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Wolfgang Riedel

wriedel@cisco.com
MPLS overview Systems Engineer
ECSO Enterprise Manufacturing
Cisco Systems GmbH

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1


Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 2


Evolution of MPLS

• From tag switching


• Proposed in IETF—Later combined with other
proposals from IBM (ARIS), Toshiba (CSR)

Cisco Calls a MPLS Croup Cisco Ships Traffic Engineering


BOF at IETF to Formally Chartered MPLS TE Deployed
Standardize by IETF
Tag Switching
Cisco Ships MPLS VPN Large Scale
MPLS (Tag Deployed Deployment
Switching)

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001


Time

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 3


The Challenges

Service Providers Enterprise

Generate new services Lower cost of WAN


connectivity

Protect existing Migration path


Infrastructure—ATM/FR

Combine private data Lower cost of managing


services with Internet separate Data and Voice
services networks
Move into rapid deployment Campus Service Provider
“multiple customers”
Cost saving Replacement of campus
wide vlan´s

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 4


MPLS
advanced services

Carrier Multicast
L2
IPv6 supporting over
VPN
6PE Carrier VPN
ATOM BGP
Virtual Private Networks LDP
Any Transport over MPLS
IP DiffServ Multicast OSPF
IP Traffic Fast
CoS aware Routing IS-IS
switching Engineering Rerouting
(DiffServ) TE (PIM v2)
v2 PIM
LDP
Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB)
RSVP
Per-Label Forwarding, Queuing, Multicast, Restoration
CEF
Mechanisms

L2 protocols (PPP, POS, ATM, FR, Enet, GRE, ...)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 5


MPLS
Innovation & Standards

Carrier Multicast
L2
IPv6 supporting over
VPN 2547 BGP/MPLS VPNs *
6PE Carrier VPN
ATOM BGP
2702 Requirements for Virtual Private Networks LDP
Any Transport over MPLS
Traffic Engineering Over MPLS
IP DiffServ Multicast OSPF
IP Traffic Fast
CoS aware Routing IS-IS
switching Engineering Rerouting
(DiffServ) TE (PIM v2)
v2 PIM
LDP
Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB)
3031 Multiprotocol Label Switching
Architecture * RSVP
2474 Definition of the Differentiated Services 3032 MPLS Label Stack Encoding *
PerField
-Label Forwarding,
in IP Headers *
Queuing, Multicast, Restoration
3034 Label Switching on Frame
CEF
2475 An Architecture for Differentiated Mechanisms Relay Networks
Services 3035 MPLS using LDP and ATM VC
2597 Assured Forwarding PHB Group *
2598 AnL2Expedited
protocols Forwarding (PPP, PHBPOS,
* ATM, FR, Enet, GRE, ...)
Switching *
2697 A Single Rate Three Color Marker 3036 LDP Specification *
2698 ©A2001,
Two Rate Three Color Marker 3037 LDP Applicability *
Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 6
MPLS
Innovation-in-Progress

[Draft Rosen]
• An Architecture for L2VPNs *
draft-rosen-ppvpn-l2vpn-00.txt
Carrier Multicast
L2
IPv6 supporting over
VPN
6PE Carrier VPN
ATOM BGP
Virtual Private Networks LDP
Any Transport over MPLS
IP DiffServ Multicast OSPF
IP Traffic Fast
CoS aware Routing IS-IS
switching Engineering Rerouting
(DiffServ) TE (PIM v2)
v2 PIM
[Martini Drafts]
• Transport of Layer 2 Frames LDP
Label
Over MPLS * Forwarding Information Base (LFIB)
draft-martini-l2circuit-trans- RSVP
mpls-06.txt
Per-LabelMethods
• Encapsulation Forwarding,
for Queuing, Multicast, Restoration
CEF
Transport of Layer 2 Frames Mechanisms
Over MPLS * • MPLS Support of
draft-martini-l2circuit-encap- Differentiated Services *
L2 protocols (PPP, POS, ATM, FR, Enet, GRE,
mpls-02.txt
...)
draft-ietf-mpls-diff-ext-09.txt

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 7


Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 8


MPLS Concept

At Edge: In Core:
Classify packets Forward using labels
Label them (as opposed to IP addr)
Label indicates service
class and destination

Edge Label
Switch Router
Label Switch
Router (LSR)

Label Distribution
Protocol (LDP)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 9


