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HVAC 101

Will Rea, HTS Engineering

June 30th, 2011

HTS Engineering
Started in 1991 in Toronto

HVAC Manufacturer Rep

Provide a full suite of products and support
$250 Million+ in 2010

300+ Employees, many P. Eng

15 Offices in North America

Will, Paul, Mark, Mohammad

Will Rea

Started at HTS in 2006, graduate Waterloo Engineering

Work with Paul Pilutti, core role handling Smith & Andersen
Paul Pilutti

Co-founder of HTS, 30 years in HVAC

Director of Canadian Operations
Mark Driscoll

Business Development Manager

Comes from 25 years in Architecture and project development
Mohammad Totah

Focuses on selling to mechanical contractors

Been at HTS for 10 years

Why use HVAC?
Putting it into Practice


Why install HVAC?
Odour free, healthy air
Cool computer and mechanical equipment
Protect architectural components

People like to feel Comfortable, Healthy, and Efficient

How to make HVAC work for the owner?

Prefab equipment
Energy efficient technology
Integrated function and form products

Low lifecycle cost

Airside CFM Air movement rate

Refrigeration Tons Cooling capacity

Heating BTU Heating Capacity
Humidification Lbs/hr

Pumps GPM Flow, Ft Resistance to flow

Motors BHP brake horse power - $$$

Codes and Laws

Laws calls for minimum efficiencies and comfort levels

ASHRAE 90.1 Efficiency

ASHRAE 62.1 Fresh Air
CSA B52 Refrigeration

CSA Z317.2 HVAC in Hospitals

These provide a baseline, LEED, AFPs improve on this

HVAC System


Air Movement
All indoor spaces require fresh air

Used to provide heating/cooling/humidity to space

Typically largest by volume/cost component of HVAC
Big BHP item, under scrutiny to reduce costs

Limited by how fast air moves by cooling coil

Air Movement Equipment

Fan Coil/Heat Pump - Localized
Smaller 100-3000 CFM equipment
Provides localized cooling/heating
Simple, catalogued items

Air Handling Units - Centralized

3000-100000 CFM+ units

Custom designed to fit space and loads
By far largest component by volume of HVAC

Air Handler Components

Heat exchanger between air and water/refrigerant
Remove dust, dirt contaminants from air

Big maintenance item

Washable filters reduce costs

Air movement devices

Along with chillers largest BHP draw in building
Humidifiers/Heat Recovery

Next slides

Variable Refrigerant Volume

Primary system used outside of North America

Use refrigerant as energy movement medium

Multiple fan coils and compressors on same system
Offers excellent turndown and part load performance

Lab Exhaust Fans

Labs generate contaminated air

Need to be exhausted and diluted into atmosphere

Traditional fans run at 100% all day
Power Plume fans allow turn down during part load


A proper RH level adds to human comfort

Correct humidity level for safety and health

Protect hardwood floors, art, or archive documents
Lab and process facilities

Steam Distribution
Hot steam injected directly into air

Steam made at central boiler,

or localized generators
Steam must be clean

Tank cleaning is a big maintenance item

Heat Recovery

Heat Recovery - Basics

Expensive to heat/cool/humidify the outdoor air

Can recover 80%+ of the exhaust air energy

Can design smaller chiller/humidifier plants
Tradeoffs of effectiveness vs. flexibility vs. maintenance

Heat Wheel
Most common method

Rotating wheel moves energy from duct to duct

Effectiveness - 60-80%
Maintenance - Wheel cleaning and belts

Can add moisture to incoming air

Requires power
Maintenance item

Air streams can mix

Heat Pipe
Refrigerant loop between two coils

Effectiveness 40-60%
No power consumption
Similar maintanance to cooling coil

Can completely separate airstreams

Refrigerant based
No moisture recovery

Heat Plate
Series of plates, air moves counter

Effectiveness 40-60%
No power consumption
No moving parts

Can completely separate airstreams
No moving parts or refrigerant

Largest by volume
No moisture recovery

Runaround Coils
Cooling coils with water connection

Effectiveness 30-45%
Unlimited flexibility

Huge flexibility in design
Large separation between exhaust and supply

Require piping between coils
Need pump to move fluid
No moisture recovery

Use cold energy in hot space

Standard refrigeration compressors and equipment

Heat pump building, or heat recovery chillers

Can go across temperature gradient
Great for concurrent heating/cooling

Compressors take up power
Bigger maintenance item


Chiller Basics
Make cold water by removing heat
Reject heat to water loop, or ambient air
Scroll, Screw and Centrifugal compressors

