MPLS overview

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wolfgang Riedel wriedel@cisco.com Systems Engineer ECSO Enterprise Manufacturing Cisco Systems GmbH

1

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

12:24

2

Evolution of MPLS
• From tag switching • Proposed in IETF—Later combined with other proposals from IBM (ARIS), Toshiba (CSR)
Cisco Calls a BOF at IETF to Standardize Tag Switching MPLS Croup Formally Chartered by IETF Cisco Ships MPLS (Tag Switching) Cisco Ships Traffic Engineering Deployed MPLS TE MPLS VPN Deployed Large Scale Deployment

Time

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000
12:24

2001
3

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Challenges
Service Providers Generate new services Protect existing Infrastructure—ATM/FR Combine private data services with Internet services Move into rapid deployment Cost saving Enterprise Lower cost of WAN connectivity Migration path Lower cost of managing separate Data and Voice networks Campus Service Provider “multiple customers” Replacement of campus wide vlan´s
12:24

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

4

MPLS advanced services

L2 VPN

IPv6
6PE

Carrier supporting Carrier

Multicast over VPN BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM LDP RSVP CEF

ATOM Any Transport over MPLS
IP switching

Virtual Private Networks

DiffServ Multicast IP Traffic Fast aware Routing CoS Engineering Rerouting TE (PIM v2) v2 (DiffServ)

Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) Per-Label Forwarding, Queuing, Multicast, Restoration Mechanisms L2 protocols (PPP, POS, ATM, FR, Enet, GRE, ...)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

5

MPLS Innovation & Standards

L2 VPN

IPv6
6PE

Carrier supporting Carrier

Multicast over 2547 BGP/MPLS VPNs * VPN BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM

ATOM 2702 Requirements for Virtual Private Networks Any Transport over MPLSMPLS Traffic Engineering Over
IP switching DiffServ Multicast IP Traffic Fast aware Routing CoS Engineering Rerouting TE (PIM v2) v2 (DiffServ)

LDP 3031 Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) Multiprotocol Label Switching RSVP Architecture *
3032 MPLS Label Stack Encoding * 2474 Definition of the Differentiated Services Per-LabelHeaders * Forwarding, Queuing, Multicast, RestorationSwitching on Frame 3034 Label Field in IP CEF 2475 An Architecture for Differentiated Mechanisms Relay Networks Services 3035 MPLS using LDP and ATM VC 2597 Assured Forwarding PHB Group * Switching * L2 protocols (PPP, POS, ATM, FR, Enet, GRE, ...) 2598 An Expedited Forwarding PHB * 3036 LDP Specification * 2697 A Single Rate Three Color Marker 3037 LDP Applicability * 2698 © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Color Marker A Two Rate Three All rights reserved. 6 12:24

MPLS Innovation-in-Progress
[Draft Rosen] • An Architecture for L2VPNs *
draft-rosen-ppvpn-l2vpn-00.txt

L2 VPN

IPv6
6PE

Carrier supporting Carrier

Multicast over VPN BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM LDP RSVP CEF

ATOM Any Transport over MPLS
IP switching

Virtual Private Networks

DiffServ Multicast IP Traffic Fast aware Routing CoS Engineering Rerouting TE (PIM v2) v2 (DiffServ) [Martini Drafts]
• Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS * Label Forwarding
draft-martini-l2circuit-transmpls-06.txt

Information Base (LFIB)

Per-Label Forwarding, Queuing, Multicast, Restoration • Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Layer 2 Frames Mechanisms • MPLS Support of Over MPLS * Differentiated Services * draft-martini-l2circuit-encapmpls-02.txt
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

L2 protocols (PPP, POS, ATM, FR, Enet, GRE, ...) draft-ietf-mpls-diff-ext-09.txt
7

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

12:24

8

MPLS Concept

At Edge:
Classify packets Label them

In Core:
Forward using labels (as opposed to IP addr) Label indicates service class and destination

Edge Label Switch Router

Label Switch Router (LSR)

Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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9