MPLS Operation
1a. Existing routing protocols (e.g. OSPF, IS-IS) 4. Edge LSR at egress
establish reachability to destination networks removes label and
delivers packet
1b. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
establishes label to destination
network mappings

2. Ingress Edge LSR receives packet,


performs Layer 3 value-added 3. LSR switches packets using
services, and “labels” packets label swapping
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 10
Encapsulations

ATM Cell Header GFC VPI VCI PTI CLP HEC DATA

Label

PPP Header PPP Header Label Header Layer 3 Header


(Packet over SONET/SDH)

LAN MAC Label Header MAC Header Label Header Layer 3 Header

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 11


Label Header for Packet Media

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

Tag COS S TTL

Label = 20 bits COS/EXP = Class of Service, 3 bits


S = Bottom of Stack, 1 bit TTL = Time to Live, 8 bits

• Can be used over Ethernet, 802.3, or PPP


links
• Uses two new Ethertypes/PPP PIDs
• Contains everything needed at forwarding
time
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 12
Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 13


Label Distribution Protocol

• Defined in RFC 3036 and 3037


• Used to distribute labels in a MPLS network
• Forwarding equivalence class
How packets are mapped to LSPs (Label
Switched Paths)

• Advertise labels per FEC


Reach destination a.b.c.d with label x
• Neighbor discovery
Basic and extended discovery

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 14


TDP and LDP

• Tag Distribution Protocol


Pre-cursor to LDP
Used for Cisco tag switching
• TDP and LDP supported on the same box
Per neighbor/link basis
Per target basis

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 15


RSVP and Label Distribution

• Used in MPLS traffic engineering


• Additions to RSVP signaling protocol
• Leverage the admission control mechanism
of RSVP
• Label requests are sent in PATH messages and
binding is done with RESV messages
• EXPLICT-ROUTE object defines the path over which
setup messages should be routed
• Using RSVP has several advantages

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 16


BGP-Based Label Distribution

• Used in the context of MPLS VPNs


• Need multi-protocol extensions to BGP
• Routers need to be BGP peers
Works in both RR and non-RR environment
• Label mapping info carried as part of NLRI
(Network Layer Reachability Information)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 17


MPLS Example:
Routing Information

In
In Address
Address Out
Out Out
Out In
In Address
Address Out
Out Out
Out In
In Address
Address Out
Out Out
Out
Lbl
Lbl Prefix
Prefix I’face
I’face Lbl
Lbl Lbl
Lbl Prefix
Prefix I’face
I’face Lbl
Lbl Lbl
Lbl Prefix
Prefix I’face
I’face Lbl
Lbl

128.89
128.89 11 128.89
128.89 00 128.89
128.89 00
171.69
171.69 11 171.69
171.69 11
...
... ...
... ...
... ...
... ...
... ...
...

0 128.89

1 0
You can reach 128.89
You can reach 128.89 and through me
171.69 through me 1
171.69

Routing Updates You can reach 171.69


(OSPF, EIGRP, …) through me

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 18


MPLS Example:
Assigning Labels

In
In Address
Address Out
Out Out
Out In
In Address
Address Out
Out Out
Out In
In Address
Address Out
Out Out
Out
Lbl
Lbl Prefix
Prefix I’face
I’face Lbl
Lbl Lbl
Lbl Prefix
Prefix I’face
I’face Lbl
Lbl Lbl
Lbl Prefix
Prefix I’face
I’face Lbl
Lbl

-- 128.89
128.89 11 44 44 128.89
128.89 00 99 99 128.89
128.89 00 --
-- 171.69
171.69 11 55 55 171.69
171.69 11 77
...
... ...
... ...
... ...
... ...
... ...
...

0 128.89
1 0

Use Lbl 9 for 128.89


Use Lbl 4 for 128.89 and
Use Lbl 5 for 171.69 1
171.69

Label Distribution Use Lbl 7 for 171.69


Protocol (LDP)
(Downstream Allocation)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 19


MPLS Example:
Forwarding Packets

In
In Address
Address Out
Out Out
Out In
In Address
Address Out
Out Out
Out In
In Address
Address Out
Out Out
Out
Lbl
Lbl Prefix
Prefix I’face
I’face TLbl
TLbl Lbl
Lbl Prefix
Prefix I’face
I’face Lbl
Lbl Lbl
Lbl Prefix
Prefix I’face
I’face Lbl
Lbl

-- 128.89
128.89 11 44 44 128.89
128.89 00 99 99 128.89
128.89 00 --
-- 171.69
171.69 11 55 55 171.69
171.69 11 77
...
... ...
... ...
... ...
... ...
... ...
...

