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HVAC 101

Will Rea, HTS Engineering


June 30th, 2011

HTS Engineering
Started in 1991 in Toronto

HVAC Manufacturer Rep


Provide a full suite of products and support
$250 Million+ in 2010

300+ Employees, many P. Eng


15 Offices in North America

Will, Paul, Mark, Mohammad


Will Rea

Started at HTS in 2006, graduate Waterloo Engineering


Work with Paul Pilutti, core role handling Smith & Andersen
Paul Pilutti

Co-founder of HTS, 30 years in HVAC


Director of Canadian Operations
Mark Driscoll

Business Development Manager


Comes from 25 years in Architecture and project development
Mohammad Totah

Focuses on selling to mechanical contractors


Been at HTS for 10 years

Contents
Fundamentals
Why use HVAC?
Technology/Theory
Airside
Humidification
Refrigeration
Hydronics
Putting it into Practice
Controls
Epsilon
HTS

Fundamentals

Motivation
Why install HVAC?
Odour free, healthy air
Cool computer and mechanical equipment
Protect architectural components

People like to feel Comfortable, Healthy, and Efficient

How to make HVAC work for the owner?


Prefab equipment
Energy efficient technology
Integrated function and form products

Low lifecycle cost

Terminology
Airside CFM Air movement rate

Refrigeration Tons Cooling capacity


Heating BTU Heating Capacity
Humidification Lbs/hr

Pumps GPM Flow, Ft Resistance to flow


Motors BHP brake horse power - $$$

Codes and Laws


Laws calls for minimum efficiencies and comfort levels

ASHRAE 90.1 Efficiency


ASHRAE 62.1 Fresh Air
CSA B52 Refrigeration

CSA Z317.2 HVAC in Hospitals


These provide a baseline, LEED, AFPs improve on this

HVAC System

Airside

Air Movement
All indoor spaces require fresh air

Used to provide heating/cooling/humidity to space


Typically largest by volume/cost component of HVAC
Big BHP item, under scrutiny to reduce costs

Limited by how fast air moves by cooling coil

Air Movement Equipment


Fan Coil/Heat Pump - Localized
Smaller 100-3000 CFM equipment
Provides localized cooling/heating
Simple, catalogued items

Air Handling Units - Centralized

3000-100000 CFM+ units


Custom designed to fit space and loads
By far largest component by volume of HVAC

Air Handler Components


Coils
Heat exchanger between air and water/refrigerant
Filters
Remove dust, dirt contaminants from air

Big maintenance item


Washable filters reduce costs
Fans

Air movement devices


Along with chillers largest BHP draw in building
Humidifiers/Heat Recovery

Next slides

Variable Refrigerant Volume


Primary system used outside of North America

Use refrigerant as energy movement medium


Multiple fan coils and compressors on same system
Offers excellent turndown and part load performance

Lab Exhaust Fans


Labs generate contaminated air

Need to be exhausted and diluted into atmosphere


Traditional fans run at 100% all day
Power Plume fans allow turn down during part load

Humidification

Humidification
A proper RH level adds to human comfort

Correct humidity level for safety and health


Protect hardwood floors, art, or archive documents
Lab and process facilities

Steam Distribution
Hot steam injected directly into air

Steam made at central boiler,


or localized generators
Steam must be clean

Tank cleaning is a big maintenance item

Heat Recovery

Heat Recovery - Basics


Expensive to heat/cool/humidify the outdoor air

Can recover 80%+ of the exhaust air energy


Can design smaller chiller/humidifier plants
Tradeoffs of effectiveness vs. flexibility vs. maintenance

Heat Wheel
Most common method

Rotating wheel moves energy from duct to duct


Effectiveness - 60-80%
Maintenance - Wheel cleaning and belts

Advantages
Efficient
Can add moisture to incoming air

Disadvantage
Requires power
Maintenance item

Air streams can mix

Heat Pipe
Refrigerant loop between two coils

Effectiveness 40-60%
No power consumption
Similar maintanance to cooling coil

Advantages
Can completely separate airstreams

Disadvantage
Refrigerant based
No moisture recovery

Heat Plate
Series of plates, air moves counter

Effectiveness 40-60%
No power consumption
No moving parts

Advantages
Can completely separate airstreams
No moving parts or refrigerant

Disadvantage
Largest by volume
No moisture recovery

Runaround Coils
Cooling coils with water connection

Effectiveness 30-45%
Unlimited flexibility

Advantages
Huge flexibility in design
Large separation between exhaust and supply

Disadvantage
Require piping between coils
Need pump to move fluid
No moisture recovery

