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It includes study of transmission lines, bus bars, circuit breakers, isolators, earth switches, various types of transformers such as power transformer, capacitor voltage transformer, current transformers, lightning arresters, wave traps and grounding system of substation. We will also discuss about the various protection scheme applied in the substation for this equipments. The protection system is designed to limit the effects of disturbances in power system, which when allowed persisting, may damage the substation and interrupt the supply of electrical energy. It covers various types of protection used in substation for 220/132/33 KV transmission lines such as bus bar protection relays, auto reclosing schemes, etc., The present day electrical power system is AC i.e., electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current. The electric power is produced at the power stations which are located at favourable places, generally quite away from the consumers. It is delivered to the consumers through a large network of transmission and distribution. At many places in the line of the power, it may be desirable and necessary to change some characteristics of power supply. This is accomplished by suitable apparatus called Substation. Generating voltage at the power station is stepped upto high voltage for transmission of electric power. The assembly of apparatus used for this purpose is the substation. Similarly,near the consumers localities, the voltage may have to be stepped down to utilization level. This job is again accomplished by a suitable apparatus called substation. The type of equipment needed in the substation will depend upon the service requirement.
An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. Electric power flows through several substations between generating plant and consumer changing the voltage level in several stages. A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage with decreasing current, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage with increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. At first substations were connected to only one power station where the generator was housed and were subsidiaries of that power station.
2.2 Elements of Substation
Substations generally contain one or more transformers and have switching, protection and control equipment. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short-circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use re-closer circuit breakers or fuses for protection of branch circuits. A typical substation will contain line termination structures, high-voltage switchgear, one or more power transformers, low voltage switchgear, surge protection, controls, grounding (earthing) system, and metering. Other devices such as power factor correction capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation. Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located in special-purpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have indoor substations. Indoor substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions.
2.3 Types of Substation
Substations are of three types. They are: a) Transmission Substation b) Distribution Substation c) Collector Substation
a) Transmission Substation
A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases, the substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance. A transmission station may have transformers to convert the voltage from voltage level to other, voltage control devices such as capacitors, reactors or Static VAR Compensators and equipment such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two adjacent power systems. The largest transmission substations can cover a large area (several acres/hectares) with multiple voltage levels, many circuit breakers and a large amount of protection and control equipment (voltage and current transformers, relays and SCADA systems). Modern substations may be implemented using International Standards such as IEC61850.
b) Distribution Substation
A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity consumers to the high-voltage main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of power. So the distribution station reduces voltage to a value suitable for local distribution. The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or sub transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for example, 220KV or whatever is
common in the area. Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage, between 33 and 66 kV depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility. Besides changing the voltage, the job of the distribution substation is to isolate faults in either the transmission or distribution systems. Distribution substations may also be the points of voltage regulation, although on long distribution circuits (several km/miles), voltage regulation equipment may also be installed along the line. Complicated distribution substations can be found in the downtown areas of large cities, with high-voltage switching and, switching and backup systems on the low-voltage side. Most of the typical distribution substations have a switch, one transformer, and minimal facilities on the low-voltage side.
c) Collector substation
In distributed generation projects such as a wind farm, a collector substation may be required. It somewhat resembles a distribution substation although power flow is in the opposite direction. Usually for economy of construction the collector system operates around 35 KV, and the collector substation steps up voltage to a transmission voltage for the grid. The collector substation also provides power factor correction, metering and control of the wind farm.
2.4 Substation Transformer Type
Further, transmission substations are mainly classified into two types depending on changes made to the voltage level. They are: a) Step-Up Transmission Substations. b) Step-Down Transmission Substations.
a) Step-Up Transmission Substation
A step-up transmission substation receives electric power from a near by generating facility and uses a large power transformer to increase the voltage for transmission to distant locations. There can also be a tap on the incoming power feed from the generation plant to provide electric power to operate equipment in the generation plant.
b) Step-Down Transmission Substation
Step-down transmission substations are located at switching points in an electrical grid. They connect different parts of a grid and are a source for sub transmission lines or distribution lines.
The general considerations regarding the substation that are discussed are
functions,design and different layouts of the substation.
a) The Functions of the substation are:
i. To Change voltage from one level to another. ii.To Regulate voltage to compensate for system voltage changes. iii. To Switch transmission and distribution circuits into and out of the grid system. iv. To Measure electric power quantity flowing in the circuits. v. To Connect communication signals to the circuits. vi. To Eliminate lightning and other electrical surges from the system. vii. To Connect electric generation plants to the system.
viii. To Make interconnections between the electric systems of more than one utility.
The main issues facing a power engineer are reliability and cost. A good design
attempts to strike a balance between these two to achieve sufficient reliability without excessive cost. The design should also allow easy expansion of the station, if required. Selection of the location of a substation must consider many factors. Sufficient land area is required for installation of equipment with necessary clearances for electrical safety and for access to maintain large apparatus such as transformers. Where land is costly such as in urban areas, gas insulated switchgear may save money overall. The site must have room for expansion due to load growth or planned transmission additions. Environmental effects of the substation must be considered such as drainage, noise and road traffic effects. Grounding (earthing) and ground potential rise must be calculated to protect passers-by during a short-circuit in the transmission system. And of course, the substation site must be reasonably central to the distribution area to be served.
c) Different Layouts for Substation
i) Single Bus Bar: With this design, there is an ease of operation of the substation.
This design also places minimum reliance on signaling for satisfactory operation of protection. Additionally there is the facility to support the economical operation of future feeder bays.
Fig 2.1 shows single bus bar Substation
Such a substation has the following characteristics. a. Each circuit is protected by its own circuit breaker and hence plant outage does not necessarily result in loss of supply. b. A fault on the feeder or transformer circuit breaker causes loss of the transformer and feeder circuit, one of which may be restored after isolating the faulty circuit breaker. c. A fault on the bus section circuit breaker causes complete shutdown of the substation. All circuits may be restored after isolating the faulty circuit breaker. d. A bus-bar fault causes loss of one transformer and one feeder. Maintenance of one bus-bar section or isolator will cause the temporary outage of two circuits. e. Maintenance of a feeder or transformer circuit breaker involves loss of the circuit. ii) Mesh Substation The general layout for a full mesh substation is shown in the schematic Fig2.2 The characteristics of such a substation are as follows a. Operation of two circuit breakers is required to connect or disconnect a circuit, and disconnection involves opening of a mesh. b. Circuit breakers may be maintained without loss of supply or protection, and no additional bypass facilities are required. c. Bus-bar faults will only cause the loss of one circuit breaker. Breaker faults will involve the loss of a maximum of two circuits. d. Generally, not more than twice as many outgoing circuits as infeeds are used in order to rationalise circuit equipment load capabilities and rating. Mesh substation
Fig 2.2 shows mesh substation.
Principle of Substation Layouts
Substation layout consists essentially in arranging a number of switchgear
components in an ordered pattern governed by their function and rules of spatial separation.
i. Earth Clearance: This is the clearance between live parts and earthed structures, walls, screens and ground. ii. Phase Clearance: This is the clearance between live parts of different phases. iii. Isolating Distance: This is the clearance between the terminals of an isolator and the connections.
iv. Section Clearance: This is the clearance between live parts and the terminals of a
work section. The limits of this work section, or maintenance zone, may be the ground or a platform from which the man works.
Separation of maintenance zones
Two methods are available for separating equipment in a maintenance zone that
has been isolated and made dead. i. The provision of a section clearance ii. Use of an intervening earthed barrier The choice between the two methods depends on the voltage and whether horizontal or vertical clearances are involved.
A section clearance is composed of the reach of a man taken as 8 feet plus an earth clearance. For the voltage at which the earth clearance is 8 feet the space required will be the same whether a section clearance or an earthed barrier is used.
Maintenance plays a major role in increasing the efficiency and decreasing the
breakdown. The rules and basic principle are discussed. Separation by earthed barrier = Earth Clearance + 50mm for barrier + Earth Clearance Separation by section clearance = 2.44m + Earth clearance i. For vertical clearances it is necessary to take into account the space occupied by the equipment and the need for an access platform at higher voltages.
ii. The height of the platform is taken as 1.37m below the highest point of work.
Maintenance is done through two ways:
a) By Establishing Maintenance Zones. b) By Electrical Separations.
