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# Externally Reversible Processes

## No irreversibilities exist in the surroundings.

Heat transfer can occur between the system and the surroundings, but only with
an infinitesimal temperature difference.

## No irreversibilities exist within the system.

The system moves slowly and without friction through a series of equilibrium
states.

Irreversibilities may exist in the surroundings, usually due to heat transfer through
a finite temperature difference.

5B-2 :

## Heat Transfer Required to Keep the Energy in a Flow System

Constant

4 pts

Water vapor enters a tank at a rate of 32.4 kg/min at 250oC and 140 kPa and leaves the tank at the same
rate at 180oCand 110 kPa. The diameter of the inlet and outlet pipes are 6 cm and 15 cm, respectively.
No form of work enters or leaves the tank other than flow work. Calculate...
a.) The total rate at which energy is entering the tank in the feed stream
b.) The total rate at which energy is entering the tank in the effluent stream
c.) The heat transfer rate required to keep the total energy of the water inside the tank constant.

Diagram:

The key to this problem is the enthalpy form of the 1st Law for open systems. Once you assume
thatgravitational potential energy is negligible in this problem, the solution is straightforward. Kinetic
energychanges are not negligible. The relationships amoung velocity, density, specific
volume, volumetric flow rate and mass flow rate are also important.

Given:

32.4
0.54
250
140
6
0.06

Tin
Pin
Din

Find:

a.)
b.)

Assumptions:

Ein
Eout
1-

kg/min
kg/s
C
kPa
cm
m
???
???

Wsys
Tout
Pout
Dout

kW
kW

c.)

dEsys/dt

0
180
110
15
0.15
0

c.)

???

kW
C
kPa
cm
m
kW
kW

## Gravitational potential energy is negligible in computing

the energy entering andleaving the system. Without this assumption, we
of energy to both the feed and effluent streams
and then assume thatchanges in potential energy are negligible. Either
way, potential energy isnegligible in this problem.

## Equations / Data / Solve:

The key equation for this problem in the enthalpy form of the 1st Law for open systems.

Eqn 1

Eqn 1 can be simplified for this problem because Wsys = 0 and we have assumed that changes in potential
energy are negligible.

Eqn 2

Part
a) &Part
b)

In order to evaluate Ein and Eout, we first need to lookup the enthalpies of the inlet and outlet streams.
The Steam Tables or the NIST Webbook provide the information we need.
Hin

2973.2

kJ/kg

Hout

2835.4

kJ/kg

Next, we need to evaluate the specific kinetic energies at the inlet and outlet.

Eqn 3

We can determine the velocity from the mass flow rate as follows :

Eqn 4

Where :

Eqn 5

We still need the specific volumes of the water at the inlet and outlet conditions to make use of Eqn 4.
The Steam Tables or the NIST Webbook provide the information we need.
Vin

1.7163

m3/kg

Vin

1.8883

m3/kg

## Now, we can plug values into Eqns 5, 4 & 3, in that order.

Ain
vin
gc
Ekin,in

0.002827
327.8
1
53.72

m2
m/s

Aout
vout

kg-m/N-s2
kJ/kg

Ekin,out

0.017671 m2
57.7
m/s
1.66

kJ/kg

We can now use the right-hand portion of Eqn 2 to complete parts (a) and (b) of this problem.
Ein
Part c.)

1634.5

kW

Eout

1532.0

kW

Eqn 2 can be simplified because dEsys/dt = 0. The result can be solved for Q to obtain the following
equation.
Eqn 6

## Plugging values into Eqn 6 yields :

Verify:

-102.5

kW

The assumption made in this solution cannot be verified with the given information.

Ein

1630

kW

c.)

-103

kW