residential campus indulges in the luxury of excessive consumption, in the absence of a national policy and selfrestraint. If we were to preserve the scare natural resource, as vital as water, we need to develop norms for withdrawal of water from deep aquifers and also an effective mechanism to enforce discipline. Recharging the underground water table also needs to be made mandatory, as part of water table preservation policy and water harvesting techniques need to be put in place.


Waste Management

The Institutions usually do not treat the liquid waste before discharging them into the drains and local water bodies. When untreated wastewater is allowed to accumulate, the decomposition of organic materials in it leads to production of obnoxious gases. In addition, the untreated wastewater contains a variety of pathogenic, disease causing microorganisms and toxic compounds. Therefore the immediate and nuisance free removal of wastewater from its source of generation, followed by treatment and disposal, is not only desirable but also essential in the larger interest of the environment. However in absence of any norms and cost effective models for treatment and disposal of wastewater on mini scales, the educational institutions continue to discharge untreated water with impunity, in total disregard to its social responsibilities.


Waste Management

Waste Management
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing (waste treatment), recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. A subfocus in recent decades has been to reduce waste materials' effect on the natural world and the environment and to recover resources from them.Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential, industrial, and commercial producers. Waste management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for nonhazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator

Waste management concepts
There are a number of concepts about waste management, which vary in their usage between countries or regions. The waste hierarchy classifies waste management strategies according to their desirability. The waste hierarchy has taken many forms over the past decade, but the basic concept has remained the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. Some waste management experts have recently incorporated a 'fourth R': "Rethink", with the implied meaning that the present system may have fundamental flaws, and that a thoroughly effective system of waste management may need an entirely new way of looking at waste. Some "re-think" solutions may be counter-intuitive, such as cutting fabric patterns with slightly more "waste material" left -- the now larger scraps are


Waste Management then used for cutting small parts of the pattern, resulting in a decrease in net waste. This type of solution is by no means limited to the clothing industry. Source reduction involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other materials by modifying industrial production. Source reduction methods involve changes in manufacturing technology, raw material inputs, and product formulation. At times, the term "pollution prevention" may refer to source reduction. Another method of source reduction is to increase incentives for recycling. Many communities in the United States are implementing variable rate pricing for waste disposal which has been effective in reducing the size of the municipal waste stream. Source reduction is typically measured by efficiencies and cutbacks in waste. Toxics use reduction is a more controversial approach to source reduction that targets and measures reductions in the upstream use of toxic materials. Toxics use reduction emphasizes the more preventive aspects of source reduction but, due to its emphasis on toxic chemical inputs, has been opposed more vigorously by chemical manufacturers. Toxics use reduction programs have been set up by legislation in some states, e.g., Massachusetts, New Jersey and Oregon.


Waste Management

Resource recovery
A relatively recent idea in waste management has been to treat the waste material as a resource to be exploited, instead of simply a challenge to be managed and Four Rs (Refuse, Reduce) for Reuse, to be waste Recycle, followed

disposed of. There are a number of different management methods by which resources may be extracted 1. Refuse. Instead of buying new from waste: the materials may be extracted containers from the market, use the ones and recycled, or the calorific content of the that are in the house. Refuse to buy new waste may be converted to electricity. items though you may think they are prettier than the ones you already have. The process of extracting resources or 2. Reuse. Do not throw away the soft value from waste is variously referred to as drink cans or the bottles; cover them with secondary resource recovery, recycling, and homemade paper or paint on them and other terms. The practice of treating waste use them as pencil stands or small vases. materials as a resource is becoming more 3. Recycle. Use shopping bags made of common, especially in metropolitan areas cloth or jute, which can be used over and where space for new landfills is becoming over again [will this come under recycle growing or reduce?].Segregate your waste to acknowledgement that simply disposing of make sure that it is collected and taken waste materials is unsustainable in the long for recycling. term, as there is a finite supply of most raw 4. Reduce. Reduce the generation of scarcer. There is also a materials. unnecessary waste, e.g. carry your own shopping bag when you go to the market There are a number of methods of and put all your purchases directly into it. recovering resources from waste materials, with new technologies and methods being developed continuously.


Waste Management

In some developing nations some resource recovery already takes place by way of manual labourers who sift through un-segregated garbage to salvage material that can be sold in the recycling market. These unrecognized workers called wastepickers or ragpickers, are part of the informal sector, but play a significant role in reducing the load on the Municipalities' Solid Waste Management departments. There is an increasing trend in recognizing their contribution to the environment and there are efforts to try and integrate them into the formal waste management systems, which is proven to be both cost effective and also appears to help in urban poverty alleviation. However, the very high human cost of these activities including disease, injury and reduced life expectancy through contact with toxic or infectious materials would not be tolerated in a developed country.


Waste Management

Recycling and reuses
Recycling involves the collection of used and discarded materials processing these materials and making them into new products. It reduces the amount of waste that is thrown into the community dustbins thereby making the environment cleaner and the air more fresh to breathe. Surveys carried out by Government and non-government agencies in the country have all recognized the importance of recycling wastes. However, the methodology for safe recycling of waste has not been standardized. Studies have revealed that 7 %-15% of the waste is recycled. If recycling is done in a proper manner, it will solve the problems of waste or garbage. At the community level, a large number of NGOs (Non Governmental Organizations) and private sector enterprises have taken an initiative in segregation and recycling of waste (EXNORA International in Chennai recycles a large part of the waste that is collected). It is being used for composting; making pellets to be used in gasifies, etc. Plastics are sold to the factories that reuse them. The steps involved in the process prior to recycling include a)Collection of waste from doorsteps, commercial places, etc b)Collection of waste from community dumps. c) Collection/picking up of waste from final disposal sites. Most of the garbage generated in the household can be recycled and reused. Organic kitchen waste such as leftover foodstuff, vegetable peels, and spoilt or dried fruits and vegetables can be recycled by putting them in the compost pits that have been dug in the garden. Old newspapers, magazines and bottles can be sold to the kabadiwala the man who buys these items from homes.


Waste Management

In your own homes you can contribute to waste reduction and the recycling and reuse of certain items. To cover you books you can use old calendars; old greeting cards can also be reused. Paper can also be made at home through a very simple process and you can paint on them. Waste recycling advantages. Reduces environmental impacts arising from waste treatment and disposal. Makes the surroundings cleaner and healthier. Saves on landfill space. Saves money Reduces the amount of energy required to manufacture new products. In fact recycling can prevent the creation of waste at the source. Miscellaneous Glass and ceramics Plastic has some significant

Some items that can be recycled or reused Old copies Old books Paper bags Newspapers Old greeting cards Cardboard box Containers Bottles Bags Sheets Bottles Plates Cup Bowls Old cans Utensils Clothes Furniture

Leads to less utilization of raw materials. Paper


Waste Management

Comparing recycling with normal extraction
Aluminium Recycling one kilogram of aluminum It takes 20 times more energy to saves up to 8 kilograms of bauxite, four make aluminum from bauxite ore kilograms of chemical products and 14 than using recycled aluminum. kilowatt hours of electricity. Glass A 20% reduction in emissions from glass For every ton of recycled glass furnaces and up to 32% reduction in used, approx 315 kilos of Carbon energy usage. Paper dioxide and 1.2 tons of raw materials are spared. A ton of paper from recycled material Milling paper from recycled paper conserves about 7,000 gallons of water, uses 20% less energy than it does 17-31 trees, 60 lb of air pollutants and to make paper from fresh lumber. 4,000 KWh of electricity.

Recycling Techniques
Many different materials can be recycled but each type requires a different technique

Aluminium is shredded and ground into small pieces. These pieces are melted in an aluminium smelter to produce molten aluminium. By this stage the recycled aluminium is indistinguishable from virgin aluminium and further processing is identical for both. The environmental benefits of recycling aluminium are also enormous. Only around 5% of the CO2 is produced during the recycling process compared to producing raw aluminium (and an even smaller percentage when considering the complete cycle of mining and transporting the aluminium). Also, as open-cut mining most often used for obtaining aluminium ore, mining destroys large sections of natural land.


