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On Khamr [And What Intoxicates]

Please could you verify:


1)That there is a consenus of the scholars of
the 4 schools that khamr - or intoxicant- made
from grapes or dates - is prohibited in large or
small amounts.
Definition: Al-San`ani in Subul al-Salam
said: "The word khamr is used literally for
frothy, fermented grape juice by
consensus.... and metaphorically for any
liquid intoxicant."
Hukm: (1) There is consensus on the
unlawfulness of khamr and its narrations are
mutawatir. Al-Marghinani in al-Hidaya and
Ibn Hajar in al-Diraya (its Takhrij). (2) There
is consensus on the unlawfulness of even one
drop of the fermented grape juice that
causes intoxication. Ibn Hazm, Maratib alIjma` p. 158.

Please could you provide the actual verses


from the Quran which provides the Qati dalalat

5:90 and (taken together) 7:33/2:219 as per


Abu Bakr al-Razi in Ahkam al-Qur'an,
Murtada al-Zabidi in al-Bahr al-Zakhkhar alJami` li `Ulama' al-Amsar, Ibn Hazm and
others:
{O ye who believe! Strong drink and games
of chance and idols and divining arrows are
only *an infamy of Satan's handiwork. Leave
it aside* in order that ye may succeed}
(5:90) {Say: My Lord *forbiddeth* only
indecencies, such of them as are apparent
and such as are within, *and sin* and
wrongful oppression, and that ye associate
with Allah that for which no warrant hath
been revealed, and that ye tell concerning
Allah that which ye know not} (7:33) {They
question thee about strong drink and games
of chance. Say: In both is *great sin*, and
(some) utility for men; but the sin of them is
greater than their usefulness} (2:219).

2) Imam Muhammad of the Hanafi madhab and


many later Hanafis including many Deobandi
ulema, Imam Malik & Imam Shafi also hold the

view: that any large or small amount of any


intoxicanting substance is prohibited based on
the various ahad ahadith on these topics such
as: *if a bucketful intoxicates then even a sip is
prohibited `A'isha from the Prophet in Ahmad,
the Sunan, al-Daraqutni, Ibn Hibban and others
with a sound sahih chain according to alArna'ut.
*if a large amount intoxicates then a small
amount is prohibited
SA`D ibn Abi Waqqas from the Prophet in
al-Nasa'i and Ibn Hibban 12:192 #5370,
hasan according to Sh. Shu`ayb al-Arna'ut
who said it is also related thus by Ibn Abi
Shayba, Ibn al-Jarud, al-Tahawi, alDaraqutni, al-Bayhaqi and, from JABIR and
`A'ISHA with sahih chains, by Ibn Hibban
#5382-5383, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, alTirmidhi (hasan), Ibn Majah, and all of the
above five compilations.
Also - from the Prophet - `AMR IBN AL-`AS
in `Abd al-Razzaq, al-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah;
IBN `UMAR in al-Tabarani's al-Kabir and alAwsat and Ibn Rahuyah's Musnad;
KHAWWAT IBN JUBAYR al-Ansari in al-Kabir
and al-Awsat, al-Tabarani, and al-Hakim;

ZAYD IBN THABIT in al-Kabir and al-Awsat;


ANAS in Ahmad's Munad with a sound chain
according to al-Ghumari and Hamza al-Zayn.
Also narrated from `ALI and `ABD ALLAH
IBN `AMR IBN AL-`AS as mentioned by alKattani, which brings its Companionnarrators to ten, thus the latter included it
among the mutawatir reports in his Nazm alMutanathir. See also Nasb al-Raya, 8th
hadith of the book of beverages, where alZayla`i adds the Companion `AMR IBN
SHU`AYB to the list but weakens some of the
above chains.

*khamr is all things that intoxicates


Some versions add: "and every khamr is
haram." Abu Musa al-Ash`ari and `A'isha
from the Prophet in Bukhari and Muslim and
others; Jabir and Ibn `Umar from the
Prophet in Muslim and others; Abu Hurayra,
Ibn `Abbas, and Ibn Mas`ud from the
Prophet with sahih chains* in the Sunan;
Mu`awiya from the Prophet with a fair
chain* in Ibn Majah; `Abd Allah ibn `Amr ibn
al-`As from the Prophet in Abu Dawud and