Establishing Maintenance Zones
Some maintenance zones are easily defined and the need for them is self evident
as in the case of a circuit breaker. There should be a means of isolation on each side of the circuit breaker, and to separate it from adjacent live parts when isolated either by section clearances or earth barriers
Together with maintenance zoning, the separation, by isolating distance and phase
clearances, of the substation components and of the conductors interconnecting them constitute the main basis of substation layouts. There are at least three such electrical separations per phase that are needed in a circuit: i. ii. iii. Between the terminals of the bus bar isolator and their connections. Between the terminals of the circuit breaker and their connections. Between the terminals of the feeder isolator and their connections.
We have studied in detail about the substation description and in the next chapter we are going to discuss about the line diagram of shapurnagar 220/132/33KV substation.
We are going to discuss about the line diagram and number of feeders of 220KV
substation and the voltage that has been transmitted to other substations and inter connection of 220 KV line and generating units. also about the lines that feeds this substation from
3.2 Line diagram:
In power engineering, a one-line diagram or single-line diagram is a simplified notation for representing a three-phase power system. The one-line diagram has its largest application in power flow studies. Electrical elements such as circuit breakers, transformers, capacitors, bus bars, and conductors are shown by standardized schematic symbols. Instead of representing each of three phases with a separate line or terminal, only one conductor is represented. It is a form of block diagram graphically depicting the paths for power flow between entities of the system. Elements on the diagram do not represent the physical size or location of the electrical equipment, but it is a common convention to organize the diagram with the same left-to-right, top-to-bottom sequence as the switchgear or other apparatus represented. We are getting power supply from two thermal power plants one is KTPS1 and the other from which have two lines, named as Malkaram1 & Malkaram 2. The single line diagram of 220/132/33 kV SHAPUR NAGAR sub station is shown at the end of this report.
The interconnection of 220 KV Grid Substations
The interconnection of 220KV to different grid substations is given below, 220 KV SHAPURNAGAR - GACHIBOWLI circuit No. 1. 220 KV SHAPURNAGAR - GACHIBOWLI circuit No. 2. 220 KV SHAPURNAGAR - GACHIBOWLI circuit No. 3. 220 KV SHAPURNAGAR - GACHIBOWLI circuit No. 4.
Feeder circuits are the connections between the output terminals of a
distribution substation and the input terminals of primary circuits. The distribution feeder circuit conductors leave the substation from a circuit breaker via underground cables, called substation exit cables. The underground cables connect to a nearby overhead primary circuit outside the substation. This eliminates multiple circuits on the poles adjacent to the substations there by improving the overall appearance of the substation.
Fig.3.1 shows 3-phase distribution feeder bay This substation has two types of feeder i.e. 132 KV and 33 KV feeder. They are 12 feeders of 132 KV which are basically collector substation and it has 16 feeders of 33KV which are industries and for domestic user.
The interconnection of 132KV Grid Substations
The interconnection of 132KV to different grid substations is given below, i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x.
SHAPURNAGAR - MEDCHAL- I circuit No.1. SHAPURNAGAR - MEDCHAL-I circuit No. 2. SHAPURNAGAR - R.C.PURAM. SHAPURNAGAR - NARSAPUR. SHAPURNAGAR - ALER. SHAPURNAGAR - GUMMADI DALA. SHAPURNAGAR - BHONIGIR. SHAPURNAGAR - GUNROCK. SHAPURNAGAR - MOULALI. SHAPURNAGAR - IDPL. SHAPURNAGAR - SANATHNAGAR RAILWAY. SHAPURNAGAR - BOLLARAM.
The interconnection of 33KV Grid Substations
The interconnection of 33KV to different substations is given below, i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.
xii. xiii. xiv. xv. xvi.
SHAPURNAGAR - SHAPURNAGAR SHAPURNAGAR - JEEDIMETLA circuit No.1 SHAPURNAGAR - JEEDIMETLA circuit No.2 SHAPURNAGAR - JEEDIMETLA circuit No.3 SHAPURNAGAR - JEEDIMETLA circuit No. 4 SHAPURNAGAR - SATYAM circuit No. 1 SHAPURNAGAR - SATYAM circuit No. 2 SHAPURNAGAR - JAIRAJ circuit No.1 SHAPURNAGAR - JAIRAJ circuit No. 2 SHAPURNAGAR - AIRFORCE ACADEMY circuit No. 1 SHAPURNAGAR - AIRFORCE ACADEMY circuit No. 2 SHAPURNAGAR - RCC SHAPURNAGAR - B.PALLIY SHAPURNAGAR - H.A.L SHAPURNAGAR - IDPL SHAPURNAGAR - H.M.T
We have discussed about the line diagram of 220 KV Shapurnagar substation and interconnection of this substation with other grid and number of feeders that are connected to this substation and in the next chapter we are going to discuss about the transformers.
We are going to discuss about the basic principle of transformer, working,
construction, losses, application and the transformers used in substation and their tapping details.
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to
another through inductively coupled conductors through the transformer's coils or windings. Except for air-core transformers, the conductors are commonly wound around a single iron-rich core, or around separate but magnetically-coupled cores. A varying current in the primary winding creates a varying magnetic field in the core (or cores) of the transformer. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or voltage in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction.
The transformer is based on two principles. Firstly, an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and secondly that a changing magnetic field within the a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnitude of the magnetic field. The changing magnetic flux link with the secondary coil where a voltage is induced across its ends.
Fig 4.1 shows step down transformer
A simplified transformer design is shown in Fig 4.1. A current passing through the primary coil creates a varying magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron, This ensures that most of the magnetic field lines produced by the primary current are within the iron core and pass through the secondary coil as well as the primary coil. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical.
Effect of frequency
The time-derivative term in Faraday's Law shows that the flux in the core is the
integral of the applied voltage. Hypothetically an ideal transformer would work with direct-current excitation, with the core flux increasing linearly with time. In practice, the flux would rise to the point where magnetic saturation of the core occurs, causing a huge increase in the magnetizing current and overheating the transformer. All practical transformers must therefore operate with alternating current.
Transformer universal EMF equation
If the flux in the core is sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its Voltage of the winding E, and the supply frequency f, number of turns N, core crosssectional area a and peak magnetic flux density B is given by the universal EMF equation:
The EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. By operating at higher frequencies, transformers can be physically more compact because a given core is able to transfer more power without reaching saturation and fewer turns are needed to achieve the same impedance.
However properties such as core loss and conductor skin effect also increase with frequency. Aircraft and military equipment employ 400 Hz power supply which reduce core and winding weight.
An ideal transformer would have no energy losses, and would be 100% efficient.
In practical transformers energy is dissipated in the windings, core, and surrounding structures. Larger transformers are generally more efficient, and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 98%.Experimental transformers using superconducting windings achieve efficiencies of 99.85%, while the increase in efficiency is small, when applied to large heavily-loaded transformers the annual savings in energy losses are significant. Transformer losses are divided into losses in the windings, termed copper loss, and those in the magnetic circuit, termed iron loss. Losses in the transformer arise from: i. Winding resistance ii. Hysteresis losses iii. Eddy currents iv. Magnetostriction v. Mechanical losses vi. Stray losses
The constructional details of the transformer are
i ii iii iv Laminated steel cores Solid cores Toroidal cores Air cores
Windings are usually arranged concentrically to minimize flux leakage.
Fig. 4.2(i) shows windings of transformer The Fig 4.2 (i) shows Cut view through transformer windings. White: insulator. Green spiral: Grain oriented silicon steel. Black: Primary winding made of oxygen-free copper. Red: Secondary winding. Top left: Toroidal transformer. Right: C-core, but Ecore would be similar. The black windings are made of film. Top: Equally low capacitance between all ends of both the windings. Since most cores are at least moderately conductive they also need insulation at Bottom.
The oil reservoir is visible at the top. Radioactive fins aid the dissipation of heat
Fig 4.2(ii) shows coolant of transformer
High temperatures will damage the winding insulation. Power transformers rated up to several hundred KVA can be adequately cooled by natural convective air-cooling, sometimes assissted by fans. Some power transformers are immersed in transformer oil that both cools and insulates the windings. The oil is a highly refined mineral oil that remains stable at transformer operating temperature. The oil-filled tank often has radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection some large transformers employ forced circulation of the oil by electric pumps, aided by external fans or watercooled heat exchangers. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapuor before the cooling oil is introduced. This helps to prevent electrical breakdown under load. Oil-filled transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays, which detect gas evolved during internal arcing and rapidly de-energize the transformer to avert catastrophic failure. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses, but not the core steel loss but these are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium.