Constant/Variable Speed
Ball, Oil, or Magnetic Bearing
Efficiency rated on IPLV average use

Typically largest BHP draw in building

Air Cooled
Packaged product
No cooling tower or condenser loop
Can have integral pumps and airside economizer

Do not take up indoor floor space

Inefficient compared to water cooled (IPLV 0.85 kW/Ton)

Must be outside, can cause noise/architectural concerns

Not custom designed
Limited to about 500 tons, biggest that fits on a truck

Glycol may be required

Water Cooled
Very efficient (IPLVs <.35 kW/Ton) (chiller only)
Located inside a building
Wider size range (30-8000Tons)

Centrifugals are semi-custom designed for each application

Can be used to make hot water

Require separate condenser water loop and cooling towers

Require additional set of pumps
Take up floor space indoors

Compressors - Magnetic Bearing

200 in Ontario

Shaft rests on magnets

IPLV of <.40kW/ton is common, <.35 kW/ton

Very quiet, pump next to it was louder

No oil management system
No oil coating of heat transfer surface

Reduced maintenance, improved efficiency

Low lifecycle cost equipment

Make hot water by adding heat

Gas or electric fired

Gas efficiency 80-98%
Forced air, condensing boilers

Efficiency - Water Temp

80% Efficient 180F Water
98% Efficient 120F Water


Used to move fluid and generate pressure

Big BHP item, not as much as airside or chillers

Shaft seals wear out, need to be changed split coupled
Vertical inline nice for <25HP,

Base mount up blast reduces floor space, easy to install

Floor Space Install Inline vs. Base Mount

Reduces equipment square footage
Up blast allows correct straight pipe into suction
Motor mounted on frame

Great for larger pumps

Heat Exchangers
Used to move thermal energy from fluid to fluid

Used to break glycol/non-glycol systems

Typically designed for equal flow on both sides

Heat Rejection
Dry Towers
Coils mounted with fans
No interaction between water and air
Lowest leaving water 105F

<100 Tons

Wet Towers (Cooling Towers)

Use evaporation to produce cooling
Lowest leaving water 85F
Water mixes with air
Big maintenance item
All large project have wet towers

Solids Separator
Open Cooling tower are excellent at

filtering contaminants out of air into water

Make up water adds contaminents
Solves a big (also hazardous) maintenance item

Separators remove the solid from flow

Do not experience filter build up

Architectual Products

Heating Products
Used to provide localized heating for windows, doors, stairwells

Designed for active or passive air movement

Come in many enclosure styles
Custom enclosures used (wood, marble, granite, etc.)

Radiant Panels
Heated materials emit radiant rays

Space is cooler, occupants feel radiance to get comfort

Can do heating or cooling for space
Similar effect to campfire or sunny day

Radiant Walls
Combines form and function

Radiant panels built into architectural walls, cubicles, patient rooms

Removes need for two products
Bring flexibility to job

Fabric Sox
Fabric air distribution

Very light helps with structural

Excellent for raised floor air distribution
Can go in the washing machine

Putting it into practice

HVAC System

Isolation used to separate moving parts from fixed structure

Seismic prevents equipment failure by restraint

Mission critical or post-disaster buildings need seismic in GTA
Ottawa needs it for almost all buildings

HTS has full seismic/isolation department

Automation system controls chiller staging, fan/pump speed

Uses energy efficient technology to full potential

HTS has full in house controls group
Wireless products, open architecture systems

HTS can pre-test controls in house

Prefabricated Mechanical Rooms

Prefab mechanical room factory built and tested

Move risk offsite

Improve construction schedule
Reduce overall budget

Great for remote projects

HTS is the largest independent HVAC manufacture rep in North
Deep employee knowledge
We carry 50+ product lines in Ontario right tool for the job
Always looking for new lines (15-20 under consideration)
Full aftermarket parts and service business
Provide total lifecycle solutions for your projects

The End