Ahmad; also from over nine other


Companions all from the Prophet . Mutawatir
from over 30 Sahaba [not only 20 as claimed
in I`la' al-Sunan 18:31] as per Ibn Hajar, alZurqani, al-Suyuti, al-Shawkani, and alKattani.
*as per Sh. `Abd Allah al-Ghumari in Wadih
al-Burhan `ala Tahrim al-Khamri walHashishi fil-Qur'an.
Al-Shawkani in Nayl al-Awtar (9:63) stated
that al-Hasan al-Basri also defined khamr as
any intoxicant regardless of its ingredients
and this is `Umar's position also as cited
below.
What was the opinion of Imam Ahmed and
his madhab ?
The definition of khamr in the madhhab of
Imam Ahmad: it is (1) "every intoxicant" as
per the mutawatir narration cited above (2)
"whether made of grape, date (tamr), barley,
or honey, as khamr is all that mixes up
(khaamara) the brain" - `Umar on the pulpit
in Bukhari and Muslim. Other narrations from
him mention wheat. Also "unripe dates"

(busr) as per Anas in Bukhari and Muslim.

In support of this view you will find statements


in books of fiqh: 1) the narrations of
prohibition other than for grapes and dates are
not muttawir but simply ahad - at best not
haram but sufficient zanni dalalaat to proscribe
to the extent of prohibition - i.e the many ahad
haith such as above would render a position of
makruh al tahrimi
If we keep before us the two mutawatir
directives that "khamr is all things that
intoxicate and all khamr is haram" and "if a
large amount intoxicates then a small
amount is prohibited" as well as the
Prophetic answer concerning beer and
honeywine that "every intoxicant is haram"
(Bukhari and Muslim), we may find that it is
moot whether we name it nabidh [as
Christian Arabs name their alcoholic grape
wine today], or whatever fruit or vegetable it
is made of. Secondly, a sahih ahad hadith of
prohibition is still obligatory (fard) to put into
practice, the difference being that
disbelieving in it does not incur takfir, only

fisq. All the more so when such a hadith is in


both of the two Sahihs, which denotes the
highest degree of authenticity for a sahih
hadith. Similarly, according to Abu Hanifa,
the penalty (hadd) is applied against one
who drinks even one drop of the "literal
khamr," while it is not applied to one who
drinks a below-intoxication-level amount of
other alcoholic beverages that are not
properly or literally called khamr, nor is the
one who declares them permissible to drink
called a kafir, and even if they are haram to
drink in small* or great amounts, sell, buy,
etc. Cf. I`la' al-Sunan (18:22-23).
*But see below, Muhammad's report of Abu
Hanifa's position in the I`la'.
2) There is evidence from ahadith that the
prohibition of other khamr - i.e non-grape
and date wine - has been aborogated by
statements such as the below to render a
position of consumption is simply
permissable to an extent below intoxication
found in Al-Bidayat al mujtahid by the Maliki
faqih Ibn Rushd:

1. Abu Musa when govenor sent to Yemen


asked prophet about alcohol from honey and
barley - was not prohibited ( this is opposite
however to the narration of Abu Musa being
prohibited by the Nabi SAW in Sunan Abu
Dawood )
Indeed, the strongest version of this report
from Abu Musa is: "The Messenger of Allah
sent me and Mu`adh to Yemen so we said:
'O Messenger of Allah, over there are two
beverages they make, one from honey
(`asal) [in Bidayat al-Mujtahid: wheat
(burr)] which they call honey-wine (bita` or
bit`), the other from barley (sha`ir) which
they call beer (mizr).' The Prophet replied:
'Every intoxicant is haram.'" Narrated by alBukhari and Muslim as well as Abu Dawud,
al-Nasa'i, Ahmad and others including alTahawi in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (12:497
#4972 al-Arna'ut: isnaduhu sahih). Some
narrations show that the Prophet first
enquired about those drinks then cut short
the argument with the answer he gave.
Ibn Rushd has instead: "'What should we
drink?' He replied: 'Drink [from both] but do

not get drunk.'" He continues: "Al-Tahawi


narrated it with other reports they [Hanafis]
mentioned in the same chapter." This is
correctly reported as found in al-Tahawi's
Sharh Ma`ani al-Athar (4:220) and Sharh
Mushkil al-Athar (12:498-499 #4973) as well
as Ibn Abi Shayba, al-Nasa'i, and Ibn
Hibban; Sh. Shu`ayb al-Arna'ut said its chain
is sahih.
But (1) This does not compare in strength to
the prohibiting version of the two Sahihs; (2)
al-Tahawi himself narrates the latter as cited
above and he also narrates from `A'isha
(12:495-496 #4969-4970): "The Messenger
of Allah was asked about honey-wine and he
replied "Every beverage that causes
intoxication (muskir) is categorically haram"
[al-Arna'ut: sahih as per the criteria of alBukhari and Muslim, who also narrate it];
and (3) al-Tahawi concludes the narration of
these reports by saying (12:504): "These
reports [on the whole] contain a permission
to drink whatever does not cause intoxication
among those beverages, and a prohibition
from drinking whatever causes intoxication."