128.89
0
1 0
128.89.25.4 Data
9 128.89.25.4Data
128.89.25.4 Data 4 128.89.25.4 Data 1

171.69
Label Switch Forwards
Based on Label
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 20
Label Stacking

• Arrange labels in a stack


• Inner labels can be used to designate services/FECs, etc.
E.g. VPNs, fast re-route

• Outer label used to route/switch the MPLS packets in


the network
Outer Label
• Allows building services such as
MPLS VPNs TE Label

Traffic engineering and fast re-route IGP Label


VPNs over traffic engineered core VPN Label
Any transport over MPLS
Inner Label IP Header

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 21


Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 22


MPLS Features ...

That’s all nice but ...


How can you make money
with it?

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 23


Metro Solutions –
Architectural flexibility, service transparency

Storage

TDM PL
Residential
Data/Voice/Video
GigE PL

Wavelength

Enterprise VoIP

Internet Access
L3 VPN
L2 VPN
L2 VPN L3 VPN
Internet Access
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 24
with enough fiber you could do anything?

In what room
do you want
me to put it?

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 25


MPLS IP-VPN
The L3 generation of core backbone
Regional Site

TDM
Remote Sites MUX LL INTERNET

Frame-Relay
ATM
MPLS
Branch
INTERNET IP-VPN
Home
IPSec Central
Travel Site
PSTN
Branch ISDN
Services
Home
ADSL/Cable

Travel
Home
Branch
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 26
Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 28


MPLS L2-VPN
The L3 generation of core backbone
Regional Sites Regional Site

Remote Sites Ethernet

Frame-Relay
ATM
MPLS
IP-VPN Ethernet

Remote Sites
L2 VPN Central
Site
Frame-Relay
ATM
Ethernet Frame-Relay
ATM
Ethernet
Central
Site Regional
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Site 12:24 29
What Is a VPN?

• VPN is a set of sites which are allowed to


communicate with each other
• VPN is defined by a set of administrative policies
Policies determine both connectivity and QoS
among sites
Policies established by VPN customers
Policies could be implemented completely by VPN
service providers
Using BGP/MPLS VPN mechanisms

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 30


MPLS-based IP-VPN Architecture

• Scalable VPNs
VPN Membership-
• IP QoS and traffic Based on Logical Port
engineering
VPN A
• Easy to manage and No VPN A Site 3
VC provisioning required Site 2
MPLS
• Provides a level of Network
Security equivalent to Corp A Corp B
MPLS VPN Renault
Frame-relay and ATM Site 1 Site 2
MPLS VPN Bankcorp
• Supports the deployment
of new value-added
applications Corp B
Site 1
• Customer IP address Corp B
Site 3 Traffic Separation at Layer 3
freedom
Each VPN Has Unique RD

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 31


Using Labels to Build an IP VPN

Cust A
A A
Cust A ----
---
----
----
---
----

B
----
--- Cust A
B ----

Cust B
----
---
----
MPLS
Network
Cust B

• The network distributes labels to each VPN


Only labels for other VPN members are distributed
Each VPN is provisioned automatically by IP routing
• Privacy and QoS of ATM without tunnels or encryption
Each network is as secure as a Frame Relay connection
• One mechanism (labels) for QoS and VPNs—no tradeoffs
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 32
Service Provider Benefits
of MPLS-Based VPNs
VPN B VPN A VPN C

VPN C VPN B
Multicast
Hosting
Intranet
VPN A
VoIP Extranet
VPN A

VPN B
VPN C VPN C
VPN A VPN B
• Overlay VPN • MPLS-based VPNs
Pushes content outside the network Enables content hosting inside the
Costs scale exponentially network
Transport dependent “Flat” cost curve
Groups endpoints, not groups Transport independent
Complex overlay with QoS, tunnels, IP Easy grouping of users and services
Enables QoS inside the VPNs

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 33


MPLS Based IP-VPN Security

Cisco MPLS based VPNs:


Equivalent to the Security
of Frame Relay and ATM

Security
Miercom, March 30, 2001
http://www.mier.com/reports/cisco/MPLS-VPNs.pdf

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 35


Validating Cisco MPLS Based IP-VPN
as a Secure Network
Miercom independent testing POS 2/0
LONDON
GSR12008

confirmed Cisco MPLS VPN is OC3 POS


100.200.110.1

POS 1/1
100.200.106.1
100.200.200.107

POS 1/0
100.200.103.1 OC3 POS

secure: POS 1/0


100.200.106.2
GLASCOW
7206
100.200.200.106
POS 1/0
100.200.112.1
OXFORD
7206
100.200.200.103 POS 2/0

9 Customers network topology is not


100.200.103.2
OC3 POS
SER 5/0:0 ATM 1/0 Ser 5/0:0 Ser 3/0
100.200.104.1 100.200.105.1 DOVER 100.200.101.1 100.200.102.1
Si
7505 Si
100.200.200.112
POS 2/1/0

revealed to the outside world T1 FR


dlci 104
pvc 1/1
OS PF

ATM1/0
SER 1/0/1:0
100.200.110.1
100.200.112.2

T1 FR
dlci 101
T1 FR
dlci 102
eBGP AS72
RIP v2 100.200.105.2
Si ATM2/0/0 OSPF

9 Customers can maintain own


SER 1/0:0 100.200.111.1
100.200.104.2 SER 1/0/0:0 Ser 0/0
100.200.109.1 Ser 0
100.200.102.2
100.200.101.2
T1 FR
dlci 109
T1 FR
RIP v2 pvc 0/11
10.5.5.5 dlci 110

addressing plans and the freedom 3.4.4.4 BLUE-Glascow


3640
Static
Ser 0
100.200.109.2
eBGP AS71

ATM1/0
100.200.111.2
10.4.4.4
Ser 1/0

to use either public or private


100.200.200.105
RED-Glascow 100.200.110.2
2611 BLUE-Oxford 10.4.4.4
100.200.200.104 1750
BLUE-Dover 3.5.5.5 100.200.200.101
10.3.3.3
2611

address space 100.200.200.110


10.3.3.3
RED-Dover
1750
100.200.200.109
YELLOW-Dover
3640
100.200.200.111
YELLOW-Oxford
3640
100.200.200.102

9 Attackers cannot gain access into Test Network Topology


VPNs or Service Provider’s network Security

9 Impossible for attacker to insert


“spoofed” label into a Cisco MPLS
network and thus gain access to a
VPN or the MPLS core
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 36
Key Features (Cont.)

• Connectivity to the Internet:


VPN service providers may also provide connectivity
to the Internet to its VPN customers
Common infrastructure is used for both VPN and the
Internet connectivity services

• Simplifies operations and management for VPN


service providers:
No need for VPN service providers to set up and
manage a separate backbone or “virtual backbone”
for each VPN

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 38


BGP/MPLS VPN—Summary

• Supports large scale VPN service


• Increases value add by the VPN service
provider
• Decreases service provider cost of
providing VPN services
• Mechanisms are general enough to enable
VPN service provider to support a wide
range of VPN customers

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 39


Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 40


Ethernet Virtual Circuit – EoMPLS
Access (L2) Core Access (L2)
Ethernet MPLS Ethernet

MPLS PE MPLS PE
Cisco 7600 Cisco 7600
MPLS
10/100/Gigabit 10/100/Gigabit
Ethernet Ethernet

Ethernet Circuit
Enterprise EoMPLS Tunnel in Core Enterprise
Campus Campus
A Ethernet Mapped Circuit B

To the Enterprise this network is


a pair of Pt to Pt 10/100/Gbit Bridged Ethernet Links

A B
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 41
Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 42


VPLS ( Transparent LAN Services)

• Point to Multipoint Service


• Multipoint to Multipoint Service
• The network will simulate a L2 switch
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 43
Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 44


L2 Transport: AToM
|<---------- ES:FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC ---------->|
|<-- FR -->| |<------ PW:Emulated VC ------>| |<--FR -->|
Ethernet Ethernet
ATM/PPP/HDLC ATM/PPP/HDLC
PSN Tunnel: MPLS Tunnel
Attachment VC /
Site1A L2 circuit Attachment VC /
MPLS (LSP or RSVP-
RSVP-TE) L2 circuit
PE1 PE2 Site1B
CE 1A
MPLS CE 1B
Core

Site 2B
Site 2A Attachment VC /
Attachment VC / IP Network L2 circuit
CE 2B
CE 2A L2 circuit

AToM Reference Model


ES Æ Emulated Services: FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC
Attachment VC (AVC): FR DLCI/Ethernet VLAN/ATM PVC/PPP/HDLC
PW Æ Pseudo-Wire: Emulated VC (EVC): MPLS LSP
PSN Æ Packet Switched Network (Tunnel): MPLS LSP or RSVP-TE
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 45
Any Transport over MPLS
AToM
FR Cust DLCI
101

