Reading and Writing

Skills





Edited on 5
th
Rabee3u-th-thaanee 1431
21
st
March 2010


READING READING READING READING
AND AND AND AND
WRITING WRITING WRITING WRITING
SKILLS SKILLS SKILLS SKILLS

1

INDEX

Introduction
2
PART ONE PART ONE PART ONE PART ONE
Revision of the step by step book
3
My beautiful letters
4
Table of Arabic letters
5
Writing exercices
7
The Marks
9
Fat-hah
9
Letter Hamzah
10
Fat-hah and Alif Maddiyyah
12
The shortened Alif
15
kasrah
16
Kasrah and yaa' Maddiyah
17
Dammah
20
Dammah and waaw Maddiyah
22
Sukoon
24
How to pause on Arabic words
25
Shaddah
26
PART TWO PART TWO PART TWO PART TWO
Rules of reading more than a word
29
Introduction to the Arabic word
30
Tanween
31
Tied Taa'
35
Connecting Hamzah
37
Disconnecting Hamzah
38
Laam in (Al of definition)
39


2
INTRODUCTION

All praise is for Allah. We praise Him, seek His help and forgiveness. We
seek refuge in Allah from the evils of ourselves, and the evils of our actions.
I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah alone
and I bear witness that Muhammad ﻡﱠ ﻠﺴﻭ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ُ ﷲﺍ ﻰﱠ ﻠﺼ َ is His servant and
Messenger.
- In the book you have in hand, we will complete the needed lessons to
be able to read and write any Arabic text ا َ ء ْنإ ُ
- We will start with a revision of the Step by Step book: Arabic letters,
how to connect or separate them, the Arabic marks and the comparison
between short and long vowels.
- Few new important lessons are added to make you able to read
words together.
- It is important to know that this is a book of reading and writing
practice book, not a book to learn the language, so you might find few
words that do not have meaning in Arabic but we are only using them for
practice.
- We will keep transliteration for most of the words, as probably it will
be a self-studying book, but always try to read the words without the
transliteration first then check if it is correct.
- A question that might come to your mind when doing these lessons
is:
Why does the same word appears with different marks on the
last letter?
ﻁﺍﺭ ﺼ ﺎﹰ ﻁﺍﺭ ﺼ ﹲﻁﺍﺭ ﺼ

The ending of an Arabic word changes after its position (role of the
word in the sentence e.g. subject, object etc ). However, the word
still means the same.
The reason of these changes will be explained later in the Qur'aanic
Arabic lessons ا َ ء ْنإ
Hope you find these notes useful. May Allaah keep you straight on His
path, and teach you what will be beneficial for you, give you success in this
life and in the hereafter.

3






PART 1

REVISION OF THE "STEP BY STEP" BOOK









4










ﹸ ﺔﹶ ﻠﻴ ﻤ ﺠﹾﻝﺍ ﻲ ﻓﻭ ﺭ ﺤ
My beautiful letters









ﺏ ﺕ ﺙ




ﺯ ﺩ
ﺹ ﺵ ﺽ ﺱ

ﻭ ﻱ
ﻉ ﻅ ﻍ ﻁ


ل ﻑ

ـﻫ


















Letter
Name
Figure
Vocaliza
-
tion
Transliter-
tion
Example
New Heavy
Light

At the
end
In the
middle
At the
beginning
Connect
ed from
right
only
1
Hamzah
ء
first
sound in
( a, o, e,
i )
a,o,e,i 'Apple

*



2 Baa‘ ﺏ
b b
Back *
ﺏ ﺏـ ـﺒـ ـﺒ
3 Taa‘ ﺕ
t t
Tab *
ﺕ ﺕـ ـﺘـ ـﺘ
4 Thaa‘ ﺙ th th Thank * ﺙ ﺙـ ـﺜـ ـﺜ
5 Jeem ﺝ j j Jar * ﺝ ﺞـ ـﺠـ ـﺠ
6 Haa‘ ﺡ
- h
- * *

ﺢـ ـﺤـ ـﺤ
7 Khaa‘ ﺥ
- kh - * * ﺥ ﺦـ ـﺨـ ـﺨ
8 Daal ﺩ
d d
Data *
ﺩ ﺩـ ﺩـ ـ ﺩ ـ *
9 Dhaal ﺫ
th dh
That *
ﺫ ﺫـ ﺫـ ـ ﺫ ـ *
10 Raa‘ ﺭ
r r
Right *
ﺭ ﺭـ ﺭـ ـ ﺭ ـ *
11 Zaay ﺯ
z z
Zoo *

ﺯـ ﺯـ ـ ﺯ ـ *
12 Seen ﺱ s s Sand * ﺱ ﺱـ ـﺴـ ـﺴ
13 Sheen ﺵ
sh sh
Shadow *

ﺵـ ـﺸـ ـﺸ
14 aad S ﺹ
s s
Sauce *

ﺹـ ـﺼـ ـﺼ
15 aad D ﺽ
- d
- * *

ﺽـ ـﻀـ ـﻀ











16 Taa‘ ﻁ t t - * ﻁ ـﻁـ ـﻁ ﻁ
17 Dhaa‘ ﻅ th dh - * ﻅ ـﻅـ ـﻅ ﻅ
18 3ayn ﻉ
- 3 -
* * ﻉ ـﻌـ ـﻋ ﻉ
19 Ghyne ﻍ
- gh -
* * ﻍ ـﻐـ ـﻏ ﻍ
20 Faa‘ ﻑ f f Fat * ﻑ ـﻔـ ـﻓ ﻑ
21 Qaaf ﻕ
- q
-
* *

ـﻘـ ـﻗ ﻕ
22 Kaaf ﻙ k k Kid * ﻙ ـﻜـ ـﻜ ﻙ
23 Laam ل l l Lamp * ل ـﻠـ ـﻝ ل
24 Meem ﻡ m m Map * ﻡ ـﻤـ ـﻤ ﻡ
25 Noon ﻥ n n Name * ﻥ ـﻨـ ـﻨ ﻥ
26 Haa‘ ـﻫ h h Hat * ﻩ ـﻬـ ــﻫ ـﻫ
27 Waaw ﻭ w w Wing * ﻭ ﻭـ ـﻭ ـﻭ *

Waaw
Maddiyah
ﻭ oo oo Moon * ﻭ ﻭـ ـﻭ __ *
28 Yaa‘ ﻱ Y Y You * ﻱ ـﻴـ ـﻴ ﻱ

Yaa‘
Maddiyah
ﻱ ee ee Deep ﻱ ـﻴـ ـﻴ __
29
Alif
Maddiyah
ﺍ Long a aa sad

*

ﺎـ ﺍ ـ ﺍ ـ *

7


WRITING EXERCISES WRITING EXERCISES WRITING EXERCISES WRITING EXERCISES
ﺏﻴﹺ ﺭ'ﺩﹶ ﺘ ١
Connect the letters of the word

ﻍ ل ﺏ ﺽ ﺏ ﻕ ﻍ ﺏ ﺹ ﺏ ل ﻕ ﺏ ﺕ ﻙ

ﻥ ﻱ ﺕ ﺡ ﺕ ﻑ ﺏ ﺕ ﻉ ﺡ ﺱ ﻡ ﺕ ﺏ ﺕ

ﻡ ﺙ ل ﻡ ﻡ ل ﺱ ﻑ ﻥ ﺙ ﻱ ل ل ﺏ ﺝ


ﺏﻴﹺ ﺭ'ﺩﹶ ﺘ ٢

Separate the letters of each word















ﺱﺒﻋ ﺱﻤﺸ ﻊﻤﺴ ﺏﺘﻜ

لﻘﻋ ﻪﺒﺸ ﻡﻠﺤ ﻊﻔﻨ

ﻥﻴﺸ لﺘﻗ لﻠﺤ ﺹﻘﻨ


8

Remember that the non connectors (the letters connected from
right side only) are: ﺩ ﺍ ﻭ ﺫ ﺯ ﺭ
ﺏﻴﹺ ﺭ'ﺩﹶ ﺘ ٣

Connect the letters of the word

ﺭ ﺩ ﺏ ﺭ ﺏ ﻕ ﺏ ﺍ ﺹ ﺏ ل ﻕ ﺏ ﻭ ﻙ

ﻥ ﻱ ﺕ ﺡ ﺕ ﻑ ﺏ ﺍ ﻉ ﺭ ﺕ ﻡ ﺕ ﻭ ﺕ



ﻡ ﻭ ﺙ ﻡ ﺙ ﺝ ﺭ ﺩ ﻡ ل ﺙ ﻱ ﺙ ﺩ ﺡ


ﺏﻴﹺ ﺭ'ﺩﹶ ﺘ ٤

Separate the letters of each word
ﺩﺒﻋ ﺏﺭﺸ ﺭﺘﺴ ﺏﻭﻜ

ﺭﺫﻨ ﺏﻭﺜ ﺭﺎﻨ ﺕﻭﺤ

ﻊﻓﺭ لﺯﻨ لﺄﺴ ﺩﻘﻨ


9

1 * ﹸ ﺕﺎﹶ ﻜ ﺭ ﺤﹾﻝﺍ
THE MARKS THE MARKS THE MARKS THE MARKS

ammah, Kasrah, Sukoon and Shaddah) D ah, h - (Fat


1 11 1- -- - FAT FAT FAT FAT- -- -HAH HAH HAH HAH
is a small diagonal line placed above a letter, and represents a short (a).
This (a) is pronounced as (a) in (tablet). The word Fat-hah means opening,
and refers to the opening of the mouth when producing an (a)

The mark of Fat-hah ﹸ ﺔ ﺤﹾﺘَ ﹶ ﻓ is up, and my mouth goes up

ﹾﻝﺍ ﻊ ﻤ ﹸ ﻑﻭ` ﺭ` ﺤﹾﻝﺍ ﺔ ﺤﹾﺘﹶ ﻔ
ah h - Fat The letters with the

2 ' ﺀ
ﺏ ﹶ ﺕ ﹶ ﺙ ﺝ ﺡ ﹶ ﺥ
'a ba ta tha ja ha kha
ﺩ ﹶ ﺫ ﺭ ﺯ ﺱ ﹶ ﺵ ﺹ
da dha ra za sa sha sa
ﺽ ﹶ ﻁ ﹶ ﻅ ﻉ ﹶ ﻍ ﹶ ﻑ ﹶ ﻕ
da ta dha 3a gha fa qa
ﻙ َ ل ﻡ ﻥ ﻩ ﻭ ﻱ
ka la ma na ha wa ya

*1-The letter ( ا ) you see at the beginning of that word is not a long vowel
(long vowels cannot start a word) but it is a type of Hamzah called Hamzah
of connection that will be explained later in that book.