No-load tap changers (NLTC) or load tap changers (LTC) can be obtained on
power transformers. The addition of no-load taps in the primary of a substation transformer makes it possible to adapt the transformer to a range of supply voltages (usually a 10 percent overall range of which 5 percent is above nominal and 5 percent below nominal, usually in 2.5 percent steps). Since no-load taps are not capable of interrupting any current including transformer charging current, the transformers have to be de-energized when the manual no-load tap position is changed. All taps should have full capacity ratings. Any decision to use load tap changing transformers should be based on a careful analysis of the particular voltage requirements of the loads served and consideration of the advantages and disadvantages including costs of alternatives such as separate voltage regulators.
Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the
coils and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals, bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. A large bushing can be of complex structure since it must provide careful control of the electric field gradient without letting the transformer leak oil.
4.3 Types and Classification Factors
A wide variety of transformer designs are used for different applications though they share several common features. Important common transformer types include: a. Auto transformer b. Poly Phase transformers
c. Leakage transformer d. Resonant transformers Instrument transformers Classification of Transformers is based on following factors.
By power capacity: from a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA.
ii. By frequency range: power, audio, or radio frequency. iii. By voltage class: from a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts. iv. By cooling type: air cooled, oil filled, fan cooled, or water cooled. v. By application: such as power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and
current stabilizer, or circuit isolation.
vi. By end purpose: distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output. vii. By winding turns ratio: step-up, step-down, isolating (equal or near-equal ratio),
and variable. Among the above mentioned transformers only instrument transformers are widely used in the sub station. Hence only instrument transformers are discussed in this section.
4.3.1 Instrument Transformer:
Instrument transformers are used to step-down the current or voltage to measurable values. They provide standardized, useable levels of current or voltage in a variety of power monitoring and measurement applications. Both current and voltage instrument transformers are designed to have predictable characteristics on overloads. Proper operation of over-current protection relays requires that current transformers provide a predictable transformation ratio even during a short –circuit.
These are further classified into two types which are discussed below. a) Current Transformers b) Voltage Transformers
a) Current Transformers: i. Principle of Operation
A current transformer is defined as as an instrument transformer in which the secondary current is substantially proportional to the primary current (under normal conditions of operation) and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections. This highlights the accuracy requirement of the current transformer but also important is the isolating function, which means no matter what the system voltage the secondary circuit need to be insulated only for a low voltage. The current transformer works on the principle of variable flux. In the ideal current transformer, secondary current would be exactly equal (when multiplied by the turns ratio) and opposite to the primary current. But, as in the voltage transformer, some of the primary current or the primary ampere-turns are utilized for magnetizing the core, thus leaving less than the actual primary ampere turns to be transformed into the secondary ampere-turns. This naturally introduces an error in the transformation. The error is classified into current ratio error and the phase error.
Typical terms used for specifying current transformer are, Rated primary current: The value of current which is to be transformed to a lower value. In CT parallence, the load of the CT refers to the primary current.
Rated secondary current: The current in the secondary circuit and on which the performance of the CT is based. Typical values of secondary current are 1 A or 5 A. Rated burden: The apparent power of the secondary circuit in Volt-amperes expressed at the rated secondary current and at a specific power factor.
Composite Error: The RMS value of the difference between the instantaneous
primary current and the instantaneous secondary current multiplied by the turns ratio, under steady state conditions.
Accuracy limit factor: The value of primary current up to which the CT compiles
with composite error requirements. This is typically 5, 10 or 15, which means that the composite error of the CT has to be within specified limits at 5, 10 or 15 times the rated primary current.
Short time rating: The value of primary current (in kA) that the CT should be able
to withstand both thermally and dynamically without damage to the windings with the secondary circuit being short-circuited. The time specified is usually 1 or 3 seconds.
Class PS/ X CT: In balance systems of protection, CT s with a high degree of
similarity in their characteristics are required. These requirements are met by Class PS (X) CT s. Their performance is defined in terms of a knee-point voltage (KPV), the magnetizing current (Image) at the knee point voltage or 1/2 or 1/4 the knee-point voltage, and the resistance of the CT secondary winding corrected to 75C. Accuracy is defined in terms of the turns ratio. Knee point voltage: The point on the magnetizing curve where an increase of 10% in the flux density (voltage) causes an increase of 50% in the magnetizing force (current). Summation CT: When the currents in a number of feeders need not be individually metered but summated to a single meter or instrument, a summation current transformer can be used.
The summation CT consists of two or more primary windings which are connected to the feeders to be summated, and a single secondary winding, which feeds a current proportional to the summated primary current. A typical ratio would be 5+5+5/ 5A, which means that three primary feeders of 5 are to be summated to a single 5A meter. Core balance CT (CBCT): The CBCT, also known as a zero sequence CT, is used for earth leakage and earth fault protection. The concept is similar to the RVT. In the CBCT, the three core cable or three single cores of a three phase system pass through the inner diameter of the CT. When the system is fault free, no current flows in the secondary of the CBCT. When there is an earth fault, the residual current (zero phase sequence current) of the system flows through the secondary of the CBCT and this operates the relay. In order to design the CBCT, the inner diameter of the CT, the relay type, the relay setting and the primary operating current need to be furnished. Interposing CT’s (ICT’s): Interposing CT’s are used when the ratio of transformation is very high. It is also used to correct for phase displacement for differential protection of transformer.
The Indian and international standard references for CT s are as
given in the table 4.1. Table 4.1 shows standard reference for CTs
Standard Number IS 2705 BS 3938 ANSI C.57.13
Year 1992 1973 1978
Indian British American
iv. Typical specification for a 11 kV CT
System voltage:11 kV
Insulation level voltage (ILV) : 12/28/75 kV Ratio: 200/1 - 1 - 0.577 A Core 1: 1A, metering, 15 VA/class 1, ISF<10 Core 2: 1 A, protection, 15 VA/5P10 Core 3: 0.577 A,Class PS, KPV>= 150 V,Img at Vk/2 <=30 mA, RCT at 75 C<=2 Short time rating:20 kA for 1 second CT's may be accommodate in one of six manners: a. b. c. d. e. f. Over Circuit Breaker bushings or in pedestals. In separate post type housings. Over moving bushings of some types of insulators. Over power transformers of reactor bushings. Over wall or roof bushings. Over cables. In all except the second of the list, the CT's occupy incidental space and do not affect the size of the layout. The CT's become more remote from the circuit breaker in the order listed above. Accommodation of CT's over isolator bushings or bushings through walls or roofs is usually confined to indoor substations.
i. Principle of operation
The standards define a voltage transformer as one in which the secondary voltage is substantially proportional to the primary voltage and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately equal to zero for an appropriate direction of the connections. This in essence means that the voltage transformer has to be as close as possible to the ideal transformer. In an ideal transformer, the secondary voltage vector is exactly opposite and equal to the primary voltage vector when multiplied by the turn’s ratio.
In a practical transformer, errors are introduced because some current is drawn for the magnetization of the core and because of drops in the primary and secondary windings due to leakage reactance and winding resistance. One can thus talk of a voltage error which is the amount by which the voltage is less than the applied primary voltage and the phase error which is the phase angle by which the reversed secondary voltage vector is displaced from the primary voltage vector.
Typical terms used for specifying a voltage transformer (VT) are:
Rated primary voltage: This is the rated voltage of the system whose voltage is required to be stepped down for measurement and protective purposes.
b. Rated secondary voltage: This is the voltage at which the meters and protective
devices connected to the secondary circuit of the voltage transformer operations.
c. Rated burden: This is the load in terms of volt-amperes (VA) posed by the
devices in the secondary circuit on the VT. This includes the burden imposed by the connecting leads. The VT is required to be accurate at both the rated burden and 25% of the rated burden.
d. Rated voltage factor: Depending on the system in which the VT is to be used,
the rated voltage factors to be specified are different. The table 4.2 below is adopted from Indian and International standards.
Table 4.2 shows rated votage factor for VTs
Rated voltage factor
Method of connecting primary winding in system
Between phases in any network. Between transformer star-point and earth in any network. Between phase and in an effectively earthed neutral system.
1.2 1.9 1.2 1.9
Continuous for 30 seconds Continuous for 8 hours
Between phase and earth in a non-effectively earthed neutral system with automatic fault tripping. Between phase and earth in an isolated neutral system without automatic fault tripping or in a resonant earthed system without automatic fault tripping.
e. Temperature class of insulation: The permissible temperature rise over the
specified ambient temperature. Typically, classes E, B and F.