Since al-Tahawi's conclusion applies to each


and every alcoholic beverage whatever it is
made of, it becomes clear that Abu Musa's
report on honey and barley drinks does not
constitute abrogation of any kind nor permits
such a thing as below-intoxication-level
consumption in his view, otherwise the same
could be claimed of khamr also - short of
literalism that makes the ruling of prohibition
hinge merely on names.
However, in Sharh Ma`ani al-Athar (4:220)
he does indicate that the way to reconcile all
the reports is to say that the prohibition
applies only at the level that causes
inebriety. This is the position forwarded in
I`la' al-Sunan (18:29-30) on the strength of
the saying of Ibn `Abbas: "Khamr was
prohibited specifically, and the intoxicant (alsakar) in all other beverages." But Allah
knows best the grading of this report and
whether Ibn `Abbas meant "al-sakar" to
mean only "the amount that intoxicates and
not that which falls short of it." The same is
narrated from Abu Sa`id, also mawquf, but
with a chain that lacks linkage to Abu Sa`id
according to Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Tahqiq fi

Ahadith al-Khilaf (2:375-376).


The same is also narrated from Ibn Mas`ud
who is reported as saying: "'Every intoxicant
is haram' means the very sip that makes you
drunk", except that when this report was
mentioned to Ibn al-Mubarak he rejected it
and said: "Hadith Batil" as stated by alZayla`i in Nasb al-Raya. And this invalidation
seems accurate in view of the following:
(1) Al-Bayhaqi narrates the report of Ibn
Mas`ud in al-Sunan al-Kubra (8:298) and
Ma`rifat al-Sunan wa al-Athar then declares
it very weak, as does al-Daraqutni in his
Sunan (4:250-251 #23-26) where he
attributes it to Ibrahim al-Nakha`i, all of
which as stated in Nasb al-Raya; (2) The
report is weakened by al-Murghinani in alHidaya as confirmed by al-Zayla`i as well in
Nasb al-Raya and the latter's commentator,
al-Alma`i, in his Hashiya; (3) It is
contradicted by another narration from Ibn
Mas`ud, declared sound by Ibn Hazm in alMuhalla (7:489 cf. Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni
8:305, and al-Qal`aji in Mawsu`at Fiqh `Abd
Allah Ibn Mas`ud p. 92), in which he states:

"Whether a little or much, any amount of


what causes intoxication in a large amount is
prohibited"; (4) The "guilty" sip cannot
intoxicate except with the "complicity" or
precedence of all those before it, including
the very first.
Thus Ibn Hazm concluded in al-Muhalla
(7:491, 505): "It is authentically reported
from al-Nakha`i that he prohibited inebrietylevel drinking (al-sakar) as haram [as did Ibn
Mas`ud even for medication with the reply:
'Truly Allah did not place your cure in what
he made forbidden to you,' narrated by alBayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (10:5)] as well
as grape juice if it induces intoxication, while
he permitted all other intoxicating wines
(anbidha)... Ibn Shubruma would say: 'Allah
have mercy on Ibrahim! The people [the
Ulema] stood strictly against wine [nabidh],
while he permitted it!" Furthermore Abu
Yusuf in his Athar (p. 223-227, 235) and
Muhammad in his (p. 142) narrate that alNakha`i drank certain types of alcoholic
wines and that he narrated the same from
Ibn Mas`ud and `Alqama, on the belowintoxication-level principle. Cf. Qal`aji,

Mawsu`at Fiqh Ibrahim al-Nakha`i (p. 285286). In I`la' al-Sunan (18:34): "Ibrahim
[al-Nakha`i] said: 'The saying that whatever
intoxicates in large quantity then even its
small quantity is haram is a mistake of the
scholars, it only means that the intoxicating
level of any beverage is haram' and
Muhammad said: 'This is the position of Abu
Hanifa.'" But this seems to contradict what
the I`la' earlier stated as the position of the
Imam (18:22-23).
Al-Nakha`i also narrated mursal from `Umar
that the latter during his caliphate
supposedly drank alcoholic wine (nabidh)
which he diluted with water, saying: "Do this
if/lest its shaytan overcome you." Cf.
Muhammad, al-Athar (p. 119); al-Sarakhsi's
al-Mabsut, book of beverages, chapter on
Muzara`at al-Harbi; and I`la' al-Sunan
(18:34). However, there is doubt over the
meaning and content of the above report, as
other sources state that the mixture in
question was not alcoholic wine but a
vinegar-like substance which people in
certain areas drank to help them digest
camel meat and for other uses as explicitly

mentioned in most of its versions. Cf.