*2- We have only chosen the form of the Hamzah without a seat as an
example, anyway the Hamzah sound will not change with all her seats. Look
at the next page for a quick revision of Hamzah.
ba

10

LETTER HAMZAH LETTER HAMZAH LETTER HAMZAH LETTER HAMZAH

The Hamzah is represented by a sign. This sign is sometimes written over
or under certain letters called “seats”, or else aloof.

ﻯ ) ﺉ or ـﺌ ( . ﻭ ) ﺅ ( . ﺍ ) ﺃ ( The seats can be:
The seat is not pronounced, but is only an orthographic convention in the
spelling of words with Hamzah.

There is a cardinal rule in the reading of Hamzah:


The writing of Hamzah:
1- Aloof ( ﺀ ) not connected from right or from left.
2- With a carrier, in which case it becomes like a diacritic:
a- Above and under an Alif ( ) ﺇ ﺃ (This is how it appears at the beginning
of a word)
b. Above a waaw ) ﺅ (
c. Above a dotless yaa' ) ﺉ (
The rules of writing The Hamzah will be studied later ُ ﷲﺍ ﺀﺎﹶ ﺸ 'ﻥﺇ
Important comment:
Note that the Alif and Hamzah are two different letters. The letter Alif is
a long vowel, always written free from any type of Harakah, and it never
comes at the beginning of a word. But Hamzah is a consonant that
comes anywhere in the word with a Harakah.
(Step by step book page 61)
But because the Hamzah is mostly using Alif as a seat, people call the
Hamzah on the top of Alif (ﺃ) : "Alif" also.
This might cause lot of confusion to the beginners but soon you will get
used to it.
In our lessons, we will always follow the correct way of differentiating
between them as they are not the same.
If there is a seat, ignore it.

11

ﺔ ﺤﹾﺘﹶ ﻔﹾﻝﺍ ﻊ ﻤ ﹲﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜ
ah h - Words with Fat

Read, Copy and revise how to connect the letters

ﺡ ﹶ ﺕ ﹶ ﻑ ﺏ ﹶ ﺕ ﻙ َ ل ﺱ ﹶ ﻍ ﻡ َ ل ﹶ ﻅ ﺩ ﺱ ﺡ

ﺢﹶ ﺘﹶ ﻓ ﺏﹶ ﺘﹶ ﻜ َ ل ﺴﹶ ﻏ ﻡﹶ ﻠﹶ ﻅ ﺩ ﺴ ﺤ

fataha kataba ghasala dhalama hasada
ﻉ ﻡ ﺝ َ ل ﻉ ﹶ ﻑ ﺭ ﺹ ﻥ ﺏ ﺱ ﻙ َ ل ﻡ ﻉ

ﻊ ﻤ ﺠ َ ل ﻌﹶ ﻓ ﺭ ﺼﹶ ﻨ ﺏ ﺴﹶ ﻜ َ ل ﻤ ﻋ

jama3a fa3ala nasara kasaba 3amala
َ ل ﹶ ﺕ ﹶ ﻕ ﺭ ﹶ ﻑ ﹶ ﻍ ﻙ ﺱ ﻥ ﺭ ﻩ ﻥ ﺱ ﺏ ﻱ

َ لﹶ ﺘﹶ ﻗ ﺭﹶ ﻔﹶ ﻏ ﻙ ﺴﹶ ﻨ ﺭ ﻬﹶ ﻨ ﺱ ﺒ ﻴ

qatala ghafara nasaka nahara yabasa




12

ﹸ ﺔ ﻴ` ﺩ ﻤﹾﻝﺍ ﹸ ﻑِ ﻝَ ﻷﺍﻭ ﹸ ﺔ ﺤﹾﺘﻔﹾﻝﺍ
yah (long vowel) y ah and Alif Maddi h - Fat

If the letter Alif ﺍ ( ) comes after a letter with Fat-hah (Alif is always
preceded by Fat-hah), then this Alif will be pronounced like double Fat-
hah as (a) in dad. We call it Alif Madiyyah.

- Alif Maddiyyah is the long form of Fat-hah

An Arabic word cannot start with Alif Maddiyah because Madd is like
Sukoon.

Standard
Arabic
) ﺀ ÷ ﺍ ¬( ﺁ
ﺎ ﺒ ﺎﹶ ﺘ ﺎﹶ ﺜ ﺎ ﺠ ﺎ ﺤ ﺎﹶ ﺨ
Qur'aan
script
´# 〈
'aa baa taa thaa jaa haa khaa
ﺍ ﺩ ﺍﹶ ﺫ ﺍ ﺭ ﺍ ﺯ ﺎ ﺴ ﺎﹶ ﺸ ﺎ ﺼ
daa dhaa raa zaa saa shaa saa
ﺎ ﻀ ﺎﹶ ﻁ ﺎﹶ ﻅ ﺎ ﻋ ﺎﹶ ﻏ ﺎﹶ ﻓ ﺎﹶ ﻗ
daa taa dhaa 3aa ghaa faa qaa
ﺎﹶ ﻜ ﻻ ﺎ ﻤ ﺎﹶ ﻨ ﺎ ﻫ ﺍ ﻭ ﺎ ﻴ
kaa laa maa naa haa waa yaa




13

ﻥﻴ ﺒ ﹸ ﺔﻨ ﺭﺎﻘ` ﻤ ﺔ` ﻴ` ﺩ ﻤﹾﻝﺍ ﻑِ ﻝَ ﻷﺍ ﻊ ﻤ ﻭ ﺔ ﺤﹾﺘﹶ ﻔﹾﻝﺍ ﻊ ﻤ ﹸ ﻑﻭ` ﺭ` ﺤﹾﻝﺍ
ah and with long vowel Alif h - Comparison between letters with Fat

ﺀ ﺏ ﹶ ﺕ ﹶ ﺙ ﺝ ﺡ ﹶ ﺥ
ﺁ ﺎ ﺒ ﺎﹶ ﺘ ﺎﹶ ﺜ ﺎ ﺠ ﺎ ﺤ ﺎﹶ ﺨ
ﺩ ﹶ ﺫ ﺭ ﺯ ﺱ ﹶ ﺵ ﺹ
ﺍ ﺩ ﺍﹶ ﺫ ﺍ ﺭ ﺍ ﺯ ﺎ ﺴ ﺎﹶ ﺸ ﺎ ﺼ
ﺽ ﹶ ﻁ ﹶ ﻅ ﻉ ﹶ ﻍ ﹶ ﻑ ﹶ ﻕ
ﺎ ﻀ ﺎﹶ ﻁ ﺎﹶ ﻅ ﺎ ﻋ ﺎﹶ ﻏ ﺎﹶ ﻓ ﺎﹶ ﻗ
ﻙ َ ل ﻡ ﻥ ﻩ ﻭ ﻱ
ﺎﹶ ﻜ ﻻ ﺎ ﻤ ﺎﹶ ﻨ ﺎ ﻫ ﺍ ﻭ ﺎ ﻴ

ﹲﺔ` ﻴ` ﺩ ﻤ ﹲﻑﻝَ ﺃﻭ ﹲﺔ ﺤﹾﺘﹶ ﻓ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜ
Madiyyah ah and Alif h - Words that have Fat

ﺏﺁ ﹶ ﺕﺎ ﺒ ﺏﺎﹶ ﺘ ﺭﺎﹶ ﺜ َ لﺎ ﺠ ﻡﺎ ﺤ ﺏﺎﹶ ﺨ
'aaba baata taaba thaara jaala haama khaaba
ﻥﺍ ﺩ ﹶ ﻕﺍﹶ ﺫ ﺝﺍ ﺭ َ لﺍ ﺯ ﺡﺎ ﺴ ﺏﺎﹶ ﺸ ﹶ ﻍﺎ ﺼ
daana dhaqa raaja zaala saaha shaaha saagha
ﻉﺎ ﻀ ﺭﺎﹶ ﻁ ﺀﺎﹶ ﻅ ﹶ ﺙﺎ ﻋ ﺹﺎﹶ ﻏ ﺯﺎﹶ ﻓ ﺩﺎَ ﹶ ﻗ
daa3a taara dhaa'a 3aatha ghaasa faaza qaada
َ لﺎﹶ ﻜ ﺡﻻ ﺀﺎ ﻤ ﺱﺎﹶ ﻨ ﺏﺎ ﻫ َ لﺍ ﻭ ﻱﺎ ﻴ
kaala laaha maa'a naasa haaba waala yaaya


14


ﹲﺔﹶ ﻨ ﺭﺎﻘ` ﻤ 'ﻴ ﺒ ﺔﺤﹾﺘﹶ ﻔﹾﻝﺍ ﻥ ﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔ` ﻴ` ﺩ ﻤﻝﺍ ﻑﻝَ ﻷﺍﻭ
in words ah and long vowel Alif h - Comparison between Fat