Waste Management The large variation in size and type of batteries makes their recycling extremely difficult: they must first be sorted into similar kinds and each kind requires an individual recycling process. Additionally, older batteries contain mercury and cadmium, harmful materials which must be handled with caution. Electrical equipment The direct disposal of electrical equipment—such as old computers and mobile phones—is banned in many areas due to the toxic contents of certain components. The recycling process works by mechanically separating the metals, plastics and circuit boards contained in the appliance. When this is done on a large scale at an electronic waste recycling plant, component recovery can be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

Glass bottles and jars are gathered via kerbside collection schemes and bottle banks, where the glass is sorted into colour categories. The collected glass cullet is taken to a glass recycling plant where it is monitored for purity and contaminants are removed. The cullet is crushed and added to a raw material mix in a melting furnace. It is then mechanically blown or moulded into new jars or bottles. Glass cullet is also used in the construction industry for aggregate and glasphalt. Glasphalt is a road-laying material which comprises around 30% recycled glass. Glass can be recycled indefinitely as its structure does not deteriorate when reprocessed.



Waste Management When considering textile recycling one must understand what the material consists of. Most textiles are composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastics. The textiles composition will affect its durability and method of recycling. Workers sort and separate collected textiles into good quality clothing and shoes which can be reused or worn. Damaged textiles are further sorted into grades to make industrial wiping cloths and for use in paper manufacture or material which is suitable for fibre reclamation and filling products. Fibre reclamation mills sort textiles according to fibre type and colour. Colour sorting eliminates the need to re-dye the recycled textiles. The textiles are shredded into 'shoddy' fibres and blended with other selected fibres, depending on the intended end use of the recycled yarn. The blended mixture is carded to clean and mix the fibres and spun ready for weaving or knitting. The fibres can also be compressed for mattress production. Textiles sent to the flocking industry are shredded to make filling material for car insulation, roofing felts, loudspeaker cones, panel linings and furniture padding.

Paper can be directly recycled or treated with other biodegradable wastes. In direct recycling it is separated into its component fibres in water, which creates a pulp slurry material. A cleaning process removes non-fibrous contaminants and if required, sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate is used to de-ink the material. This fibre is then ready to be used to make new recycled paper. Paper is the main material that gets recycled in most countries.



Waste Management Plastic with its exclusive qualities of being light yet strong and economical, has invaded every aspect of our dayto-day life. It has many advantages: it is durable, light, easy to mould, and can be adapted to different user requirements. Once hailed as a 'wonder material', plastic is now a serious worldwide environmental and health concern, essentially due to its nonbiodegradable nature. In India, the plastic industry is growing phenomenally. Plastics have use in all sectors of the economy – infrastructure, construction, agriculture, consumer goods, telecommunications, and packaging. But the good news is that along with a growth in the use, a country-wide network for collection of plastic waste through rag pickers, waste collectors and waste dealers and recycling enterprises has sprung all over the country over the last decade or so. More than 50% of the plastic waste generated in the country is recycled and used in the manufacture of various plastic products. Conventional plastics have been associated with reproductive problems in both wildlife and humans. Studies have shown a decline in human sperm count and quality, genital abnormalities and a rise in the incidence of breast cancer. Dioxin a highly carcinogenic and toxic by-product of the manufacturing process of plastics, is one of the chemicals believed to be passed on through breast milk to the nursing infant. Burning of plastics, especially PVC releases this dioxin and also furan into the atmosphere. Thus, conventional plastics, right from their manufacture to their disposal are a major problem to the environment.

Plastics are so versatile in use that their impacts on the environment are extremely wide ranging. Careless disposal of plastic bags chokes drains, blocks the porosity of the


Waste Management soil and causes problems for groundwater recharge. Plastic disturbs the soil microbe activity, and once ingested, can kill animals. Plastic bags can also contaminate foodstuffs due to leaching of toxic dyes and transfer of pathogens. In fact, a major portion of the plastic bags i.e. approximately 60-80% of the plastic Waste generated in India is

collected and segregated to be recycled. Source of generation of waste plastics The rest remains strewn on the ground, HOUSEHOLD Carry bags Bottles littered around in open drains, or in Containers Trash bags unmanaged garbage dumps. Though only HEALTH AND Disposable syringes MEDICARE Glucose bottles portion that is of concern as it causes Blood and uro bags Intravenous tubes extensive damage to the environment. Catheters Surgical gloves a small percentage lies strewn it is this the HOTEL AND CATERING developed world has realized the need of The plastic industry in environmentally acceptable modes for recycling plastics wastes and has set out AIR/RAIL TRAVEL targets and missions. Packaging items Mineral water bottles Plastic plates, glasses, spoons Mineral water bottles Plastic plates, glasses, spoons Plastic bags

Designing eco-friendly, a biodegradable plastic is the need of the hour. Though partially biodegradable plastics have been developed and used, completely biodegradable plastics based on renewable starch rather than petrochemicals have only recently been developed and are in the early stages of commercialization.

Waste management techniques
As cities are growing in size with a rise in the population, the amount of waste generated is increasing becoming unmanageable. Managing municipal waste, industrial


Waste Management waste and commercial waste has traditionally consisted of collection, followed by disposal. Depending upon the type of waste and the area, a level of processing may follow collection. This processing may be to reduce the hazard of the waste, recover material for recycling, produce energy from the waste, or reduce it in volume for more efficient disposal. The local corporations have adapted different methods for the disposal of waste  Open dumps.  Landfills.  Sanitary landfills.  Incineration plants.  One of the important methods of waste treatment is composting.

Open dumps
Open dumps refer to uncovered areas that are used to dump solid waste of all kinds. The waste is untreated, uncovered, and not segregated. It is the breeding ground for flies, rats, and other insects that spread disease. The rainwater run-off from these dumps contaminates nearby land and water thereby spreading disease. In some countries, open dumps are being phased out.

Landfills are generally located in urban areas where a large amount of waste is generated and has to be dumped in a common place. Unlike an open dump, it is a pit that is dug in the ground. The garbage is dumped and the pit is covered thus preventing the breeding of flies and rats. At the end of each day, a layer of soil is scattered on top of it and some mechanism, usually earth-moving equipment is used to compress the garbage, which now forms a cell. Thus, every day, garbage is dumped and becomes a cell. After the landfill is full, the area is covered with a thick layer of mud and the site can thereafter be developed as a parking lot or a park.


Waste Management Landfills have many problems. All types of waste is dumped in landfills and when water seeps through them it gets contaminated and in turn pollutes the surrounding area. This contamination of groundwater and soil through landfills is known as leaching.

Sanitary landfills
An alternative to landfills which will solve the problem of leaching to some extent, is a sanitary landfill which is more hygienic and built in a methodical manner. These are lined with materials that are impermeable such as plastics and clay, and are also built over impermeable soil. Constructing sanitary landfills is very costly and they are have their own problems. Some authorities claim that often the plastic liner develops cracks as it reacts with various chemical solvents present in the waste. The rate of decomposition in sanitary landfills is also extremely variable. This can be due to the fact that less oxygen is available as the garbage is compressed very tightly. It has also been observed that some biodegradable materials do not decompose in a landfill. Another major problem is the development of methane gas, which occurs when little oxygen is present, i.e. during anaerobic decomposition. Many landfills also have a landfill gas extraction system installed after closure to extract the gas generated by the decomposing waste materials. This gas is often burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. Even flaring the gas off is a better environmental outcome than allowing it to escape to the atmosphere, as this consumes the methane, which is a far stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Some of it can be tapped for use as a fuel.

Incineration plants

Waste Management This process of burning waste in large furnaces is known as incineration. In these plants the recyclable material is segregated and the rest of the material is burnt. At the end of the process all that is left behind is ash. During the process some of the ash floats out with the hot air. This is called fly ash. Both the fly ash and the ash that is left in the furnace after burning have high concentrations of dangerous toxins such as dioxins and heavy metals. Disposing of this ash is a problem. The ash that is buried at the landfills leaches the area and cause severe contamination. Burning garbage is not a clean process as it produces tonnes of toxic ash and pollutes the air and water. A large amount of the waste that is burnt here can be recovered and recycled. In fact, at present, incineration is kept as the last resort and is used mainly for treating the infectious waste.

Organic matter constitutes 35%– 40% of the municipal solid waste generated in India. This waste can be recycled by the method of composting, one of the oldest forms of disposal. It is the natural process of decomposition of organic waste that yields manure or compost, which is very rich in nutrients. Composting is a biological process in which micro-organisms, mainly fungi and bacteria, convert degradable organic waste into humus like substance. This finished product which looks like soil, is high in carbon and nitrogen and is an excellent medium for growing plants. The process of composting ensures the waste that is produced in the kitchens is not carelessly thrown and left to rot. It recycles the nutrients and returns them to the soil as nutrients. Apart from being clean, cheap, and safe, composting can significantly reduce the amount of disposable garbage. The organic fertilizer can be used instead of chemical fertilizers and is better specially when used for vegetables. It increases the soil’s ability to hold water and makes the soil easier to cultivate. It helped the soil retain more of the plant nutrients.