MPLS Operation
1a. Existing routing protocols (e.g. OSPF, IS-IS) establish reachability to destination networks 1b. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) establishes label to destination network mappings 4. Edge LSR at egress removes label and delivers packet

2. Ingress Edge LSR receives packet, performs Layer 3 value-added services, and “labels” packets
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

3. LSR switches packets using label swapping
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Encapsulations

ATM Cell Header

GFC

VPI

VCI

PTI

CLP HEC

DATA

Label

PPP Header (Packet over SONET/SDH)

PPP Header

Label Header

Layer 3 Header

LAN MAC Label Header

MAC Header

Label Header

Layer 3 Header

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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11

Label Header for Packet Media
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

Tag

COS S

TTL

Label = 20 bits S = Bottom of Stack, 1 bit

COS/EXP = Class of Service, 3 bits TTL = Time to Live, 8 bits

• Can be used over Ethernet, 802.3, or PPP links • Uses two new Ethertypes/PPP PIDs • Contains everything needed at forwarding time
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

12

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

12:24

13

Label Distribution Protocol
• Defined in RFC 3036 and 3037 • Used to distribute labels in a MPLS network • Forwarding equivalence class
How packets are mapped to LSPs (Label Switched Paths)

• Advertise labels per FEC
Reach destination a.b.c.d with label x

• Neighbor discovery
Basic and extended discovery
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

14

TDP and LDP

• Tag Distribution Protocol
Pre-cursor to LDP Used for Cisco tag switching

• TDP and LDP supported on the same box
Per neighbor/link basis Per target basis

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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RSVP and Label Distribution
• Used in MPLS traffic engineering • Additions to RSVP signaling protocol • Leverage the admission control mechanism of RSVP • Label requests are sent in PATH messages and binding is done with RESV messages • EXPLICT-ROUTE object defines the path over which setup messages should be routed • Using RSVP has several advantages

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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BGP-Based Label Distribution

• Used in the context of MPLS VPNs • Need multi-protocol extensions to BGP • Routers need to be BGP peers
Works in both RR and non-RR environment

• Label mapping info carried as part of NLRI (Network Layer Reachability Information)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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17

MPLS Example: Routing Information
In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl

128.89 128.89 171.69 171.69 ... ...

1 1 1 1 ... ...

128.89 128.89 171.69 171.69 ... ...

0 0 1 1 ... ...

128.89 128.89 ... ...

0 0 ... ... 0 128.89

1 You can reach 128.89 and 171.69 through me

0 You can reach 128.89 through me 1 171.69

Routing Updates (OSPF, EIGRP, …)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

You can reach 171.69 through me
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MPLS Example: Assigning Labels
In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl

-

128.89 128.89 171.69 171.69 ... ...

1 1 1 1 ... ...

4 4 5 5

4 4 5 5

128.89 128.89 171.69 171.69 ... ...

0 0 1 1 ... ...

9 9 7 7

9 9

128.89 128.89 ... ...

0 0 ... ...

-

0 128.89 1 Use Lbl 4 for 128.89 and Use Lbl 5 for 171.69 0 Use Lbl 9 for 128.89 1 171.69 Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
(Downstream Allocation)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Use Lbl 7 for 171.69

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MPLS Example: Forwarding Packets
In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out I’face I’face Out Out TLbl TLbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl

-

128.89 128.89 171.69 171.69 ... ...

1 1 1 1 ... ...

4 4 5 5

4 4 5 5

128.89 128.89 171.69 171.69 ... ...

0 0 1 1 ... ...

9 9 7 7

9 9

128.89 128.89 ... ...

0 0 ... ... 0

-

128.89

1

0 128.89.25.4 Data 9 128.89.25.4Data 4 128.89.25.4 Data 1 171.69

128.89.25.4 Data

Label Switch Forwards Based on Label
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

20

Label Stacking
• Arrange labels in a stack • Inner labels can be used to designate services/FECs, etc.
E.g. VPNs, fast re-route

• Outer label used to route/switch the MPLS packets in the network • Allows building services such as
MPLS VPNs Traffic engineering and fast re-route VPNs over traffic engineered core Any transport over MPLS Inner Label IP Header Outer Label TE Label IGP Label VPN Label

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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21

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

12:24

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MPLS Features ...