ﺀ ﻥ ﻤَ ﺃ
ﻥ ﻤﺁ
ﺭ ﻊﹶ ﻓ ﺭ ﻊﹶ ﻓﺍ ﺭ ﻑ ﺢﹶ ﺘﹶ ﻓ ﺢﹶ ﺘﺎﹶ ﻓ
´Β#´ 〈

aman
a
aamana rafa3a raafa3a a h fata a h faata
ﺏ َ لﹶ ﻁ ﺒ َ لﹶ ﻁﺎ ﺒ ﺯ ﻡ ﻋ ﺯ ﻡ ﻋﺍ ﺯ ﻕ َ لﹶ ﺘﹶ ﻗ َ لﹶ ﺘﺎﹶ ﻗ
ﺕ ﹶ ﻑﹶ ﻠﹶ ﺘ ﹶ ﻑﹶ ﻝﺎﹶ ﺘ ﺱ َ لَ ﺄﺴ َ ل ﺀﺎ ﺴ ﻙ ﺏﹶ ﺘﹶ ﻜ ﹶ ﻜ ﺏﹶ ﺘﺎ
ﺙ ﹶ ﺕ ﺒﹶ ﺜ ﹶ ﺕ ﺒﺎﹶ ﺜ ﺵ ﻡﹶ ﺘﹶ ﺸ ﻡﹶ ﺘﺎﹶ ﺸ ل ﺱ ﻤﹶ ﻝ ﺱ ﻤﻻ
ﺝ ﺩ ﻬ ﺠ ﺩ ﻫﺎ ﺠ ﺹ ﺭ ﺒ ﺼ ﺭ ﺒﺎ ﺼ ﻡ ﹶ ﺙﹶ ﻜ ﻤ ﹶ ﺙﹶ ﻜﺎ ﻤ
ﺡ َ ل ﻤ ﺤ َ ل ﻤﺎ ﺤ ﺽ ﺏ ﺭ ﻀ ﺏ ﺭﺎ ﻀ ﻥ ﺏ ﺼﹶ ﻨ ﺏ ﺼﺎﹶ ﻨ
ﺥ ﺝ ﺭﹶ ﺨ ﺝ ﺭﺎﹶ ﺨ ﻁ ﺏﹶ ﻠﹶ ﻁ ﺏﹶ ﻝﺎﹶ ﻁ ﻩ ﺏ ﺭ ﻫ ﺏ ﺭﺎ ﻫ
ﺩ ﻊﹶ ﻓ ﺩ ﻊﹶ ﻓﺍ ﺩ ﻅ ﺭ ﻬﹶ ﻅ ﺭ ﻫﺎﹶ ﻅ ﻭ ﺏ ﻫ ﻭ ﺏ ﻫﺍ ﻭ
ﺫ ﹶ ﻑ ﺭﹶ ﺫ ﹸ ﻑﹺ ﺭﺍﹶ ﺫ ﻉ ﹶ ﻑ ﺭ ﻋ ﹶ ﻑ ﺭﺎ ﻋ ﻱ ﻥ ﻤ ﻴ ﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴ
ﻍ ﹶ ﻕ ﺭﹶ ﻏ ﹶ ﻕ ﺭﺎﹶ ﻏ

You should be able to continue reading without help ُ ﷲﺍ ﺀﺎﹶ ﺸ 'ﻥﺇ






15


ﹸ ﺓﺭﻭ` ﺼﹾﻘ ﻤﹾﻝﺍ ﹸ ﻑِ ﻝﻷﺍ OORAH S MAQ - UL - ALIF - AL
The shortened Alif

Sometimes long vowel ( ﺍ ) at the end of the word is written in the
shape of Yaa' without dots. You still pronounce it as an Alif ( ﺍ ) (aa) not
as ﻱ (ee), We call it "Al-Alif-ul-Maqsoorah" (The shortened Alif)

How would I know it is an Alif not a Yaa’?
1- It has no dots below.
2- It has no mark.
3- It is preceded by Fat-hah ﺔ ﺤﹾﺘﹶ ﻓ
4- In The Qur’aan it has a small ﺍ on the top of it “.
Ex.

ﻰ ﺴﻭ` ﻤ ﻰ ﺴﻴ ﻋ ﻰﹶ ﻠ ﻋ
Standard
Arabic
 ›θãΒ 〈  ¤ŠÏã 〈  ’?ã 〈
Qur'aan
script
Moosaa 3eesaa 3alaa










16


2 22 2- -- - KASRAH KASRAH KASRAH KASRAH
Is a small diagonal line placed below a letter and represents a short (i).
This (i) is pronounced as (i) in bin. The word Kasrah means breaking.


The mark of Kasrah ﺓ ﺭ'ﺴﹶ ﻜ is down, and my mouth goes down bi


ﺓ ﺭ'ﺴﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ ﻊ ﻤ ﹸ ﻑﻭﺭ` ﺤﹾﻝﺍ Words with kasrah
ﺀ ﹺ ﺏ ﺕ ﺙ ﹺ ﺝ ﹺ ﺡ ﹺ ﺥ
'i bi ti thi ji hi khi
ﺩ ﺫ ﹺ ﺭ ﹺ ﺯ ﹺ ﺱ ﹺ ﺵ ﹺ ﺹ
di dhi ri zi si shi si
ﹺ ﺽ ﻁ ﻅ ﹺ ﻉ ﹺ ﻍ ﻑ
ِ ق
di ti dhi 3i ghi fi qi
ﻙ ِ ل ﹺ ﻡ ﹺ ﻥ ﻩ ﹺ ﻭ ﹺ ﻱ
ki li mi ni hi wi yi

ﺎ ﻌ ﻤ ﹺ ﺭ'ﺴﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍﻭ ﹺ ﺢﹾﺘﹶ ﻔﹾﻝﺍ ﺔﹶ ﻜ ﺭ ﺤﹺ ﺒ ﹲﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜ
ah and kasrah h - Words with Fat

ﹶ ﻁﹺ ﺒ ﺤ ﺭ ﺴﹶ ﺨ ﻲ ﺴﹶ ﻨ ﻩﹺ ﺭﹶ ﻜ ِ لﹺ ﺒﺇ
habita khasira nasiya kariha ibili
ﺡﹺ ﺭﹶ ﻓ ﺱِ ﺌ ﻴ ﻉﹺ ﺯﹶ ﻓ ﻲ ﻌ ﻴ ﻋ ﻡ ﻠ
fariha ya'isa fazi3a ya3iya 3alima
ﹶ ﻑ ﺴَ ﺃ ﺒ ﹶ ﻕﹺ ﺭ ﹶ ﺙﹺ ﺒﹶ ﻝ ﻊ ﺴ ﻭ َ ل ﺨ ﺒ
asifa bariqa labitha wasi3a bakhila




17

ﹸ ﺔ ﻴ` ﺩ ﻤﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺀﺎﻴﹾﻝﺍﻭ ﹸ ﺓ ﺭ'ﺴﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ
Kasrah and yaa' Maddiyah (long vowel)
- If the letter Yaa' ﻱ ( ) comes after a letter with Kasrah and has no mark
over or below it, then this Yaa' will be pronounced like double Kasrah as
(ee) in beep. We call it Yaa' Madiyyah.

- Yaa' Maddiyyah is the long form of kasrah.

- An Arabic word cannot start with Yaa' Maddiyyah (Madd is like Sukoon)


ﻱ ﺀ ﻲﹺ ﺒ ﻲ ﺘ ﻲ ﺜ ﻲﹺ ﺠ ﻲ ﺤ ﻲ ﺨ
'ee bee tee thee jee hee khee
ﻱ ﺩ ﻱ ﺫ ﻱﹺ ﺭ ﻱﹺ ﺯ ﻲ ﺴ ﻲ ﺸ ﻲ ﺼ
dee dhee ree zee see shee see
ﻲ ﻀ ﻲ ﻁ ﻲ ﻅ ﻲ ﻋ ﻲ ﻏ ﻲ ﻓ ﻲ ﻗ
dee tee dhee 3ee ghee fee qee
ﻲ ﻜ ﻲِ ﻝ ﻲ ﻤ ﻲ ﻨ ﻲ ﻫ ﻱﹺ ﻭ ﻲﹺ ﻳ
kee lee mee nee hee wee yee









18

ﺔ` ﻴ` ﺩ ﻤﹾﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻴﹾﻝﺍ ﻊ ﻤ ﻭ ﺓ ﺭ'ﺴﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ ﻊ ﻤ ﹸ ﻑﻭ` ﺭ` ﺤﹾﻝﺍ ﹸ ﺔﻨ ﺭﺎﻘ` ﻤ
Comparison between letters with kasrah and long vowel Yaa'

ﺀ ﹺ ﺏ ﺕ ﺙ ﹺ ﺝ ﹺ ﺡ ﹺ ﺥ
ﻱ ﺀ ﻲﹺ ﺒ ﻲ ﺘ ﻲ ﺜ ﻲﹺ ﺠ ﻲ ﺤ ﻲ ﺨ
ﺩ ﺫ ﹺ ﺭ ﹺ ﺯ ﹺ ﺱ ﹺ ﺵ ﹺ ﺹ
ﻱ ﺩ ﻱ ﺫ ﻱﹺ ﺭ ﻱﹺ ﺯ ﻲ ﺴ ﻲ ﺸ ﻲ ﺼ
ﹺ ﺽ ﻁ ﻅ ﹺ ﻉ ﹺ ﻍ ﻑ ﻕ
ﻲ ﻀ ﻲ ﻁ ﻲ ﻅ ﻲ ﻋ ﻲ ﻏ ﻲ ﻓ ﻲ ﻗ
ﻙ ِ ل ﹺ ﻡ ﹺ ﻥ ﻩ ﹺ ﻭ ﹺ ﻱ
ﻲ ﻜ ﻲِ ﻝ ﻲ ﻤ ﻲ ﻨ ﻲ ﻫ ﻱﹺ ﻭ
ﻲﹺ ﻳ

ﹲﺔ` ﻴ` ﺩ ﻤ ´ﺀﺎﻴ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﹲﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜ Words that have long vowel Yaa'

ﻤﻴِ ﺇ ﻥﺎ ﺭﻴﹺ ﺒﹶ ﻜ ﻥﻴ ﺘ ﺭﻴ ﺜﹶ ﻜ ﻡﻴﹺ ﺠ ﺭ ﻡﻴ ﺤ ﺭ ﺹﻴ ﺨ ﺭ
'eemaana kabeera teena katheera rajeema raheema rakheesa
ﻥﻴ ﺩ ﺭﻴ ﺫﹶ ﻨ ﻡﻴﹺ ﺭ ﺯﻴﹺ ﺯ ﻋ َ لﻴ ﺴ ﻴ ﺩﻴ ﺸ ﺭ ﺭﻴ ﺼﹶ ﻗ
deena nadheera reema 3azeeza yaseela rasheeda qaseera
ﺩﻴ ﻀﹶ ﻨ ﺏﻴ ﻁ ﻡﻴ ﻅ ﻋ ﺭﻴ ﻋ ﺽﻴ ﻏ َ لﻴ ﻓ َ لﻴ ﻗ
nadeeda teeba 3adheema 3eera gheeda feela qeela
ﻥﻴ ﻜ ﻤ َ لﻴ ﻠﹶ ﻗ ﻥﻴ ﻤ ﺴ َ لﻴ ﻨ ﺏﻴ ﻫ ﺭ ﺭ ﻱﹺ ﻭﺍ ﹶ ﻨ ﻲ ﻴﺎ
makeena qaleela sameena neela raheeba raawee naayee