Waste Management

Vermi-composting has become very popular in the last few years. In this method, worms are added to the compost. These help to break the waste and the added excreta of the worms makes the compost very rich in nutrients. In the activity section of this web site you can learn how to make a compost pit or a vermi-compost pit in your school or in the garden at home. To make a compost pit, you have to select a cool, shaded corner of the garden or the school compound and dig a pit, which ideally should be 3 feet deep. This depth is convenient for aerobic composting as the compost has to be turned at regular intervals in this process. Preferably the pit should be lined with granite or brick to prevent nitrite pollution of the subsoil water, which is known to be highly toxic. Each time organic matter is added to the pit it should be covered with a layer of dried leaves or a thin layer of soil which allows air to enter the pit thereby preventing bad odour. At the end of 45 days, the rich pure organic matter is ready to be used. Composting: some benefits • • • • • • • Compost allows the soil to retain more plant nutrients over a longer period. It supplies part of the 16 essential elements needed by the plants. It helps reduce the adverse effects of excessive alkalinity, acidity, or the excessive use of chemical fertilizer. It makes soil easier to cultivate. It helps keep the soil cool in summer and warm in winter. It aids in preventing soil erosion by keeping the soil covered. It helps in controlling the growth of weeds in the garden.

Rethinking waste management


Waste Management There is no Indian policy document which examines waste as part of a cycle of production-consumption-recovery or perceives waste through a prism of overall sustainability. In fact, interventions have been fragmented and are often contradictory. The new Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules 2000, which came into effect from January 2004, fail even to manage waste in a cyclic process. Waste management still is a linear system of collection and disposal, creating health and environmental hazards. Urban India is likely to face a massive waste disposal problem in the coming years. Until now, the problem of waste has been seen as one of cleaning and disposing as rubbish. But a closer look at the current and future scenario reveals that waste needs to be treated holistically, recognizing its natural resource roots as well as health impacts. Waste can be wealth, which has tremendous potential not only for generating livelihoods for the urban poor but can also enrich the earth through composting and recycling rather than spreading pollution as has been the case. Increasing urban migration and a high density of population will make waste management a difficult issue to handle in the near future, if a new paradigm for approaching it is not created. Developing countries such as India are undergoing a massive migration of their population from rural to urban centers. New consumption patterns and social linkages are emerging. India will have more than 40 per cent, i.e. over 400 million people, clustered in cities over the next thirty years (UN, 1995). Modern urban living brings on the problem of waste, which increases in quantity, and changes in composition with each passing day. There is, however, an inadequate understanding of the problem, both of infrastructure requirements as well as its social dimensions. Urban planners, municipal agencies, environmental regulators, labour groups, citizens’ groups and non-governmental organisations need to develop a variety of responses which are rooted in local dynamics, rather than borrow non-contextual solutions from elsewhere.

There have been a variety of policy responses to the problem of urban solid waste in India, especially over the past few years, yet sustainable solutions either of


Waste Management organic or inorganic waste remain untapped and unattended. All policy documents as well as legislation dealing with urban solid waste mention or acknowledge recycling as one of the ways of diverting waste, but they do so in a piece-meal manner and do not address the framework needed to enable this to happen. Critical issues such as industry responsibility, a critical paradigm to enable sustainable recycling and to catalyse waste reduction through, say better packing, have not been touched upon. Any new paradigm should include a cradle-to-grave approach with responsibility being shared by many stakeholders, including product manufacturers, consumers and communities, the recycling industry, trade, municipalities and the urban poor. What is our waste? Consumption, linked to per capita income, has a strong relationship with waste generation. As per capita income rises, more savings are spent on goods and services, especially when the transition is from a low income to a middle-income level. Urbanization not only concentrates waste, but also raises generation rates since rural consumers consume less than urban ones. India will probably see a rise in waste generation from less than 40,000 metric tonnes per year to over 125,000 metric tonnes by the year 2030 (Srishti, 2000). Technologies, which can process organic wastes have to be a mainstay to any solution. The Supreme Court appointed the Burman Committee (1999), which rightly recommended that composting should be carried out in each municipality. Composting is probably the easiest and most appropriate technology to deal with a majority of our waste, given its organic nature. However, new and expensive technologies are being pushed to deal with our urban waste problem, ignoring their environmental and social implications. It is particularly true in the case of thermal treatment of waste using technologies such as gasification, incineration, pyrolysis or pellatisation. Indian waste content does not provide enough fuel value (caloric value) for profitable energy production (and is unlikely to do so soon). It needs the addition of auxiliary fuel or energy. Such technologies put communities to risk and are opposed widely. For example, the United


Waste Management States has not been able to install a new incinerator for the past five years, while costs for burning garbage have escalated astronomically with rising environmental standards in Europe. While the more developed countries are doing away with incinerators because of high costs (due to higher standards of emission control), developing countries have become potential markets for dumping such technologies. Incinerators routinely emit dioxins, furans and polychlorinated by-phenyls (PCB), which are deadly toxins, casing cancer and endocrine system damage. Other conventional toxins such as mercury, heavy metals are also released. Pollution control costs for incinerators can exceed over 50 per cent of their already astronomical cost, and an incinerator for 2,000 metric tonnes of waste per day can cost over 500 million US dollars. Ironically, the better the air control works, the more pollutants are transferred to land and water, through scrubbers and filters and the problem of safe landfill disposal of the ash remains. Again, such measures go against the requirements of the Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules 2000, which asks for source segregation of waste for cleaner composting and recycling. The lessons of incinerating Indian urban waste do not seem to have been learnt, despite a disastrous experience with a Dutch-funded incinerator in Delhi. It ran for just one week in 1984, since the calorific value of the fuel was less than half of that the incinerator needed. Composting: the environmentally and economically sustainable solution Composting of city wastes is a legal requirement provided under the Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSW) Rules 2000 for all municipal bodies in the country. But neither the central nor the state governments have yet responded to show any kind of preparedness for it, nor have they been able to grasp it as an environmental and social good that requires official support which can generate employment. The MSW Rules 2000 requires that “biodegradable wastes shall be processed by composting, vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion or any other appropriate biological processing for the


Waste Management stabilisation of wastes”. The specified deadline for setting up of waste processing and disposal facilities was 31 December 2003 or earlier. The production and sale of city compost is not the primary function of city administrations, but it will need to be privatized for optimum efficiency and care. Several entrepreneurs have already entered the field and many compost plants are in place, almost all on public land made available at a nominal cost. These companies are willing to wait for the five to seven years payback on their investment, but are facing tremendous problems of producing compost from unsegregated wastes, and of marketing and distributing their product. The government is indifferent to the problems of these compost producers (i.e. a working capital crunch because of highly seasonal demand) and to farmers’ needs (i.e., timely, easily accessible availability of affordable compost). The Fertilizer Association of India, the leading lobby group for synthetic fertilizers, is focused on protecting the fertilizer producers’ massive subsidies (Rs 142,500 million annually) for their chemical fertilizers – subsidies from which the farmers do not benefit. This situation is increasingly coming under national debate. Just 12 per cent of this annual subsidy would meet the one-time capital cost of city compost plants in India’s 400 largest cities (which include cities with populations of over 100,000 people) and would be able to produce 5.7 million tonnes a year of organic soil conditioners. Integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) would also reduce the foreign exchange burden on the Indian exchequer because bulk supplies of phosphorus and potassium must be imported. In addition, the government of India spends Rs 43.19 million on phosphorus and potassium concessions alone. (Phosphorous is used to store and transfer energy within the plant. It is used in forming nucleic acids (DNA, RNA). Potassium remains in tissues in ionic form and is not used in the synthesis of new compounds as are nitrogen and phosphorous. Potassium is mobile in plants and tends to move from older to younger, more active growing tissue.) Emphasizing IPNM using city compost, which can be produced all over the country can be a successful strategy if a focused inter-ministerial effort is made.