That’s all nice but ... How can you make money with it?

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Metro Solutions –
Architectural flexibility, service transparency

Storage TDM PL GigE PL Wavelength Enterprise VoIP Internet Access L3 VPN L2 VPN
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Residential Data/Voice/Video

L2 VPN Internet Access

L3 VPN
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with enough fiber you could do anything?

In what room do you want me to put it?

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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25

MPLS IP-VPN
The L3 generation of core backbone
Regional Site
TDM MUX Frame-Relay ATM
Branch

Remote Sites

LL

INTERNET

INTERNET
Home

MPLS IP-VPN
Central Site PSTN ISDN ADSL/Cable

IPSec
Travel

Branch Home Travel

Services

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Branch

Home
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26

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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28

MPLS L2-VPN
The L3 generation of core backbone
Regional Sites Regional Site

Remote Sites Frame-Relay ATM

Ethernet

Remote Sites Frame-Relay ATM

MPLS IP-VPN L2 VPN
Ethernet

Ethernet

Central Site

Central Site
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ethernet

Frame-Relay ATM

Regional Site

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What Is a VPN?
• VPN is a set of sites which are allowed to communicate with each other • VPN is defined by a set of administrative policies
Policies determine both connectivity and QoS among sites Policies established by VPN customers Policies could be implemented completely by VPN service providers Using BGP/MPLS VPN mechanisms

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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30

MPLS-based IP-VPN Architecture
• Scalable VPNs • IP QoS and traffic engineering • Easy to manage and No VC provisioning required • Provides a level of Security equivalent to Frame-relay and ATM • Supports the deployment of new value-added applications • Customer IP address freedom
Corp B Site 3 VPN A Site 2 MPLS Network Corp A Site 1 MPLS VPN Renault MPLS VPN Bankcorp Corp B Site 1 Traffic Separation at Layer 3 Each VPN Has Unique RD Corp B Site 2 VPN MembershipBased on Logical Port VPN A Site 3

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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31

Using Labels to Build an IP VPN
Cust A
A
---------

A
---------

Cust A

B B
---------

Cust A

Cust B

---------

MPLS Network

Cust B

• The network distributes labels to each VPN
Only labels for other VPN members are distributed Each VPN is provisioned automatically by IP routing

• Privacy and QoS of ATM without tunnels or encryption
Each network is as secure as a Frame Relay connection

• One mechanism (labels) for QoS and VPNs—no tradeoffs
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

32

Service Provider Benefits of MPLS-Based VPNs
VPN B VPN A VPN C VPN C VPN B

Multicast Hosting
Intranet

VPN A VPN A VPN B VPN C VPN A VPN B VPN C

VoIP

Extranet

• Overlay VPN
Pushes content outside the network Costs scale exponentially Transport dependent Groups endpoints, not groups Complex overlay with QoS, tunnels, IP

• MPLS-based VPNs
Enables content hosting inside the network “Flat” cost curve Transport independent Easy grouping of users and services Enables QoS inside the VPNs

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MPLS Based IP-VPN Security

Cisco MPLS based VPNs: Equivalent to the Security of Frame Relay and ATM
Miercom, March 30, 2001
http://www.mier.com/reports/cisco/MPLS-VPNs.pdf
Security

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Validating Cisco MPLS Based IP-VPN as a Secure Network
Miercom independent testing confirmed Cisco MPLS VPN is secure:
Customers network topology is not revealed to the outside world Customers can maintain own addressing plans and the freedom to use either public or private address space Attackers cannot gain access into VPNs or Service Provider’s network Impossible for attacker to insert “spoofed” label into a Cisco MPLS network and thus gain access to a VPN or the MPLS core
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24
POS 2/0 100.200.110.1 POS 1/1 100.200.106.1