Musannaf `Abd al-Razzaq (9:206, 9:225);
Abu Yusuf, al-Athar (#993); al-Bayhaqi, alSunan al-Kubra (8:299); Ibn Hazm, alMuhalla (7:486-487). The latter comments:
"Something approaching vinegar is far from
alcoholic."
It is established that `Umar steered clear of
anything remotely resembling alcoholic wine,
as shown by his castigation of jar-wine
(nabidh al-jarr) which tends to ferment
quickly: From `Ikrima: `Umar said: "I would
prefer to drink a bottle (qumqum) of boiling
water, burn and ravage what it may, rather
than jar-wine." `Abd al-Razzaq (9:205), alMuhalla (7:497).
Abu Nu`aym in the Hilya (1985 ed. 6:147148) narrates and authenticates with several
chains through al-Awza`i from Abu Musa alAsh`ari that the Prophet was brought nabidh
in a jar which had a fizz or a hissing sound
(lahu nasheesh) whereupon he said: "Throw
this over the wall for this is the drink of those
who disbelieve in Allah and the last day."

Furthermore, the correct version of the "Do


this if/lest its shaytan overcome you" report
pertains not to nabidh but to cooked grapejuice concentrate (al-tila') of which two thirds
have evaporated and which is not alcoholic
as in Malik's Muwatta': Book 42, Number
42.5.14: Yahya related to me from Malik
from Da'ud ibn al-Husayn that Waqid ibn Amr
ibn Sad ibn Muazh informed him from
Mahmud ibn Labid al-Ansari that when Umar
ibn al-Khattab went to ash-Sham, the people
of ash-Sham complained to him about the
bad air of their land and its heaviness. They
said, "Only this drink helps." Umar said,
"Drink this honey preparation." They said,
"Honey does not help us." A man from the
people of that land said, "Can we give you
something of this drink which does not
intoxicate?" He said, "Yes." They cooked it
until two-thirds of it evaporated and onethird of it remained. Then they brought it to
Umar. Umar put his finger in it then lifted it
and the mixture stuck to it and stretched.
[original Tarjumana and Johnson translation
has: 'and then lifted his head and extended
it'!]]. He said, "This is fruit juice

concentrated by boiling. This is like camelointment [orig. 'the distillation with which
you smear the camel's scabs']." Umar
ordered them to drink it. Ubada ibn as-Samit
said to him, "You have made it halal, by
Allah!" Umar said, "No, by Allah! O Allah! I
will not make anything halal for them which
You have made haram for them! I will not
make anything haram for them which You
have made halal for them."
After this, `Umar wrote to `Ammar ibn Yasir
to permit this mixture, defining it as
"beverages resembling camel-ointment which
have been cooked until two thirds
evaporated, namely the two thirds that
contain the foulness of Shaytan and the wind
of his madness, and one third of which
remains." Cf. `Abd al-Razzaq (9:255), alMuhalla (7:498), Athar Abu Yusuf (#1004),
and Qal`aji, Mawsu`at Fiqh `Umar ibn alKhattab (p. 115). He wrote likewise to Abu
Musa al-Ash`ari as in al-Nasa'is Sunan, book
of beverages, chapter on permitted and nonpermitted tala'. And he said also: "Cook your
beverage until the share of Shaytan goes
away [through evaporation], for Shaytan has

two thirds of it and you have one third."