19

ﺀﺎﻴﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺩ ﻤ ﻭ ﹺ ﺭ'ﺴﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ ﻥ'ﻴ ﺒ ﺔﹶ ﻨ ﺭﺎﻘ` ﻤ ﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ
Comparison between kasrah and long vowel Yaa' in words

ﺀ ﹺ ﻥِ ﺇ ﹺ ﻥﻴِ ﺇ ﺭ ﻉﹺ ﺭ ﻊﻴﹺ ﺭ ﻑ َ ل ﻓ َ لﻴ ﻓ
ﺏ ﺭﹺ ﺒ ﺭﻴﹺ ﺒ ﺯ َ لﹺ ﺯ َ لﻴﹺ ﺯ ﻕ ِ ل ﻗ ِ لﻴ ﻗ
ﺕ ﹺ ﻥ ﺘ ﹺ ﻥﻴ ﺘ ﺱ ﺭ ﺴ ﺭﻴ ﺴ ﻙ ﹺ ﺭ ﻜ ﹺ ﺭﻴ ﻜ
ﺙ ﹺ ﺏ ﺜ ﹺ ﺏﻴ ﺜ ﺵ ﹺ ﻥ ﺸ ﹺ ﻥﻴ ﺸ ل ﻥِ ﻝ ﻥﻴِ ﻝ
ﺝ ﹺ ﻥﹺ ﺠ ﹺ ﻥﻴﹺ ﺠ ﺹ ﹺ ﺭ ﺼ ﹺ ﺭﻴ ﺼ ﻡ َ ل ﻤ َ لﻴ ﻤ
ﺡ َ ل ﺤ َ لﻴ ﺤ ﺽ ﺩ ﻀ ﺩﻴ ﻀ ﻥ ﹺ ﺱ ﻨ ﹺ ﺱﻴ ﻨ
ﺥ ﹶ ﻑ ﺨ ﹶ ﻑﻴ ﺨ ﻁ ﺏ ﻁ ﺏﻴ ﻁ ﻩ ﺭ ﻫ ﺭﻴ ﻫ
ﺩ ﻥ ﺩ ﻥﻴ ﺩ ﻅ َ ل ﻅ َ لﻴ ﻅ ﻭ ﹶ ﺵﹺ ﻭ ﹶ ﺵﻴﹺ ﻭ
ﺫ ِ ل ﺫ ِ لﻴ ﺫ ﻉ ﹺ ﺭ ﻋ ﹺ ﺭﻴ ﻋ ﻱ
ﻍ ﺽ ﻏ ﺽﻴ ﻏ






















20


3 33 3- -- - DAMMAH DAMMAH DAMMAH DAMMAH
Is a small curl placed above a letter and represents a short (u). This (u)
is pronounced as (u) in “bull “. The word Dammah means a hug.

The mark of Dammah ﺔ` ﻤ ﻀ looks like a whistle, that I blow in.
bu


ﺔ` ﻤ` ﻀﻝﺍ ﻊ ﻤ ﹸ ﻑﻭﺭ` ﺤﹾﻝﺍ
ammah D Letters with

` ﺀ ` ﺏ ﹸ ﺕ ﹸ ﺙ ` ﺝ ` ﺡ ﹸ ﺥ
'u bu tu thu ju hu khu
` ﺩ ﹸ ﺫ ` ﺭ ` ﺯ ` ﺱ ﹸ ﺵ ` ﺹ
du dhu ru zu su shu su
` ﺽ ﹸ ﻁ ﹸ ﻅ ` ﻉ ﹸ ﻍ ﹸ ﻑ ﹸ ﻕ
du tu dhu 3u ghu fu qu
` ﻙ ُ ل ` ﻡ ` ﻥ ` ﻩ ` ﻭ ` ﻱ
ku lu mu nu hu wu yu









21

` ﻡ` ﻀﻝﺍ ﺔﹶ ﻜ ﺭ ﺤﹺ ﺒ ﹲﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜ
ammah D Words with
` ﺏﹸ ﺘﹸ ﻜ ُ ل` ﺒ` ﺴ ` ﻡ` ﺭ` ﺤ ُ ل` ﺴ` ﺭ ﹸ ﻕ` ﺭﹸ ﻁ

kutubu subulu hurumu rusulu turuqu
` ﺏ` ﺭ` ﻋ ` ﺭﹸ ﺫﹸ ﻨ ` ﺭ` ﻤ` ﻋ ` ﺭﹸ ﺜﹸ ﻜ ` ﺭ` ﺒ` ﺯ

3urubu nudhuru 3umuru kuthuru zuburu

ﹸ ﺔ ﻴ ﺩ ﻤﹾﻝﺍ  ﻭﺍﻭﹾﻝﺍﻭ ﹸ ﺔ ﻤ ﻀﻝﺍ
ammah and waaw Maddiyah (long vowel) D

- If the letter Waaw و ( ) comes after a letter with Dammah and has no
mark above or below it, then this Waaw will be pronounced like double
Dammah as (oo) in boot. We call it Waaw Madiyyah.

- Waaw Maddiyah is the long form of Dammah.

- An Arabic word cannot start with Waaw Maddiyah (Madd is like Sukoon)

ﻭ` ﺀ ﻭ` ﺒ ﻭﹸ ﺘ ﻭﹸ ﺜ ﻭ` ﺠ ﻭ` ﺤ ﻭﹸ ﺨ
'oo boo too thoo joo hoo khoo
ﻭ` ﺩ ﻭﹸ ﺫ ﻭ` ﺭ ﻭ` ﺯ ﻭ` ﺴ ﻭﹸ ﺸ ﻭ` ﺼ
doo dhoo roo zoo soo shoo soo
ﻭ` ﻀ ﻭﹸ ﻁ ﻭﹸ ﻅ ﻭ` ﻋ ﻭﹸ ﻏ ﻭﹸ ﻓ ﻭﹸ ﻗ
doo too dhoo 3oo ghoo foo qoo
ﻭﹸ ﻜ ﻭﹸ ﻝ ﻭ` ﻤ ﻭﹸ ﻨ ﻭ` ﻫ ﻭ` ﻭ ﻭ` ﻴ
koo loo moo noo hoo woo yoo

22


ﹺ ﻭﺍﻭﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺩ ﻤ ﻊ ﻤ ﻭ ﺔ` ﻤ` ﻀﻝﺍ ﻊ ﻤ ﹸ ﻑﻭ` ﺭ` ﺤﹾﻝﺍ ﹸ ﺔﻨ ﺭﺎﻘ` ﻤ
waaw ammah and long vowel D Comparison between letters with

` ﺀ ` ﺏ ﹸ ﺕ ﹸ ﺙ ` ﺝ ` ﺡ ﹸ ﺥ
ﻭ` ﺀ ﻭ` ﺒ ﻭﹸ ﺘ ﻭﹸ ﺜ ﻭ` ﺠ ﻭ` ﺤ ﻭﹸ ﺨ
` ﺩ ﹸ ﺫ ` ﺭ ` ﺯ ` ﺱ ﹸ ﺵ ` ﺹ
ﻭ` ﺩ ﻭﹸ ﺫ ﻭ` ﺭ ﻭ` ﺯ ﻭ` ﺴ ﻭﹸ ﺸ ﻭ` ﺼ
` ﺽ ﹸ ﻁ ﹸ ﻅ ` ﻉ ﹸ ﻍ ﹸ ﻑ ﹸ ﻕ
ﻭ` ﻀ ﻭﹸ ﻁ ﻭﹸ ﻅ ﻭ` ﻋ ﻭﹸ ﻏ ﻭﹸ ﻓ ﻭﹸ ﻗ
` ﻙ ُ ل ` ﻡ ` ﻥ ` ﻩ ` ﻭ ` ﻱ
ﻭﹸ ﻜ ﻭﹸ ﻝ ﻭ` ﻤ ﻭﹸ ﻨ ﻭ` ﻫ ﻭ` ﻭ ﻭ` ﻴ

ﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜ ´ﻭﺍﻭ ﺎﻬﻴ ﻓ ﹲﺔ` ﻴ` ﺩ ﻤ
Words that have long vowel waaw

ﻰﹶ ﻝﻭَ ﺃ ` ﺭﻭ` ﺒ ` ﺏﻭﹸ ﺘ ﻴ ` ﺭﻭﹸ ﺜﹶ ﻨ ُ لﻭ` ﺠ` ﻋ ` ﺭﻭ` ﺤ ` ﺭﻭﹸ ﺨ
'oolaa booru yatoobu nathooru 3ujoolu hooru khooru
ﻥﻭ` ﺩ ﹶ ﻕﻭﹸ ﺫَ ﺃ ﹺ ﺝﻭ` ﺭ` ﻤ ` ﺭﻭ` ﺯ ﻴ ` ﺭﻭ` ﺴ ﺭﻭﹸ ﺸﹸ ﻗ ` ﺭﻭ` ﺼﹸ ﻗ
doona adhuqa murooji yazooru sooru qushoora qusooru
ﺭﻭ` ﻀ ﹺ ﺭﻭﹸ ﻁ` ﻋ ﹸ ﻅﻭﹸ ﻅ` ﺤ َ لﻭ` ﻌ ﻴ ` ﺹﻭﹸ ﻐﹶ ﻨ ُ لﻭﹸ ﻓ ` ﺩﻭﹸ ﻘﹶ ﺘ
doora 3utoori hudhoodhu ya3oola naghoosu foolu taqoodu
ﻥﻭُ ﹸ ﻜَ ﺃ ﹺ ﻡﻭﹸ ﻠ` ﻋ ` ﺭﻭ` ﻤ ﻴ ` ﺭﻭﹸ ﻨ َ لﻭ` ﻬ` ﺴ ` ﺩﻭ` ﻭﺍ ﺩ ﹺ ﻥﻭ` ﻴ` ﻋ
akoona 3uloomi yamooru nooru suhoola dawoodu 3uyooni


23


` ﻡ` ﻀﻝﺍ ﻥ'ﻴ ﺒ ﺔﹶ ﻨ ﺭﺎﻘ` ﻤ ﹺ ﻭﺍﻭﹾﻝﺎﺒ ` ﺩ ﻤﹾﻝﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ
in words ammah and long vowel waaw D Comparison between