LONDON GSR12008 100.200.200.107
POS 1/0 100.200.103.1 OC3 POS

OC3 POS

POS 1/0 100.200.106.2 SER 5/0:0 100.200.104.1

GLASCOW 7206 100.200.200.106
ATM 1/0 100.200.105.1

POS 1/0 100.200.112.1 OC3 POS

OXFORD 7206 100.200.200.103
Ser 5/0:0 100.200.101.1

POS 2/0 100.200.103.2 Ser 3/0 100.200.102.1

Si

DOVER 7505 100.200.200.112
SER 1/0/1:0 100.200.110.1
Si

Si

T1 FR dlci 104 RIP v2 SER 1/0:0 100.200.104.2

pvc 1/1 OS PF ATM1/0 100.200.105.2

POS 2/1/0 100.200.112.2 T1 FR dlci 101 OSPF Ser 0 100.200.101.2 T1 FR dlci 102 eBGP AS72

ATM2/0/0 100.200.111.1

SER 1/0/0:0 100.200.109.1 T1 FR dlci 109 RIP v2 Ser 0 100.200.109.2 Ser 1/0 100.200.110.2

Ser 0/0 100.200.102.2

10.5.5.5

T1 FR dlci 110 Static

pvc 0/11 eBGP AS71 ATM1/0 100.200.111.2 10.4.4.4

3.4.4.4

BLUE-Glascow
3640 100.200.200.105

RED-Glascow
2611 100.200.200.104

BLUE-Oxford BLUE-Dover
2611 100.200.200.110 10.3.3.3 3.5.5.5 10.3.3.3 1750 100.200.200.101

10.4.4.4

RED-Dover
1750 100.200.200.109

YELLOW-Dover
3640 100.200.200.111

YELLOW-Oxford
3640 100.200.200.102

Test Network Topology
Security

36

Key Features (Cont.)
• Connectivity to the Internet:
VPN service providers may also provide connectivity to the Internet to its VPN customers Common infrastructure is used for both VPN and the Internet connectivity services

• Simplifies operations and management for VPN service providers:
No need for VPN service providers to set up and manage a separate backbone or “virtual backbone” for each VPN

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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BGP/MPLS VPN—Summary
• Supports large scale VPN service • Increases value add by the VPN service provider • Decreases service provider cost of providing VPN services • Mechanisms are general enough to enable VPN service provider to support a wide range of VPN customers
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

39

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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40

Ethernet Virtual Circuit – EoMPLS
Access (L2) Ethernet Core MPLS Access (L2) Ethernet

MPLS PE
Cisco 7600

MPLS PE
Cisco 7600

MPLS
10/100/Gigabit Ethernet 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet

Enterprise Campus A

Ethernet Circuit EoMPLS Tunnel in Core
Ethernet Mapped Circuit
To the Enterprise this network is a pair of Pt to Pt 10/100/Gbit Bridged Ethernet Links

Enterprise Campus B

A
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

B
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Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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42

VPLS ( Transparent LAN Services)

• Point to Multipoint Service • Multipoint to Multipoint Service • The network will simulate a L2 switch
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

43

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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44

L2 Transport: AToM
|<---------- ES:FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC ---------->|
|<-- FR -->| |<------ PW:Emulated VC ------>| Ethernet ATM/PPP/HDLC
PSN Tunnel: MPLS Tunnel Site1A CE 1A
Attachment VC / L2 circuit Attachment VC / L2 circuit

|<--FR -->| Ethernet ATM/PPP/HDLC

PE1

MPLS (LSP or RSVP-TE) RSVP-

PE2

Site1B CE 1B

MPLS Core

Site 2B Site 2A CE 2A
Attachment VC / L2 circuit

IP Network

Attachment VC / CE 2B L2 circuit

AToM Reference Model
ES PW PSN Emulated Services: FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC Pseudo-Wire: Emulated VC (EVC): MPLS LSP Packet Switched Network (Tunnel): MPLS LSP or RSVP-TE
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