Narrated by al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan al-Kubra
(8:301). And Allah knows best.
Following is a previous post on the
permissibility of medication with a haram
beverage in certain cases:
-- beginning -Imam al-Nawawi said in Sharh Sahih Muslim,
ed. Khalil al-Mays, Beirut, Dar al-Qalam, vol.
13/14 p. 163:
"The correct view according to our school is
that it is forbidden to use wine as
medication, and similarly it is forbidden to
drink it because of thirst. However, if one
chokes with one's food and he does not find,
to wash it down, other than wine, then he is
obligated to wash it down with it, because
the obtainment of remedy through wine in
this case is decisive, unlike when it is used as
medication. And Allah knows best."
The Maliki faqih Abu Bakr ibn al-`Arabi said
in Tuhfat al-ahwadhi bi sharh Sahih alTirmidhi (Beirut ed. Dar al-kutub al-`ilmiyya

vol. 8 p. 200:
"The legal rulings (regarding medication with
wine) on various questions.
1. If one is forced to drink it because of
thirst, our scholars (Malikis) have two views.
Ibn al-Qasim said he must not drink it
because it will not help except make him
thirstier. Al-Abhari said: He can drink it. That
is: it does quench his thirst, which is a
matter decided by custom.
2. If he chokes on a mouthful of food and
does not find other than wine he can wash it
down with it according to Ibn Habib and Abu
al-Faraj. Ibn al-Qasim said: The one who is
forced may drink blood, but not wine. The
basis of the first view [permission] is that aldarura tubih al-mahzhur -- necessity makes
the prohibition permissible -- such as eating
carrion meat (i.e. in case of famine); while
the basis of the second view is that Allah has
forbidden wine in absolute terms, while He
forbade carrion and blood in terms subject to
necessity. The more correct view is the first
(i.e. the correct ruling is: wine is permitted

to avoid choking).
3. If one is forced to drink wine does the
punishment for drinking wine apply to him?
There are two views based on what our
scholars have said regarding to the one who
is forced to commit fornication (e.g. in rape),
and the correct view is that there is no
punishment."
-- end -2. Ibn Masud narrates the abrogation of
prohibition and states that others may have
forgotten.
The text of this report in Bidayat al-Mujtahid
(1:346) is: "I witnessed the prohibition of
nabidh as you all did, then I witnessed its
permission: I remembered [the latter] while
you all forgot it."
Al-Sarakhsi in al-Mabsut, book of beverages,
chapter on Muzara`at al-Harbi and al-Alma`i
in his notes on Nasb al-Raya mention this
report both without chain during their
presentation of the Hanafi argument for
abrogation among other marfu` and mawquf

reports, all of them weak or very weak


according to Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Tahqiq
(2:375-376).
This report seems close to non-existent in
the hadith compilations. Kanz al-`Ummal
(#13838) references it to "al-Tabari: From
Juwaybir ibn Sa`id al-Azdi, from al-Dahhak,
from Ibn Mas`ud." This chain is extremely
feeble as Juwaybir is discarded (matruk) and
al-Dahhak is not on record as narrating
anything from Ibn `Mas`ud but - among the
Companions - only from Ibn `Umar, Abu
Hurayra, and Ibn `Abbas, although it is
established he did not narrate from Ibn
`Abbas either, and it is questionable whether
he actually narrated from any Companion
directly. Cf. al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-Kamal
(13:91) and its Khulasa by al-Khazraji; Ibn
`Adi, al-Kamil (4:95-96); and al-Dhahabi, alMughni and al-Mizan.
Furthermore, the report is not mentioned in
Mawsu`at Fiqh `Abd Allah ibn Mas`ud nor in
al-Hazimi's al-I`tibar, which is the most
thorough documentation work on abrogating
and abrogated hadiths, while Sh. `Abd al-

`Aziz al-Ghumari said in his booklet on the


imamate of women that truly abrogated
issues in legal rulings (al-ahkam) can be
counted on the fingers of the hand. Nor does
Ibn al-Jawzi even cite it in al-Tahqiq although
he tries to bring up all the reports adduced
by the Hanafis in the chapter. And Allah
knows best.

Could you please comment on the above two


narrations in terms of transmission - i.e are
they gharib or mashur, ahad or mutawir? Are
they musnad or mursal' are they deemed
authentic in the view of hadith transmitters
and fuqahqa of 1) Kufa and 2) Hejaz.
In the case of Abu Musa's narration the
stronger version states prohibition, while the
report of Ibn Mas`ud is gharib jiddan and
mursal to say the least.
A nice conclusion to the material adduced
above is Yahya ibn Ma`in's comment - note
that he was Hanafi, and the Shaykh of
Bukhari and Muslim -: "The prohibition of
wine is true (tahrim al-nabidh sahih), but I