Residual voltage transformer (RVT): RVTs are used for residual earth fault protection and for discharging capacitor banks. The secondary residual voltage winding is connected in open delta. Under normal conditions of operation, there is no voltage output across the residual voltage winding. When there is an earth fault, a voltage is developed across the open delta winding which activates the relay. When using a three phase RVT, the primary neutral should be earthed, or otherwise third harmonic voltages will appear across the residual winding. phase RVTs typically have 5 limb constructions.
The Indian and international standard references for VT s are as given in the table below 4.3
Table 4.3 shows standard references for VTs Standard Standard Number
Indian British American
IS 3156 BS 3841 ANSI C.57.13
1992 1973 1978
Typical specification for a 11 kV VT System voltage: 11 kV Insulation level voltage (ILV): 12 /28/75 kV Number of phases: Three Vector Group: Star / Star Ratio: 11 kV/ 110 V Burden: 100 VA Accuracy: Class 0.5 Voltage Factor: 1.2 continuous and 1.5 for 30 seconds with provision for fuse
Coupling capacitor voltage transformers:
Coupling capacitor voltage transformers, commonly termed capacitor voltage
transformers (CVTs), are devices used for coupling to a power line to provide low voltage for the operation of relays and metering instruments. Power line carrier accessories or provisions for future installation of carrier accessories may be included in the base. Coupling capacitor voltage transformers are commonly supplied without carrier accessories, especially at voltages above 11 kV, as a more economical alternative to inductive voltage transformers. Coupling capacitor voltage transformers can be provided with the same ratings and accuracy as inductive voltage transformers
Fig 4.2(iii) showing Coupling capacitor voltage transformers
However, because of the energy-storage capability of capacitors, sudden reductions in the power line voltage may result in momentary distortion of the CCVT secondary voltage. The amount of distortion is related to CCVT capacitance and the burden (secondary load) value and configuration. Modern CCVT designs are available to minimize this problem.
4.3.2 Power Transformers
Power transformers convert power-level voltages from one level or phase configuration to another. They can include features for electrical isolation, power distribution, and control and instrumentation applications EHV power transformers are usually oil immersed with all three phases in one tank. Auto transformers can offer advantage of smaller physical size and reduced losses. The different classes of power transformers are:
O.N.: Oil immersed, natural cooling.
ii. O.B.: Oil immersed, air blast cooling. iii. O.F.N.: Oil immersed, oil circulation forced. iv. OF.A.: Oil immersed, oil circulation forced, air blast cooling. Power transformers are usually the largest single equipment in a substation. For economy of service roads, transformers are located on one side of a substation and the connection to switchgear is by bare conductors. Because of the large quantity of oil, it is essential to take precaution against the spread of fire. Hence, the transformer is usually located around a sump used to collect the excess oil.
A number of routine and type tests have to be conducted on VT s and CTs before
they can meet the standards specified above. The tests can be classified as:
ii. Dielectric insulation tests
iii. Temperature rise tests iv. Short circuit tests.
Once the unit is received and packing is opened first thing is to check whether
there are any transit damages. In case of minor damages, such as loose screws or likewise, they can be attended immediately. In case of major damages, the report for this is to be sent to the supplier who can immediately attend these. Once the unit is found to have received in good condition, the following need to be checked i. Check the primary terminals. ii. Check the secondary terminals. iii. Check Earthing. iv. Check oil level
v. Check Insulation Resistance: For primary (H.T) winding it should be minimum
500m ohms with 1000V.D.C.Meggar and for secondary (L.T) winding. It should be minimum 25M ohms with 500V.D.C Merger. vi. Check Ratio- for this (a) Pass the rated primary current through primary (b) Check the secondary current across the respective Terminals. If everything is all right, put transformer into operation verification of terminal markings and polarity
Applications and General Instructions
There are certain applications of transformers and general instructions for
erection, uses and maintenance.
A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting
electrical energy over long distances through wires. Wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward, transformers enable economic transmission of power over long distances.
General Instructions for erection
These instructions should be adhered to with all types of instrument transformers
regardless of their technical characteristics.
The transformer can be lifted and moved only in vertical direction by means of transport equipment (crane, fork truck etc.).
ii. It is forbidden to move transformer grasping it from insulator, head or high voltage connections. iii. It is required to undertake all necessary steps to prevent any metal part of transport equipment (ropes, chains and similar) from getting in touch with insulator thus avoiding damaging of glaze or insulator itself.
iv. Transformers should be mounted on corresponding supports or base and firmly
tightened for this purpose. v. Check up whether base to which transformer is fixed is in horizontal position.
vi. Connecting cables/conductors by means of which transformer is connected to
high voltage bus-bar or supply system should be correctly dimensioned placed and mounted not to cause additional over stresses of transformer connections.
vii. Prior to the connection of transformer compare connection diagram with
indications on the transformer and carryout connection in compliance with corresponding indications.
viii. Properly carryout earthing on all intended spots on boxes and or base frame of
ix. Upon completion of above check up prior to putting in operation if assembly properly done.
x. Put connected transformer on line.
xi. Compare instrument indicated with operational condition in supply system.
General Instructions for use
Regular periodical inspection Check up of all sealed spots in order to ascertain oil leak, if any Cleaning of insulator and possible painting of transformer. Check up of all placement of diaphragm and oil level in oil level indicators. In case of damage of diaphragm or if there is no oil level indicators, transformer should be thoroughly checked up by the service mechanic since probably more serious defect occurred. This should be carried out at least once a year or in two.
Check up of primary and secondary connections. their cleaning and tightening is precaution.
Check up of sealed places consists of detection of oil around connections, flanges etc. no case transformer should be opened.
All earthed parts should be checked and if required, they should be cleaned and tightened.
Painting of originally painted transformer parts is advisable if required during regular check-ups.
Transformer should not be opened barring in service workshop.
d) General Instructions for Maintenance
The maintenance of transformer is usually done in specialized workshops, but if possible also on the spot. After the maintenance, i. Follow all steps as said under erection, commissioning & inspection. ii Measure insulation resistance and loss angle after major maintenance.
We have discussed in detailed about the working and malignances of transformers and in the next chapter we are going to discuss about the various instrument used in substation for protection of substation.
We are going to discuss about the various equipment used in the substation like
lightning arresters, Control and Relay panel ,Circuit Breakers, conductor systems ,DC Battery and Charger ,Wave Taper ,Bus bar and Isolators and their working principle and maintenances.
Types of Instruments a) Lightning Arresters
Surge arrester protects the costly outdoor electrical equipment from over voltages caused by atmospheric disturbances due to lightning and internal disturbances due to switching surges.
i. Construction: The assembly consists of stack of Metal
Oxide elements with contact plates between discs and held rigidly by a tie rod assembly. The striking aspect of this arrester is its simplicity of construction with no grading components, no gaps either in series or in parallel. A system of silicone bumpers on each contact plate provides dissipation of the heat generated in the elements for Temporary Over Voltages and Transmission Line Discharges in addition to rugged support to prevent damage in shipping. Doubling Gaskell seal and pressure relief vents are provided as in convention design. Fig 5.2(i) lightning arresters The Pressure Relief arrangement transfers the internal arc to outside in the remote event of arrester failure.
Installation of Lightning Arresters
Three simple rules to be followed in installing lightning arresters for the effective
protection of the equipment
i. The arrester should be connected to a ground of low resistance for effective discharge of the surge current. ii. The arrester should be mounted close to equipment to be protected and connected with shortest possible leads. On both the line and ground side to reduce the inductive effects of the leads while discharging large surge currents.
iii. To protect the transformer windings. It is desirable to interconnect the ground
lead of the arrester with the tank and also the neutral of the secondary. This interconnection reduces the stress imposed on the transformer winding by the surge currents to the extent of the drop across the ground.
Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage
Under actual service conditions METOVAR functions as insulators at the
maximum line to ground operating voltage. For each arrester rating there is a limit to the magnitude of the voltage that may be continuously applied. There for M.C.O.V is the designated maximum permissible power frequency voltage that may be applied continuously across the arrester terminal.
Under no circumstances, the Maximum Continuous Power Frequency Voltage between phase and ground appearing the arrester should exceed the arrester M.C.O.V as specified in the name plate.