Attachment VC (AVC): FR DLCI/Ethernet VLAN/ATM PVC/PPP/HDLC

45

Any Transport over MPLS AToM
FR Cust DLCI 101

IPoFR cust Edge-LSR LSR DLCI 202 Service Provider

Example: Frame Relay over MPLS
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

46

Transports over MPLS AToM
draft-martini-l2circuit-trans-mpls-05.txt draft-martini-l2circuit-encap-mpls-01.txt

• Ethernet • 802.1Q (Ethernet VLAN) • Frame Relay PDU • ATM AAL5 PDU • ATM cells (non AAL5 mode) • Cisco HDLC • PPP

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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47

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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48

Why Traffic Engineering?
• Congestion in the network due to changing traffic patterns
Election news, online trading, major sports events

• Better utilization of available bandwidth
Route on the non-shortest path

• Route around failed links/nodes
Fast rerouting around failures, transparently to users Like SONET APS (Automatic Protection Switching)

• Build new services—Virtual leased line services
VoIP toll-bypass applications, point-to-point bandwidth guarantees

• Capacity planning
TE improves aggregate availability of the network

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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49

IP Routing and the Fish
R3 R4 R8 R2 R5

R1

R6

R7

IP (Mostly) Uses Destination-Based Least-Cost Routing Flows from R8 and R1 Merge at R2 and Become Indistinguishable From R2, Traffic to R3, R4, R5 Use Upper Route Alternate Path Under-Utilized
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

50

Solution: Toll Bypass with Voice/Data Converged Network

PBX with Circuit Emulation Interface

PSTN – Traditional TDM Network

Class 5 legacy switches

CE Fast Reroute in the core

CE

Enterprise LAN PE

Toll Bypass

Enterprise LAN PE

GB Tunnel

Solution Requirements

QoS on CE Router

+

QoS on PE Router

+

Mapping Traffic to Tunnels

+

QoS on Core Routers

=

DiffServ-Aware Traffic Engineering
12:24

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

52

DiffServ Aware TE Virtual Leased Line
Traditional Central Telephony Office PSTN— Traditional TDM Network MPLS Network Voice Trunking VoIP Gateway PE PE CE Enterprise LAN VPN Service Regular TE Tunnel PE PE
GB-TE Tunnel Regular TE Tunnel Physical Link

Class 5 Legacy switches Central Office Traditional Telephony

Toll Bypass GB Tunnel PE PE

VoIP Gateway

CE Enterprise LAN

Internet Service

Enterprise LAN

Internet Access Router

Internet Access Router

Enterprise LAN
12:24

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

53

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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55

What Is Fast Reroute?
Definition

Fast ReRoute (FRR) is a link or node protection feature, allowing for temporary bypassing of the failed link or node over a preestablished tunnel, while the head-end is rerouting the failed LSP

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

56

What is Fast Re-route? (cont.)
Head-end Router

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

57

Link Resilience (Next-hop Backup Tunnel)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

58

Node Resilience (Next-next Hop Backup Tunnel)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

59

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Carrier Supporting Carrier & Inter-Provider Access
Carrier Supporting Carrier • Hierarchical relationship • Opportunity: Offer backbone services to peer or smaller carriers Inter-Provider Access • Peer relationship • Opportunity: Provide carrier services on behalf of other carriers

Backbone Carrier

Carrier A

Customer Carriers

Carrier B

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.)
VRF-to-VRF Connections Between AS Border Routers

ASBRs collect the client VPN routes through configured VRFs. Adjacent ASBR is seen as a CE through separate logical interface. Dedicated IPv4 routing session per VRF – usually eBGP.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

62

Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.)
VPN Routing Distribution Between MPLS VPN Backbones

•VPN routing information distributed across inter-AS network
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

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Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.)
Data Flow – Label Switching and IP Forwarding

Data flow: Label switching within AS and IP forwarding on InterAS link
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

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MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected Across Standard Carrier (Cont.)
Customer Carrier is Not Running MPLS (Cont.)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected Across Standard Carrier (Cont.)
Customer Carrier is Running MPLS (Cont.)