Waste Management However, in spite of the fact that the Ministry of Agriculture renamed its Department of Fertilizers as the “Department of Integrated Nutrient Management” a year ago, no policy changes have taken place whatsoever. A proposed Task Force including the agriculture and fertilizer ministries may soon formulate an Action Plan for IPNM. The real economic benefits of compost use, like improved soil quality, water retention, biological activity, micronutrient content and improved pest resistance of crops, are ignored by policy-makers and fertilizer producers. Fertilizer producers do not yet realize that preventing soil depletion and reclaiming degraded soils would in fact increase the size of the market and therefore, also their market share, which is currently threatened by globalization and world prices that undercut their own. Since most large fertilizer plants are government-owned, another threat is the government’s intended policy of closing down loss-making public-sector enterprises and disinvesting from profitable ones. Preliminary surveys on municipalities' preparedness in implementing the MSW Rules 2000 show that the majority of the cities are yet to embark on city-wide implementation of door-to-door collection of waste, source segregation, composting of organics, recycling and creating engineered and safe landfill sites for residual waste disposal. The municipalities were given three years time to make such preparations but most of them have not even woken up. This is the regard given to the apex court’s verdict. Whether municipalities will enforce the MSW Rules 2000 and provide cleaner and healthier cities is yet to be seen. For now, the risk remains that MSW Rules will become yet another policy to gather dust due to government apathy.

Sustainable Waste Management; Case study of Nagpur INDIA


Waste Management ABSTRACT In India the amount of waste generated per capita is estimated to increase at a rate of 1%-1.33% annually. It is estimated that the total waste quantity generated in by the year 2047 would be approximately about 260 million tonnes per year. The enormous increase in waste generation will have impacts in terms of the land required for waste disposal. It is estimated that if the waste is not disposed off in a more systematic manner, more than 1400 sq. km of land would be required in the country by the year 2047 for its disposal. At present the standard of solid waste management is far from being satisfactory. The environmental and health hazards caused by the unsanitary conditions in the cities were epitomized by the episode of Plague in Surat in 1994. That triggered public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India. Based on the recommendations of the committee set up by the apex court in that Public Interest Litigation (PIL), the Government of India, has framed Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000, under the Environmental Protection Act, 1986. One of the major requisite of these rules is to establish door-to-door garbage collection system in the cities. Nagpur which is located in centre of India has taken initiative in implementing MSW Rules 2000 by introducing 100% door-to-door garbage collection. It has enabled: • • • • • • • • • Livelihood creation for 1600 people from most deprived segment of the society. Clean environment as 75% of the total waste generated is being collected from doorstep. Successful Public Private Peoples Partnership Use of ergonomic tools for managing waste Use of appropriate technology for waste management, also creating entrepreneurship opportunities. Effective recycling of waste for useful purposes. Partnership of Waste Producers



Waste Management There has been a significant increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in India in the last few decades. This is largely because of rapid population growth and economic development in the country. The per capita of MSW generated daily in India ranges from about 100 gm in small towns to 500 gm in large towns. The increased MSW generation can be ascribed to our changing lifestyles, food habits and change in living standards. In India the amount of waste generated per capita is estimated to increase at a rate of 1%-1.33% annually. It is estimated that the total waste quantity generated in by the year 2047 would be approximately about 260 million tonnes per year, more than five times the present level of about 55 million tonnes. The enormous increase in solid waste generation will have significant impacts in terms of the land required for waste disposal. It is estimated that if the waste is not disposed off in a more systematic manner, more than 1400 sq. km of land which is equivalent to the size of city of Delhi would be required in the country by the year 2047 for its disposal. In our country municipal corporations are primarily responsible for solid waste Management. But with the growing population and urbanization municipal bodies are facing financial crunch and can no longer cope with the demands. The limited revenues earmarked for the municipalities make them ill equipped to provide for high cost involved in the collection, storage, treatment and proper disposal of waste. Municipalities are only able to provide secondary collection of waste, means they only collect waste from municipal bins or depots. A substantial part of the municipal solid waste generated remains unattended and grows in the heaps at poorly maintained collection centers. Open dumping of garbage facilitates breeding of disease vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats and other pests. At present the standard of solid waste management is far from being satisfactory. The environmental and health hazards caused by the unsanitary conditions in the cities were epitomized by the episode of Plague in Surat in 1994. That triggered public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India. Based on the recommendations of the committee set up by the apex court in that Public Interest Litigation (PIL), the Government of India has framed Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000, under the


Waste Management Environmental Protection Act, 1986. The Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 are as follows: 1. Collection of municipal solid wastes- Organizing doorstep collection of municipal solid waste from houses, hotels, restaurants, office complexes and commercial areas. 2. Segregation of municipal solid wastes- Municipal authority shall organize awareness programs for segregating the waste at source as dry and wet waste and promote recycling or reuse of segregated materials. 3. Storage of municipal solid waste- Municipal authorities shall establish and maintain storage facilities such that wastes stored are not exposed to open atmosphere and shall be aesthetically acceptable and user friendly and it should have easy to operate design for handling, transfer and transportation of waste. 4. Transportation of municipal solid wastes- Vehicles used for transportation of waste shall be covered and waste should not be visible to public, nor exposed to open environment and shall be so designed that multiple handling of wastes prior to final disposal, is avoided. 5. Processing of municipal solid wastes- Municipal authorities shall adopt suitable Technology or combination of such technologies to make use of wastes so as to Minimize burden on landfill. 6.Disposal of municipal solid wasteLand filling shall be restricted to

nonbiodegradable, inert waste and other waste that are not suitable either for recycling or for biological processing. Land filling of mixed waste shall be avoided unless the same is found unsuitable for waste processing.

Swachata Doot Aplya Dari: A Scientific And Innovative

Waste Management

Approach For Municipal Solid Waste Management
As can be seen from the above guidelines, collection and segregation of municipal solid waste is a primary requirement for implementation of MSW Rules 2000. Primary collection of garbage is important to prevent littering of waste on the streets. As per the MSW guidelines, waste has to be collected in segregated form so that it can be recycled to the extent possible by adoption of suitable technology. This recycling will minimise the burden on landfills. Though doorstep collection of segregated waste is important for municipal solid waste management, it is not carried out by many of the municipal bodies in the country as they are lacking in financial resources or the expertise to comply with those rules and they often make little effort to revise outdated and deficient waste management systems. As the authorities were hardly able to provide cost-efficient service to citizens, one possibility was to outsource solid waste management by putting in charge professional private organizations like Centre for Development Communication (CDC). The key concept is a daily door-to-door collection of segregated domestic waste, but the model includes all aspects of solid waste management from waste generation to waste processing (e.g. recycling and vermi-composting) and the final disposal. The end consumer is both main contributor and main beneficiary, as he should segregate the waste instead of littering it and, in turn, profits from the cleanliness of the city and creation of a new awareness that CDC work is generating. Presently the Swachta Doot project is being successfully being implemented in several cities of India.


Waste Management The Swachta Doot Project is a major solid waste management program that includes the following aspects: A. Daily door-to-door garbage collection B. Waste segregation C. Garbage lifting and Transportation D. Employment Generation E. Awareness building A. Daily Door-to-door Garbage Collection Daily door-to-door garbage collection is the core of the CDC model. It is most essential for complying with the norms prescribed by the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 as well as the Supreme Court Guidelines for solid waste management. Swachta Doot Rag pickers and private sweepers who were previously working in the same sector and spent their life at foul-smelling and most unhygienic places rummaging through debris with bare hands and getting an uncertain and irregular low payment for this dirty work are brought into organised sector by CDC, and now called as Swachta Doots Training Swachta Doots undergo a special training that equips them with the abilities necessary for their job: • • • Handling the waste in a proper and hygienic manner Polite and helpful behaviour towards local residents Discipline, sincerity commitment to their work


Waste Management The properly trained workers collect the waste from households and shops seven days a week and 365 days a year. This service is provided in the morning time (between 6.00 am to 1.00 pm). They wear colourful work clothes (uniforms) so that residents and shopkeepers can easily identify them. Training and neat public appearance helps the worker to be better accepted by the community. The garbage is directly transported and unloaded to local containers (transfer stations) using specially designed vehicles. Those Containers are brought to landfill sites outside the city by municipal corporation workforce. There is a close cooperation between CDC and the municipal bodies so that waste is not stored longer than necessary in residential areas. This way of domestic waste management is in compliance of MSW guidelines and Guarantees that: • • • Waste is handled only once It is exposed nowhere There is no need of burning the garbage or dumping it in streets, drains and open places Equipment CDC has developed a micro-plan to adopt waste collection to the special conditions that prevail in different areas. For example, in slum areas different type of waste is produced than in posh colonies and the size of the streets is varying. To implement this microplan, CDC uses different types of vehicles. Swachta Doots collect the garbage with specially designed mechanical tricycle Rickshaws and multi bucket wheelbarrows. They have several advantages: • • • Workers can access even very narrow roads (for example in Slum areas) Segregated waste collection The waste can be directly unloaded in the container. It does not have to be touched.