ﺀ ﻰﹶ ﻝُ ﺃ ﻰﹶ ﻝﻭُ ﺃ ﺭ ﺏ` ﺭ ﺏﻭ` ﺭ ﻑ ﹺ ﺯﹸ ﻓ ﹺ ﺯﻭﹸ ﻓ
ﺏ ` ﺭ` ﺒ ` ﺭﻭ` ﺒ ﺯ ِ ل` ﺯ ِ لﻭ` ﺯ ﻕ َ لﹸ ﻗ َ لﻭﹸ ﻗ
ﺕ ﺏﹸ ﺘ ﺏﻭﹸ ﺘ ﺱ ﹸ ﻕ` ﺴ ﹸ ﻕﻭ` ﺴ ﻙ ` ﺏﹸ ﻜ ` ﺏﻭﹸ ﻜ
ﺙ ﻡﹸ ﺜ ﻡﻭﹸ ﺜ ﺵ ﺭﹸ ﺸ ﺭﻭﹸ ﺸ ل ﹺ ﻡﹸ ﻝ ﹺ ﻡﻭﹸ ﻝ
ﺝ َ ل` ﺠ َ لﻭ` ﺠ ﺹ ﻡ` ﺼ ﻡﻭ` ﺼ ﻡ ِ 'ﺞ` ﻤ ﹺ ﺝﻭ` ﻤ
ﺡ ﺭ` ﺤ ﺭﻭ` ﺤ ﺽ ُ ل` ﻀ ُ لﻭ` ﻀ ﻥ ` ﺢﹸ ﻨ ` ﺡﻭﹸ ﻨ
ﺥ ﺹﹸ ﺨ ﺹﻭﹸ ﺨ ﻁ ﻑﹸ ﻁ ﻑﻭﹸ ﻁ ﻩ ` ﺩ` ﻫ ` ﺩﻭ` ﻫ
ﺩ ﺭ` ﺩ ﺭﻭ` ﺩ ﻅ ُ لﹸ ﻅ ُ لﻭﹸ ﻅ ﻭ ﺭ` ﻭ ﺭﻭ` ﻭ
ﺫ ﹸ ﻕﹸ ﺫ ﹸ ﻕﻭﹸ ﺫ ﻉ َ ل` ﻋ َ لﻭ` ﻋ ﻱ ﹺ ﺭ` ﻴ ﹺ ﺭﻭ` ﻴ
ﻍ 'ﺹﹸ ﻏ 'ﺹﻭﹸ ﻏ
















24



4 44 4- -- - SUKOON SUKOON SUKOON SUKOON (Absence of the vowel)

This mark written on the top of the Arabic letter indicates that this letter is
not followed by any vowel’s sound (Absence of the vowel).
It is pronounced as “t” in “ant“, “b” in cobra…etc

ﺀ ﺏ ﺕ ﺙ ﺝ ﺡ ﺥ
ْﺃ ﺭ ` ﺱ 'ﺏﹶ ﻨ ﻲ ﻨ ﹾﺕ ﻴ ` ﺏ ﻋ ﹾﺙﹶ ﻨ ` ﺭَ ﺃ 'ﺞ` ﻤ ُ ل ﻤ 'ﺢ` ﻤ ` ﻥ ﺴ ﹾﺦﹶ ﻓ ﺭ
` ﺱْﺃ ﺭ ﻲ ﻨ'ﺒﹶ ﻨ ` ﺏ ﻌﹾﺘ ﻴ ` ﺭَ ﺄﹾﺜﹶ ﻨ ُ ل ﻤ'ﺠ` ﻤ ` ﻥ ﺴ'ﺤ` ﻤ ﺭﹾﺨﹶ ﻓ
ra'su nabnee yat3abu nath'aru mujmalu muhsinu fakhra
ﺽ ﻁ ﻅ ﻉ ﻍ ﻑ ﻕ
'ﺩ ﻤ ` ﻥ ﻴ ﹾﺫ ﻋ ﹺ ﺏ 'ﺭ ﺒ ﹶ ﻕ 'ﺯﹺ ﻭ ﹺ ﺭ 'ﺱ ﻴ ` ﻊ ﻤ 'ﺭ ﻗ ﹾﺵ 'ﺹﹶ ﻨ ` ﺭ
` ﻥ ﻴ'ﺩ ﻤ ﹺ ﺏﹾﺫ ﻋ ﹶ ﻕ'ﺭ ﺒ ﹺ ﺭ'ﺯﹺ ﻭ ` ﻊ ﻤ'ﺴ ﻴ ﹾﺵ'ﺭ ﻗ ` ﺭ'ﺼﹶ ﻨ
madyanu 3adhbi barqa wizri yasma3u qirshu nasru
ﺽ ﻁ ﻅ ﻉ ﻍ ﻑ ﻕ
'ﺽﹶ ﻓ ﻲِ ﻝ ﹾﻁ ﻋ ﺎﹶ ﻨ` ﺭ ﹾﻅ ﺤ ` ﺭ 'ﻊ ﺒ ﻲِ ﻝ ﹾﻎﹶ ﻨ ﻭﹸ ﻓ ﹾﻑﹶ ﺘ ` ﺢﹶ ﺘ ﹾﻕﹶ ﻨ ِ ل
ﻲ ﻠ'ﻀﹶ ﻓ ﺎﹶ ﻨ` ﺭﹾﻁ ﻋ ` ﺭﹾﻅ ﺤ ﻲ ﻠ'ﻌ ﺒ ﻭﹸ ﻔﹾﻐﹶ ﻨ ` ﺢﹶ ﺘﹾﻔﹶ ﺘ ِ لﹾﻘﹶ ﻨ
fadlee 3itrunaa hadhru ba3lee naghfoo taftahu naqli
ﻙ ل ﻡ ﻥ ﻩ ﻭ ﻱ
'ﻙ ﻤ ﺏﹶ ﺘ ْل ﻫ 'ﻡَ ﺃ َ ل ﻫ 'ﻥ ﻤ ` ﻩ 'ﻪ ﺴ ُ ل 'ﻭ ﺴ ` ﻥ ﺴ ﻲﺴ ُ ل
ﺏﹶ ﺘﹾﻜ ﻤ ْل ﻫ َ ل ﻬ'ﻤَ ﺃ ` ﻪﹾﻨ ﻤ ُ ل'ﻬ ﺴ ` ﻥ ﺴ'ﻭ ﺴ ُ ل'ﻴ ﺴ
maktaba hal amhala minhu sahlu sawsan saylu

This is to show the way to pronounce Sukoon in the middle of a word, to stop before
the dot then to continue the word. The correct way of writing is on the next line.


25


How to pause on Arabic words
- An Arabic word never starts with Sukoon.
- If you pause on any word, you have to keep a Sukoon on the last letter
of the word e.g. the last letter must be 'still' (in reading) even if there is a
different mark on it (in writing).















Pausing
form
The word
Word ending with Fat-hah or Dammah or Kasrah, we
pause with sukoon on the last letter.

walad
` ﺩﹶ ﻝ ﻭ – ﺩﹶ ﻝ ﻭ -
ﺩﹶ ﻝ ﻭ
Word ending with a long vowel, we pause on a long
vowel as well.

Fee

Maa

yarjoo
ﻲ ﻓ
ﺎ ﻤ
ﻭ` ﺠ'ﺭ ﻴ
Word ending with Shaddah, we pause on sukoon but
with doubling the letter.

3aduww
` ﻭ` ﺩ ﻋ – ` ﻭ` ﺩ ﻋ
` ﻭ` ﺩ ﻋ
If the last letter is a waaw without Shaddah
preceded by a Dammah, or a yaa' without Shaddah
preceded by a Kasrah, we change the waaw and yaa'
to long vowels when pausing.

hoo

hee
ﻭ` ﻫ
ﻲ ﻫ
5 55 5- -- - SHADDAH SHADDAH SHADDAH SHADDAH
This mark written on the top of the Arabic letter indicates that the letter
should be stressed (which
same letter with a vowel).
Shaddah can be with the Fat

Help Shaddah is repeating the letter twice without moving
the tongue: once with a sukoon and once with a vowel




1-Shaddah with Fat-

Example: when you say:

On the first 't' there is a Sukoon and on the

2- Shaddah with Kasrah
Example: when you say:

On the first 't' there is a Sukoon and on the
3- Shaddah with Dammah
Example: when you say:
On the first 't' there is a Sukoon and on the





ﱠ ﺕ ÷ ﺏ ( ت with
÷ ﺏ ﱠ ﺕ (ت with
÷ ﺏ ﱠ ﺕ ( ت with
26
This mark written on the top of the Arabic letter indicates that the letter
should be stressed (which means to pause on the letter and then to say the
same letter with a vowel).
Shaddah can be with the Fat-hah ﱠ or the Kasrah ﱢ or the
Shaddah is repeating the letter twice without moving
tongue: once with a sukoon and once with a vowel
-hah
Example: when you say: what time is it?
On the first 't' there is a Sukoon and on the second there is a Fat
with Kasrah
Example: when you say: Do you like hot tea?
On the first 't' there is a Sukoon and on the second there is a Kasrah.

ammah و
Example: when you say: I like it too!
On the first 't' there is a Sukoon and on the second there is a
(Step by Step page 21)


with shaddah and Fat-hah) is batta = ﱠ ﺕ ﺒ
with shaddah and Kasrah) is batti = ﱢ ﺕ
with shaddah and Dammah) is battu =ﱡ ﺕ


This mark written on the top of the Arabic letter indicates that the letter
means to pause on the letter and then to say the
the Dammah ﱡ
Shaddah is repeating the letter twice without moving
tongue: once with a sukoon and once with a vowel
there is a Fat-hah.
there is a Kasrah.
there is a Dammah.




