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Experiment N7

Damped oscillation Bar oscillation

To investigate the behavior of damped oscillation mechanical system.

Equation of motion
Damped oscillation
Setting up the equation of motion again involves forming the equilibrium of
moments about the pivot point O of the beam. In this case, allowance is
additionally made for a velocity-proportional damper force F d with
lever arm b

M o J o Fc a Fd b

The damper force Fd results from the velocity x and the damper
constant c. For small angles, the velocity can be formed from the

angular velocity and lever arm b


Fd c x c b
This gives the equation of motion in the form of the following
homogeneous differential equation

cb 2 . ka 2


Or in more general terms with y = L as the path of the recorder


y 2 o y o2 y 0
With as damping ratio and o as natural angular frequency

cb 2
ka 2
, o
2 J o o

The solution takes the form of decaying harmonic oscillation with the initial
deflection yo

y (t )

y o e o t sin( d t ) , and d o 1 2

It becomes apparent that no further oscillation is possible with D 1. The natural angular frequency d approaches

where :-


- damping ratio
C-damping constant
CC -critical damping.
The damper itself consists of a cylinder (1) with a
plunger (2). The plunger displaces the damper
medium in this case oil and forces it through a
restrictor (3). The flow resistance in the restrictor
is proportional to the oil velocity.
A small restrictor cross section produces a high oil
speed with a considerable drop in pressure, whereas
a large cross section results in a low oil speed with
a slight drop in pressure. The drop in pressure acts
on the surface of the plunger and thus generates the
damper force Fd . The restrictor cross- section can
be adjusted.
The detailed design of the damper is shown by the
Adjacent diagram.
- The actual damper unit (1) is located in an oil
filled vessel (2).
- The design of the rod (6) makes for equal
plunger surface areas at the top and bottom and
thus guarantees a constant volume of oil in the damper circuit.
- To minimize coulomb friction, the rod has two
linear ball bearing (3) and there is no rod seal.
- A needle valve (4) makes for precise setting of
the damper constant.
- The rod is connected to the beam by way of a
double joint (5).
Performing experiment
This experiment is designed to show the effect of damping on the oscillation behavior.
The damper effect can be varied on the one hand with the needle valve and on the other with the
lever arm b.
Fit spring 1, C = 0.75 N/mm with a = 650 mm, and secure with lock nuts
Horizontally align beam

Testing involves the following combinations :

Influence of damping
Experiment Needle valve position

Lever arm b in mm

- Fit damper as per table and set needle valve

- Insert pen
- Start plotter
- Deflect beam by hand and let it oscillate
- Stop plotter
Repeat experiment with different damper setting and lever arm.
Evaluation of experiment
critically damped: The damping force is such that the system returns to equilibrium as quickly as possible
and stops at that point. ( =1)
overdamped. The damping force is greater than the minimum needed to prevent oscillations. The system
returns to equilibrium without oscillating, but it takes longer to do so than a critically damped system. . (
underdamped: It oscillates about the equilibrium point, with ever diminishing amplitude. ( <1)