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ENG 206

What is communication process? | Steps of communication process

Communication process consists of some interrelated steps or parts through which messages are
sent form sender to receiver. The process of communication begins when the sender wants to
transmit a fact, idea, opinion or other information to the receiver and ends with receivers
feedback to the sender. The main components of communication process are sender, message,
channel, receiver and feedback. In the following, some definitions of the communication process
are quoted:
Robert Kreitner defined, Communication process is a chain made up of identifiable links. The
chain includes sender, encoding, message, receiver, decoding, and feedback.
In the opinion of S. K. Kapur, The communication process is the method by which the sender
transfers information and understanding to the receiver.
According to Bovee, Thill and Schatzman, The communication process consists of six phases
linking sender and receiver.
C. B. Mamoria has pointed out the parts of communication process by saying, That
communication process model is making up of seven steps or parts: a. the communication b.
Encoding c. The message and the medium or channel, d. reception by the feceiver e. decoding f.
Action and g. feedback.
The communication process

Thus, it is clear that communication process is the set of some sequential steps involved in
transferring message as well as feedback. The process requires a sender who transmits message
through a channel to the receiver. Then the receiver decodes the message and sends back some
type of signal or feedback.

Steps or elements of communication process

The communication process refers to the steps through which communication takes place
between the sender and the receiver. This process starts with conceptualizing an idea or
message by the sender and ends with the feedback from the receiver. In details, communication
process consists of the following eight steps:

Developing idea by the sender: In the first step, the communicator develops or
conceptualizes an idea to be sent. It is also known as the planning stage since in this stage
the communicator plans the subject matter of communication.


Encoding: Encoding means converting or translation the idea into a perceivable form that
can be communicated to others.


Developing the message: After encoding the sender gets a message that can be
transmitted to the receiver. The message can be oral, written, symbolic or nonverbal. For
example, when people talk, speech is the message; when people write a letter, the words
and sentences are the message; when people cries, the crying is the message.


Selecting the medium: Medium is the channel or means of transmitting the message to
the receiver. Once the sender has encoded his into a message, the next step is to select a
suitable medium for transmitting it to the receiver. The medium of communication can be
speaking, writing, signaling, gesturing etc.


Transmission of message: In this step, the sender actually transmits the message
through chosen medium. In the communication cycle, the tasks of the sender end with the
transmission of the message.


Receiving the message by receiver: This stage simply involves the reception of
senders message by the receiver. The message can be received in the form of hearing,
seeing, feeling and so on.


Decoding: Decoding is the receivers interpretation of the senders message. Here the
receiver converts the message into thoughts and tries to analyze and understand it.
Effective communication can occur only when both the sender and the receiver assign the
same or similar meanings to the message.


Feedback: The final step of communication process is feedback. Feedback means

receivers response to senders message. It increases the effectiveness of communication. It
ensures that the receiver has correctly understood the message. Feedback is the essence of
two-way communication.

Define Business Communication

The sharing of information between people within an enterprise that is performed for
the commercial benefit of the organization. In addition, business communication can also refer to
how a company shares information to promote its product or services to potential customers.
Business communication occurs between two or more parties to exchange business related
information. The success of a business depends on the efficacy of business communication. For
this, communication is regarded as the lifeblood of business.
What is business letter or commercial letter?












or commercial letter. It refers to the letter in which business people or person exchange
information with various business firms, customers, suppliers, employees, banks, insurance,
companies, government agencies, business associations with aimed at selling or buying goods,
obtaining information, placing orders, making inquiry etcand other related issues. Some
important definitions of business letter are given below:
According to Hanson, The letters which are exchanged among businessmen connected with
business affairs are called business or commercial letters.
According to M. Omar Ali, Any letter designed and directed to the exchange of information
connected with trade and trade related activities is known as a business letter.
According to W. J. Weston, Business letter is the process of accomplishing a business
transaction in written form.
So, Business letter refers to formal written letter where business related issues and information is
exchanged with the suppliers, customers, clients, banks, insurance companies, government
agencies or other external parts of the organization.
Essentials of a good business letter
The following are some of the important characteristics of a business letter

Well defined objectives: There is an old saying an aimless ship never able to reach the
destination. In case of business letter-a letter without specific objectives is meaningless.
Thus to be effective business leaders need to have well defined objectives.