(Step by Step page 21)
ﱠ ﺕ ﺒ
ﺒ ﱢ ﺕ
ﺒ ﱡ ﺕ

27

ﺔ ﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ ﹺ ﺭ ﺨﺁ ﻰﹶ ﻠ ﻋ ﺓ` ﺩﱠ ﺸﻝﺍ ﻊ ﻤ ﹸ ﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ
Words with Shaddah at the end of the word

ﺀ ﺏ ` ﺏَ ﺃ ` ﺏَ ﺃ ` ﺏَ ﺃ

abba
abb
abbi
abb
abbu
abb
full
pausal*
ﺕ ﱠ ﺕ ﺒ ﱢ ﺕ ﺒ ﱡ ﺕ ﺒ ﺙ ﱠ ﺙ ﺒ ﱢ ﺙ ﺒ ﱡ ﺙ ﺒ

batta batti battu baththa baththi baththu
ﺝ ` ﺞ ﻋ ` ﺞ ﻋ ` ﺞ ﻋ ﺡ ` ﺢ ﻤ ` ﺢ ﻤ ` ﺢ ﻤ
3ajja 3ajji 3ajju mahha mahhi
u hh ma
ﺥ ﱠ ﺥ ﺭ ﱢ ﺥ ﺭ ﱡ ﺥ ﺭ ﺩ ` ﺩ ﺴ ` ﺩ ﺴ ` ﺩ ﺴ
rakhkha rakhkhi rakhkhu sadda saddi saddu
ﺫ ﱠ ﺫ ﻫ ﱢ ﺫ ﻫ ﱡ ﺫ ﻫ ﺭ ` ﺭ ﺴ ` ﺭ ﺴ ` ﺭ ﺴ
hadhdha hadhdhi hadhdhu sarra sarri
sarru
ﺯ ` ﺯ ﻤ ` ﺯ ﻤ ` ﺯ ﻤ ﺱ ` ﺱ ﺤ ` ﺱ ﺤ ` ﺱ ﺤ
mazza mazzi mazzu hassa hassi u ass h
ﺵ ﱠ ﺵ ﺭ ﱢ ﺵ ﺭ ﱡ ﺵ ﺭ ﺹ ` ﺹﹶ ﻗ ` ﺹﹶ ﻗ ` ﺹﹶ ﻗ
rashsha rashshi rashshu qassa qassi u ss qa
ﺽ ` ﺽ ﺤ ` ﺽ ﺤ ` ﺽ ﺤ ﻉ ` ﻉ ﺩ ` ﻉ ﺩ ` ﻉ ﺩ
hadda haddi haddu da33a da33i da33u
ﻍ ﱠ ﻍ ﺯ ﱢ ﻍ ﺯ ﱡ ﻍ ﺯ ﻑ ﱠ ﻑﹶ ﻜ ﱢ ﻑﹶ ﻜ ﱡ ﻑﹶ ﻜ
zaghgha zaghghi zaghghu kaffa kaffi kaffu
ﻕ ﱠ ﻕﺩ ﱢ ﻕﺩ ﱡ ﻕﺩ ﻙ ` ﻙﹶ ﺸ ` ﻙﹶ ﺸ ` ﻙﹶ ﺸ
daqqa daqqi daqqu shakka shakki shakku
ل ﱠ ل ﺠ ﱢ ل ﺠ ﱡ ل ﺠ ﻡ ` ﻡ ﻫ ` ﻡ ﻫ ` ﻡ ﻫ

jalla jalli jallu hamma hammi hammu

28

ﻥ ` ﻥ ﺤ ` ﻥ ﺤ ` ﻥ ﺤ ﻩ ` ﻪ ﺴ ` ﻪ ﺴ ` ﻪ ﺴ

hanna hanni hannu sahha sahhi sahhu
ﻭ ` ﻭﹶ ﻗ ` ﻭﹶ ﻗ ` ﻭﹶ ﻗ ﻱ ` ﻲ ﻋ ` ﻲ ﻋ ` ﻲ ﻋ
qawwa qawwi qawwu 3ayya 3ayyi 3ayyu

*You should read each word once in full form keeping the last vowel (when you
continue reading after that word) and once when pausing on Sukoon by keeping
the stress (doubling the letter) on the last letter.


ﹲﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜ ﺎﻬﻴ ﻓ ﹲﺓ` ﺩﹶ ﺸ
Words with Shaddah



Full form
Pausal form
Meaning








ُ ﷲﺍ ` ﺭﹶ ﺸ ` ﺏ` ﺤ ` ﻥﺎﱠ ﻨﹶ ﻓ ﹸ ﻁﺎ` ﻴﹶ ﺨ
Allaahu sharru hubba fannaanu khayyaatu
Allaah sharr hubb fannaan khayyaat
Allaah evil love artist tailor
ﻥﻭﱡ ﺘ ﺴ ﻲ ﻘﱠ ﺘ` ﻤ ﱡ ﻑ ﺼ ` ﺱ` ﺭ ﺩ` ﻤ ` ﺭﺎ` ﺠﹶ ﻨ
sittoona muttaqee saffu mudarrisu najjaaru
sittoon muttaqee saff mudarris najjaar
sixty pious row teacher carpenter

29




PART 2

NEW LESSONS



RULES OF READING MORE THAN A WORD


1- INTRODUCTION OF THE ARABIC WORD
2- TANWEEN
3- TAA' MARBOOTAH
4- HAMZA-TUL-WASL
5- LAAM AT-TA3REEF





30


1 11 1- -- - INTRODUCTION TO THE ARABIC WORD INTRODUCTION TO THE ARABIC WORD INTRODUCTION TO THE ARABIC WORD INTRODUCTION TO THE ARABIC WORD

ﹸ ﺔ` ﻴﹺ ﺒ ﺭ ﻌﹾﻝﺍ ﹸ ﺔ ﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ
The Arabic Word





´ﻡ'ﺴ ﺍ Noun ٌل'ﻌ ﻓ Verb ﹲﻑ'ﺭ ﺤ Particle
´ﻥﺎﺴﹾﻨِ ﺇ
Human
ُ ل'ﻌ ﻔﹾﻝﺍ
ﻲ ﻀﺎﻤﻝﺍ
Past tense
verb
' ﺭ ﺠ ﹸ ﻑ'ﺭ ﺤ
Preposition
،ﻰﻝﺇ ،ﻰﻠ ﻋ ،ﻲ ﻓ
ـﻜ ، ﻊ ﻤ ، 'ﻥ ﻤ
´ﻥﺍﻭ ﻴ ﺤ
Animal
ُ ل'ﻌ ﻔﹾﻝﺍ
` ﻉﹺ ﺭﺎﻀ` ﻤﹾﻝﺍ
Present
tense verb
ﻑﹾﻁ ﻋ ﹸ ﻑ'ﺭ ﺤ
Conjunction
Particle
،` ﻡﹸ ﺜ ،ﻭﺃ ،ﻭ ـﻓ
´ﺩﺎﻤ ﺠ
Solid
ﹺ ﺭ'ﻤَ ﻷﺍ ُ ل'ﻌ ﻓ
Command
verb
( imperative)
ﹴ ﻲﹾﻔﹶ ﻨ ﹸ ﻑ'ﺭ ﺤ
Negation
Particle

ﹲﺕﺎﺒﹶ ﻨ
Plant
ﺀﺍﺩ ﻨ ﹸ ﻑ'ﺭ ﺤ
Calling
Particle
ﺎﻴ
´ﻥﺎﻜ ﻤ
Place

Etc.
´ﻥﺎﻤ ﺯ
Time

ﹲﺔﹶ ﻔ ﺼ
Adjective

´ﺭﻴ ﻤ ﻀ
Pronoun

ﺓ ﺭﺎﺸِ ﺇ ` ﻡ'ﺴ ﺍ
Demonstrative

ٌلﻭ` ﺼ'ﻭ ﻤ ´ﻡ'ﺴ ﺍ
Relative
Pronoun

Etc.


31

2 22 2- -- - TANWEEN TANWEEN TANWEEN TANWEEN ` ﻥﻴﹺ ﻭﹾﻨﱠ ﺘﻝﺍ

Tanween is a sound of Noon with Sukoon, that you hear at the end of
Arabic indefinite nouns, but you do not write as a letter 'ﻥ. It is written in a
special way, by writing the vowel mark twice.

ﺎﹰ ﺘﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ ¬ bintan ﺕﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ ¬ bintin
ﺕﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ × or ﹲﺕﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ ¬ bintun
Tanween
Fat-hah
(Fat-hataan)*
Tanween Kasrah
(Kasrataan)
Tanween
Dammah
(Dammataan)

Fat-hataan means 2 Fat-hah, Kasrataan means 2 kasrah and Dammataan
means 2 Dammah. (as if the first is the vowel and the second in for 'ﻥ )

ﹸ ﺕﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ ﺕﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ ﹶ ﺘﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ ﺎـ

- Note that the Fat-hataan marks are regularly followed by an Alif,
written as the last letter in the word, but this Alif does not indicate a long
vowel except in the pausal form.

- The sound of Noon is heard only when we continue to read after that
word, but if we pause on that word, we pause on Sukoon over the last
written letter and we do not hear Noon sound of Tanween.

Full form Pausal form
(Continuing reading after that word) (Stopping on that word)
1- Dammataan –un: ﹲﺕﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ bintun bint (like in Dammah)
2- Kasrataan –in: ﺕﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ bintin bint (like in Kasrah)
3- Fat-hataan –an: ﹰ ﺘﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ ﺎ bintan bintaa (different than
Fat-hah due to the long vowel Alif that is added to the end)


ﻥ
ﻥ
ﻥ

32

ﹾﻝﺍ ﹸ ﻑﻭ` ﺭ` ﺤ ﺔ ﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ ﹺ ﺭ ﺨﺁ ﻰﹶ ﻠ ﻋ ﹸ ﻑﹾﻗ ﻭﹾﻝﺍ ﻭ ﹺ ﻥﻴﹺ ﻭﹾﻨﱠ ﺘﻝﺍ ﻊﻤ
The letters with Tanween and how to pause at the end of the word