Each arrester is packed in a wooden box with proper cushioning material. The terminal connectors are also packed in the same wooden box taken to see that the arrester housing is not damaged due to rough handling
b) Control and Relay Panel
The control and relay panel is of cubical construction suitable for floor mounting. All protective, indicating and control elements are mounted on the front panel for ease of operation and control. The hinged rear door will provide access to all the internal components to facilitate easy inspection and maintenance. Provision is made for terminating incoming cables at the bottom of the panels by providing separate line-up terminal blocks. For cable entry provision is made both from top and bottom. The control and relay panel accepts CT, PT aux 230 AC and 220V/10V DC connections at respective designated terminal points. 220V/10V DC supply is used for control supply of all internal relays and timers and also for energizing closing and tripping coils of the breakers. 230V AC station auxiliary supply is used for internal illumination lamp of the panel and the space heater. Protective HRC fuse are provided with in the panel for P.T secondary. Aux AC and battery supplies. Each Capacitor Bank is controlled by breaker and provided with a line ammeter with selector switch for 3 phase system & Over current relay (2 phase and 1 Earth fault for 3 ph system). Under voltage and over voltage Relays. Neutral Current Unbalance Relays are for both Alarm and Trip facilities breaker control switch with local/remote selector switch, master trip relay and trip alarms acknowledge and reset facilities.
c) Protective Relaying
Protective relays are used to detect defective lines or apparatus and to initiate the operation of circuit interrupting devices to isolate the defective equipment. Relays are also used to detect abnormal or undesirable operating conditions other than those caused by defective equipment and either operate an alarm or initiate operation of circuitinterrupting devices. Protective relays protect the electrical system by causing the defective apparatus or lines to be disconnected to minimize damage and maintain service continuity to the rest of the system There are different types of relays.
i. Over current relay ii. Distance relay iii. Differential relay iv. Directional over current relay
Over Current Relay
The over current relay responds to a magnitude of current above a specified value.
There are four basic types of construction: They are plunger, rotating disc, static, and microprocessor type. In the plunger type, a plunger is moved by magnetic attraction when the current exceeds a specified value. In the rotating induction-disc type, which is a motor, the disc rotates by electromagnetic induction when the current exceeds a specified value. Static types convert the current to a proportional D.C mill volt signal and apply it to a level detector with voltage or contact output. Such relays can be designed to have various current-versus-time operating characteristics. In a special type of rotating induction-disc relay, called the voltage restrained over current relay. The magnitude of voltage restrains the operation of the disc until the magnitude of the voltage drops below a threshold value. Static over current relays are equipped with multiple curve characteristics and can duplicate almost any shape of electromechanical relay curve. Microprocessor relays convert the current to a digital signal. The digital signal can then be compared to the setting values input into the relay. With the microprocessor relay, various curves or multiple time-delay settings can be input to set the relay operation. Some relays allow the user to define the curve with points or calculations to determine the output characteristics.
ii. Distance Relay
The distance relay responds to a combination of both voltage and current. The voltage restrains operation, and the fault current causes operation that has the overall effect of measuring impedance. The relay operates instantaneously (within a few cycles) on a 60-cycle basis for values of impedance below the set value. When time delay is required, the relays energizes a separate time-delay relay or function with the contacts or output of this time-delay relay or function performing the desired output functions. The relay operates on the magnitude of impedance measured by the combination of restraint voltage and the operating current passing through it according to the settings applied to the relay. When the impedance is such that the impedance point is within the impedance characteristic circle, the relay will trip. The relay is inherently directional. The line impedance typically corresponds to the diameter of the circle with the reach of the relay being the diameter of the circle.
iii. Differential Relay
The differential relay is a current-operated relay that responds to the difference between two or more device currents above a set value. The relay works on the basis of the differential principle that what goes into the device has to come out .If the current does not add to zero, the error current flows to cause the relay to operate and trip the circuit. The differential relay is used to provide internal fault protection to equipment such as transformers, generators, and buses. Relays are designed to permit differences in the input currents as a result of current transformer mismatch and applications where the input currents come from different system voltages, such as transformers. A current differential relay provides restraint coils on the incoming current circuits. The restraint coils in combination with the operating coil provide an operation curve, above which the relay will operate. Differential relays are often used with a lockout relay to trip all power sources to the device and prevent the device from being automatically or remotely reenergized. These relays are very sensitive. The operation of the device usually means major problems with the protected equipment and the likely failure in re-energizing the equipment
iv. Directional Over current Relay
A directional over current relay operates only for excessive current flow in a given direction. Directional over current relays are available in electromechanical, static, and microprocessor constructions. An electromechanical overcorrect relay is made directional by adding a directional unit that prevents the over current relay from operating until the directional unit has operated. The directional unit responds to the product of the magnitude of current, voltage, and the phase angle between them or to the product of two currents and the phase angle between them. The value of this product necessary to provide operation of the directional unit is small, so that it will not limit the sensitivity of the relay (such as an over current relay that it controls). In most cases, the directional element is mounted inside the same case as the relay it controls. For example, an over current relay and a directional element are mounted in the same case, and the combination is called a directional over current relay. Microprocessor relays often provide a choice as to the polarizing method that can be used in providing the direction of fault, such as applying residual current or voltage or negative sequence current or voltage polarizing functions to the relay.
A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to
protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and these by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow.
i. Principle of Operation
All circuit breakers have common features in their operation, although details vary substantially depending on the voltage class, current rating and type of the circuit breaker. The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition in low-voltage circuit breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. Circuit breakers for large currents or high
voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery, although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers, protection relays and an internal control power source. Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit. Some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting the circuit. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys and other materials. Service life of the contacts is limited by the erosion due to interrupting the arc. Miniature circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts are worn, but power circuit breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers have replaceable contacts. When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated - this arc must be contained, cooled, and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas, or oil as the medium in which the arc forms. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including: i. Lengthening of the arc ii. Intensive cooling (in jet chambers) iii. Division into partial arcs iv. Zero point quenching v. Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits Finally, once the fault condition has been cleared, the contacts must again be closed to restore power to the interrupted circuit.
ii. Arc Interruption
Miniature low-voltage circuit breakers use air alone to extinguish the arc. Larger ratings will have metal plates or non-metallic arc chutes to divide and cool the arc. Magnetic blowout coils deflect the arc into the arc chute. In larger ratings, oil circuit breakers rely upon vaporization of some of the oil to blast a jet of oil through the arc. Gas (usually sulfur hexafluoride) circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field, and then rely upon the dielectric strength of the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) to quench the stretched arc. Vacuum circuit breakers have minimal arcing (as there is nothing to ionize other than the contact material), so the arc quenches when it is stretched a very small amount (<2-3 mm). Vacuum circuit breakers are frequently used in modern medium-voltage switchgear to 35,000 volts. Air circuit breakers may use compressed air to blow out the arc, or alternatively, the contacts are rapidly swung into a small sealed chamber, the escaping of the displaced air thus blowing out the arc. Circuit breakers are usually able to terminate all current very quickly. Typically the arc is extinguished between 30 ms and 150 ms after the mechanism has been tripped, depending upon age and construction of the device.
iii. Short circuit current
A circuit breaker must incorporate various features to divide and extinguish the arc. The maximum short-circuit current that a breaker can interrupt is determined by testing. Application of a breaker in a circuit with a prospective short-circuit current higher than the breaker's interrupting capacity rating may result in failure of the breaker to safely interrupt a fault. In a worst-case scenario the breaker may successfully interrupt the fault, only to explode when reset.
Miniature circuit breakers used to protect control circuits or small appliances may not have sufficient interrupting capacity to use at a panelboard. These circuit breakers are called "supplemental circuit protectors" to distinguish them from distribution-type circuit breaker.
iv. High-voltage circuit breakers
400KV SF6 circuit breakers Electrical power transmission networks are protected and controlled by high-voltage breakers. The definition of "high voltage" varies but in power transmission work is usually thought to be 72,500 V or higher according to a recent definition by the International Electro technical Commission (IEC). High-voltage breakers are nearly always solenoid-operated, with current sensing protective relays operated through current transformers. In substations the protection relay scheme can be complex, protecting equipment and busses from various types of overload or ground/earth fault. High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc. i. Bulk oil ii. Minimum oil
iii. Air blast iv. SF6
Fig.5.2 circuit breaker
High-voltage circuit breakers used on transmission systems may be arranged to allow a single pole of a three-phase line to trip, instead of tripping all three poles.For some classes of faults this improves the system stability and availability.