Contact information: The header of the business letter includes the senders name,
phone number, address and email address, which may be left or right justified or centered
at the top of the page. This is followed by the date the letter was sent, which in turn is
followed by the inside address. The inside address contains the recipients name, job title
and company address.


Benefits: Discuss the benefits offer to the receiver or customer before the nuts-and-bolts
basic information. Benefits to the customer could be tangible, such as saving money and
having more choices in service packages or intangible but still more choices in service
packages, or intangible but still valuable, including gaining peace of mind.


Brief description: Any business letter must be short. The significance of a short letter is
that the person reading the letter must understand the significance of the letter in the
minimum possible lines. This is usually done in order to save time and energy of the receiver
of the letter.


Definite structure: The structure or main text of a business letter is typically divided into
three sections: the introduction, the body and the closing. Introductory paragraphs should
be brief and explain the letters intent. The body should elaborate on that intent and may
include facts and statistics, descriptions and or explanations. The closing should thank the
recipient for his time and include a call to action, which indicates the next step in the
communication process, such as a phone call or a scheduled meeting.


Positive approach: The writer has to be optimistic regarding the achievement of the
goal. Thus throughout the letter a positive tone must be present. Positive approach not only
helps to convince the reader but also express the confidence of the writer.


Courtesy: The tone of the letter is another very important aspect of the letter. The letter
must sound polite, courteous and firm. The letter should also sound convincing the must
have a polite tone.


Coherence: Factually the business letter must be relevant and the facts and thoughts
should be presented in a very systematic manner.


You-attitude: To ensure effective writing the writer should put himself or herself in the
readers place and then try to realize how the reader will respond to the letter. The you
attitude emphasis on the readers rather than the writer. Example of you-attitude is as
follows: I or we attitude: I will give you a 10 % discount. You-attitude: You can get a 10 %

10. Clearness: A business letter must be readable and clear. If the reader of a business letter
fails to understand the message, it will matter little to him. So the messages of the letter
must be clear in meaning.
11. Relevance: One of the important qualities of a business letter is relevance. The writer of a
business letter should avoid the irrelevant matter that can vex the readers mind. So,
unnecessary words should be avoided.
12. Simplicity: A good business letter should be simple and easy. The writer of a business
letter should use simple language in drafting a letter so that the reader can easily
understand the meaning and significance of the letter.

13. Free from error: A business letter should be free from all kinds of errors. So, the writer
should be aware of spelling, grammatical sense and letter style in drafting a business letter.
14. Appropriate timing: Appropriate timing is one of the important qualities of a good
business letter. All letters must be sent and replied at the most appropriate time.
15. Clear concept: If the writer does not have a clear concept about the subject matter then
it will be very difficult on his or her part to make the subject matter understandable to the
16. Evaluation of the readers position: This is perhaps the most important thing that
should be taken into consideration to draft an effective letter. The attitude, cultural and
religious background, educational level, level of understanding etc. If the reader is likely to
be different from those of the writer. That is why to be successful the writer must try to get
an idea about the aforesaid aspects of the reader.
17. Accuracy or correctness: There is nothing painful than preparing a letter with wrong
information. It not only fail to achieve the goal but also detrimental for the goodwill of the
firm. Thus correctness of the message must be ensured.
18. Completeness: It means messages should be presented in such a way that helps the
reader to understand what the writer actually wanted to convey. Incomplete messages not
only create confusion but also can damage the mutual relationship.
19. Persuasion: To convince the reader or to motivate him or her to do some favor business
letters must be written in a persuasive tone.
20. Use of simple language: To be effective business letter should avoid the use of difficult
words and jargons. Simple and plain language should be used to clarify the message.