ﺀ ´ﺀ ﺩ ﺀ ﺩ ﺍ ﺀ ﺩ ﺏ ´ﺏَ ﺃ ﹴ ﺏَ ﺃ ﺎ ﺒَ ﺃ
full
pausal
da'un
da'
da'in
da'
da'an
da'aa

abun
ab
abin
ab
aban
abaa
ﺕ ﹲﺕ ﺒ ﺕ ﺒ ﺎﹰ ﺘ ﺒ ﺙ ﹲﺙ ﺒ ﺙ ﺒ ﺎﹰ ﺜ ﺒ

batun
bat
batin
bat
batan
bataa

bathun
bath
bathin
bath
bathan
bathaa
ﺝ ´ﺞ ﻋ ﹴ ﺞ ﻋ ﺎ ﺠ ﻋ ﺡ ´ﺢ ﻤ ﹴ ﺢ ﻤ ﺎ ﺤ ﻤ

3ajun
3aj
3ajin
3aj
3ajan
3ajaa

mahun
mah
mahin
mah
mahan
mahaa
ﺥ ﹲﺥ ﺭ ﹴ ﺥ ﺭ ﺎﹰ ﺨ ﺭ ﺩ ´ﺩ ﺴ ﺩ ﺴ ﺍ ﺩ ﺴ

rakhun
rakh
rakhin
rakh
rakhan
rakhaa

sadun
sad
sadin
sad
sadan
sadaa
ﺫ ﹲﺫ ﻫ ﺫ ﻫ ﺍﹰ ﺫ ﻫ ﺭ ´ﺭ ﺴ ﹴ ﺭ ﺴ ﺍ ﺭ ﺴ

hadhun
hadh
hadhin
hadh
hadhan
hadhaa

sarun
sar
sarin
sar
saran
saraa
ﺯ ´ﺯ ﻤ ﹴ ﺯ ﻤ ﺍ ﺯ ﻤ ﺱ ´ﺱ ﺒ ﹴ ﺱ ﺒ ﺎ ﺴ ﺒ

mazun
maz
mazin
maz
mazan
mazaa

basun
bas
basin
bas
basan
basaa
ﺵ ﹲﺵ ﺭ ﹴ ﺵ ﺭ ﺎﹰ ﺸ ﺭ ﺹ ´ﺹﹶ ﻗ ﹴ ﺹﹶ ﻗ ﺎ ﺼﹶ ﻗ

rashun
rash
rashin
rash
rashan
rashaa

qasun
qas
qasin
qas
qasan
qasaa
ﺽ ´ﺽ ﺤ ﹴ ﺽ ﺤ ﺎ ﻀ ﺤ ﻁ ﹲﻁ ﺒ ﻁ ﺒ ﺎﹰ ﻁ ﺒ

hadun
had
hadin
had
hadan
hadaa

batun
bat
batin
bat
batan
bataa

33

ﻅ ﹲﻅﹶ ﻨ ﻅﹶ ﻨ ﺎﹰ ﻅﹶ ﻨ ﻉ ´ﻉ ﺩ ﹴ ﻉ ﺩ ﺎ ﻋ ﺩ

nadhun
nadh
nadhin
nadh
nadhan
nadhaa

da3un
da3
da3in
da3
da3an
da3aa
ﻍ ﹲﻍ ﺯ ﹴ ﻍ ﺯ ﺎﹰ ﻏ ﺯ ﻑ ﹲﻑﹶ ﻜ ﻑﹶ ﻜ ﺎﹰ ﻔﹶ ﻜ

zaghun
zagh
zaghin
zagh
zaghan
zaghaa

kafun
kaf
kafin
kaf
kafan
kafaa
ﻕ ﺩ ﹲﻕ ﺩ ﻕ ﺩ ﺎﹰ ﻗ ﻙ ´ﻙﹶ ﺸ ﻙﹶ ﺸ ﺎﹰ ﻜﹶ ﺸ

daqun
daq
daqin
daq
daqan
daqaa

shakun
shak
shakin
shak
shakan
shakaa
ل ٌل ﺠ ٍ ل ﺠ ﹰ ﻼ ﺠ ﻡ ´ﻡ ﻫ ﹴ ﻡ ﻫ ﺎ ﻤ ﻫ

jalun
jal
jalin
jal
jalan
jalaa

hamun
ham
hamin
ham
haman
hamaa
ﻥ ´ﻥﹶ ﻓ ﹴ ﻥﹶ ﻓ ﺎﹰ ﻨﹶ ﻓ ﻩ ´ﻪ ﺴ ﻪ ﺴ ﺎ ﻬ ﺴ

fanun
fan
fanin
fan
fanan
fanaa

sahun
sah
sahin
sah
sahan
sahaa
ﻭ ﹶ ﻝ ´ﻭ ﹴ ﻭﹶ ﻝ ﺍ ﻭﹶ ﻝ ﻱ ´ﻲﹶ ﻨ ﹴ ﻲﹶ ﻨ ﺎ ﻴﹶ ﻨ

lawun
law
lawin
law
lawan
lawaa

nayun
nay
nayin
nay
nayan
nayaa








34


ﹲﺕﺎﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜ ﻊ ﻤ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻜﺭﺤﻝﺍ ﹸ ﻑﹾﻗ ﻭﹾﻝﺍ ﻭ ﹺ ﻥﻴﹺ ﻭﹾﻨﱠ ﺘﻝﺍ ﺎﻤﹺ ﻬ'ﻴﹾﻠ ﻋ
Words with short vowels and Tanween and how to pause on them










Tanween
Dammah
Dammah Tanween
Kasrah
Kasrah Tanween
Fat-hah
Fat-hah

ﹲﺕ'ﻴ ﺒ ﹸ ﺕ'ﻴ ﺒ ﺕ'ﻴ ﺒ ﺕ'ﻴ ﺒ ﺎﹰ ﺘ'ﻴ ﺒ ﹶ ﺕ'ﻴ ﺒ
Full
form
baytun baytu baytin bayti baytan bayta
Pausal
form
bayt bayt bayt bayt baytaa bayt
meaning
house house house house house house

´ﺏﺎﺘ ﻜ ` ﺏﺎﺘ ﻜ ﹴ ﺭ'ﻴﹶ ﺨ ﹺ ﺭ'ﻴﹶ ﺨ ﹰ ﻻﻭ` ﺴ ﺭ
َ لﻭ` ﺴ ﺭ
Full
form
kitaabun

kitaabu

khayrin

khayri

rasoolan rasoola
Pausal
form
kitaab kitaab khayr

khayr rasoolaa rasool
meaning
book book good good messenger messenger

35

ﹸ ﺔﹶ ﻁﻭ` ﺒ'ﺭ ﻤﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺀﺎﱠ ﺘﻝﺍ 3 3 3 3 - -- - TAA' MARBOOTAH TAA' MARBOOTAH TAA' MARBOOTAH TAA' MARBOOTAH
The Tied Taa'

- Taa' Marbootah occurs only as the last consonant of a noun.
- It is a sign of femininity in singular nouns.
- It is a combination of the letter ﺕ and the letter ﻩ
Ex ﹸ ﺓ ﺩ'ﺭ ﻭ – ﹸ ﺔﹶ ﺸﺍ ﺭﹶ ﻓ
- If we continue the reading after a word ending with Taa' Marbootah, we
pronounce it as a Taa' ﺕ, but if we pause on such word, we pause on
a Haa' ﻩ with Sukoon.


*Notice that the long vowel Alif that comes after Tanween Fat-hah is not
written after Taa' Marbootah and that the pausal form is on Haa' Sukoon
as well.



Ex.


Tanween
Dammah
Dammah
Tanween
Kasrah
Kasrah
Tanween
Fat-hah
Fat-hah
ﹲﺓ ﺩ'ﺭ ﻭ ﹸ ﺓ ﺩ'ﺭ ﻭ ﺓ ﺩ'ﺭ ﻭ ﺓ ﺩ'ﺭ ﻭ ﹰ ﺓ ﺩ'ﺭ ﻭ ﹶ ﺓ ﺩ'ﺭ ﻭ
Full form wardatun wardatu wardatin wardati wardatan wardata
Pausal
form
wardah wardah wardah wardah wardah wardah
meaning rose rose rose rose rose rose

ﹲﺓﻼ ﺼ ﹸ ﺓﻼ ﺼ ﺔ ﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜ ﺔ ﻤ ﻠﹶ ﻜ ﹰ ﺔﱠ ﻨ ﺠ ﹶ ﺔﱠ ﻨ ﺠ
Full form salaatun salaatu kalimatin kalimati jannatan jannata
Pausal
form
salaah salaah kalimah kalimah jannah jannah
prayer prayer word word paradise paradise
If you fly to the next word, take the upper dots of ت with you
& if you stop suddenly and fall, you say oh!


36


ْﺃ ﺭﹾﻗ ﺍ [ ﻲِ ﺌ ﺭﹾﻗ ﺍ Read

ﹲﺔﹶ ﻠﻴ ﻤ ﺠ ﹲﺕﹾﻨﹺ ﺒ 1- bintun jameelah.
A beautiful girl
ﺓ ﺭﻴﹺ ﺒﹶ ﻜ ﺓ ﺭِ ﺌﺎﹶ ﻁ . h in kabeera t 'ira a a t - 2
A big plane
ﹲﺔ ﺠ'ﻭ ﺯ ﹸ ﺔ ﺠﻴ ﺩﹶ ﺨ ﹲﺔ ﺤِ ﻝﺎ ﺼ . h a h ali a s n u t u zawja t hadeeja k - 3
Khadeeja is a good wife

Notice that when we pause at the end of the sentences, we change the
sound of Taa' Marbootah to a Haa' with sukoon.













37

ِ ل'ﺼ ﻭﹾﻝﺍ ﹸ ﺓ ﺯ'ﻤ ﻫ 4 44 4- -- - HAMZAT HAMZAT HAMZAT HAMZAT- -- -UL UL UL UL- -- -WASL WASL WASL WASL
The connecting Hamzah
If the Alif is not carrying the sign of Hamzah, then it must be a long vowel
EXCEPT when it occurs first letter in the word.
In that case, the Alif is a Hamzah (consonant), but it is a special type of
Hamzah that is pronounced only when it is the first sound coming out
of the mouth (i.e. when you begin speaking by pronouncing that Hamzah).
This Hamzah is called 'Hamzat-ul-Wasl' ﹸ ﺓ ﺯ'ﻤ ﻫ ِ ل'ﺼ ﻭﻝﺍ or the 'connecting
Hamzah'
- It comes only at the beginning of the word.
- It looks like long vowel Alif, but you already know that this last cannot be
at the beginning of a word, as it is a sukoon.
- In the Qur’aan it has a symbol like small ـﺼ on the top. ) ﭐ ( , but in
standard Arabic books it is free of any sign.