stop short of declaring it haram: saintly and


righteous people drank it on the basis of
sound hadiths [but see al-Dhahabi's
disclaimer below] while other saintly and
righteous people declared it haram on the
basis of sound hadiths." Cited by al-Dhahabi
in Siyar A`lam al-Nubala' (al-Arna'ut ed.
11:88). Al-Dhahabi also cited (12:494) the
story of the qadi Bakkar ibn Qutayba when
he took up judgeship in Egypt - he was
Hanafi - and met al-Muzani, one of the
foremost companions of al-Shafi`i. One of
Ibn Qutayba's companions asked him: "The
hadiths have mentioned both the prohibition
of wine (tahrim al-nabidh) and its
permissibility (tahlilih), so why did you
(Shafi`is) give precedence to its prohibition?"
Al-Muzani replied: "No-one ever declared it
prohibited in Jahiliyya; then it was declared
halal for us, and agreement formed over its
permissibility; then it was declared haram.
This, therefore, gives pre-eminence to the
narrations of tahrim." Bakkar approved this
reply. Al-Dhahabi adds: "Furthermore, the
hadiths of tahrim are many and sound, which
is not the case with the hadiths of ibaha."

Al-Muzani's comment shows that if there was


indeed abrogation of the hukm of nabidh
itself, it was from permissibility to
prohibition, not vice-versa.
The most authentic narration pertaining to
abrogation in the chapter of beverages is the
hadith of Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Salat: Book
4, Number 2131, as well as the 4 Sunan and
Ahmad in the Musnad: Ibn Buraida reported
on the authority of his father that the
Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)
said: I forbade you to visit graves, but you
may now visit them; I forbade you to eat the
flesh of sacrificial animals after three days,
but you may now keep it as along as you feel
inclined; and I forbade you nabidh except in
a water-skin, you may drink it from all kinds
of water-skins, but you must not drink
anything intoxicating. This and other reports
similar in meaning and content but of lesser
strength, are cited by al-Hazimi in al-I`tibar
(p. 518-521), Book of beverages.
Some years ago I had posted the hadith
below in support of the following comment
on Kareem Abdul Jabbar's publicity spots for

beer:
Ibn `Abbas said: I heard the Prophet say:
"Jibril came to me and said: O Muhammad,
Allah Almighty has cursed wine, and the one
who presses it, and the one who has it
pressed, and the one who drinks it, and the
one who carries it, and the one to whom it is
carried, and the one who sells it, and the one
who buys it, and the one who serves it, and
the one to whom it is served."
Imam Ahmad narrates it in his Musnad with
a sound chain according to al-Ghumari and
Shakir. It is narrated also from Anas and Abu
Hurayra by al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Abu
Dawud, Ahmad, and al-Hakim. Al-Tirmidhi
said: Something similar is narrated from the
Prophet by Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud, and Ibn
`Umar.
Another hadith in Ahmad concerning the
Jews states that the Prophet repeated three
times:
inna al-khamra haram wa thamanaha haram
inna al-khamra haram wa thamanaha haram

inna al-khamra haram wa thamanaha haram


which means
wine is forbidden and its income is forbidden
wine is forbidden and its income is forbidden
wine is forbidden and its income is forbidden
An example of this unlawful income is, for
example, to own part of a 7-11 store (in the
U.S.) or simply work there.
It is related in the sound and established
narrations of the account of the Prophet's
ascension to the heaven on the Night of Isra'
that he saw the hellfire and he saw a
tablespread on which there were pieces of
good meat which no one approached, and
another tablespread on which were pieces of
rotten meat which stank, surrounded by
people who were eating it. The Prophet
asked: "O Jibril, who are these?" He replied:
"These are those of your Community who
abandon what is lawful and go to what is
unlawful."
To complete the topic here is one more

authentic relevant narrations:


The Prophet said: "There shall certainly be
people in my Community who shall drink
alcoholic beverages (khamr) and name them
with a different name." Narrated from Aby
Malik al-Ash`ari, `Ubada ibn al-Samit,
`A'isha, and an unnamed Companion by
Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, al-Nasa'i, alDarimi, Ibn Hibban, Ibn Abi Shayba, Ibn Abi
`Asim, and others. Shykh `Abd Allah alGhumari said in Wadih al-Burhan (p. 56):
"The sin of those deceivers is greater than
that of those who drink khamr in full
knowledge of its unlawfulness."
He also said: "The beginning of your Religion
is Prophethood and mercy; then monarchy
and mercy (mulkun wa rahma); then dustlike monarchy (mulkun a`far); then
monarchy and tyranny (mulkun wa jabarut)
in which alcohol (khamr) and silk shall be
deemed permitted." Al-Darimi narrated it
from Abu `Ubayda.
Blessings and peace on the Prophet, his
Family, and his Companions.

Hajj Gibril