Waste Management So, hygienic conditions for workers are improved. CDC follows a dynamic model of selection of equipment and modifies the equipment according to the requirements of a particular locality, town or a city. Evolution of Primary Collection Equipment a) Open Body Tricycle Rickshaws: The open body tricycle rickshaw is the most basic primary collection equipment and its capacity is about 50 Kgs. Its benefits include low cost and since it collects the mixed waste, it takes less time for waste collection from individual households. This type of equipment is no more in use as it collects the waste in mixed form, which is in contravention of MSW Rules. Further the collected waste is often dumped onto the ground or road and attracts rag pickers to sort out the recyclable part of the waste, exposing them to serious health risks. Additionally, since the waste is transported open to atmosphere, it is non-aesthetic and it is also observed that waste keeps spilling from the sides of the rickshaw. b) 6 Container Tricycle Rickshaws: In order to overcome some of the problems faced in the above model, CDC evolved a 6-container tricycle rickshaw for primary collection of waste. The major advantages of this type of equipment is that it allows collection of waste in segregated form and prevents multiple handling as the waste can be directly unloaded to the secondary collection vehicle. Due to these reasons, this type of equipment complies with the MSW guidelines. Its cost is a little more than the open body tricycle rickshaw and can carry 75 kgs of waste in one trip. The only limitation with this type of equipment is that it led to frequent thefts of plastic containers requiring their replacement. This unnecessarily adds to the costs.


Waste Management Types of Containers Metal Containers Heavy, Corrosive and Expensive Plastic Containers Light Weight & Durable and NonCorrosive c) Closed Body Container with 2 compartments: In some of the areas, a new type of tricycle rickshaw has also been utilised viz. Closed Body Container with 2 Compartments, which aids in segregated collection of waste, and since it’s a closed body type the waste is not exposed to the atmosphere and therefore has aesthetic appearance. This type of equipment can carry 150 Kgs of waste and costs about Rs. 8000/-, which is a little more than 6 container type tricycle rickshaw. The only limitation with this equipment is that since the waste cannot be unloaded to the secondary collection vehicle, it leads to multiple handling, which is in contravention to MSW guidelines. This type of equipment is highly suitable for smaller cities where the waste can be directly transferred after collection to the landfill site. d) Closed Tipping Bodies with 2 containers: To overcome the problem of multiple waste handling, a further improvement is in the design of rickshaw has been incorporated, that includes hydraulic lifting of the rear side of the rickshaw unto the height of secondary collection vehicle so that the waste can be directly disposed off. This type of equipment is most expensive and requires more maintenance as compared to the earlier ones. e) Mechanised Auto Rickshaws with closed container body with compartments: In some cases CDC has deployed mechanised equipment in the form of Auto rickshaws for primary waste collection. The benefits of this type of equipment include high coverage area and can handle more waste. Further, since it has a closed container body, it is aesthetic in appearance and can directly unload the waste to final disposal point. This type of equipment is most optimum for smaller cities and towns as the overall economics is favourable as compared to manually driven rickshaws.


Waste Management

f) Mechanised operations with Medium Utility Vehicles: In line with the abovementioned mechanised operations, CDC has also introduced medium utility vehicles for primary waste collection in some of its projects. The advantage of this type of system is that it can handle more waste than auto rickshaws and is most ideal for bin-free cities. It fully complies with the MSW guidelines and is aesthetic in appearance, as waste is not exposed in the open atmosphere. The demerit is that it is more expensive Door-to-Door Garbage Collection - The Monitoring System Supervisors and Zonal In-charges inspect the field everyday. They regularly get in touch with households and shops to check for feedback, complaints and suggestions so that a satisfying service can be maintained. The CDC customer care service, telephone number is available from 6.00 am till 8.00 pm. In most cases complaints are redressed within 30 - 60 minutes during working hours, or the next morning if problems arise outside working hours. B. Waste Segregation Waste is not all the same. It has different characteristics according to which it can be divided accordingly: • Recyclable e.g. glass, paper, plastic • Organic e.g. food leftovers, garden waste • Toxic e.g. tin, batteries • Reusable e.g. plastic bottles, polythene bags While recyclable waste is dry in nature, the organic kind is wet and 100% biodegradable. Hence, bacterial action is faster in the latter. If waste is segregated, it is easier to handle, does not cause much pollution and can be reused, recycled or decomposed. The CDC model of waste management is based on the principle of segregating waste and treating it according to its characteristics. Waste should be


Waste Management segregated at the place or source of origin. In order to realize this concept CDC, implements the following approach: • • • • Educating the community about waste characteristics and the consequences of inappropriate waste dumping Collecting the waste in a segregated manner every day Using specially designed multi-chambered rickshaws for garbage collection

C. Garbage Lifting and Transportation Since June 2004, CDC is also lifting the local containers and transporting them to landfill sites in few cities. This enables CDC to co-ordinate the different processes of primary waste collection and transportation. Containers are lifted before they overflow and waste is not stored longer than necessary in residential areas. Furthermore, superfluous containers can be removed for better public convenience. D. Employment Generation As CDC is not a profit-oriented organization, it is committed to improve quality of life, especially for the deprived section of the society. For this reason, most grassroots workers have been recruited from slum areas. CDC started its work initially with few workers. This number increased every day and now CDC could create livelihood for about 6000 persons in the Swachta Doot Project. The services have grown in various cities and presently CDC is catering to a population of nearly 6 million.


Waste Management The following table highlights some of the current projects of CDC in various cities including employment generated approximate quantity of waste collected, utilized and finally transported as inert material to landfill sites. City Household Covered Jaipur Nagpur Ahmedabad Surat Delhi Jaisalmer 50000 450000 30000 100000 200000 3000 Road sweeping 150 200 35 N.A 450 30 Employment Generation 300 2500 125 100 629 32 Waste collect 100 900 60 200 126 A.N Organic Matter 60 540 36 120 N.A A.N Recycle Content 10 90 6 20 N.A A.N Inert inorganic 30 270 18 60 N.A A.N

Note: 1) Recyclable contents include paper, glass, plastic and metal 2) All weight values are approximate values. Introduction of door-to-door collection service has improved the financial condition of Swachta Doots who now receive regular payment as compared to the earlier situation when they could earn low (12-15/-per day) and irregular incomes. They are now enjoying dignified working conditions at CDC, as their profession is viewed with greater respect amongst society members compared to their earlier work. As both genders are treated equally the number of women is almost as high as the number of male grassroots workers. Women are given the chance to make an own contribution to the living standard of their families. Additionally unemployed or underemployed educated youth profit from these job opportunities as they are recruited as Managers and Supervisors.

E. Awareness Building


Waste Management It is CDC’s conviction that the cleanliness of city is a collective good. It can only be achieved with the participation of all concerned. Therefore, CDC encourages and motivates people to keep their surroundings clean. They are provided education regarding sanitation and garbage disposal through various means of communication such as: • • • • • • Posters, folders, booklets, leaflets Exhibitions Wall paintings Living society meetings Debates and painting competitions in schools Regular talks with citizens


Waste Management

Social • • • • • • • Improving social standard of Swachta Doots by providing training and financial stability The community is made aware of the consequences of unscientific waste throwing and can participate actively As the citizens are also involved in the project they develop a sense of belongingness People appreciate the service and consider it as necessary and essential. This makes the project self-sustainable

Economic • • • • City’s image as a “green and clean” city can boost local economy especially in tourism branch Creates new avenues of employment Composting of organic matter and recycling of paper, glass, plastics and metals yield productive outcomes and reduces burden on landfill site Public Health and Life Quality • • • • • Waste is handled in a hygienic and scientific manner, so no pollution is caused at any stage Garbage on the roads is tremendously reduced Drains are no longer clogged with garbage – no smell, no breeding site for malaria spreading mosquitoes, no meeting place for pigs and other stray animals Quality of life improves as the whole city looks clean and aesthetic This shows that the model is not only a convincing theoretical concept but also a successful intervention in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management.

Key Highlights


Waste Management

• •

First project in India involving D2D collection of garbage from 100% households on all 365 days. The only project on solid waste management in India to recruit physically challenged persons. At present there are 37 such persons working on this project and thereby earning livelihood for themselves and their families.

• • •

No dependence on external funding. Community involvement on a large scale. Well-defined roles for NMC, NGO and the community under the scheme.

