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Heat transfer can occur between the system and the surroundings, but only with

an infinitesimal temperature difference.

The system moves slowly and without friction through a series of equilibrium

states.

Irreversibilities may exist in the surroundings, usually due to heat transfer through

a finite temperature difference.

5B-2 :

Constant

4 pts

Water vapor enters a tank at a rate of 32.4 kg/min at 250oC and 140 kPa and leaves the tank at the same

rate at 180oCand 110 kPa. The diameter of the inlet and outlet pipes are 6 cm and 15 cm, respectively.

No form of work enters or leaves the tank other than flow work. Calculate...

a.) The total rate at which energy is entering the tank in the feed stream

b.) The total rate at which energy is entering the tank in the effluent stream

c.) The heat transfer rate required to keep the total energy of the water inside the tank constant.

Read :

Diagram:

The key to this problem is the enthalpy form of the 1st Law for open systems. Once you assume

thatgravitational potential energy is negligible in this problem, the solution is straightforward. Kinetic

energychanges are not negligible. The relationships amoung velocity, density, specific

volume, volumetric flow rate and mass flow rate are also important.

Given:

32.4

0.54

250

140

6

0.06

Tin

Pin

Din

Find:

a.)

b.)

Assumptions:

Ein

Eout

1-

kg/min

kg/s

C

kPa

cm

m

???

???

Wsys

Tout

Pout

Dout

kW

kW

c.)

dEsys/dt

0

180

110

15

0.15

0

c.)

???

kW

C

kPa

cm

m

kW

kW

the energy entering andleaving the system. Without this assumption, we

would add the same arbitraryamount

of energy to both the feed and effluent streams

and then assume thatchanges in potential energy are negligible. Either

way, potential energy isnegligible in this problem.

The key equation for this problem in the enthalpy form of the 1st Law for open systems.

Eqn 1

Eqn 1 can be simplified for this problem because Wsys = 0 and we have assumed that changes in potential

energy are negligible.

Eqn 2

Part

a) &Part

b)

In order to evaluate Ein and Eout, we first need to lookup the enthalpies of the inlet and outlet streams.

The Steam Tables or the NIST Webbook provide the information we need.

Hin

2973.2

kJ/kg

Hout

2835.4

kJ/kg

Next, we need to evaluate the specific kinetic energies at the inlet and outlet.

Eqn 3

We can determine the velocity from the mass flow rate as follows :

Eqn 4

Where :

Eqn 5

We still need the specific volumes of the water at the inlet and outlet conditions to make use of Eqn 4.

The Steam Tables or the NIST Webbook provide the information we need.

Vin

1.7163

m3/kg

Vin

1.8883

m3/kg

Ain

vin

gc

Ekin,in

0.002827

327.8

1

53.72

m2

m/s

Aout

vout

kg-m/N-s2

kJ/kg

Ekin,out

0.017671 m2

57.7

m/s

1.66

kJ/kg

We can now use the right-hand portion of Eqn 2 to complete parts (a) and (b) of this problem.

Ein

Part c.)

1634.5

kW

Eout

1532.0

kW

Eqn 2 can be simplified because dEsys/dt = 0. The result can be solved for Q to obtain the following

equation.

Eqn 6

Verify:

-102.5

kW

The assumption made in this solution cannot be verified with the given information.

Answers :a.)

Ein

1630

kW

c.)

-103

kW

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