An ideal conductor should fulfill the following requirements: i. Should be capable of carrying the specified load currents and short time currents.
ii. Should be able to withstand forces on it due to its situation. These forces comprise
self weight, and weight of other conductors and equipment, short circuit forces and atmospheric forces such as wind and ice loading.
iii. Should be corona free at rated voltage. iv. Should have the minimum number of joints. v. Should need the minimum number of supporting insulators. vi. Should be economical. vii. The most suitable material for the conductor system is copper or aluminum. Steel
may be used but has limitations of poor conductivity and high susceptibility to corrosion.
Fig.5.2(iii) shows Conductor systems In an effort to make the conductor ideal, three different types have been utilized, and these include:
Flat surfaced Conductors.
ii. Stranded Conductors. iii. Tubular Conductors.
f ) DC Power Supply
i. DC Battery and Charger
All but the smallest substations include auxiliary power supplies. AC power is required for substation building small power, lighting, heating and ventilation, some communications equipment, switchgear operating mechanisms, anti-condensation heaters and motors. DC power is used to feed essential services such as circuit breaker trip coils and associated relays, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and communications equipment. This describes how these auxiliary supplies are derived and explains how to specify such equipment.
ii. Battery and Charger configurations
Capital cost and reliability objectives must first be considered before defining the battery and battery charger combination to be used for a specific installation. The comparison given in Table 5.1 describes the advantages and disadvantages of three such combinations. Table 5.1: Capital cost and reliability objectives must first be considered before defining the battery/battery charger combination to be used for a specific installation. The comparison given describes the advantages and disadvantages of three such combinations
Type Advantages Disadvantages
No standby DC System outage for 1. Single 100% battery and 100% charger 2. Semiduplicate 50% batteries and Medium capital cost Standby DC provided which is 100% capacity on loss of one charger Each battery or charger can be Low capital cost maintenance Need to isolate battery/charger combination from load under boost charge conditions in order to prevent high boost voltages appearing on DC distribution system
Table 5.1: Capital cost and reliability objectives must first be considered before defining the battery/battery charger combination to be used for a specific installation. The comparison given describes the advantages and disadvantages of three such combinations
Type Advantages Disadvantages
maintained in turn. Each battery can be isolated and...
iii. 220V DC Battery
Make: Exide, Capacity: 300 AH at 27° No. of Cells: 110 No. , Date of installation: 06/200 Make: Universal, Sr. No. : BC 1020/82 Date of installation: 1983 Input Rating: Voltage: 415 V + 10 % Frequency: 50 Hz. 3 Phase Output Rating: Float: 220 V, 10 Amp Boost: 180 V, 30Amp Fig.5.2(iv) shows 220V Battery Charger
g) Wave Trapper
This is relevant in Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) systems for communication among various substations without dependence on the telecom company network. The signals are primarily teleportation signals and in addition, voice and data communication signals. Line trap also is known as Wave trap.
h) Bus Bar
A bus bar in electrical power distribution refers to thick strips of copper or aluminum that conduct electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation, or other electrical apparatus. The size of the bus bar is important in determining the maximum amount of current that can be safely carried. Bus bars are typically either flat strips or hollow tubes as these shapes allow heat to dissipate more efficiently due to their high surface area to crosssectional area ratio. The skin effect makes 50-60 Hz AC bus bars more than about 8 mm (1/3 in) thick inefficient, so hollow or flat shapes are prevalent in higher current applications. A hollow section has higher stiffness than a solid rod of equivalent currentcarrying capacity, which allows a greater span between bus bar supports in outdoor switchyards. A bus bar may either be supported on insulators or else insulation may completely surround it. Bus bars are protected from accidental contact either by a metal enclosure or by elevation out of normal reach. Neutral bus bars may also be insulated. Earth bus bars are typically bolted directly onto any metal chassis of their enclosure. Bus bars may be enclosed in a metal housing, in the form of bus duct or bus way, segregated-phase bus, or isolated-phase bus.
Bus bars are vital parts of a power system and so a fault should be cleared as fast
as possible. A bus bar must have its own protection, although they have high degrees of reliability. Bearing in mind the risk of unnecessary trips, the protection should be dependable, selective and should be stable for external faults, called 'through faults'. The most common fault is phase to ground, which usually results from human error. There are many types of relaying principles used in bus bar. A special attention should be made to current transformer selection since measuring errors need to be considered.
Isolators are used to connect and disconnect high voltage power systems under no load conditions. These are essentially off load devices although they are capable of dealing with small charging currents of bus bars and connections. The design of isolators is closely related to the design of substations. Isolator design is considered in the following aspects:
i. ii. iii. iv. v.
Space Factor Insulation Security Standardization Ease of Maintenance Cost
Some types of isolators include: i. Horizontal Isolation types ii. Vertical Isolation types
iii. Moving Bushing types
The isolators comprises three identical poles (in the case of the three phase system
only) each pole consisting of
A Galvanized Fabricated Base out of MS Channel having one supporting insulation mounting stool. Three post insulators stacks one for mounting one the centre rotating stool and other two stacks on both ends of the base channel. Moving contact assembly for mounting on the centre rotating insulator stack and the fixed contact assembly with terminal pad or two outer insulator stacks. Tandem pipe for interlinking the three poles and operating down pipe to link the tandem pipe with the bottom operating mechanism of 3 phase system.
ii. iii. iv.
v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x.
Bottom operating mechanism box. Earthing switch moving contact assembly Earthing switch fixed contact assembly for fixing to the main switch fixed contacts. Earthing switch operating down pipe to link earth switch tandem pipe to the bottom Bottom operating mechanism box Mechanical interlock between main switch and earthling switch.
We have discussed about the various types of instrument used in substances and for protection of substation in detailed. In the next chapter we are going to discusses about the insulators and they importance’s in substation
This chapter describes the different types of overhead line and substation
insulators, their design characteristics and their application. Conductors are attached to
their support by means of an insulator unit. For overhead lines up to 33 kV and for outdoor substation equipment, the insulator is typically of the post insulator type. For overhead lines above 33 kV and substation aerial conductor bus bars, suspension or tension cap and pin or long rod insulator units are employed. Insulators must be capable of supporting the conductor under the most onerous loading conditions. In addition, voltage flashover must be prevented under the worst weather and pollution situations with leakage currents kept to negligible proportions
The principle dielectric used on overhead power lines is air at atmospheric
pressure. The air surrounding the bare high voltage threshold. It is however necessary to attach the conductors at certain points onto the cross arms of the pylons. The problem of reliably suspending the conductors of high voltage transmission lines has therefore been with us since the turn of the century. The task is particularly complex, bearing in mind the multiple extreme stresses present are mechanical, electrical and environmental stresses.
Types of Insulators
a) Porcelain pin type
These were originally used for telephone lines and lightning conductors, have been adapted for power transmission and some variations are still in use for medium voltage systems. A pin-type insulator is shown schematically in figure 6.2(i)and 6.2(ii)
Fig. 6.2(i) Porcelain Insulator
Cap and Pin Type Insulators
The pin-type insulator is so called because in use it is screwed onto a galvanized forged steel 'pin' which mounted vertically on a metal or wooden cross arm. For low voltage systems, 6.6 to 11 kV, it is usual to have a one-piece insulator shed in which the porcelain is loaded largely in compression. A typical pin-type insulator is shown in Figure 6.2(ii). The sketches show that the top of the porcelain body is formed into a groove into which the conductor is bound by means of wire or fixed with the aid of special clips. Toughened glass pin-type insulators require a metal cap; this holds together the 'diced' pieces of glass which result if the glass becomes shattered.
Fig.62 (ii): shows cap & pin insulator
Post Type Insulator
These insulators consist of a solid porcelain cylinder, corrugated to increase the
leak- age length, with metalware on each end. They are used to support the high voltage conductor and are mounted on pedestals or on the power line cross arms. Post insulators are tall and are mainly used in substations. These insulators are Class A; the shortest distance through the porcelain exceeds 50% of the shortest distance through air between the electrodes. They are therefore un puncturable. A typical example of a post insulator is shown schematically in figure 6.2(iii)
Porcelain Long Rod Insulators
Long rod insulators are similar to post insulators but are lighter, slimmer and are
used as suspension insulators. Long rod insulators have the apparent advantage over cap and pin insulators in that metal fittings exist only at the ends of the insulators.