Strategy followed All concerned stakeholders were consulted before finalizing the implementation plan. Implementation plan • • • • The work of D2D collection of waste by ‘Volunteer’ begins at 6.00 a.m. daily. Every household in the given group is attended daily. The doot goes around the demarcated households & announces his arrival by blowing a whistle. When the cycle rickshaw is completely filled with waste, it is unloaded in the nearby community dustbins. After unloading, the volunteer covers the remaining households. • • • • During every unloading, the recyclable waste is separated by the volunteer. At no point of time, he does manual handling of the waste collected. Monitoring indicators have been set in consultation with the NGO, which have further ensured prompt implementation of the project, e.g. households covered, timely complainant redressal, regular and surprise filed visits, community feedback, etc. are monitored regularly.


Waste Management RESULTS • Benefits to NMC Successfully implemented the Supreme Court guidelines. Savings worth Rs. 5 crores in terms of lower costs for providing D2D garbage collection service to the citizens. • Benefits to CDC (NGO)

Other municipal corporations in India are adopting Swatchata Doot model. CDC has assisted in preparation of policy in Rajasthan. CDC’s budget for the financial year 2003-04 was Rs. 53 lakhs. After being appointed as implementer for this project, its financial credibility has escalated to Rs.15 crores. Moreover, we have been appointed to implement similar project in other cities of India. Financial institutions like Kotak Mahindra, ICICI, Tata Finance, etc. have come forward to sponsor equipments required for D2D collection. To date credit worth Rs.1 crore has been availed from these institutions. NMC has further reposed its confidence in CDC activities and has handed over the responsibility of secondary transportation of Municipal Solid Waste also to a joint venture involving CDC. Improvement in sanitation. • Benefits to Citizens

Regular D2D collection of garbage and active participation in the zero garbage drive. Better and prompt service at minimum costs.


Waste Management

Bio medical waste
Solid waste generated from medical establishment needs to be handled very carefully as these wastes may contain infectious material. The hospital wastes deserve special treatment and disposal unlike household waste. Different types of solid waste are generated in hospitals, which need to be handled in different ways. Nowadays, hospital wastes are more explicitly termed as health care unit waste. Thus, the hospital waste management system should be operated very carefully and methodically to avoid serious consequences. Hospital waste can be broadly classified into two types: 1) 2) Solid waste containing of materials likely to transmit infection, and Solid waste, which are normally safe to handle but may get infected as they are

produced in hospital premises. Obviously, the first category waste needs very careful handling and disposal while the waste of second category can be handled in normal manner with a precaution that they are not mixed with the infectious material. In either case, contact with wastes by the workers should be avoided Further classification of hospital waste is as follows: 1) General waste: This includes domestic type of waste, packing material, garbage from hospital kitchen and other waste material which do not pose a special handling problem or hazards to human health and environment. 2) Human anatomical wastes, blood body fluids: This includes waste consisting of anatomical human tissues, organs, waste body parts, blood fluids, blood and blood products and items saturated or dripping with blood, body fluids contaminated with blood and body fluids removed during / after treatment, surgery or autopsy or other medical procedures. 3) Microbiological wastes: Wastes from laboratory culture stocks or specimens of micro-organisms, live or attenuated vaccines, human and animal cell culture used in research and infectious agents from research and industrial laboratories, waste from production of biological dishes and devices used for transfer of cultures.


Waste Management 4) Waste sharps: Wastes consisting of sharps, such as needles scalpel, blades, syringes, glass, etc. That may cause puncture. 5) Highly infectious waste: Waste containing highly infectious living and non-living pathogens. 6) Isolated waste: Biological waste from material contaminated with blood, excertion exudates or secretion from human and animals isolated due to communicable disease. 7) Discarded medicines: Waste comprising of expired, contaminated and discarded medicines. 8) Discarded glasswares: Waste generated from glasswares and glass equipment used. 9) Soiled waste: Waste generated from soiled cotton, dressing, bedding, etc. 10)Disposable (PVC/plastics, cardboards & thermocol): Wastes generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps. 11) Biotechnology wastes: Wastes generated from activities involving genetically engineered organisms or products and their cultures not declared to be safe. 12) Incineration waste: Ash generation from incineration of any bio-medical waste. 13) Liquid waste: Waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities discharge into drains.


Waste Management

Waste Quantification
According to WHO report, 85% of hospitals wastes are actually non-hazardous. 10 % are infectious and 5 % are non-infectious but hazardous.

Treatment technologies
There are five board categories of medical waste treatment technologies: Mechanical process: Mechanical processes are used to change the physical from or chacharcterisities of the waste either to facilitated waste handling or to process the waste in conjunction with other treatement steps. The two primary mechanical processes are compaction and shredding. Thermal process: Thermal processes use heat to denotaminate or destroy medical waste. Most microorganisms are rapidly destroyed at temperatures ranging from 49c to 91c thermal treatment processes include the following • Autoclaving: Steam sterilization (autoclave) systems are designed to bring steam into direct contact with waste in a controlled manner and for sufficient duration to kill pathogenic microorganisms that may be contaminating the waste. There are several different types and designs of autoclave systems. Without full steam penetration and contact into the most densely packed wastes, decontamination will not be complete and sterilization cannot be achieved. • Microwaving: One medical waste treatment process uses a combination of shredding and Microwaving. Waste is loaded into the system and shredded while being injected with steaming. An auger conveyor past a series of magnetrons, or microwave generators transports the shredded and steam-moistened waste. The heat generated in the waste by microwave radiation accomplishes decontamination. Shredding also reportedly provides up to an 80% volume reduction.


Waste Management Chemical disinfection processes: Most medical waste treatment systems use chlorine compounds, but other disinfectants, such as phenolic compounds, iodine, alcohol, formaldehydes, etc. could also be used. Most chemical solutions are used as aqueous solutions. Water is needed to bring the chemicals and microorganisms together as necessary to achieve inactivation. Irradiation Processes: Irradiation is synonymous with electromagnetic or ionizing radiation. Recently, irradiation processes, gamma radiation and electron beam radiation, have been developed or considered for medical waste treatment. Biological process: A system is being developed using biological reactions will not only decontaminate the waste but also cause the destruction of all the organic constituents so that only plastics, glass, and other insert will remains in the residues.

Selection of waste management options
In an infectious waste management system, several options are available within each area of management. Options for treatment techniques for the various types of infectious waste, types of treatment equipment, treatment sites, and various waste handling practices all need to be carefully evaluated. The selection of available options at a facility depends upon a number of factors such as the nature of the infectious waste, the quantity of infectious waste generated, the availability of equipment for treatment on-site; regulatory constraints, and cost considerations. Since treatment methods vary with the waste type, the waste must be evaluated and categorized with regard to its potential to cause disease. Such characteristics as chemical context, density, water content, bulk and so on, are known to influence waste treatment decisions. For example, many facilities use a combination of techniques for the different components of the infectious waste stream, such as stream sterilization for laboratory cultures and incineration for pathological waste.


Waste Management The quantity of each category of infectious waste generated at the facility may also influence the method of treatment. Decisions should be made on the basis of the major components of the infectious waste stream. Another important factor in the selection of options for infectious waste management is the availability of on-site and off-site treatment. When selecting an onsite treatment system, both the treatment technology and the vendor providing the system should be carefully evaluated. For some facilities, however off-site treatment may offer the most cost-effective option. Off-site treatment alternatives include such options as crematories operated by morticians, a shared treatment unit at another institution, and commercial or community treatment facilities. It is also important to consider prevailing community attitudes in such matter as site selection for off-site treatment facilities. Cost considerations are the determining factor in the selection of infectious waste management options. Cost factors include personnel, equipment cost (capital expense, annual operating, and maintenance), handling costs (for infectious waste and the residue from treatment), and, if applicable, service fees for off-site treatment option. Thus till now we saw that medical waste include waste from dentists, morticians, veterinary clinic, home health care, blood banks, and private practices, as well as hospitals and clinics. Regulated medical waste thus includes cultures and stocks, pathological waste, human blood and blood products, sharps, animal waste, isolation waste, and unused sharps. Chemotherapy waste should also be segregated from non-infectious waste. Infectious waste should be packed and stored in a safe manner which will protect waste handlers and the general public from possible injury and/or disease that may result from exposure to the waste.