IBGP

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

66

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Multicast VPN (MVPN)
Receiver 4
Join high bandwidth source

CE
A
New York New York

CE
B1
San San Francisco Francisco

CE
B2

Receiver 1

• Customer CE devices joins the MPLS Core through provider’s PE devices
CE
E

A B

PE PE
E

PE Default MDT
For low Bandwidth & control traffic only. Los Los Angeles Angeles

MPLS VPN Core

• A Default MDT is created connecting all the PE’s within a VPN for signaling and low bandwidth flows
CE • A High-bandwidth source

F

Data MDT
D C
For High Bandwidth traffic only.

PE PE
Receiver 3

CE
D

Dallas Dallas

C

CE

for that customer starts sending traffic • Interested receivers 1 & 2 join that High Bandwidth source • Data-MDT is formed for this High-Bandwidth source

High bandwidth multicast source

Join high bandwidth source

Receiver 2
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© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

68

Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Backbone and Edge QoS Design
Scope

• • • •

Loss rate Latency Jitter Throughput

• Loss rate • Latency • Jitter

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Availability • Subsecond Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) convergence • Sub-100 ms Fast Reroute (FRR) • High availability12:24

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Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.)
QoS Transparency

• An MPLS packet carries two (or more) DiffServ markings. • Three modes of interaction are defined between markings: Uniform, Pipe, and Short Pipe. • Modes are only relevant when a label is popped/pushed.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

71

Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.)
QoS Transparency: Uniform Mode

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.)
QoS Transparency: Pipe Mode

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.)
QoS Transparency: Short Pipe Mode

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery
IP ATM Services Services

• IP+ATM: MPLS brings IP and ATM together
IP PNNI MPLS

Eliminates IP “over” ATM overhead and complexity One network for Internet, Business IP VPNs, and transport

IP+ATM Switch

• Network-based VPNs with MPLS: a foundation for value-added service delivery
Flexible user and service grouping (biz-to-biz) Flexibility of IP and the QoS and privacy of ATM Enables application and content hosting inside each VPN Transport independent Low provisioning costs enable affordable managed services
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24

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MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery

• MPLS traffic engineering
Provides routing on diverse paths to avoid congestion Better utilization of the network Better availability using protection solution (FRR)

• Guaranteed bandwidth services
Combine MPLS traffic engineering and QoS Deliver point-to-point bandwidth guaranteed pipes Leverage the capability of traffic engineering Build solution like virtual leased line and toll trunking

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery
IP Optical Services Services IP O-UNI MPLS

• IP+Optical: MPLS brings IP and Optical together
Eliminates IP “over” optical complexity Uses MPLS as a control plane for setting up lightpaths (wavelengths) One control plane for Internet (GMPLS), business IP VPNs, and Optical transport

IP+Optical Switch

Frame Relay

Frame Relay

• Any transport over MPLS
Transport ATM, FR, Ethernet, PPP over MPLS Provide services to existing installed base Protect Investment in the installed gear Leverage capabilities of the packet core Combine with other packet-based services such as MPLS VPNs

ATM

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Literature

MPLS and VPN Architectures
Ivan Pepelnjak Jim Guichard ISBN 1-58705-002-1

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MPLS Features ...

That’s all nice but ... How does this help me for my datacenter ?

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Customer Strategies
Mapping Customer Problems to Cisco Solutions Data Center Solution Set

Data Center Networking
Distributed Data Centers Data Center Data Security Application/Server Optimization Highly Availability Infrastructure

Strategies
• Server, Application and DC consolidation • Migration to Web Apps • Comprehensive Security • Services Model • Storage Consolidation • Business Continuance & Disaster Recovery

Storage Network Inter-Data Center Connectivity

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Data Center Networking
Internet
ISP A ISP B

Primary Data Center IP Network

Distributed Data Center Internet SP A SP B

Intranet Campus Core External protection Internal protection Primary Data Center Distributed Data Center

IP Network

Data Center Infrastructure

Server & Application Optimization

Server farm protection

Data Center Security

Storage Networking

Distributed Data Centers

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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