Bushings are used to insulate the conductors of the high voltage terminals of a transformer as is shown schematically in figure 5. 3 Traditionally, transformer bushings are manufactured using porcelain. Capacitive grading, using foil cylinders is often used to improve the axial and radial field distribution.
Fig.6.3 shows bushings
When applying insulators, it is necessary to describe the insulator dimensions, using the following terms:
Creep age distance: The shortest distance between the metal ware at the two ends of the
insulator, when following the contours of the insulator, excluding intermediate metal fittings. This distance is easily measured by sticking masking tape to the insulator surface.
Specific Creep age distance: The quotient of the creep age distance in mm and the line-to-
line rms. voltage of the three phase system in kV.
Connecting length: The axial length of the insulator between the end terminals. Arcing distance: The distance between the metal ware, measured as the length of a tightly
pulled piece of string.
Inter shed spacing: The distance between corresponding points on adjacent sheds.
6.5 Pollution Deposition Process
Insulators exposed to the environment collect pollutants from various sources. Pollutants that become conducting when moistened are of particular concern. Two major sources are:
Coastal pollution: the salt spray from the sea or wind-driven salt laden solid material such as sand collects on the insulator surface. These layers become conducting during periods of high humidity and fog. Sodium chloride is the main constituent of this type of pollution.
Industrial pollution: substations and power lines near industrial complexes are subject to the stack emissions from nearby plants. These materials are usually dry when deposited; they may then become conducting when wetted. The materials will absorb moisture to different degrees, and apart from salts, acids are also deposited on the insulator.
The role of the weather
Wind is instrumental in the deposition process. High humidity, fog or light rain
cause wetting of the pollution layers. Heavy rain removes the pollution layer especially
on the upper sides of the sheds
Air flashover versus pollution flashover
If the electric stress in air at atmospheric pressure exceeds 3 kV mm, ionization can
occur. Depending on the gap configuration, flashover may follow. The power flashover voltage of a clean dry single cap and pin insulator with a 280 mm creep age distance is 72 kV. Leakage current flows over the insulator surface and the heating effect of the current causes drying out of the layer at certain spots and the formation of ’dry bands’. Arcs occur across these bands and if the pollution is of sufficient severity, the insulator may flash over
Failure Modes of Insulators
Flashovers, caused by air breakdown or pollution, generally do not cause physical
damage to the insulators and the system can often be restored by means of auto closing. Some other events, however cause ir-repairable damage to the insulators.
As previously mentioned, porcelain pin-type and cap and pin insulators may suffer
punctures between the pin and the either the pin or the high voltage conductor. These occurrences are usually caused by very steep impulse voltages, where the time delay for air flashover exceeds that of puncture of porcelain. Punctures caused by severe stress over dry bands also occur on composite insulators on sheds and through the sheath. A puncture of the sheath is particularly serious as this exposes the glass fiber rod to the environment .
Glass insulators shatter when exposed to severe arcing or puncturing due to
vandalism. One advantage is that they retain their mechanical integrity.
Prolonged arcing of glass insulators leads to erosion of the surface layer of the
glass. This may lead to shattering of the glass discs - a result of the tempering process used during manufacture. Arcing and corona over long periods may cause removal of shed or sheath material in the case of polymeric insulators. Severe erosion may lead to the exposure of the glass fiber core.
Tracking occurs when carbonized tracks form because of arcing. These tracks are
conductive. This phenomenon only occurs in carbon-based polymers.
Water entry into the glass fiber core of composite insulators, coupled with the
influence of weak acids, has been shown to lead to brittle fracture of the rod. The byproducts of partial discharges in the presence of water can lead to the formation of weak acids. The integrity of the metal/polymer and glass/polymer interfaces is therefore extremely important - especially if acid-resistant glass is not used.
There are certain remedies provided for different equipments available in substation from being damaged. They are , a) Washing b) Greasing c) Choice of Creep age length
Substation or line insulators can be washed when de-energized or when
energized. Automatic washing schemes and helicopters have been used for this purpose.
The costs are usually prohibitive. A thin layer of silicone grease, when applied to ceramic insulators increases the hydro-phobicity of the insulators.
Room temperature cured silicone rubber coatings are available to be used on
ceramic substation insulators. These coatings have good hydrophobic properties when new. Research is still in progress to evaluate their aging processes. We face Pollution particles that are deposited on the insulator surface are also encapsulated by the grease and protected from moisture. The disadvantage of greasing is that the spent grease must be removed and new grease applied, usually annually.
c) Choice of Creep age Length
When using non-ceramic insulators, it is advisable to use a shorter creepage length especially in locations of severe pollution. Recent research indicates that under conditions of severe research results or revised specifications are available it is considered a safe approach to use IEC 815 for non-ceramic insulators as well.
We have discussed about the insulator used in substation and various types of
We are going to discusses about the various earthing techniques used in sub station
A properly designed and installed grounding system ensures reliable performance of electrical substations . Just how important is substation reliability? Fast clearing of faults, made possible by good grounding, improves the overall safety and reliability of an electrical system. Therefore, substation reliability must be as "built-in" as possible because of the high available fault current levels present and unlikely occurrence of follow-up grounding inspections.
Fig.7.1 shows grounding
Types and Methods of Grounding
There are different types and methods of grounding which ensures the reliable performance of a substation.
Grounding of earth may be classified as (i) Equipment grounding (ii) System grounding and (iii) Neutral grounding. Equipment grounding deals with earthing the non current carrying metal parts of the electrical equipment. On the other hand, system grounding means earthing some part of the electrical system e.g. earthing of neutral point of star connected system in generating stations and substations.
The process of connecting non current carrying metal parts of the electrical
equipment to earth in such a way that in case of insulation failure, the enclosure effectively remains at earth potential is called Equipment grounding.
The process of connecting some electrical part of the power system (neutral point of
a star connected system, one conductor of the secondary of a transformer) to earth is called System grounding.
The process of connecting neutral point of 3-phase system to earth either directly
or through some circuit element (e.g. resistance or reactance etc.) is called Neutral grounding. Neutral grounding provides protection to personal and equipment. It is because during earth fault the current path is completed through the earthed neutral and the protective devices operate to isolate the faulty conductor from the rest of the system.
b) Methods of Grounding
The methods commonly used for grounding the neutral point of a 3-phase system are: (i) Solid or effective grounding (ii) Resistance grounding (iii) Reactance grounding (iv) Resonant grounding
When the neutral point of a 3-phase system is directly connected to earth through a
wire of negligible resistance and reactance is called Solid or Effective grounding. Under fault conditions, the voltage of any conductor to earth will not exceed the normal phase voltage of the system.
a) The neutral is effectively held at earth potential.
b) No arcing phenomenon or over voltage condition can occur. c) Permits the easy operation of earth fault relay. Disadvantages: a) It causes the system to become unstable. b) The increased earth fault current results in greater interference in the neighboring communication lines.
When the neutral point of a 3-phase system is connected to earth through a resistor,
it is called Resistance grounding. The value of R should be neither very low nor very high. If the value of earthing resistance is very low, the earth fault will be large and the system becomes similar to the solid grounding system. On the other hand if the earthing resistance is very high, the system becomes similar to the ungrounded neutral system. The value of R is so chosen such that the earth fault current is limited to safe value but still sufficient to permit the operation of earth fault protection system. Advantages: a) The earth fault current is small due to the presence of earthing resistance. Therefore, interference with communication circuits is reduced. b) It improves the stability of the system. Disadvantages: a) This system is costlier than the solidly grounded system. b) Since the system neutral is displaced during earth faults the equipment has to be insulated for higher voltages.
In this system, a reactance is inserted between the neutral and ground. The purpose of reactance is to limit the earth fault current. By changing the earthing reactance, the earth fault current can be changed to obtain the conditions similar to that of solid grounding. This method is not always used these days because of the following reasons (a) In this system, the fault current required to operate the protective devices is higher than that of the resistance grounding for the same fault conditions. (b) High transient voltages appear under fault conditions.
When the value of L of arc suppression coil is such that the fault current If exactly
balance the capacitive current Ic, it is called Resonant grounding. It is also called as Peterson coil grounding as the arc suppression coil used here is the Peterson coil which is an iron cored connected between the neutral and earth. The resultant current in the fault will be zero or can be reduced by adjusting the tappings on the Peterson coil. Advantages: The Peterson coil grounding has the following advantages: a) The Peterson coil is completely effective in preventing any damage by an arcing ground. b) This coil has the advantage of ungrounded neutral system. Disadvantages: The Peterson coil grounding has following disadvantages: a) Due to varying operational conditions, the capacitance of the network changes from time to time. Therefore, inductance L of Peterson coil requires readjustment. b) The lines should be transposed.