Waste Management Treatment methods substantially reduce or eliminate the potential for a waste to spread disease. Incineration, autoclaving, microwave processing, chemical disinfection, and irradiation systems are currently used to treat infectious waste. Though we have so many waste disposal methods depending on the type of waste yet hospitals generally have been slow to improve their handling and disposing of the waste materials, which are increasing in quantity as a result of more patients and higher per-patient waste loads. What the effect has been on health and safety has not been measured, but without proper management, wastes containing contaminated materials, dangerous chemicals, or discarded needles are a potential hazard to millions of patients, health care workers, and visitors. Furthermore, the health of entire community can be jeopardized if these wastes are temporarily but inadequately stored outside the hospitals or thrown onto open dumps.


Waste Management

Environmental Concern
The improper management of bio-medical waste causes serious environmental problems in terms of air, water and land pollution. The nature of pollutants can be classified into biological, chemical and radioactive. There are several legislations in India concerning environmental problems, which are addressed in this website under the section of legislations. The radioactive waste generated as part of bio-medical waste is covered under the Atomic Act. Environment problems can arise due to the mere generation of bio-medical waste and from the process of handling, treatment and disposal. Although pollution cannot be mitigated completely, it can be reduced to a large extent. This section deals with causes, hazards and steps to minimize the hazard.

Air Pollution
Air pollution can be caused in both indoors and outdoors. Biomedical waste that generates air pollution is of three types - Biological, Chemical and radioactive. Indoor air pollution: Pathogens present in the waste can enter and remain in the air in an institution for a long period in the form of spores or as pathogens itself. This can result in Hospital Acquired Infections (Nosocomial infections) or Occupational Health Hazards. The patients and their attendants also have a chance of contracting infections caused due to pathogens or spores which are air borne. However, there are very limited statistics available in this field. This is an area which requires research. Indoor air pollution due to biologicals can be reduced by covering the waste properly, routing the waste in such a way that shortest distance is used and sensitive areas are avoided. Segregation of waste, pretreatment at source etc., can also reduce this problem to a great extent. Sterilizing the rooms will also help in checking the indoor air pollution due to biologicals.


Waste Management Indoor air pollution can also be caused due to: Poor ventilation: The building design plays an important role in maintaining proper ventilation. Faulty air conditioning also will result in poor circulation of air within the room The paints, carpets, furniture, equipment, etc., used in the rooms, can give out volatile organic compounds (VOC) Use of chemicals: Disinfectants, fumigants etc., give out acidic or hazardous gases. The indoor air pollution caused due to the above chemicals or poor ventilation can cause Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) to the employees. Proper building design and wellmaintained air conditioners could reduce the SBS. Chemicals should be utilized as per prescribed norms. Over use of chemicals should be avoided. Outdoor air pollution: Outdoor air pollution can be caused by pathogens. When waste without pretreatment is being transported outside the institution, or if it is dumped openly, pathogens can enter the atmosphere. These pathogens can find their way to drinking water, food stuff, soil etc., and or remain in the ambient air and cause diseases in animals and human beings. Proper waste management practices can reduce this pollution to a large extent. Chemical pollutants that cause outdoor air pollution have two major sourcesopen burning and incinerators. Open burning of bio-medical waste is the most harmful practice. The presence of plastics and hazardous materials in the waste will generate harmful gases such as oxides of sulphur, oxides of nitrogen, carbon dioxide etc., and suspended particulate matter. These when inhaled can cause respiratory diseases. Certain organic gases such as dioxins and furans are carcinogenic. Open burning of bio-medical waste should be strictly avoided. Pollution control devices should be used for technology produces toxic emissions. The design parameters and maintenance of such treatment and disposal technology should be as per the prescribed standards.


Waste Management

Water Pollution
Bio-medical waste can cause water pollution. If the waste is dumped in low-lying areas, or into lakes and water bodies, can cause severe water pollution. The liquid waste generated when let into sewers can also lead to water pollution if not treated. Certain treatment or disposal options can also cause water pollution. Water pollution can either be caused due to biological, chemicals or radioactive substances. The pathogens present in the waste can leach out and contaminate the ground water or surface water. Harmful chemicals present in bio-medical waste such as heavy metals can also cause water pollution. Poor landfilling technology may cause water pollution in the form of leachates. Excess nutrient leachate such as nitrates and phosphates from landfills can cause a phenomenon called eutrophication (where surface of the water body develops algal blooms). Water pollution can alter parameters such as pH, BOD, DO, COD, etc. There are instances where dioxins are reported from water bodies near incinerator plants. Dioxins enter the water body from the air. The standards for effluent release from institutions should be maintained. Proper waste management practices will reduce the water pollution considerably. Incinerators should be sited away from water bodies. Care should be taken to have proper liners in landfills to avoid leachate from entering water bodies.

Radioactive effluent
Many shipments of radioactive material are in liquid form. The residues of these shipments constitute the principal liquid radioactive waste requiring handling and disposal. Radioactive waste in liquid form can come from chemical or biological research, from body organ imaging, from decontamination of radioactive spills, from patients urine and from scintillation liquids used in radioimmunoassay. Undoubtedly, this last source of liquid waste produces the largest volume of liquid radioactive waste. Very low-level liquid radioactive waste is usually handled by direct dispersal in the sewer system. Higher level radioactive waste, such as that generated in radioiodine therapy, can be stored pending decay, followed by appropriate radiation monitoring and subsequent 52

Waste Management dispersal in the sewer system. It is not usually necessary to collect and confine patient waste. Under normal circumstances, urine and faeces can be handled as nonradioactive waste so long as the patient’s room is routinely monitored for radioactive contamination. In the case of contaminated liquid scintillation phosphorous, the toxicity of the chemical matrix is probably more hazardous than its radioactivity. Indeed the chemical toxicity of this material may preclude its direct disposal in the sewer system. From a practical standpoint, it is acceptable to identify a sink in the laboratory as a waste receptacle if the daily disposal is restricted to 100 kBq.

Land Pollution
The final disposal of all bio-medical waste is to the land. Even liquid effluent after treatment is spread on land. Hence, pollution caused to land is inevitable. However, it can be minimized to a large extent through proper treatment. Open dumping of biomedical waste is the greatest cause for land pollution. Landfilling is also harmful to a limited extent. Soil pollution from bio-medical waste is caused due to infectious waste, discarded medicines, chemicals used in treatment and ash and other waste generated during treatment processes. Heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury etc., which are present in the waste will get absorbed by plants and can then enter the food chain. Nitrates and phosphates present in leachates from landfills are also pollutants. Excessive amounts of trace nutrient elements and other elements including heavy metals in soil are harmful to crops and are also harmful to animals and human beings. Leachate containing concentrated heavy metals and or microbes which is released from landfills can lead to ground water and surface water pollution. Radioactive waste generated from institutions can cause soil pollution. Cadavers, protective clothing, absorbent paper generated in the nuclear medicine imaging laboratory will also cause soil pollution. Minimizing the waste and proper treatment before disposal on land are the only ways of reducing this kind of pollution.


Waste Management

Health hazards:
According to the WHO, the global life expectancy is increasing year after year. However, deaths due to infectious disease are increasing. A study conducted by the WHO in 1996, reveals that more than 50,000 people die everyday from infectious diseases. One of the causes for the increase in infectious diseases is improper waste management. Blood, body fluids and body secretions which are constituents of bio-medical waste harbour most of the viruses, bacteria and parasites that cause infection. This passes via a number of human contacts, all of whom are potential ‘recipients’ of the infection. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses spearhead an extensive list of infections and diseases documented to have spread through bio-medical waste. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, diarrhoeal diseases, tetanus, whooping cough etc., are other common diseases spread due to improper waste management. Occupational health hazards: The health hazards due to improper waste management can not only affect the occupants in institutions, but also spread in the vicinity of the institutions. Occupational health concerns exist for janitorial and laundry workers, nurses, emergency medical personnel, and refuse workers. Injuries from sharps and exposure to harmful chemical waste and radioactive waste also causes health hazards to employees in institutions generating bio-medical waste. The problem of occupational health hazards due to bio-medical waste is not publicized as there is lack of information. Hence, the Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 prescribes a form under schedule VI to report such incidences in order to develop a database. There is plenty of scope for research in this field. Proper management of waste can solve the problem of occupational hazards to a large extent. Hazards to the general public: The general public’s health can also be adversely affected by bio-medical waste. Improper practices such as dumping of bio-medical waste in municipal dustbins, open spaces, water bodies etc., leads to the spread of diseases. Emissions from incinerators and open burning also leads to exposure to harmful gases which can cause cancer and respiratory diseases. Exposure to radioactive waste can in the waste stream can also cause serious health hazards. An often-ignored area is the increase