IPoFR cust
Edge-LSR
LSR

DLCI
202

Service Provider

Example: Frame Relay over MPLS

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 46


Transports over MPLS
AToM

draft-martini-l2circuit-trans-mpls-05.txt
draft-martini-l2circuit-encap-mpls-01.txt

• Ethernet
• 802.1Q (Ethernet VLAN)
• Frame Relay PDU
• ATM AAL5 PDU
• ATM cells (non AAL5 mode)
• Cisco HDLC
• PPP

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 47


Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 48


Why Traffic Engineering?

• Congestion in the network due to changing traffic patterns


Election news, online trading, major sports events
• Better utilization of available bandwidth
Route on the non-shortest path
• Route around failed links/nodes
Fast rerouting around failures, transparently to users
Like SONET APS (Automatic Protection Switching)
• Build new services—Virtual leased line services
VoIP toll-bypass applications, point-to-point bandwidth guarantees
• Capacity planning
TE improves aggregate availability of the network

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 49


IP Routing and the Fish

R3
R4
R8 R5
R2

R1

R6 R7

IP (Mostly) Uses Destination-Based Least-Cost Routing


Flows from R8 and R1 Merge at R2 and Become Indistinguishable
From R2, Traffic to R3, R4, R5 Use Upper Route

Alternate Path Under-Utilized

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 50


Solution: Toll Bypass with Voice/Data
Converged Network

Class 5
PBX with PSTN –
legacy
Circuit Traditional TDM
switches
Emulation Network
Interface

CE CE
Fast Reroute
in the core

Enterprise Toll Bypass Enterprise


LAN LAN
PE GB Tunnel PE


Mapping QoS on
Solution QoS on CE QoS on PE DiffServ-Aware
Requirements Router
+ Router + Traffic to
Tunnels + Core
Routers = Traffic Engineering

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 52


DiffServ Aware TE Virtual Leased Line
Class 5
Legacy
PSTN— switches
Traditional TDM
Traditional Central Network Central Traditional
Telephony Office Office Telephony

MPLS
Network
VoIP Toll Bypass VoIP
Voice Trunking Gateway Gateway
PE GB
Tunnel PE
PE PE
CE Regular TE CE
Enterprise Tunnel Enterprise
LAN LAN
PE PE
GB-TE Tunnel
VPN Service
Regular TE Tunnel
Physical Link

Internet Service Enterprise Internet Internet Enterprise


LAN Access Router Access Router LAN

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 53


Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 55


What Is Fast Reroute?
Definition

Fast ReRoute (FRR) is a link or node


protection feature, allowing for
temporary bypassing of the failed link or
node over a preestablished tunnel, while
the head-end is rerouting the failed LSP

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 56


What is Fast Re-route? (cont.)
Head-end Router

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 57


Link Resilience (Next-hop Backup
Tunnel)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 58


Node Resilience (Next-next Hop
Backup Tunnel)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 59


Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 60


Carrier Supporting Carrier
& Inter-Provider Access

Carrier Supporting Carrier Inter-Provider Access


• Hierarchical relationship • Peer relationship
• Opportunity: Offer • Opportunity: Provide
backbone services to peer carrier services on behalf
or smaller carriers of other carriers

Backbone Carrier A
Carrier

Customer
Carriers Carrier B

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 61


Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF
Design (Cont.)
VRF-to-VRF Connections Between AS Border Routers

ASBRs collect the client VPN routes through configured VRFs.


Adjacent ASBR is seen as a CE through separate logical interface.
Dedicated IPv4 routing session per VRF – usually eBGP.

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 62


Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF
Design (Cont.)
VPN Routing Distribution Between MPLS VPN Backbones

•VPN routing information distributed across inter-AS network


© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 63
Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF
Design (Cont.)
Data Flow – Label Switching and IP Forwarding

Data flow: Label switching within AS and IP forwarding on Inter-


AS link

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 64


MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected
Across Standard Carrier (Cont.)
Customer Carrier is Not Running MPLS (Cont.)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 65


MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected
Across Standard Carrier (Cont.)
Customer Carrier is Running MPLS (Cont.)