- This Hamzah is pronounced only at the beginning of the speech, i.e. when
no other speech sound has been pronounced immediately before it;
Otherwise, it is silent.
- If we start with the word ﷲﺍ we say: Allaah. (we hear the sound of
But if we start with a word before it Ex. ﻙﺍﺯ ﺠ
We say: Jazaka-llaah ﺍ ُ ﷲ ﻙﺍﺯ ﺠ (We don’t pronounce A of the word Allaah,
we directly go from the Kaaf of Jazaaka to the letter Laam of the word
(Allaah). The Hamzah is omitted)






Standard
Arabic
ﹾﺜﺍ ﹺ ﻥ'ﻴﹶ ﻨ ﹺ ﻥ'ﻴﹶ ﻨﹾﺜﺍ ﹺ ﻥ'ﻴ ﺠ'ﻭ ﺯ
Qur'aan
script
 È÷´ΖøO# 〈  È÷`÷ρ— È÷´ΖøO# 〈

'ithnayn zawjayni-thnayn
starting with
Hamza wasl
reading a word
before it
meaning
two two pairs

38

ﹶ ﻘﹾﻝﺍ ﹸ ﺓ ﺯ'ﻤ ﻫ ﹺ ﻊﹾﻁ HAMZAT HAMZAT HAMZAT HAMZAT- -- -UL UL UL UL- -- -QAT3 QAT3 QAT3 QAT3
The disconnecting Hamzah
-The other outspoken Hamzah أ ( ) at the beginning of a word, with the
diacritic on the top is called 'Hamzat-ul-Qat3' ﹺ ﻊﹾﻁﹶ ﻘﻝﺍ ﹸ ﺓ ﺯ'ﻤ ﻫ or
the"Disconnecting Hamzah";that one is always pronounced, whether you
start with that word or you read a word before Ex. ` ﺩ ﻤ'ﺤَ ﺃ ﻭ` ﻫ Huwa Ahmad







ْﺃ ﺭﹾﻗ ﺍ / ﻲِ ﺌ ﺭﹾﻗ ﺍ

´ﺩ` ﻤ ﺤ` ﻤ · ؟ُ لﺎﺤﹾﻝﺍ ﹶ ﻑ'ﻴﹶ ﻜ aal? h - l - ayfa k ammad: h Mu
How is the situation? (How are you?)
´ﻥ ﺴ ﺤ · ﻪﱠ ﻠِ ﻝ ` ﺩ'ﻤ ﺤﹾﻝﺍ ﻭ ﹴ ﺭ'ﻴﹶ ﺨﹺ ﺒ illaah. - amdu l h - l - khayrin wa - assan: bi H
In good and thanks to Allaah.
´ﺩ` ﻤ ﺤ` ﻤ · ؟ ﻙ` ﻤ'ﺴﺍ ﺎﻤ smuk? - ammad: ma h Mu
What is your name?
´ﻥ ﺴ ﺤ · ´ﻥ ﺴ ﺤ ﻲ ﻤ'ﺴ ﺍ assan. H assan: Ismee H
My name is Hassan


Standard Arabic
ﹴ ﻡﻴِ ﻝَ ﺃ ﹴ ﻡﻴِ ﻝَ ﺃ ﹴ ﺏﺎﻘ ﻋ
Qur'aan
script
5ΟŠÏ9&  〈  A>$)Ïã 5ΟŠÏ9& 〈
aleem 3iqaabin aleem

srarting with
Hamzat-ul-Qat3
reading a word
before it
meaning painful painful punishment

39

ﻑﻴﹺ ﺭ'ﻌﱠ ﺘﻝﺍ ـﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻝﺍ 5- -- - LAAM IN AL AT LAAM IN AL AT LAAM IN AL AT LAAM IN AL AT- -- -TA3REEF TA3REEF TA3REEF TA3REEF
The letter Laam that occurs in Al of Definition

1- ' لﺍ ﻑﻴﹺ ﺭ'ﻌﱠ ﺘﻝﺍ ِ is connected to nouns to make them definite.
It is equivalent to the English word "The", but should be connected at the
beginning of the noun not separate from it as in "The"
Ex. ` ﺩﹶ ﻝ ﻭﹾﻝﺍ - ﹸ ﺕﹾﻨﹺ ﺒﹾﻝﺍ
3- The nouns that have Al of Definition cannot have Tanween. ´ﺩﹶ ﻝ ﻭﹾﻝﺍ
Reading the letter Laam that occurs in Al of Definition
The letter Laam in "Al at-Ta3reef" can be read in one of two ways
depending on the letter following it:
- Pronouncing that Laam clearly.
- Omitting that Laam by inserting it in the following letter.


a- Pronouncing that Laam clearly

When that Laam precedes a noun beginning with any of the fourteen letters
in the group: ﻩ ﻡ ﻱ ﻭ ﻙ ﻕ ﻑ ﻍ ﻉ ﺝ ﺡ ﺥ ﺏ ﺀ
The ﻡﻻ in that case is called Laam Qamariyyah ﺔ` ﻴﹺ ﺭ ﻤﹶ ﻗ ﻡﻻ from ` ﺭ ﻤﹶ ﻗ (moon)
due to the first letter ﻕ that is one of the previous fourteen letters

ـﹶ ﻐﹾﻝﺍ ـ ﻌﹾﻝﺍ ـﹶ ﺨﹾﻝﺍ ـ ﺤﹾﻝﺍ ـ ﺠﹾﻝﺍ ـ ﺒﹾﻝﺍ َ ﻷﺍ
al-gha al-3a al-kha al-ha al-ja al-ba al-'a
ـ ﻴﹾﻝﺍ ﻭﹾﻝﺍ ـ ﻬﹾﻝﺍ ـ ﻤﹾﻝﺍ ـﹶ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ ـﹶ ﻘﹾﻝﺍ ـﹶ ﻔﹾﻝﺍ
al-ya al-wa al-ha al-ma al-ka al-qa al-fa

*Al of definition is starting with Hamzat-ul-Wasl


That Laam can be recognized easily by the Sukoon appearing over it.

40

ْﺃ ﺭﹾﻗ ﺍ [ ﻲِ ﺌ ﺭﹾﻗ ﺍ


b- Omitting that Laam by inserting it in the following letter:

When that Laam precedes a noun beginning with any of the remain
fourteen letters of Arabic
ت ث د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن
The ﻡﻻ in that case is called Laam Shamsiyyah ﺔ` ﻴ ﺴ'ﻤﹶ ﺸ ﻡﻻ from ` ﺱ'ﻤﹶ ﺸ (sun)
due to the first letter ﺵ which is one of the previous fourteen letters.







` ﺏﺍ ﺭﹸ ﻐﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺏ ﺭ ﻌﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺭ'ﻴﹶ ﺨﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺭ ﺠ ﺤﹾﻝﺍ ُ ل ﻤ ﺠﹾﻝﺍ ﹸ ﺕ'ﻴ ﺒﹾﻝﺍ ﻰﹶ ﻠ'ﻋَ ﻷﺍ
al-ghuraab al-3arab al-khayr al-hajar al-jamal al-bayt al-'a3laa
The crow The
Arabs
The good The
stone
The
camel
The girl The
highest
` ﻡ'ﻭ ﻴﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺩﹶ ﻝ ﻭﹾﻝﺍ ﻯ ﺩ` ﻬﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺯ'ﻭ ﻤﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺏﺎﹶ ﺘ ﻜﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺭ ﻤﹶ ﻘﹾﻝﺍ ُ لﻴ ﻔﹾﻝﺍ
al-yawm al-walad al-hudaa al-mawz al-kitaab al-qamar al-feel
The day The boy The
guidance
The
banana
The
book
The
moon
The
elephant
ـﱠ ﻨﻝﺍ ` ﺯﻝﺍ ` ﺭﻝﺍ ﱠ ﺫﻝﺍ ` ﺩﻝﺍ ـﱠ ﺜﻝﺍ ﱠ ﺕﻝﺍ
an-na az-za ar-ra adh-dha ad-da ath-tha at-ta
ـﱠ ﻠﻝﺍ ـﱠ ﻅﻝﺍ ـﱠ ﻁﻝﺍ ـ` ﻀﻝﺍ ـ` ﺼﻝﺍ ـﱠ ﺸﻝﺍ ـ` ﺴﻝﺍ
al-la adh-dha at-ta ad-da as-sa ash-sha as-sa

41

ْﺃ ﺭﹾﻗ ﺍ [ ﻲِ ﺌ ﺭﹾﻗ ﺍ
ﹺ ﻉﻭ ﺒﺴُ ﻷﺍ  ﻡﺎ ﻴَ ﺃ Ayyaamu-l-usboo3
Days of the week








A word with Hamzatu-l-wasl and Laam shamsiyyah












` ﺭﻭﱡ ﻨﻝﺍ ﹸ ﺕ'ﻴ` ﺯﻝﺍ ` ﻡﹾﻗ` ﺭﻝﺍ ﹸ ﺓ ﺭﱡ ﺫﻝﺍ ` ﻥﻴ` ﺩﻝﺍ ` ﺏ'ﻭﱠ ﺜﻝﺍ ` ﺩﻴ ﺤ'ﻭﱠ ﺘﻝﺍ
an-noor az-zayt ar-raqm adh-dhurah ad-deen ath-thawb at-tawheed
The
light
The oil The
number
The
corn
The
religion
The
dress
The
monotheis
m
ُ لﻴﱠ ﻠﻝﺍ ` ﺭﹾﻔﱡ ﻅﻝﺍ ` ﻥﻴﱢ ﻁﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﱢ ﻝﺎ` ﻀﻝﺍ ﹸ ﺕ'ﻭ` ﺼﻝﺍ ` ﺱ'ﻤﱠ ﺸﻝﺍ ` ﺀﺎﻤ` ﺴﻝﺍ
al-layl adh-dhufr at-teen ad-daalleen as-sawt ash-shams as-samaa'
The
night
The
nail
The
clay
The
misguided
The
sound
The
sun
The
sky
` ﺀﺎﹶ ﺜﻼﱡ ﺜﻝﺍ ﹺ ﻥ'ﻴﹶ ﻨﹾﺜﻻﺍ ` ﺩ ﺤَ ﻷﺍ ﹸ ﺕ'ﺒ` ﺴﻝﺍ
ath-thulaathaa' al-ithnayn al-ahad as-sabt
Tuesday Monday Sunday Saturday

ﹸ ﺔ ﻌ` ﻤ` ﺠﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺱﻴ ﻤﹶ ﺨﹾﻝﺍ ` ﺀﺎﻌﹺ ﺒ'ﺭَ ﻷﺍ

al-jumu3ah al-khamees al-arbi3aa'
Friday Thursday Wednesday
Standard Arabic
ﹺ ﺱﺎﱠ ﻨﻝﺍ ﹺ ﺱﺎﱠ ﻨﻝﺍ ﻙ ﻠ ﻤ
Qur'aan
script
 Ĩ$¨Ψ9# 〈  Å7Ï=Β Ä¨$¨Ψ9# 〈

an-naas maliki-nnaas

starting with
Hamza wasl
reading a word
before it
meaning
The people The king of the
people

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