Waste Management of in-home healthcare activities. An increase in the number of diabetics who inject themselves with insulin, home nurses taking care of terminally ill patients etc., all generate bio-medical waste which can cause health hazards. Bio-medical waste can cause health hazards to animals and birds. Plastic waste can choke animals which scavenge on openly dumped waste. Injuries from sharps are a common feature affecting animals. Harmful chemicals such as dioxins and furans can cause serious health hazards to animals and birds. Certain heavy metals can affect the reproductive health of the animals


Waste Management

Bio-Medical (Handling & Management) Rules
The ministry of environment & forests has issued draft rules for management of bio-medical waste. The following are some of the salient features of these rules: The rules will apply to hospitals, nursing homes, veterinary institutions, animal houses or slaughterhouses generating biomedical waste. • State government can notify authorities for the purpose of granting authorization for collection , reception, storage, treatment and disposal of bio-medical wastes, from  Directorate of health services,  Directorate of animal husbandry or veterinary services,  State pollution control boards\committees, and municipal authorities. • Every hospital, nursing home, veterinary institution, animal house generating biomedical waste need to install an appropriate facility in the premises or shall set up a common facility within a period of nine months from the date of commencement of these rules. • • Any person generating\handling biomedical wastes or operating bio-medical waste treatment facility, needs to make authorization from appropriate authority. A generator or an operator of biomedical waste facility needs to take all measures necessary to prevent damages or adverse effects to the environment. He is also required to submit detailed information about the types and quantities of biomedical wastes collected or handled by him. This must be done every year. • • • An authorized person handling any biomedical wastes needs to segregate various categories of wastes as per classification specified in the rules. Waste of different categories shall be segregated, stored, treated and disposed as per procedure prescribed in rules. The authorized person needs to maintain records about the category of waste generated, quantity, storage, transportation and treatment details, which are subject to verification by appropriate authority.


Waste Management

Status surveys of medical waste management
The status of bio-medical waste management in different metropolitan cities considered is: Delhi: CPCB conducted surveys of 66 major hospitals in Delhi, during may 28 to June 18, 1997 and from July 16 to October 24 1997. it was found that 19 hospitals have installed incinerator for treating their medical wastes, out of which only 11 are with double chambers. Further 20 hospitals are in the process of providing incinerators/ autoclave. Mumbai: Mumbai has a large number medium to small sized hospitals and clinics besides the large hospitals, which are run by the government, the municipal corporation or private trust, all India institute of local self government, Mumbai has conducted a study to collect information on the present practices of waste management in hospitals. It was found that only 19 % of the large privates of hospitals use incinerators and some large private hospitals make use of their waste like organs, tissues etc. segregation of wastes is not practiced adopted in an organized manner. Although about 45 % of the private hospitals claim to segregate the waste, it is not separated. It is the from of ret rival of useful things like plastic bottles; card boxes by the lower staff. There is no colour coding used for waste segregation. Banglore: A report on management of health care waste for bangolre city has been prepared by M.S. Ramaiah medical college, banglore. Out of 68 health care setting visited by the project team only 9 have incineration facilities whereas 11 burn in open air. Segregation of waste sharps is done in only 13 setting. Indore: Average quantity of bio-medical waste generated from the government hospitals is 1.43 kg/ day/ bed, while average quantity of biomedical waste generated from private hospitals is 1.49 kg/day/bed. Thus private hospitals generated more quantity of bio-medical waste.


Waste Management

Case study
The Hinduja foundation has established an ultramodern hospital and Medical Research Centre in Mumbai in collaboration with Massachusetts’s general hospital (MGH), Boston. P.D.Hinduja National Hospital and Medical research centre is a charitable institution, with a life span of 40 years. It assimilates the finest in medical and surgical talent and technique to bring them closer to common man. This dream was nurtured in heart of great founder Mr. Parmanand Deepchand Hinduja. The hospital stands today as a concrete testimony to the fulfillment of the founders dream. Located on the busiest artery in central Mumbai, this is a 16 storeyed fully air conditioned building. It has an inpatient capacity of 335 beds inclusive of 47 critical care beds in different specialties. The inpatient services are complemented by an outpatients department centrally air conditioned building which houses doctors consulting rooms and diagnostic services. The hospitals offers expertise in various specialties to include Cardiology, Neurology, Pheumatology Endocrinology, ENT, General medicine and General surgery, etc. except the Maternity department. The hospital management and professionals lay emphasis on quality. Hospital has well qualified and dedicated professionals, medical and paramedical staff who are regularly trained to further enhance their skills. It has a separate waste management department, which manages its waste in the following manner: This hospital has a manpower of more than 1500.The waste is segregated at source. Every room and department in the hospital are provided with four different colours of bags in which wastes are collected depending on their density of infection.


Waste Management The description of wastes collected according to the colour bags as done in this hospital is given below: Red: Waste, which is highly infecting are collected in these bags, such as HIV affected patient waste, soiled waste etc. Then these bags are sealed and disposed to the hospital laundry. There they are separately washed to make them free of infectious microorganisms. Then they are mixed with general lot washed and then can be reused. Green: All the waste which can be recycled or reused are collected in this bag and sometimes sold as scrap. Example: plastic containers, which can fetch some revenue. They are sold as scrap after a pre-disposal treatment. Yellow: All the waste, which is highly infectious, is collected in such bags. Wastes such as bandages, body fluids, etc. are collected and then incinerated in the campus itself. The hospital has an in-house incinerator. Such waste is almost half a kg. per bed. Black: All the administrative waste is collected in these bags. Waste such as paper, paper products etc. are collected. These bags are than handed over to the BMC agents. There is a special vehicle, which collects these wastes twice a day. Almost one and a half-ton of such waste are collected everyday. All other types of waste such as waste sharps, needles, syringes are incinerated as and when collected. Once the waste is segregated and sealed in their respective bags no person from house keeping department touches it. It directly goes in the disposal system. With such perfection in waste management system this hospital faces no difficulty of any kind. To add to it the outlet of the incinerator goes right up towards the sky above the 16 floors in the atmosphere not affecting the residents in the locality.


Waste Management As an endorsement of the quality services the hospital has been awarded the ISO9002 certification award from KEMA of Netherlands for quality management systems. So with such an efficient waste management system hospitals shouldn’t face any difficulty in disposing of any type of waste. But this is not possible in all types of hospitals. Hospitals, which have sources, can afford it, but a hospital run by government or trustees face certain difficulties. They have inadequate methods or rather knowledge about disposing of their waste, which may lead to unethical disposal causing harm to human beings and above all our environment. To avoid this the government has taken certain steps, which makes every hospital of India to adopt an efficient waste management system. Our team members through certain doctors collected these facts. We are listing some of them in this report. Government of India passed an act in the year 1996 giving specifications regarding disposal of solid waste in hospitals. This act was amended in year 1998 and it was passed in July 1998. This act gave notification from the ministry of environment and forests notifying the rules for the management and handling of the bio-medical waste. The rules were called as the BioMedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules.1998. They came into force on the date of publication of the office gazette. The rules applied to all the persons who generate, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose, or handle bio-medical waste in any form. This act gave various specifications regarding some terms, duties of various people involved in this field, types of waste and their disposal systems, prescribed authorities and certain standards for treatment and disposal of the bio-medical waste. Example: the act explained segregation, packaging, transportation and storage of the biomedical waste. the act gave standards for incineration, autoclaving, deep burial, etc. this act also specified treatment for the waste resulting of incineration, autoclaving, microwaving.


Waste Management The Bureau of Indian Standards gave “Indian Standard Solid Wastes- HospitalsGuidelines for Management” in the year 1989.these guidelines gave specific grades for the terms involved in medical waste management. These grades are recognized in the whole country. Example: standards are given for types of solid waste, their hazards to to incineration, auto-claving, etc. In the same manner the central pollution board has also given Environmental Standards and Guidelines for Management of Hospital Waste. Like other acts these guidelines also specified ways of disposal, types of wastes, etc. To add to this list government gave some easy ways for disposing medical waste in private nursing homes and small hospitals. Wastes are produced in every walk of life. Hotels, hospitals, industries, and so forth. All produce huge amounts of waste which vary in intensity of being harmful to the environment. People go to hotels out of their will but people going to hospitals do so because of sufferings and illness. Hotels therefore produce waste, which are not very harmful, but hospitals produce waste, which need special mention because they are hazardous in nature. The waste generated in hospitals and hotels is increasing day by day due to the increasing population and their ever increasing needs. Hospital waste can spread infection, which may affect the entire population and this may lead in spreading dangerous diseases. human

health and environment, transportation and disposal along with air pollution control due


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