7.3 Earthing and Bonding
The function of an earthing and bonding system is to provide an earthing system connection to which transformer neutrals or earthing impedances may be connected in order to pass the maximum fault current. The earthing system also ensures that no thermal or mechanical damage occurs on the equipment within the substation, thereby resulting in safety to operation and maintenance personnel. The earthing system also guarantees equi-potential bonding such that there are no dangerous potential gradients developed in the substation.
Substation Earthing Calculation Methodology
Calculations for earth impedances and touch and step potentials are based on site
measurements of ground resistivity and system fault levels. A grid layout with particular conductors is then analyzed to determine the effective substation earthing resistance, from which the earthing voltage is calculated. In practice, it is normal to take the highest fault level for substation earth grid calculation purposes. To determine the earth resistivity, probe tests are carried out on the site. These tests are best performed in dry weather such that conservative resistivity readings are obtained.
b) Earthing Materials
i) Conductors Bare copper conductor is usually used for the substation earthing grid. The copper bars themselves usually have a cross-sectional area of 95 square millimeters, and they are laid at a shallow depth of 0.25-0.5m, in 3-7m squares. In addition to the buried potential earth grid, a separate above ground earthing ring is usually provided, to which all metallic substation plant is bonded. ii) Connections: Connections to the grid and other earthing joints should not be soldered because the heat generated during fault conditions could cause a soldered joint to fail. Joints are usually bolted, and in this case, the face of the joints should be tinned.
iii) Earthing Rods: The earthing grid must be supplemented by earthing rods to assist in the dissipation of earth fault currents and further reduce the overall substation earthing resistance. These rods are usually made of solid copper or copper clad steel. iv) Switchyard Fence Earthing: The switchyard fence earthing practices are possible and are used by different utilities. Extend the substation earth grid 0.5m-1.5m beyond the fence perimeter. The fence is then bonded to the grid at regular intervals. Place the fence beyond the perimeter of the switchyard earthing grid and bond the fence to its own earthing rod system. This earthing rod system is not coupled to the main substation earthing grid.
In this chapter we have discussed about the various earthing /grounding technique used in substation for the protection of the equipment from the high voltage and external faults.
In this chapter we are going to discuss about the various power factor correction technique used in the substation and they mentions as well as protection of this equipments. Under normal operating conditions certain electrical loads draw not only active power from the supply (kilowatts KW) but also reactive power (reactive KVA, KVAR). This reactive power has no useful function, but is necessary for the equipment to operate correctly. Loads such as induction motors, welding equipment, arc furnaces and fluorescent lighting would fall into this category.
The Power Factor of a load is defined as being the ratio of active power to total demand. The uncorrected power factor of a load is cos Ø (where Ø is the phase angle between the uncorrected load and unity), and the corrected power factor is cos Ø2 (where Ø2 is the phase angle between the corrected load and unity). As cos Ø approaches to unity, reactive power drawn from the supply is minimized
8.2 Compensating Capacitor
A capacitor inside an op-amp that prevents oscillations is called compensating ca[acitor.. Also any capacitor that stabilizes an amplifier with a negative-feedback path. Without this capacitor, the amplifier will oscillate. The compensating capacitor produces a low critical frequency and decreases the voltage gain at a rate of 20 dB per decade above the mid-band. At the unity gain frequency, the phase shift is in the vicinity of 270°. When the phase shift reaches 360°, the voltage gain is less than 1 and oscillations are impossible. The series capacitor is connected to compensate for the line inductance and thus decrease the line reactance so that more power can be transferred through the line thus the system stability can be increased.
The question is about connecting Capacitors in SERIES. Series connection is done for improving STABILITY of the network and for transferring more power (by reducing the resultant reactance) i.e to improve the power transfer capability but not for improving power factor. Power factor will be improved by connecting capacitors in parallel to the load.
8.3 Power factor correction
In electric power distribution, capacitors are used for power factor correction. Such capacitors often come as three capacitors connected as a three phase load. Usually, the values of these capacitors are given not in farads but rather as a reactive power in voltamperes reactive (VAR). The purpose is to counteract inductive loading from devices like electric motors and transmission lines to make the load appear to be mostly resistive. Individual motor or lamp loads may have capacitors for power factor correction, or larger sets of capacitors (usually with automatic switching devices) may be installed at a load center within a building or in a large utility substation.
Fig.8.3 P.F Correction When using power factor correction capacitors, the total KVAR on the load side of the motor controller should not exceed the value required to raise the no-load power factor to unity. Over corrective ness of this value may cause high transient voltages,
currents, and torques that can increase safety hazards to personnel and possibly damage motor driven equipment. Never connect power factor correction capacitors at motor terminals on elevator motors, plugging or jogging applications, multi-speed motors or open transition, wyedelta, auto-transformer starting and some part-winding start motors. If possible, capacitors should be located at position 2 . This does not change the current flowing through motor overload protectors. Connection of capacitors at position 3 requires a change of overload protectors. Capacitors should be located at position 1 for applications listed in paragraph 2 above. Be sure bus power factor is not increased above 95% under all loading conditions to avoid over excitation. The table 8.1 below shows the power factor correction. Original Power Factor Percent 60% 62% 64% 66% 68% 70% 72% 74% 76% 78% 79% 80% 81% 1.333 1.266 1.201 1.138 1.078 1.020 0.964 0.909 0.855 0.802 0.776 0.750 0.724 1.004 0.937 0.872 0.809 0.749 0.691 0.635 0.580 0.526 0.473 0.447 0.421 0.395 0.849 0.782 0.717 0.654 0.594 0.536 0.480 0.425 0.371 0.318 0.292 0.266 0.240 0.713 0.646 0.581 0.518 0.458 0.400 0.344 0.289 0.235 0.182 0.156 0.130 0.104 0.583 0.516 0.451 0.388 0.328 0.270 0.214 0.159 0.105 0.052 0.026 100% 95% 90% 85% 80% Desired Power Factor Percent
82% 83% 84% 85% 86% 87% 89% 90% 91% 92% 93% 94% 95% 96% 97%
0.698 0.672 0.646 0.620 0.593 0.567 0.512 0.484 0.456 0.426 0.395 0.363 0.329 0.292 0.251 -
0.369 0.343 0.317 0.291 0.264 0.238 0.183 0.155 0.127 0.097 0.066 0.034
0.214 0.188 0.162 0.136 0.109 0.083 0.028 -
0.078 0.052 0.206 -
Assume Total plant load is 100 KW at 60% power factor. Capacitor KVAR rating necessary to improve power factor to 80% is found by multiplying KW (100) by the multiplier in table (0.583) which gives KVAR (58.3), nearest standard rating (60 KVAR) should be used.
The connection of a capacitor capable of "correcting" half of the reactive power of a load leads to a reduction in the demand on the supply of approximately 15%. This results in the following: a) The load on the cables and switches is reduced. b) The supply is now able to support additional load c) The charges made by the electricity supply company are likely to be reduced
By reducing the load on cables and switches, power loss is reduced and life is extended. The facility to connect additional load is always useful to an expanding company.
In this chapter we have discussed about the various power factor correction techniques involved in substation and benefits of it.
In our project we have studied about the operation of different equipments in substation. It includes study of transmission lines, bus bars, circuit breakers, isolators, earth switches, current transformers, voltage transformers, lightning arresters, wave traps and grounding system of substation. We also covered various types of transformers such as power transformer and capacitor voltage and they maintenance. The protection system is designed to limit the effects of disturbances in power system, which when allowed persisting, may damaging the substation and interrupting
the supply of electrical energy. It cover various types of protection used in substation for220/132/33kv transmission lines such as bus bar protection relays, auto reclosing schemes, etc.,
1. Electric Power Substations Engineering By James C. Burke and Anne-Marie
Sahazizian. Publisher CRC.
2. Electric Power Systems: A Conceptual Introduction By Alexandra von Meier
3. Handbook of Transformer Design and Applications ,By, William M. Flanagan
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional.
4. Power System Engineering, By A.Chakrabarti, M.L.Soni , P.V.Gupta,U.S
Bhatnagar. Publisher: Dhanpat Rai & Co
5. Transmission, Distribution and Utilization Volume III, By B.L.THERAJA &
A.K.THERAJA Publisher: S.CHAND & COMPANY LTD. 2004
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