Compressor
Use cold energy in hot space

Standard refrigeration compressors and equipment


Heat pump building, or heat recovery chillers

Advantages
Can go across temperature gradient
Great for concurrent heating/cooling

Disadvantage
Compressors take up power
Bigger maintenance item

Refrigeration/Boilers

Chillers
Chiller Basics
Make cold water by removing heat
Reject heat to water loop, or ambient air
Scroll, Screw and Centrifugal compressors

Constant/Variable Speed
Ball, Oil, or Magnetic Bearing
Efficiency rated on IPLV average use

Typically largest BHP draw in building

Air Cooled
Advantages
Packaged product
No cooling tower or condenser loop
Can have integral pumps and airside economizer

Do not take up indoor floor space


Disadvantages
Inefficient compared to water cooled (IPLV 0.85 kW/Ton)

Must be outside, can cause noise/architectural concerns


Not custom designed
Limited to about 500 tons, biggest that fits on a truck

Glycol may be required

Water Cooled
Advantages
Very efficient (IPLVs <.35 kW/Ton) (chiller only)
Located inside a building
Wider size range (30-8000Tons)

Centrifugals are semi-custom designed for each application


Can be used to make hot water
Disadvantages

Require separate condenser water loop and cooling towers


Require additional set of pumps
Take up floor space indoors

Compressors - Magnetic Bearing


200 in Ontario

Shaft rests on magnets


IPLV of <.40kW/ton is common, <.35 kW/ton
possible

Very quiet, pump next to it was louder


No oil management system
No oil coating of heat transfer surface

Reduced maintenance, improved efficiency


Low lifecycle cost equipment

Boilers
Make hot water by adding heat

Gas or electric fired


Gas efficiency 80-98%
Forced air, condensing boilers

Efficiency - Water Temp


80% Efficient 180F Water
98% Efficient 120F Water

Hydronics

Pumps
Used to move fluid and generate pressure

Big BHP item, not as much as airside or chillers


Shaft seals wear out, need to be changed split coupled
Vertical inline nice for <25HP,

Base mount up blast reduces floor space, easy to install

Floor Space Install Inline vs. Base Mount


Advantages
Reduces equipment square footage
Up blast allows correct straight pipe into suction
Motor mounted on frame

Great for larger pumps

Heat Exchangers
Used to move thermal energy from fluid to fluid

Used to break glycol/non-glycol systems


Typically designed for equal flow on both sides

Heat Rejection
Dry Towers
Coils mounted with fans
No interaction between water and air
Lowest leaving water 105F

<100 Tons

Wet Towers (Cooling Towers)


Use evaporation to produce cooling
Lowest leaving water 85F
Water mixes with air
Big maintenance item
All large project have wet towers

Solids Separator
Open Cooling tower are excellent at

filtering contaminants out of air into water


Make up water adds contaminents
Solves a big (also hazardous) maintenance item

Separators remove the solid from flow


Do not experience filter build up

Architectual Products

Heating Products
Used to provide localized heating for windows, doors, stairwells

Designed for active or passive air movement


Come in many enclosure styles
Custom enclosures used (wood, marble, granite, etc.)

Radiant Panels
Heated materials emit radiant rays

Space is cooler, occupants feel radiance to get comfort


Can do heating or cooling for space
Similar effect to campfire or sunny day

Radiant Walls
Combines form and function

Radiant panels built into architectural walls, cubicles, patient rooms


Removes need for two products
Bring flexibility to job

Fabric Sox
Fabric air distribution

Very light helps with structural


Excellent for raised floor air distribution
Can go in the washing machine

Putting it into practice

HVAC System

Seismic/Isolation
Isolation used to separate moving parts from fixed structure

Seismic prevents equipment failure by restraint


Mission critical or post-disaster buildings need seismic in GTA
Ottawa needs it for almost all buildings

HTS has full seismic/isolation department

Controls
Automation system controls chiller staging, fan/pump speed

Uses energy efficient technology to full potential


HTS has full in house controls group
Wireless products, open architecture systems

HTS can pre-test controls in house

Prefabricated Mechanical Rooms


Prefab mechanical room factory built and tested

Move risk offsite


Improve construction schedule
Reduce overall budget

Great for remote projects

HTS
HTS is the largest independent HVAC manufacture rep in North
America
Deep employee knowledge
We carry 50+ product lines in Ontario right tool for the job
Always looking for new lines (15-20 under consideration)
Full aftermarket parts and service business
Provide total lifecycle solutions for your projects

The End
Questions?