IBGP

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 66


Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 67


Multicast VPN (MVPN)
Receiver 4 Join high • Customer CE devices joins
bandwidth source CE the MPLS Core through
A
CE Receiver 1 provider’s PE devices
CE B2
New
New York
York CE
B1
A PE E • A Default MDT is created
San
San
Francisco PE connecting all the PE’s
Francisco
MPLS VPN within a VPN for signaling
PE B E
Core
and low bandwidth flows
Default CE • A High-bandwidth source
MDT F for that customer starts
For low
Bandwidth & sending traffic
control Data
traffic only. MDT • Interested receivers 1 & 2
PE For High join that High Bandwidth
Los
Los
Angeles
Angeles D
Bandwidth
traffic only.
source
CE C
Dallas
• Data-MDT is formed for
PE Dallas
this High-Bandwidth
D
CE source
C
Receiver 3

High bandwidth Join high


bandwidth source Receiver 2
multicast source
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 68
Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 69


Backbone and Edge QoS Design
Scope

• Loss rate • Loss rate Availability


• Latency • Latency • Subsecond Interior Gateway
• Jitter • Jitter Protocol (IGP) convergence
• Throughput • Sub-100 ms Fast Reroute (FRR)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
• High availability12:24 70
Backbone and Edge QoS Design
(Cont.)
QoS Transparency

• An MPLS packet carries two (or more)


DiffServ markings.
• Three modes of interaction are defined
between markings: Uniform, Pipe, and Short
Pipe.
• Modes are only relevant when a label is
popped/pushed.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 71
Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.)
QoS Transparency: Uniform Mode

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 72


Backbone and Edge QoS Design
(Cont.)
QoS Transparency: Pipe Mode

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 75


Backbone and Edge QoS Design
(Cont.)
QoS Transparency: Short Pipe Mode

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 78


Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 81


MPLS: The Key Technology for IP
Service Delivery

ATM IP
Services Services

• IP+ATM: MPLS brings IP and ATM together


IP
Eliminates IP “over” ATM overhead and complexity
PNNI MPLS One network for Internet, Business IP VPNs, and transport

IP+ATM Switch

• Network-based VPNs with MPLS:


a foundation for value-added service delivery
Flexible user and service grouping (biz-to-biz)
Flexibility of IP and the QoS and privacy of ATM
Enables application and content hosting inside each VPN
Transport independent
Low provisioning costs enable affordable managed services

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 82


MPLS: The Key Technology for IP
Service Delivery

• MPLS traffic engineering


Provides routing on diverse paths to avoid congestion
Better utilization of the network
Better availability using protection solution (FRR)

• Guaranteed bandwidth services


Combine MPLS traffic engineering and QoS
Deliver point-to-point bandwidth guaranteed pipes
Leverage the capability of traffic engineering
Build solution like virtual leased line and toll trunking

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 83


MPLS: The Key Technology for IP
Service Delivery

Optical IP
Services Services • IP+Optical: MPLS brings IP and Optical together
Eliminates IP “over” optical complexity
IP Uses MPLS as a control plane for setting up lightpaths
(wavelengths)
O-UNI MPLS
One control plane for Internet (GMPLS), business IP VPNs,
IP+Optical Switch
and Optical transport

Frame • Any transport over MPLS


Frame
Relay
Relay
Transport ATM, FR, Ethernet, PPP over MPLS
Provide services to existing installed base
Protect Investment in the installed gear
Leverage capabilities of the packet core
ATM Combine with other packet-based services such as
MPLS VPNs

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 84


Literature

MPLS and VPN Architectures


Ivan Pepelnjak
Jim Guichard
ISBN 1-58705-002-1

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 85


© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 86
MPLS Features ...

That’s all nice but ...


How does this help me for
my datacenter ?

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 87


Customer Strategies
Mapping Customer Problems to Cisco Solutions

Data Center
Data Center Networking
Solution Set Distributed Data Centers
Strategies
Data Center
Data
• Server, Application and DC Security
consolidation
Application/Server
• Migration to Web Apps Optimization
• Comprehensive Security
Highly
• Services Model Availability
Infrastructure
• Storage Consolidation
• Business Continuance &
Storage
Disaster Recovery Network
Inter-Data Center
Connectivity

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 88


Data Center Networking
Internet
ISP A ISP B

Primary Data Distributed Data


Center Center
Internet
SP A SP B
IP Network

Intranet
Campus Core

External
protection
IP Network
Internal Primary Distributed
protection Data Center Data Center

Server farm
Data Center protection Distributed
Server & Storage
Infrastructure Data Center Data Centers
Application Networking
Optimization Security

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 89


© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 101
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 187