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resonance vibrations

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You are on page 1of 3

Objective:

To investigate the behavior of damped oscillation mechanical system.

Equation of motion

Damped oscillation

Setting up the equation of motion again involves forming the equilibrium of

moments about the pivot point O of the beam. In this case, allowance is

additionally made for a velocity-proportional damper force F d with

lever arm b

..

M o J o Fc a Fd b

.

The damper force Fd results from the velocity x and the damper

constant c. For small angles, the velocity can be formed from the

..

.

Fd c x c b

This gives the equation of motion in the form of the following

homogeneous differential equation

..

cb 2 . ka 2

0

Jo

Jo

..

y 2 o y o2 y 0

With as damping ratio and o as natural angular frequency

cb 2

ka 2

2

, o

2 J o o

Jo

The solution takes the form of decaying harmonic oscillation with the initial

deflection yo

y (t )

o

y o e o t sin( d t ) , and d o 1 2

d

It becomes apparent that no further oscillation is possible with D 1. The natural angular frequency d approaches

zero.

where :-

c

cc

- damping ratio

C-damping constant

CC -critical damping.

The damper itself consists of a cylinder (1) with a

plunger (2). The plunger displaces the damper

medium in this case oil and forces it through a

restrictor (3). The flow resistance in the restrictor

is proportional to the oil velocity.

A small restrictor cross section produces a high oil

speed with a considerable drop in pressure, whereas

a large cross section results in a low oil speed with

a slight drop in pressure. The drop in pressure acts

on the surface of the plunger and thus generates the

damper force Fd . The restrictor cross- section can

be adjusted.

The detailed design of the damper is shown by the

Adjacent diagram.

- The actual damper unit (1) is located in an oil

filled vessel (2).

- The design of the rod (6) makes for equal

plunger surface areas at the top and bottom and

thus guarantees a constant volume of oil in the damper circuit.

- To minimize coulomb friction, the rod has two

linear ball bearing (3) and there is no rod seal.

- A needle valve (4) makes for precise setting of

the damper constant.

- The rod is connected to the beam by way of a

double joint (5).

Performing experiment

This experiment is designed to show the effect of damping on the oscillation behavior.

The damper effect can be varied on the one hand with the needle valve and on the other with the

lever arm b.

Fit spring 1, C = 0.75 N/mm with a = 650 mm, and secure with lock nuts

Horizontally align beam

Influence of damping

Experiment Needle valve position

1

Open

2

Close

3

Open

4

close

Lever arm b in mm

150

150

600

600

- Insert pen

- Start plotter

- Deflect beam by hand and let it oscillate

- Stop plotter

Repeat experiment with different damper setting and lever arm.

Evaluation of experiment

critically damped: The damping force is such that the system returns to equilibrium as quickly as possible

and stops at that point. ( =1)

overdamped. The damping force is greater than the minimum needed to prevent oscillations. The system

returns to equilibrium without oscillating, but it takes longer to do so than a critically damped system. . (

>1)

underdamped: It oscillates about the equilibrium point, with ever diminishing amplitude. ( <1)

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