You are on page 1of 134

-

.
()
.
- .

, ,
,
,

,
,
,

,

()
, ,
.

A -
.

Ascosphciera apis
Maassen ex
Claussen.






,


.


2 , 1
15

.

,

,
,
48 .


. ,


.
.
,

>1

.


.


..

,

,
.


. 1gr kg , 1/2kg

4 7 .
(0,7%)
.
Archangelica officinalis
. 110-130g 24 50-60g
130 .


, .



.
Aspergillus: A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus Stonebrood



,
..
(varroa)

.


.

,

.


( )


Aspergillus: A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus

Stonebrood
.




.


Nosema

Nosema apis Nosema ceranae


Apis









()

Ceranae

Ceranae vs Apis
N.Apis 20%

N. apis

N. ceranae

6 x 3 m

4.4 x 2.2 m

.






(
)

.


.
, , .

,
.
: 1
(1-5), 15 .
1/15.000 0,00006%W/V




.

2ml 60% 1lt .


Mentha crispa, Salvia
officinalis. 3-4 lt
.
.


Paenibacillus larvae
1 3

.




.

( )
..



. .

..

.


.


.



2.
.
3. .
4.
1.

()

.

.

24-48

.


.

() #2

.


.

.

.
.
,

.

1 1.000.000

-
-
- .


, ,

, .


.
.


Streptococcus pluton


2


.

.

( )

..
, ,

..
.


1.5cm,
.
:
: ,
:
: ,
,

,
2.5cm
: ,
:
:
:
,

.

.

.

.
..

.

1
250
2-1

.


Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV) Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV)
Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) - Chronic Paralysis Virus (CPV)
associated with CCD
Sacbrood Virus (SBV)
Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV)
Deformed Wing Bee Virus (DWV)



,
DNA RNA .

DWV


.

-poymerase
, ,
.
.


(DWV)

,

Varroa.

,
, ,
,

.

( 48 )
.


,
(
),
( ),

.

.


DWV

destructor
Varroa Varroa destructor

. , V. destructor
,


. DWV



.

, destructor Varroa

.

,
.

. DWV
,

.

Kakugo
Kakugo, RNA 98%,

DWV.
mushroom bodies (
) , .
DWV

,

.


,
.
.

Chronic Paralysis Virus



Chronic Paralysis Virus


:

.
,



.

(APV)


IAPV

Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV)




Kashmir bee virus (KBV)



Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV)




Sacbrood virus (SBV)




Morator aetatulas

Sacbrood virus (SBV)


-

()

( )

20

.


-
. .

(, )

Varroa Destructor


.
.

...
...

,
Apis
Cerana
Apis
Melifera.
2 :




()



Early 1960s Japan, USSR


1960s-1970s Eastern Europe
1971 Brazil
Late 1970s South America
1980 Poland
1982 France
1984 Switzerland, Spain, Italy
1987 Portugal
1987 USA
1989 Canada
1992 England[4]
2000 New Zealand (North Island)
2006 New Zealand (South Island)[5]
2007 Hawaiian Islands[6]


( )


3
3


, ,

:

.



.

, .

.



.


1. ' ...: ,

, , - .
2. ( ..)
3. ... ( ...)
4.

( ,
, )
5.
.

(.)
,
, .
2 : [C2H2O4] - [C2H2O4 +2 H2O]
. 3 :

.
1..

. ..( 99% ): .. 3,5 % (35 gr .. 1 lt 1:1 2:1) (58,5gr


.. 1 lt +1 Kg ).

.- .. (71,4 % ): .. 3,5 % (49 gr - O.O. lt 1:1 2:1 ) ( 74,5


gr - .. 1 lt +1 kg ).

, 0 C, 5 ml
(50 ml 10 ) Perizin
.

: . 95%.
2. :

1 gr .. ' 5

.

.
(, )
3.:

30 gr . 1 lt (3 %). , 3-4 ml
. 97-98%
' 18 C. .


Apiguard - Apilife Var - Thymovar.
1 : 15 gr

21
.
2 : 4 gr 4 ml . 2
Vetex 4 6 cm
4ml
. 3 7
12-32 C
18 C.
3 : (5-7 . )
4 .
2-3 8 .
4 : 150 . 30 .
. ' 5-20 ml
13,5 21-28
2 .

.
, ,

, ..
.
.
5 ml (
) 15%
2 .

. 10
30 C.
.
.

96%
.
(, )


Vespa Carbro


,
,

2000 .

,
, , , .




,
,
.

.

,
, ,

, '
.
,
,
.
,
.

.
:
, .
.
.
.
.
.

Galleria Mellonela


30-

41mm

,

.
.
'
, .

.



7 ,

, (), Imago
,

: , , , ,
, ,



Bacillus thurigiensis.


80 46C

.
49C 40 .

.

64C, 49

64C
.

46C
.


.
.


-12C 3

.
-7C 4,5

0C 4
.
+5C 10
.

401 - Certan
,

Bacillus
thurigensis.
B-401 Certan

2-4

30C.


.

(S)

,

,
.

:
50-70
15 6
.
: