HYDRAULIC FLOW
RESISTANCE FACTORS
FOR CORRUGATED
METAL CONDUITS
U.S. DEPARTMENT
OF TRANSPORTATION
1980
NOTICE
This document
is disseminated
under the sponsorship
of the
Department
of Transportation
in the interest
of information
exchange.
The United
States
Government
assumes no liability
for its
contents
or use thereof.
The contents
of this
report
reflect
the views of the authors
who are responsible
for the facts
and the accuracy
of the
data presented
herein.
The contents
do not necessarily
reflect
the official
views
or policy
of the Department
of
Transportation.
This report
or regulation.
does
not
constitute
a standard,
specification,
The United
States
Government
does not endorse
Trade or manufacturers'
names
manufacturers.
only because
they are considered
essential
to
this
document.
products
or
appear
herein
the object
of
U.S.
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Federal
Highway
HYDRAULIC
Administration
FLOW RESISTANCE
FACTORS FOR
CORRUGATED METAL CONDUITS
January
1980
i
ABSTRACT
ii.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
A number
Mr.
of
Herbert
FHWA),
Frank
associated
with
of Mr.
Gilbert
delays
in
several
times,
equations
impossible.
produce
of
the
tables,
1970,
and Mr.
of
this
into
Robert
Donna
the
My thanks
document.
go to both
many
Karen
them,
this
problems
during
who drafted
text
document
and to
the
the
appreciated.
Huber,
the
were
The patience
FHWA staff,
also
FHWA,
was coauthor
into
the
is
of
of which
Bossy
C. Wood of
of
of
insights
Administration,
all
invaluable.
who typed
preparation
Mr.
text.
publication.
Division
were
of Ms.
Ettaro,
Bridge
and comments,
this
this
Highway
resistance
publication,
and help
of
Federal
Branch,
and his
pipe
development
the
review
incorporated
metal
the
Hydraulics
valuable
corrugated
and Ms.
this
with
in
cooperation
and
formerly
publication
preparation
the
to
contributed
Trainer
Without
to
Johnson
contributed
(retired,
L.
FHWA staff
considered
the
have
G. Bossy
Mr.
and the
of
individuals
the
and
would
its
the
numerous
have
many others
figures
been
who helped
iii
OBJECTIVES .............................
ANNULARCORRUGATED
METAL PIPES ...................
Corrugation
Bolt
Shapes Considered
FlowRates
.................
5
7
...................
...........................
Darcy Resistance
Factors,
f ..................
..................
ManningResistanceFactors,n
Use of Resistance
Factor
Versus Diameter
13
Curves (Figures
29 ...........
.................
ExamplesofUseofFigures29
Factors
Shapes Considered
Affecting
Darcy Resistance
Hydraulic
Factors,
ManningResistance"Factors.n
ReCorrugated
Limitations
Annular
i..
............
23
24
............
Rings ..................
27
27
27
..........................
19
23
f ..................
..
18
23
.................
Resistance.
20
HELICALLY CORRUGATED
METAL PIPES ..................
Corrugation
29)
29
iv
APPENDIXES
APPENDIX
A  REFERENCES
APPENDIX
B  DEFINITION
APPENDIX
APPENDIX
APPENDIX
OF TERMS
UNITS
FACTORS FOR
TO SI UNITS
FIGURES
1.
Shapes
of
Annular
2.
for 22/3Pipe
3.
Darcy
Diameter
for
6 by
linch
Annular
Corrugated
Metal
4.
for
6 by 2inch
Annular
Structural
Plate
5.
for
9 by 2l/2inch
6.
Manning
Annular
n Versus
Corrugated
Diameter
Metal
for
Pipe
22/3
by
7.
Manning
Pipe
n Versus
Diameter
for
6 by
linch
Annular
Corrugated
Metal
8.
Manning
n Versus
Corrugated
Metal
Diameter
Pipe
for
6 by 2inch
Annular
Structural
Plate
9.
Manning
n Versus
Corrugated
Metal
Diameter
Pipe
for
9 by 2l/2inch
10.
Darcy
11.
Manning
f Versus
f Versus
n Versus
Corrugations
Diameter
Diameter
for
by l/2inch
Helically
for
Helically
and 3 by
Annular
l/2inch
Corrugated
Corrugated
linch
Structural
Pipe
Plate
and 3 by linch
Akular
Metal
Metal
Structural
Pipe
Pipe
Plate
U.S.
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Federal
HYDRAULIC
Highway
FLOW RESISTANCE
By:
Administration
M. Normann
INTRODUCTION
Corrugated
metal
fabricate
circular
drainage
structures.
a fixed
sheets
pipes
the
shape,
corrugation
usually
hydraulic
Experimental
form,
are
as
Types of
Corrugated
Metal
Pipes
(C.M.P.)
flow
shown
of
Pitch
a Manning
depth,
such
for
coefficients
define
hydraulic
by
the
available
Numbers
in
used
conduits,
of
metal
to
as highway
test
regardless
of
used
was often
or method
a number
are
hydraulic
of 0.024,
flow.rate,
results,
used
of
to
size,
manufacture.
corrugation
below:
Nominal
Size
Corrugations
(c) x Depth
Inches
the
commonly
n value
all
forms
limited
of
Pitch
(k)
x l/4
2 x 7/16
2 x l/2
2213 x l/2
to
early,
l1/2
show that
resistance
of
of
corrugation
2213 x l/2
6x1
6x2
9 x 2l/2
Helical
data
of
conduits
now available
Annular
These
basis
resistance
data
configurations,
a variety
and pipearch
On the
coefficient,
define
having
forementioned
to varying
resistance
of
variables
degrees.
all
corrugated
Nominal
Size
Corrugations
(c) x Depth
Centimeters
6.8
15.2
15.2
22.9
x
x
x
x
1.3
2.5
5.1
6.4
3.8
5.0
5.0
6.8
x
x
x
x
0.65
do,
Use of
in
(k)
References1
1,2,3,4,5
3,798
9
10
4,6,9,10
1.1
1.3
1.3
5,6,11
fact,
affect
a constant
metal
pipes
the
coefficient
is
not
justified
facts.
parentheses
refer
to
corresponding
References
in
Appendix
A.
2
In
hydraulic
studies
by headloss
been
which
measurements
for
obtained,
Therefore,
such
almost
a method
untested
pipe
the
factor
is
is
predominant
selecting
used,
flowing
full,
the
pipe
conduitsize
dimension
in
applications,
it
circular
pipes.
Accordingly,
measured
between
inside
circular
pipes
in
of
or
full.
coefficients
for
sections
the
C.M.P.
resistance
and depth
or graphic
of
corrugation.
presentation
hydraulic
radius
(R)
of
can be
full.
than
hydraulic
of
performed
these
used
For
most
investigations.
the
are
actual
used
f and Manning
diameter
inside
for
pipes
has been
to use pipe
report,
Darcy
on circular
radius,
convenient
crests,
the
flowing
size
the
were
this
pipes
noncircular
a tabular
tests
is more
have
determines
(D)
reports
data
resistance
conduit
flowing
corrugation
and values
of
diameter
rather
determined
resistance
circular
types,
been
conditions.
for
hydraulic
diameter,
the
that
terms
pipes
reliable
of
flow
dimension
circular
more
engineering
in
either
as D=4R for
the
the
roughness,
factors,
Because
full
have
rates,
corrugation
partly
size
flow
to estimate
characteristics
a conduit
resistance
of
by tests
untested
and
coefficients
a range
needed
diameters,
relative
resistance
exclusively;
as pipearches,
One of
In
in
the
n are
as
for
diameters,
dimensions
related
of
to
the
diameters.
Similarly,
resistance
though
to
determined
4R for
full
diameter
of
resistance
which
factors
from
flow
the
the
of
against
pipearch
radii,
sections,
also
can be related
4R can be considered
corresponds
Because
plotted
metal
hydraulic
in which
that
coefficient.
corrugated
respective
conditions,
pipearch
f or n is
for
to
this
a circular
pipe
relationship,
circular
pipe
the
the
diameter,
effective
with
an equal
same charts,
can be used
in
for
pipearches.
In most
partly
variation
of
full
flow
resistance
resistance
coefficient
type,
size,
pipe
information
tions
of
is
factor
to
and flow
available
resistance
for
it
conditions,
all
with
partial
rate.
At
on C.M.P.
very
shallow
is
depth
of
flow
this
flow,
depths
time,
resistance
flow
satisfactory
it
to
and
for
is
to permit
depths,
to
disregard
apply
a given
not
the
same
corrugation
felt
that
accurate
say below
the
d/D
enough
determina
= 0.4.
3
Design
information
and four
forms
be used
to
hydraulic
of
complete
of
this
In
order
size
are
determine
and at
engineers
design
of
solutions
size
the
a given
can be applied
were
forms
of
flow
rate.
of
annular
This
for
depth
for
not
five
presented.
or stormdrain
or to
a given
resistance
corrugations
a culvert
slope,
of
to
of helical
select
and conduit
conduit
on hydraulic
information
a given
flow
corrugations
rate
occurring
of
in
The usual
can
flow
a long
methods
these
solutions.
considered
essential
to
designers
than
available
The presentation
the
purpose
publication.
to make
edition
only
(12),
text.
this
publication
the
The procedures
Appendix
design
used
D, Development
Discussions
of
resistance
the
of
more
charts
to
experimental
untested
are
develop
of Design
useful
presented
the
Charts
data
corrugation
to
in
design
for
charts
are
of
also
main
are
Corrugated
and methods
shapes
the
the
body
of
contained
Metal
the
in
the
in
Conduits.
estimating
found
1970
that
hydraulic
appendix.
OBJECTIVES
The objectives
usable
of
means
different
manual
estimating
corrugation
corrugation
estimate
should
for
this
used
resistance
these
the
shapes
shapes
the
are
become
in
to:
in
helical
for
to
line)
a given
under
the
other
factor
conditions
usual
(commonly
the
Manning
assumption
is
not
not
also
C.M.P.
and
with
factors
(2)
for
and four
five
different
to enable
n)
vary
actually
rate
of
energy
of
flow
rate,
fixed.
practice
RESISTANCE
the
designer
corrugation
to
shapes,
the
determined
with
pipe
valid.
loss
in
to
(slope
conduit
to
of
size,
the
design
that
the
material
or other
factors;
the
a conduit
total
and depth
capacity,
assume
by the
size
applicable
hydraulic
Although
has been
is
FACTORS
or coefficient,
defines
are
the
and does
the
condition
conduits,
alone,
factor,
determine
The resistance
annular
designer
available.
resistance
can be used
the
resistance
C.M.P.
HYDRAULIC
The hydraulic
Provide
hydraulic
used
factors
(1)
or
of
flow
less
this
of
flow.
rate,
important
resistance
forming
head
the
factor
walls
simplified
when
4
Resistance
but
factors
also
on the
corrugations,
angle
is
that
indicates
pipe
diameter,
measured
from
the
that
to
the
the
the
not
a corrugated
metal
equations
for
pipe
the
of
conduit
Manning
=
the
discharge
in
a 3 percent
Av
f,
energy
axis.
to
Therefore,
the
2g
flow
line
corrugation,
angle
C.M.P.,
of
the
in
form
of
express
the
helix
rate
by the
ratio
of
corrugation
roughness.
velocity,
Using
increases
flow
capacity
of
or discharge,
the
resistance
factor
form:
(English
Sflf2
(SI
as n,
Units)
Units)
         
(la)
           
(lb)
and a 3 percent
flow
capacity.
the
equation
velocity
can also
a 6 percent
in
flow
capacity
particular
diameter
To use
the
terms
of
in
reduction
in
Darcy
resistance
the
n results
hydraulic
radius,
,:,)I2
that
As indicated
the
Sfq
Sf1/2
flow
pipe
f or n on the
from
slope,
the
R2j3
means
any
annular
or relative
either
be expressed
reduction

conduit
in
comparable
by comparing
equations
and flow
in
terms
of
the
Darcy
f,
         _ _ _ _ _ _ _   (3)
f1/2
for
of
helix
as the
conduit,
n.
For
affected
evident
inversely
increase
can be modified
the
in
in
lig6
varies
usual
of
is
Equation
the
in
shape
and the
decreases
variations
Q = Av = A + R213
increase
on the
rate,
significantly
radius
a given
which
only
flow
factor
is
hydraulic
effect
factor
depend
resistance
resistance
The relative
n and
C.M.P.
90 degrees.
The fact
depth
for
depth.
to
f results
the
effect
(la)
and
in
about
of
(3),
a 3 percent
a 3 percent
n varies
reduction
as f l/2
5
These
demonstrations
on the
computed
of
discharge
estimating
these
variables
connected
resistance
factor
percent
in
design
For
effects
of variations
capacity
factors
is
with
of
flow
determination
f or 3 percent
a conduit
acceptable,
the
conditions
the
resistance
indicate
especially
method
in
in
that
since
in
resulting
in
n can be considered
some error
there
In
C.M.P.
factors
are
many
general,
errors
of
in
any
less
adequately
reliable
parameters
which
than
for
computations.
convenience
hydraulic
metal
of
flow
pipes,
the
are
from
the
For
helical
the
helix
axis,
C.M.P.,
angle.
have
in
the
(related
roughness
(ratio
For
all
resistance
is
it
that
appears
these
presented
of
flow
parameters
depth
helix
of
size,
to
angle,
Reynolds
roughness
are
in
this
hydraulic
conduit
by the
relative
corrugated
influencing
rate,
the
influence
separately
corrugation
determined
the
approaches
to
C.M.P.,
90 degrees.
and helical
parameters
annular
is
While
are
main
number,
the
annular
corrugations
C.M.P.,
some influence,
angle
different
of
annular
shape.
pipe
helix
types
Reynolds
and corrugation
and because
are
relative
temperature),
shape
two
For
resistance
presentation,
resistance
publication.
the
the
and
conduit
size),
measured
number
and
and corrugation
little
significance
until
90'.
Shapes
The corrugation
Figure
to vary
resistance
adequate.
1.
Considered
shapes
considered
The dimensions
somewhat
from
coefficients,
herein
presented
the
true
it
is
are
dimensions.
felt
that
for
annular
nominal
dimensions,
However,
nominal
C.M.P.
for
corrugation
are
which
purposes
shown
in
are
known
of
estimating
dimensions
are
FLOW
3X I IN.
c/k ~3.00
FLOW
FLOW
c=f3
l
6X 2 IN.
c = 9
FLOW
9 X 2+ IN.
c/k = 3.60
NOTE : C/k CYCLE PITCH TO
DEPTH RATIO
cp=rv + t, t varies with
material,
and corrugation
pipe siie,
shape.
FIGURE
1.
Shapes
of
Annular
Corrugations
7
Nominal
Pitch
dimensions
are
Nominal
Size
Corrugation
(c) by Depth
of
2213
6.8
7.6
15.2
15.2
22.9
Note
x
x
x
x
x
available
that
the
of
Radius
of
Corrugation
Valley,
r v, (4
(k),
(cm)
in
all
1 inch
terms
of
corrugation
depth
(k),
the
6 by
1 inch
while
the
3 by 1 inch
the
with
pipes
Bolt
and
Some of
by 2l/2
to
flow
sizes
or materials.
(15.2
x 2.5
cm)
6 by
peaked
have
1 inch
for
in
rp/k
have
with
and
this
the
a large
terms
an average
corrugations
pipes
corrugations
Radius
of
Corrugation
Peak,
r , (cd
1.852.17
1.561.86
6.346.61
3.133.57
5.976.48
have
example;
cm) corrugations
resistance
more
For
height.
the
0.7280.856
0.6150.731
2.4982.602
1.2341.405
2.352.55
Available
Thickness*
t, (cm>
corrugations
the
annular
inch
(22.9
plate
heads
over
corrugation
x 6.4
C.M.P.,
or nuts
that
found
shapes
cm))
considered
using
bolts
protrude
into
in
(6 by
of
corrugation
corrugation
ratio
of
an rp/k
ratio
has
effect
the
corrugation
2.55,
of
0.673.
of
as compared
same relative
riveted
2 inch
herein
(15.2
are
field
and nuts
to assemble
the
and
pipe
or helically
of
Peak,
2.?ze
roughness.
Seam Resistance
structural
The bolt
of
hydraulic
pipe
x 2.5
Radius
Corrugation
.102.427
.132.427
.152.417
.278.711
.254.762
corrugations
(7.6
shape
with
Wall
1.7
1.4
6.2
2.9
5.7
in
lowering
centimeters:
0.040.168
0.0520.168
0.060.164
0.1090.280
0.1000.300
radius
rounded
and
11/16
9116
27116
ll/8
2l/4
6 by
The more
inches
112
1
1
2
2l/2
inches
1.3
2.5
2.5
5.1
6.4
*Not
in
Available
Wall Thickness*
t, inches
Nominal
Size
Corrugation
(c) by Depth
Pitch
below,
Radius
of
Corrugation
Valley,
rv, inches
(k)
by
by
by
by
by
3
6
6
9
presented
x 5.1
cm) and
fabricated
the
metal
create
additional
fabricated
C.M.P.
into
plates.
resistance
8
In Appendix
and the
D, methods
results
figures.
have
inch
related
been
the
metal
plates
been
assumed
Flow
Rates
As it
is
to
for
size.
in
Appendix
size,
depth,
flow
rates
dimensionless
divided
to
SI System
the
Appendix
this
are
the
it
rate,
g,
on the
can be accomplished
to
English
the
a function
l/2
the
System;
the
has
of
to
conduit
select
is
essentially
dimensionless
power.
Since
SI System.
however,
conversion
in
hydraulic
Q/D2*5
truly
are
thickness
is
in
the
of
the
is
results
using
thickness
is
and
the
affects
it
(Q/D~=~
value
fabricating
Use of
since
factor
which
was necessary
curves.
size.
in
number
discussed,
6 by 2 inch
effects,
the
Number
design
on pipe
the
and a reasonable
Reynolds
flow
based
to
temperature,
a different
text
related
acceleration,
dimensionless,
in
if
Q/D 2.5
All
conversion
factors
given
in
E).
general,
Q/D2*5
fore,
based
gravitational
values
In
use in
for
resistance
used
are
resistance
curves
conduit,
since
and
following
and bolts
Reynolds
representing
ratio
by
not
of
and
rate,
for
means
D that
the
bolt
is
conduit
each
C.M.P.,
convenient
plates
the
of all
flow
of
seam resistance
resistance
due to
fabricate
resistance
certain
the
are
and
into
Seam resistance
used
shown
flow
in
number
conduit.
bolt
incorporated
corrugations
to
particular
is
estimating
The discontinuities
9 by 2l/2
turn
for
at
value
these
their
design
of
about
2.0
two
flow
ratios
Interpolation
between
justified.
The curves
other
flow
Darcy
Resistance
Figures
25
equations:
flow
rates,
highway
operate
at
drains
operate
2.5
a Q/D
of about
depicted
in
the
and culverts
the
have
two
of
been
flow
Appendix
values,
storm
and
following
some limited
D can be used
to
at
4.0.
design
may be used
extrapolation
develop
accurate
is
curves
f
to
determine
the
Darcy
f for
use
Therecurves.
rates.
Factors,
in
the
following
for
9
t
:
0.08
0.06
PIPE
IO
DIAMETER,
14
12
FT.
FIGURE
3.
Darcy
f Versus
Diameter
for
6 by linch
Annular
Corrugated
Metal
Pipe
NUMBER
OF PLATES
0.12
0.08
0.06
ti
.
.
IV
14
I2
ACTUAL
PIPE
DIAMETER,
16
18
20
FT.
FIGURE
4.
for
6 by Zinch
Annular
Structural
Plate
0.16
T\
0.14
0.12
TLY FULL
FLOW
0.08
0.06
6
IO
ACTUAL
12
PIPE
DIAMETER,
I4
I6
I8
FT.
FIGURE
5.
for
9 by 2l/2inch
Annular
Structural
Plate
13
'f
hf
r
f V2
f V2
=mm4R 2g
= D 2g
(2)
and
1604
Q=AV=A
where
is
the
friction
slope
or
is
the
friction
head
loss,
is
the
pipe
is
the
mean velocity,
is
the
gravitational
is
the
flow
2 is
for
22/3
cm) corrugations.
4 is
for
9 by
2l/2
are
used
in
by
for
l/2
(22.9
bolted
3 is
diameters
are
5.
the
corrugations,
equal
to
the
other
actual
Manning
Resistance
Manning
n values
Figure
inside
(15.2
corrugations.
by
it
is
x 2.5
tick
and Figure
The curves
are
crests
marks
assumed
at
that
of
x 2.5
cm) corrugations,
The latter
inside
(7.6
two
based
5 is
corrugations
on actual
corrugations.
the
top
of
the
nominal
Figures
4 and
diameter
is
diameter.
Factors,
are
1 inch
3 by 1 inch
cm) corrugations,
the
represented
(m2).
cm) and
C.M.P.
between
line,
and
x 1.3
x 5.1
plate
grade
(m),
feet
6 by
cm)
energy
(m/set>,
square
for
x 6.4
Nominal
ft.
the
(m),
(6.8
(15.2
measured
of
acceleration,
inch
structural
slope
fps.
in
(3)
(m3/sec>,
ft.
area
6 by 2 inch
inch
cfs
length,
Figure
diameters,
For
in
flow
hf
L
inside
rate
 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  _ _ _   
the
sf
Figure
&I2
f
is
Figure
R112
f1/2
presented
in
Figures
6  9,
in
the
following
order:
Corrugation
22/3
6 by 1 inch
6 by 2 inch
9 by 2l/2
by l/2
inch
(6.8
x 1.3
(15.2
x 2.5
cm)
(15.2
x 5.1
cm)
inch
(22.9
x 6.4
cm) and
3 by 1 inch
(structural
cm)
(structural
plate)
plate)
(7.6
x 2.5
cm)
14
0.28
0.26
E
c3
z
5 0.24
a
5
FULL
FLOW
0.22
0.20
0
PIPE
DIAMETER,
IO
12
14
FT.
FIGURE
7.
Manning
Pipe
n Versus
Diameter
for
6 by linch
Annular
Corrugated
Metal
22
02
81
91
tl
II
01
ZPOO
3wmN
035013N3
8fO'O
ENCLOSED
FULL
PARTLY
FULL
d/D = 0.7  0.9
NUMBERS
INDICATE
FLOW
FLOW
0.032 
0.030 4
IO
12
ACTUAL
PIPE
DIAMETER,
14
16
20
FT
FIGURE
9.
Manning
n Versus
Corrugated
Metal
Diameter
Pipe
for
9 by 2l/2inch
Annular
Structural
Plate
18
The Manning
n values
v =
where
1.486
n
is
the
flow
is
the
hydraulic
is
the
friction
(Q=AV),
8 and 9,
represented
by
Manning
of
for
Note
that
used
for
in
= 2.0.
Use of
Resistance
the
corrugation
shape,
with
the
flow
curve
for
extrapolate.
presented
designed
rate
and
for
the
to flow
full
designer's
partly
full
and
of
have
nominal
diameters
graph.
the
the
the
analytical
process,
following
to
the
equation:
                 Darcy
shown,
flow
pipe
and Manning
a constant
depth
with
C.M.P.,
sizes
equations
Manning
very
full
Curves
error.
For
n value
(Figures
read
the
or 4.0;
flow
for
curves
other
(d/D
the
flow
rates
within
depth
range.
pipe
size,
appropriate
full
interpolate
drains
storm
with
or partly
to
since
this
full
= 0.7
convenience
full
29)
rate
from
of about
or partly
0.9)
have
are
(5)
velocity.
could
n value
for a given
circular
3 F
(Q/DLoJ),
simply
enter
the
f value
for
n value
little
a Manning
flowing
Diameter
f or Manning
The partly
(m),
the
by
the
Versus
diameter
and
2.5
Q/D
= 2.0
SI units,
C.M.P.,
3 by 1 inch
and flow
equation:
(mps),
of
(f>li2
all
known
results.
thetop
pipes
Factor
Darcy
graph
for
in
ft.
plate
the
6 for
be used
Q/D2'5
To obtain
flow
Figure
could
(1)
by equating
some of
a given
example,
0.027
for
1.0
radius,
by use
(R)li6
may be derived
to
obtained
n was accomplished
well
slope.
at
f,
following,
fps
Equation
Darcy
n = 0.0926
which
equal
velocity,
marks
the
(4)
structural
tick
the
using
Sf l/2
continuity
Conversion
R2,'3
a constant,
sf
Figures
applied
is
1.486
From
are
or
been
often
be
19
For noncircular
conduits,
such as pipe arches, obtain the equivalent pipe
diameter De from the full flow hydraulic
radius.
Then enter the appropriate
graph with De = 4Rfull and read the full or partly full resistance
factor
2.5
1.5
from the appropriate
Q/D
curve.
For pipe arches, use Q/BD,
in place
2.5
, where B is the pipearch span and Da is the pipearch rise.
of Q/D
For depths of flow outside the ranges shown (full
or d/D = 0.7  0.9),
determine the hydraulic
radius for the partly full flow prism, determine
the equivalent
diameter, De = 4R, enter the appropriate
graph and read the
resistance
from the appropriate
full flow curve.
Do not use the,partly
full flow curves for this procedure, and do not apply the technique if d/D
It is not felt that the stateoftheart
permits accurate
is less than 0.4.
determination
of hydraulic
resistance
for very shallow flow depths.
Note
that since C.M.P. resistance
is affected by Reynolds number, the resistance
factors obtained by the latter
technique are approximate, but the errors
will not be significant.
Summary of Methods for Use of Figures
1.
of Appendix
29
C or from Reference
13, "Computation
of
13.
3.
5.
full
(Note:
2o
6.
For partly full flow, with a depth bettieen d/D = 0.4 and d/D = 0.7,
determine the equivalent diameter, D , for the partly full flow prism
by the equation De = 4 R, where R isethe hydraulic
radius of the flow
prism.
Then enter the appropriate
figure and read the resistance
factor from the Full Flow curve.
7.
For partly
interpolate
full flow with a depth between d/D = 0.9 and full flow,
between the full flow and partly full flow curves.
Circular
C.M.P.
Given:
6 ft.
29
(1.8 m) diameter
cm) corrugations
Required:
C.M.P. with
3 by linch
(7.6 x 2.5
(5.0 m3/sec).
1)
True diameter
= nominal
2)
diameter
= 6 ft.
(1.83 m).
Appendix C)
d/D
1.0 (Full)
0.70.9
(Fii.
2)
0.0735
0.0700
n
(Fig.
6)
0.0268
0.0270
21
For
example,
= 0.6
is
Table
C2,
From Fig.
From Fig.
1)
2)
Plate
(3.6
cm)
1515
cfs
Flow
(42.9
= (4)
..,.
d/D
ft.2*5
= 1515/505
ri
d/D
R/D = 0.2776
(6)
= 6.66
(from
ft.
resistance
(2.03
factors
.~

= 0.7
m)
vary
Flow
full
and partly
full
ft.
(3.676
rate
flow.
(Table
C3,
m)
Appendix
C)
(Pi:.
4)
0.0910
0.0850
,.
C.M.P.
= 3.0
were
. 
plate
 0.9.
(Pi:.
.T
structural
cm) corrugations.
f and n for
d/D
..
at
m3/sec;.
= 12.06
the
diameter)
x 5.1
1.0 (Full)
0.70.9
(.2776)
since
(15.2
Range:
= 505.1
3)
(D)
(nominal
factors
diameter
Q/D2*5
= 0.6,
factor
G.M.P.
6 by 2inch
Resistance
D2.5
resistance
At d/D
approximate,
with
Full
= 2.0.
the
number.
12 foot
True
(R/D)
are
Structural
Partly
suppose
C).
values
Reynolds
Required:
pipe,
2.5
f = 0.0710
n = 0.0269
latter
Given:
Q/D
= 4R = (4)
2,
6,
Circular
2.
above
with
Appendix
De
These
the
required
Then
with
for
obtained
.?.
.__I
by interpolation
~~..~~~~....~~~
8)
0.0335
0.0334
Q/D 2.5
between
_,

. .._.
l.llll__
= 2
__.
____
__*
_ ._.___?
__._
22
3.
Corrugated Metal
Given:
Required:
1)
Structural
Plate
PipeArch
Structural
Plate Corrugated Metal.PipeArch
with 9 x 2l/2
inch corrugations.
(28.8 inch (73.2 cm) corner radius).
Nominal size:
Flow rate =
760 cfs
Resistance
flow (d/D
 5 in.
 3 in.
(3.18 m).
(2.21 m).
(21.5 m3/sec)
factors,
f and n, for full
= 0.7  0.9).
(0.636 m) (full
flow hydraulic
radius)
BD lo5 = 190.2
a
De = 4R = 4 (2.085)
2)
3)
Enter figures
d/D
1.0
0.70.9
with
= 8.34 ft.
(2.54 m).
= 4.0
De = 8.34 ft
(Figf. 5)
0.104
0.095
(Fii.
9)
0.0338
0.0333
23
HELICALLY
Corrugation
Shapes
Corrugated
metal
helical
spot
welded
is
manufactured
available
C.M.P.
The following
this
Considered
pipe
C.M.P.,
with
seam process,
same range
are
of
and
presented
sizes
known
as the
as
riveted
or
seams.
in
the
design
figures
of
section:
Factors
Size
(c)
Affecting
Relative
of Corrugations
by Depth
(k)
(cd
(k/D)
hydraulic
until
the
helix
with
Reynolds
number
Reynolds
numbers,
The helix
corrugated
the
in
the
angle
metal
is
which
metal
diameter
of
Width
(cm>
30.5
50.8
40.6,50.8
61.0
appear
to have
corrugated
metal
the
corrugations,
area,
values
little
pipes
effect
flowing
The resistance
90 degrees.
sectional
resistance
0,
and
and
varies
secondarily
At
temperature).
seem to
reach
a constant
with
higher
value
for
conduits.
dependent
the
method
sheet
the
width
of metal
fed
into
the
pipe
the
metal
machine,
being
of
metal
and rolls
A fixed
of
upon
Coiled
pipes.
is
Plate
12
20
16,20
24
shape
approaches
cross
corrugations
seam.
the
the
0.65
1.1
1.3
1.3
corrugation
angle
(flow,
x
x
x
x
of helically
angle
circular
or welded
the
and
helix
Finished
Inches
Resistance
resistance
primarily
flow
3.8
5.0
5.0
6.8
Hydraulic
roughness
on the
with
lock
corrugations
shapes
x l/4
2 x 7/16
2 x l/2
2213 x l/2
forms
the
annular
l112
full
by the
in
corrugation
Nominal
Pitch
Inches
full
is
manufacture
fed
into
is
produced.
the
helically
a pipe
mill
which
a spiral
used;
and
into
of
pipe
therefore,
thus
the
Since
the
helix
the
with
angle
angle,
pipe
a lock
at
varies
seam must
24
move ahead
the
helix
one
finished
angle
equals
strip
the
width
pipe
per
complete
circumference
revolution,
divided
the
by the
tangent
finished
of
strip
width:
0 = LL2D~~~~~~~~
tan
(6)
LS
where
is
the
helix
angle,
is
the
pipe
diameter,
Ls is
the
finished
The finished
plate
lines
fabricated
on the
In Table
combinations
angles,
of
Darcy
course,
are
pipes,
inches
with
these
40.6,
50.8,
is
a large
C.M.P.
resistance
annular
Flow
for
flow
rates
annular
values,
values
guidance.
can
annular
C.M.P.
are
for
C.M.P.
use
increase
1
distance
parallel
by Equation
plate
between
to
(6)
the
seam center
pipe
are
widths,
to manufacturing
with
pipe
axis.
presented
and pipe
for
various
diameters.
These
tolerances.
are
shown
reduction
pipe
of
for
size
is
assumed
corrugated
12,
16,
shapes
For
figure.
pipe
the
the
smaller
the
to approach
and
corresponding
helical
increases,
20,
pipe
pipes
as
helical
the
resistance
sizes.
the
Values
of
2.5 = 4 curves.
the Q/D
drastically,
widths
resistance
and
helically
The corrugation
on the
As the
for
plate
cm).
in
increases,
using
diameter
finished
and 61.0
larger
covered
(cm).
as the
measured
C.M.P.
also
inches
f versus
full,
with
of
Darcy
widths
and
flowing
'compared
width,
subject
plate
there
sizes,
(cm),
forms,
Factors,
(30.5,
inches
computed
corrugation
(radius),
defined
pipe,
of
10 depicts
metal
is
angles
Resistance
Figure
strip
width
1, helix
degrees
so Figure
For
lower
Q/D2.5
D10 should
values,
be consulted
resistance
for
24
25
TABLE 1
HELIX ANGLES IN DEGREESFOR CORRUGATED
PIPES OF VARIOUS DIAMETERS
Diameter
in inches
0.12
LEGEND
bd
++
SILBERMAN
SILBERMAN

HANDBOOK
ESTIMATED
I
AND DAHLIN ,I969
AND DAHLIN,IS7I
(IO )
( 6 )
0.10
FULL
22/3
0.08
FLOW
xl/2
I
CURVES
1
IN. ANNULAR
( I8 )
CURVE
I
C.M.P.
II
+.
z
!!i
12 PLATE
0.06
ll/2x
l/4
IN.
0.04
0.02
0
PIPE
DIAMETER,
FT.
FIGURE
10.
Darcy
f Versus
Diameter
for
Helically
Corrugated
Metal
Pipe
IO
27
While
of
all
corrugation
untested
other,
plate
width
helical
plate
is
are
not
shown,
it
may be adequately
diameter
is
with
as for
22/3
For
Factors,
a 24 inch
by
l/2
felt
estimated
as parameters.
fabricated
can be used
the
resistance
using
the
finished
example,
finished
inch
that
if
plate
6 by
width,
corrugations
with
1 inch
the
same
a 24 inch
width.
Manning
Resistance
Manning
n values
curves
are
helical
C.M.P.
as were
given
Annular
helical
short
for
presented
ReCorrugated
For
shapes
and pipe
C.M.P.
curves
shapes
C.M.P.
are
in
on Figure
Figure
The same
11.
10 for
Darcy
f values.
annular
rings
on the
Rings
joined
with
recorrugated
section
of
annular
C.M.P.
at
pipes),
add
10.5
percent
to
Darcy
percent
to
the
shown
Manning
the
n from
the
ends
to
facilitate
f determined
Figure
11.
C.M.P.
may have
joining
from
end
(a
the
Figure
10 or
Limitations
While
than
it
is
annular
helical
care
should
be exercised
much
in
lower
the
resistance
use of
the
values
reduced
values.
the
entire
that
C.M.P.,
resistance
Since
true
low values
crosssection
developed
spiral
flow
that
care
be taken
1.
Partly
full
2.
When high
on the
of
pipe,
flow
in
sediment
low
flow
spiral
flow
in
the
can occur
when
during
conduit.
depend
the
the
in
designer
his
following
the
loads
periods.
the
development
conduit
design
of
spiral
must
flow
assure
situation.
conditions
across
the
himself
that
is
recommended
It
fully
exist:
conduit.
can cause
This
until
sedimentation
sediment
the
in
may hinder
sediment
the
the
is washed
pipe
invert
development
out
of
of
the
2%
0.024
0.020
C
0.016
RANGE
PIPE
11.
Manning
n Versus
Diameter
3
DIAMETER,
for
OF VALUES
FT.
Helically
6
FIGURE
Corrugated
Metal
Pipe
29
Regarding
condition
avoided
in
helically
resistance
type
full
Condition
of
a helical
consider
that
higher
resistance
If
following
annular
is
felt
into
the
which
3.
pipe
will
not
culverts,
cannot
fully
When the
the
a culvert.
resistance
often
significant
full
and
coefficient
sediment
if
corrugation
applicable
the
to
than
to
less
than
introduce
risk
usually
pipes
would
C.M.P.,
in
out
the
area
be prudent
to
and possibly
flow
use
resistance
shape,
pipe
have
the
factor
size,
some conservatism
flooding
washed
C.M.P.
full
same corrugation
better
it
annular
use
is
other
depth,
of helical
exist,
about
such
C.M.P.
by depending
and
for
flow
and extra
rate.
capacity
on a flow
condition
20 diameters
long,
where
the
spiral
lined
annular
flow
the
and
corrugation
the
case,
first
for
the
a partly
C.M.P.
11
C.M.P.
involve
it
is
helical
lower
for
type.
of helical
will
lined.
factor
10 and
The first
care.
partly
resistance
Figures
use
as pipearches.
is
use
so that
with
since
an equivalent
the
coefficients
exists,
be applied
is
the
In
of
for
with
of Use of
be presented.
partly
same size
resistance
However,
design
conduits,
5,
To illustrate
the
the
be
develop.
same size
Examples
the
helical
condition
lower
of
should
develop.
Short
5.
the
conditions
Otherwise,
C.M.P.
rapidly.
conditions
design
Noncircular
of
in
it
design
pipes.
a problem,
are
value
that
4.
For
which
C.M.P.
flow
C.M.P.
rather
fact
metal
than
as great
C.M.P.
deposits
It
helical
full
an annular
rather
not
sediment
the
in
2 is
the
for
be used
flow
partly
corrugated
coefficient
should
to
1 above,
resistance
a storm
helical
drainage
usually
C.M.P.
factors,
safe
In
C.M.P.
to
two
system
utilize
culverts,
resistance
examples
and
the
partly
factors
the
will
second
lower
full
must
flow
JO
1.
Given:
A,storm
Design
is
C.M.P.
(61
is
to
be designed
"just
full
flow".
to
coincide
with
the
with
22/3
assumed
for
drain
cm) plate
considered
by l/2
width.
That
roof
inch
The slope
the
convey
pipe.
cfs
(0.89
grade
Use circular
cm)
0.0045
ft/ft.
the
31.0
the.hydraulic
by 1.3
is
and
is,
of
(6.8
to be a problem,
to
conduit
line
is
helical
corrugations
and
Sediment
is
mj/s).
is
to be 300
ft
a 24 inch
not
(91.5
m)
long.
Since
Solution:
significant
and
is
the
pipe
sediment
unlined,
will
buildup,
the
flow
is
full
long
at
design
conditions,
(L greater
lower
resistance
coefficients
the
flow
capacities
for
(3)
can be used,
has no
than
20 D),
is
circular,
for
helical
C.M.P.
pipe
sizes.
Either
may
be used.
First,
determine
Equation
(la)
or
or Darcy
f resistance
several
depending
coefficient
is
D,m.
2.5
3.0
3.5
0.76
0.91
1.07
,ft.2W5
(Table
Cl)
Darcy
(Figure
Q/D2*5
9.882
15.59
22.92
the
Manning
chosen.
D2.5
D,ft.
on whether
f
10)
Manning
(Figure
0.041
0.045
0.048*
3.1
2.0
1.4
n
11)
0.0171
0.0187
0.0199*
*Extrapolated.
Use the
Manning
Q=An
D
2.5
3.0
3.5
1.486
A/D2
(Table
C2)
0.7854
I,
1,
Equation
(la):
R2/3
A,ft'
4.91
7.07
9.62
l/2
sf

R/D
(Table
C2)
0.2500
11
,I
       
R,ft.
0.625
0.75
0.875
n
0.0171
0.0187
0.0199
(14
nY9
Q,
sf
 cfs
m3/s
0.0045
,I
11
20.9
31.1
44.1
0.59
0.88
1.25
31
a 3 foot
Therefore,
situation.
Note
the
tions,
2.
that
full
capacity
would
capacity
of
(0.91
if
Manning
be 23.7
cfs
foot
A culvert
is
circular
helical
C.M.P.
is
(61
about
cm) plate
The
headwater
of
Hydraulic,Engineering
of
Highway
m3/s>,
22/3
by
7.0
feet
is
(1.83
5,
including
From
5 of Reference
the
flow
than
the
C.M.P.
(1.76
(6.8
is
m3/s).
x 1.3
0.005
edged
ft/ft.
in
Use the
Use
cm) corrugations
does
The culvert
not
appear
a headwall,
culvert
Hydraulic
check
inlet
the
control,
which
corrugation
and
design
Charts
for
to
procedures
the
Selection
20,
is
unaffected
by barrel
the
following
inlet
control
headwater
depths
determined:
HW*
D,m.
cfs
m3/s
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
0.76
0.91
1.07
1.22
62
(1
11
11
1.76
11
I,
II
3.4
1.7
1.2
0.9
*HW = headwater
Next,
for
checking
helical
C.M.P.
partly
inlet
outlet
control,
The latter
full
helical
outlet
control,
the
corrugation
helical)
depth,
C.M.P.
must
the
shape.
D,ft.
and
corruga
(20).
conditions
In
design
and
more
deposition
m).
No.
6),
62 cfs
square
this
annular
slightly
inch
Sediment
Circular
Culverts
convey
The slope
entrance
with
helical
l/2
for
(Figure
or only
to
(61 m).
is
First
are
be 0.0245
width.
culvert
Solution:
Chart
n would
adequate
designed
m) diameter
with
is
were
be designed
200 feet
be a problem.
allowable
to
C.M.P.
conduit
(0.67
(0.76
Given:
length
the
flow
a 2.5
and a 24 inch
m) helical
HW,m.
8.5
5.1
4.2
3.6
2.59
1.55
1.28
1.10
control.
and partly
values
HW,ft.
use
full
assume
full
flow
n values
that
spiral
n values
from
flow
from
Figure
cannot
Figure
6,
11
for
annular
develop
in
C.M.P.
the
barrel
type
be considered.
roughness
and method
does
of pipe
influence
manufacture
culvert
(annular
capacity,
or
32
The total
losses
computed
using
H=
through
the
k
l+
the
following
Equation
text
is
the entrance
inlets)
is
the
Manning
is
the
barrel
is
the full
pipes);
is
the
(7)
is
and adding
both
resistance
The following
needed
D,ft.
to
tables
hydraulic
entrance
and
flow
will
contain
Equation
exit
(D/4
square
for
helical
(4)
losses.
C.M.P.
edged
circular
For
from
the
purposes
and partly
full
main
of
annular
be investigated.
the
development
of
the
parameters
(7):
9.882
15.59
22.92
32.00
6.3
4.0
2.7
1.9
0.041*
0.044
0.047
0.050
**Extrapolated.
for
Equation
Q/D2.5
= 4.0
(7)
barrel
(0.5
radius
Q/D2'5
(Table
Cl)
2.5
culvert
 
factor
Full
Flow
Darcy f
10)
(F' lgure
Q/D
20:
velocity
by rearranging
full
the
are
length
factors
solve
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
*Use
the
Reference
coefficient
resistance
flow
derived
through
loss
flow
and
full
from
and friction)
V2
loss
ke is
illustration,
C.M.P.
total
outlet,
+ 29 n2 L
R1.33
the
(inlet,
equation
[
where,
barrel
curve.
Full
Flow
Manning
n
(Figure
11)
0.0169
0.0184
0.0197
0.0207
Partly
Full
Flow
Darcy f
2)
(Figure
0.072**
0.069
0.065
0.063
Partly
Full
Flow
Manning
n
(Figure
6)
0.0237**
0.0238
0.0239
0.0240
33
Full
Flow
V2
A,ft2
V,fps
z,ft.
4.91
7.07
9.62
12.57
12.63
8.77
6.44
4.93
A/D2
D,ft.
(Table
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
Using
C2)
0.7854
,1
11
11
the
Manning
Equation
(la)
Full
D,ft.
Then,
Where,
HWo
Ho
HWo = the
H
L
sO
dc
D
So
headwater
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
total
Partly
H,ft.
3.5
1.6
0.8
0.5
18.8
7.6
3.5
1.8
depth
in
outlet
_RI _ :3
_
0.625
0.75
0.875
1.00
5.535
0.682
0.837
1.00
barrel
Full
losses:
Flow
m
5.7
2.3
1.1
0.5

(8)
control
2
= barrel
length
= barrel
slope
= critical
depth
= barrel
Equation
(81,
diameter
for
full
flow:
dc
D,ft.
the
R,ft.
= barrel
losses
dc + D
ho=
Using
C2)
0.2500
,I
II
I,
Flow
11.4
5.3
2.7
1.5
=
2.48
1.20
0.64
0.38
to determine
H,ft.
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
R/D
(Table
H,ft.
11.4
5.3
2.7
1.5
(Chart
16,Ref.
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.3
(2))
ho,ft.
2.5
2.8
3.0
3.2
L So,ft.
Hwo,ft.
1.0
II
I,
11
12.9
6.8
4.7
3.7
34
For
partly
full
flow,
using
the
larger
resistance
factors
for
annular
C.M.P.:
D,ft.
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
From
18.8
7.6
3.5
1.8
the
full,
a flow
feet
outlet
the
(3.93
end;
is
seen
that
rate
of
62 cfs
The 3.0
m).
will
flow
it
flow
completely
full
flow
The
3.5
definitely
(1.07
partly
control
full
headwaters
2.5
foot
of
the
pipe
the
m) and 4.0
foot
5.5
the
feet
will
partly
flow
length.
m) and 4.0
of
at
the
Also,
if
into
n values
m) diameter
rate,
depth
since
be forced
Manning
flow
full
full
will
(1.22
flow
(1.68
its
lower
design
is
to assume
most
and
m) pipe
and a headwater
m) pipe
safe
flow,
20.3
9.4
5.5
4.0
(0.76
m3/s)
(0.91
probably
under
are
foot
(1.76
condition,
be appropriate.
foot
the
design
HWo,ft.
1.0
II
11
I,
throughout
the
certainly
large
is
full
exceeds
L So,ft.
2.5
2.8
3.0
3.2
however,
barrel
actual
it
above,
with
12.9
ho,ft.
H,ft.
feet
will
pipes
and the
the
are
outlet
(1.22
m),
respectively.
For
this
culvert
barrel
is
exceed
6.8
the
adequate.
feet
headwater
It
(2.07
rises,
lower
resistance
A set
of
inlet
control
culvert
installation,
curve
operates
in
flow
outlet
factors,
while
the
the
Above
pipe
m) if
the
outlet
for
this
below
the
C.M.P.
headwater
could
maintained.
into
However,
full
flow
the
follows.
Note
outlet
control
curves;
over
is
curve
pipe
culvert
the
curve
full
exceeds
m) helical
as
and
the
be assured.
control
the
not
be forced
control
partly
(0.91
that
is
will
will
is well
90 cfs,
flow
barrel
outlet
foot
be noted
full
curves
The full
at
should
factors
performance
factors.
a 3.0
is
pipe
the
based
is
based
range
of
flows
on helical
that
thus,
of
C.M.P.
on annular
the
the
interest.
resistance
C.M.P.
resistance
definitely
full,
since
critical
diameter.
Also,
below
30 cfs,
depth
the
35
pipe
is
the
certain
top
is
not
of
partly
the
full
those
pipe.
full
is
cases
about
possible
between
prevail
at
it
and
depth
30 and
is
below
90 cfs,
the
lower
resistance
answer
would
require
probably
reasonable
to
60 cfs
upward.
A definite
solution
this
time,
damages
due
to
the
judgement
must
solution
are
low
is
and
lack
of
utilize
of
to
test
be used
indicated
it
use
is
a conservative
potential
headwater
range
The designer's
where
where
will
but
conditions.
those
the
the
A conservative
from
not
since
in
flow
curve,
curve
flow
cases
full
flow
problem
full,
However,
be justified.
flow
on such
be partly
where
will
the
select
the
known
factors
this
to
data
to
versus
some increased
risk
can be assumed.
,_._,
. . ..
. .
_~~,._
.,..
_..
....
..
.._
j,
__/,~..,
,~.
_,.
j__
*ill...~l^l.

~~___
20
40
60
FLOW,
80
100
120
cfs
EXAMPLE
PERFORMANCE
CURVES
3 FOOT
DIAMETER
HELICAL
2 2/3x
I,2
INCH
CORRUGATIONS,
24 .IN.
PLATE
WIDTH,
0.005,
INLET:
SOUARE
EDGE
IN
HEADWALL
CORRUGATED
LENGTH
METAL
200
FT.,
PIPE
SLOPE=
Al
APPENDIX
(1)
Webster,
Marvin
J. and Metcalf,
Corrugated
Metal Pipe,"
Journal
85, No. HY9, Proc.
Paper 2148,
A  REFERENCES
Laurence
R. "Friction
Factors
in
of the Hydraulics
Division,
ASCE,
September
1959, pp. 3567.
Vol.
(2)
Straub,
Lorenz
G. and Morris,
Henry M., "Hydraulic
Metal
Culvert
Pipes,"
Technical
Paper No. 5, Series
Minnesota,
St. Anthony
Falls
Hydraulic
Laboratory,
July
1950.
(3)
Neill,
Charles
R., Hydraulic
of the Hydraulics
Division,
May 1962, pp. 2344.
(4)
Chamberlain,
A. R.,
Twelve
Inch Pipes,"
Colorado
Agricultural
June 1955.
(5)
Garde,
R. J.,
"Sediment
Colorado
State University
Fort Collins,
College),
(6)
Silberman,
Edward,
and Dahlin,
Warren Q., "Further
Studies
of Friction
Factors
for Corrugated
Aluminum
Pipes Flowing
Full,"
Project
Report
No.
121, University
of Minnesota,
St. Anthony
Falls
Hydraulic
Laboratory,
Minneapolis,
Minnesota,
April,
1971.
(7)
Grace,
J.
Corrugated
Waterways
(8)
Bauer,
W. J. and Val,
foot
Corrugated
Steel
April
1969.
(9)
Rice,
Charles
E., "Friction
Factors
ARS 41119,
U.S. Dept.
of Agriculture,
February
1966.
(10)
Silberman,
Corrugated
Minnesota,
December,
(11)
Dahlin,
Warren Q., and Silberman,
Edward,
"Further
Studies
of Friction
Factors
for Helical
Aluminum
Pipes with ReCorrugated
Annular
Rings on
Each End," Project
Report
No. 160, University
of Minnesota,
St. Anthony
Falls
Hydraulic
Laboratory,
Minneapolis,
Minnesota,
March,
1976.
Roughness
ASCE, Vol.
Tests
on Corrugated
B, University
of
Minneapolis,
Minnesota,
of Corrugated
88, No. HY3,
Pipes."
Journal
Proc.
Paper 3111,
"Effect
of Boundary
on Fine Sand Transport
CER No. 55 ARCG, Colorado
State University
and Mechanical
College),
Fort Collins,
Transport
Through
Pipes."
CER No.
(Formerly
Colorado
Agricultural
Colorado,
October
1956.
in
(Formerly
Colorado,
56 RJG 19,
and Mechanical
"Resistance
Coefficients
for Structural
Plate
L., Jr.,
Pipe,"
Technical
Report
No. 2715,
U.S. Army Engineer
Experiment
Station,
Vicksburg,
Mississippi,
February
1966.
Alberto,
Pipe,"
"Determination
Bauer Engineering,
for
of Manning's
"n"
Inc.,
Chicago,
Helical
Agricultural
Corrugated
Pipe,"
Research
Service,
Edward.
and Dahlin,
Warren Q., "Friction
Aluminum
Pipe,"
Project
Report
No. 112,
St. Anthony
Falls
Hydraulic
Laboratory,
1969.
.~
,.,.
_.
..
j,
:._,.
.(
__
_,,,.
for 14Illinois,

Factors
for Helical
University
of
Minneapolis,
Minnesota,


.,_
...
l..,.*
._,
. .
^ _^,
___.
A2
(12)
Normann,
Jerome M. and Bossy,
Herbert
G., "Hydraulic
Flow :kx&tance
Factors
for Corrugated
Metal
Conduits,"
Research
and Develo;x+&t*WY Report,
Federal
Highway
Administra.;lon,
U.S. Department
of Transportation,
Office
of Research,
Washington,
D.C.,
September,
1970.
(13)
of Uniform
and Nonuniform
Flow in
Zelensky,
Paul N., "Computation
Staff
R&D Report,
U.S. Department
of Transportation,
Prismatic
Conduits,"
Offices
of Research
and Development,
Federal
Highway Administration,
Washington,
D.C.,
November,
1972.
(14)
Gibson,
A.H.,
Magazine,
Vol.
(15)
Kellerhals,
Rolf,
discussion
of
Pipes,"
Journal
of the Hydraulics
January
1963, pp. 201202.
"Hydraulic
Division,
Roughness
of Corrugated
ASCE, Vol.
89, No. HYl,
(16)
Bossy,
Herbert
Journal
Pipes,"
July 1963, pp.
G. discussion
of
of the Hydraulics
202205.
"Hydraulic
Division,
Roughness
of Corrugated
ASCE, Vol. 89, No. HY4,
(17)
Neill,
Charles
Pipes,"
Journal
July
1963, pp.
Roughness
R., closure
of "Hydraulic
of the Hydraulics
Division,
ASCE,
205208.
"The
50,
Flow of Water
1925.
of Steel
Drainage
Steel
Institute,
in
a Corrugated
Pipe,"
The Philosophical
of Corrugated
Vol.
89, No.
HY4,
(18)
Handbook
Iron and
1971.
and Highway
Construction
Products,
American
150 East 42d St.,
New York,
New York,
10017,
(19)
"Hydraulic
Laboratory
Manning's
n and Grade Deviation
Zeigler,
E.R.,
Corrugated
Plastic
Tubing,"
Study for 4Inch
Diameter
NonPerforated,
RECERC782,
U.S. Department
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Bureau of Reclamation,
Engineering
and Research
Center,
Denver,
Colorado,
February,
1978.
(20)
Herr,
Lester
A. and Bossy,
Herbert
G., "Hydraulic
Charts
for
Selection
of Highway
Culverts,"
Hydraulic
Engineering
Circular
of Commerce,
Bureau of Public
Roads (now Dept.
of
U.S. Dept.
portation,
Federal
Highway Administration),
Washington,
D.C.,
December
1965.
the
No.
Trans
5,
Bl
area of flow,
feet*
pipearch
cD
coefficient
of drag estimated
bolts and 1.0 for structural
pitch
pipe diameter,
Da
pipearch
De
d
equivalent
span, feet
feet
rise,
feet
circular
depth of flow,
critical
depth,
feet
Darcy resistance
feet
structural
plate
Cm).
(m).
based on 4R, feet
(m).
(m).
(m).
factor.
factor,
acceleration
total losses
feet (m).
HW
Hwo
outlet control
invert,
feet
hf
friction
ho
elevation
through a culvert
barrel
head loss,
of full
approximately
head or
(m).
pipe diameter,
feet
such as a bolt
(m).
of corrugation,
dc
f
P
I3
(m*>.
feet
(inlet,
exit,
and friction),
(m).
flow hydraulic
grade line
dc + D
equal to
2
, feet (m).
at culvert
outlet,
B2
depth
k
k
length
Ls
finished
number
Rw
structural
plate
Reynolds
number
= v*
hydraulic
resistance
of
feet
VD/v
per
metal
length,
pipe,
inches
(cm).
L.
4VR/v.
k/v.
factor.
conduit,
perimeter
rate,
corrugated
bolts
wall
flow
feet
of
(m).
conduit,
feet3/second
feet
(m).
(m3/sec).
radius
= A/P
= D/4
measured
from
a pipe
for
full
flow
in
circular
pipes,
(m).
distance
radius
of
a circular
radius
of
corrugation
peak,
radius
of
corrugation
valley,
friction
slope
hydraulic
sO
helically
sf
width,
number
wetted
(m).
(m).
Reynolds
feet
pipe
perimeter
rP
r
conduit,
of
feet
coefficient
plate
Manning
loss
of
corrugation,
entrance
NR
of
culvert
pipe,

slope
grade
barrel
temperature,
thickness
mean velocity,
V*
mean
density
slope,
feet
in
outward,
(m).
(m) = rv + t.
feet
(m).
total
pipes
feet
(m).
feet
of
line
axis
energy
line,
flowing
equal
to
slope
at
60F
of
the
full.
feet/feet
OF ('C).
of
shear
corrugated
Q/A,
metal,
feet/second
velocity,
of water
(RSfg)OS5,
= 62.37
feet
(m).
(m/set).
feet/second
pounds/foot3
(m/set).
(9797.6
N/m3)
inward,
feet
(15.6OC).
Y
distance
the
measured
origin
is
from
at
a conduit
a corrugation
wall
crest.
(m).
For
C.M.P.,
B3
Af
helix
kinematic viscosity
= 1.217 x 105 feet'/second
for water at 60F (15.6'C).
resulting
from structural
unit
shear stress
in a fluid
at the conduit
plate
degrees (radians).
(1.131 x lOa
angle,
factor
wall,
m2/sec)
(999.3 kg/m2)
pound/feet2
(kg/m2).
Cl
APPENDIX
This
appendix
circular
contains
govern
rather
actual
be expected.
covered
in
First,
inch
main
circular
text
not
been
for
these
of
C.M.P.,
For
conduits,
have
standard
and hydraulic
complete
set
of
tables
shapes
may be found
in
Reference
Flow
in
Prismatic
convenience
utilizing
values
presented
in
factors
in
to determine
linch
Conduits."
in
The D2*5
for
the
terms
circular
accompanying
of
either
metal
if
divided
_.
13,
data
given
with
given
the
Cl
and
for
linch,
to
diameters.
determine
C2).
of various
Uniform
herein
some
nominal
conduits
of
in
no significant
3 by
to
present.
31 inch
produce
can be used
"Computation
at
Secondly,
equal
Tables
geometric
The tables
this
resistance
corrugated
dimensionless
of
will
l/2inch,
formulas
pipearches
dimensions
probably
(See
linch
C.M.P.
should
reasons.
available
nominal
diameters
properties.
not
and
shapes
two
as 6 by
by
actual
standards
of
plate
22/3
and
the
conduit
coefficients.
riveted
tables
one
are
Use of
actual
A more
full
resistance
the
and
for
such
conduits
of
for
to be allowed
types
structural
obtained.
properties
terms
are
here
partly
2l/2inch
notably
linch
geometric
some conduits,
determination
and 6 by
these
for
flowing
catalogs
conduits,
included
FACTORS
Manufacturing
tolerances
not
9 by
have
small
are
radius),
in
dimensions.
on some corrugation
for
the
nominal
conduits
Information
corner
in
metal
and hydraulic
and
manufacturers'
errors
the
dimensions
radius
geometric
dimensions,
dimensions
corner
of
corrugated
than
the
actual
(28.8
tables
and pipearch
dimensions
True
are
and NonUniform
for
the
designers'
publication.
pipes
tables,
Q/D205
coefficients
BDa 1.5
and
or
are
for
Q/BDalo5$
for
the
conduits.
Notice
that
0.5
by g
, a constant.
values
use
for
in
This
pipearches,
computing
flow
conduit
factor
flow
is
required
22/3
by
l/2inch
and
6 by
the
flow
factor
would
be

.__._..^ll_
_.
c2
Pipearches,
in
hydraulic
must
general,
radius
of
be determined
found
that
for
properties,
from
all
ratios
for
c9.
Table
corner
l/Zinch
A/BD,
6 by Zinch
C9 is
6 by iinch
ratios
for
18inch
corner
radii
mean value
more
A or
in
R from
Similar
of
than
data
for
with
inch
corner
at
28.8
various
C9 for
values
without
still
down to
less
Zl/2inch
radius,
d/D
with
are
the
error.
units
presented
conversion
factors
of
for
given
full.
different
in
in
were
plate
determination
the
Appendix
in
Table
and 31inch
R/D,
at
and
any given
pipearches
thus
deviate
with
from
The errors
determination
of
0.4.
identical
two
average
radii.
for
and AjBD,
nearly
significant
the
and
partly
introducing
English
of
5 percent
the
equal
plate
structural
flowing
of
corner
for
radius
structural
depth
R/D,
the
than
given
about
these
little
similar
corner
sizes
for
deviate
and
are
are
has been
ratios
averages
31inch
a relative
ratios
arches
range
d/D,,
and
full,
it
ratios
C6
l&inch
radii
with
Table
To convert
utilize
corner
arches
are
depths
6 by 2inch
of
the
9 by
relative
the
Table
as the
a large
dimensionless
available
pipearches
both
both
comprise
flow
plate
The 6 by 2inch
means
full
average
of
flow.
using
for
in
area
or partly
dimensionless
given
the
However,
depth,
these
pipearches,
conduits
depth
involved
structural
full
dimensionless
relative
of
are
to be used
relative
the
Mean values
and
dimensions.
the
a given
pipearches
flowing
its
sections,
at
similar,
section,
from
pipearch
value.
radius
geometrically
pipearch
and A/BD,
an average
by
each
not
individually
R/D,
Z2/3
are
computed
corrugated
pipearches
The values
so determined
with
of Table
corner
those
radii.
of
resistance
following
tables
E.
from
The
factors
to
SI units,
c3
True
Diameter
Inches
True
Diameter
Feet
1.0
D2.5 , feet205
1.000
1.747
c3
True
Diameter
Inches
True
Diameter
Feet
12
15
18
21
24
30
36
42
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
90
96
102
108
114
120
1.0
1.25
1.5
1.75
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
.
_,
. .. .
.r.^l
._.....
D2.5 , feet205
1.000
1.747
2.756
4.051
5.657
9.882
15.59
22.92
32.00
42.96
55.90
70.94
88.18
107.72
129.64
154.0
181.0
210.6
243.0
278.2
316.2
~..
c4
d
D
R
D
1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
R=Hydraulic
Radius,
R
D
D2
d
D
0.2500
0.2865
0.2980
0.3033
0.3042
0.7854
0.7707
0.7445
0.7115
0.6736
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.2500
0.2331
0.2142
0.1935
0.1709
0.3927
0.3428
0.2934
0.2450
0.1982
0.3017
0.2962
0.2882
0.2776
0.2649
0.6319
0.5872
0.5404
0.4920
0.4426
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.1466
0.1206
0.0929
0.0635
0.0325
0.1535
0.1118
0.0739
0.0409
0.0147
D2
c5
Nominal
Diameter
Feet
True
Diameter
Feet
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5
20.0
20.5
21.0
4.93
5.43
5.94
6.45
6.97
7.48
7.98
8.49
9.00
9.51
10.02
10.53
11.04
11.55
12.06
12.57
13.08
13.58
14.09
14.60
15.11
15.62
16.13
16.64
17.15
17.66
18.17
18.67
19.18
19.69
20.21
20.72
21.22
Plates
Per Ring
Number
4
4
4
4
4
6
6
6'
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
53.97
68.71
85.99
105.66
128.26
153.0
179.9
210.0
243.0
278.9
317.8
359.8
405.0
453.4
5Q5.1
560.2
618.8
679.6
745.2
814.5
887.5
964.3
1044.9
1130.0
1218.0
1310.8
1407.0
1506.0
1611.0
1720.0
1836.0
1954.0
2074.0
C6
Nominal
Diameter
Feet
True
Diameter
Feet
5.0
7.0
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
4.89
5.40*
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
Plates
Per Ring
Number
5.91*
6.42
6.93
7.44
7.96
8.46
8.97
9.48
9.99
10.50
11.01
11.52
12.04
12.52
13.05
13.57
14.08
14.59
15.10
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
52.9
67.8
84.9
104.4
126.4
151.0
178.8
208.2
241.0
276.7
315.4
357.2
402.2
450.4
503.0
554.6
615.2
678.3
743.9
813.1
886.0
*Estimated
Other pipe
dimensional
sizes
data
range up to 21 feet
in diameter;
are not presently
available
for
D2.5
however,
these pipes.
c7
Nominal Size
Span
Rise
B
Da
Inches
Inches
18
22
25
29
36
.43
50
58
65
72
79
85
11
13
16
18
22
27
31
36
40
44
49
54
True Size
Span
Rise
B
Da
Feet
Feet
1.51
1.81
2.11
2.41
3.01
3.61
4.22
4.82
5.42
6.02
6.62
7.23
0.92
1.11
1.29
1.48
1.85
2.22
2.59
2.96
3.33
3.70
4.06
4.43
Hydraulic
Radius
R
Feet
Area
A 2
Feet
BDa 1*5
0.282
0.338
0.394
0.451
0.564
0.676
0.789
0.902
1.014
1.127
1.240
1.352
1.11
1.59
2.17
2.83
4.42
6.37
8.67
11.3
14.3
17.7
21.4
25.5
1.338
2.106
3.099
4.329
7.566
11.93
17.53
24.49
32.88
42.78
54.27
67.48
C8
R=Hydraulic
Radius
d
Da
R
Da
1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.305
0.346
0.361
0.369
0.372
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.370
0.365
0.358
0.348
0.335
d
Da
Da
0.795
0.783
0.762
0.736
0.704
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.319
0.300
0.277
0.252
0.222
0.459
0.412
0.363
0.315
0.264
0.668
0.632
0.592
0.549
0.505
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.189
0.154
0.117
0.076
0.037
0.214
0.165
0.117
0.069
0.028
B Da
B Da.
c9
Section
No.
Nominal Size
Rise
Span
(Da)
(B)
FtIn
FtIn
Plates
Per
Ring
Number
Span
B
Feet
Rise
Da
Feet
Hydraulic
Radius
R
Feet
Area
A 2
Feet
BDa 1*5
1
2
3
4
6l
64
69
7o
47
49
411
5l
5
5
5
5
6.08
6.33
6.77
7.02
4.58
4.76
4.91
5.09
1.299
1.353
1.405
1.460
22.09
24.09
26.14
28.39
59.60
65.77
73.66
80.59
5
6
7
8
73
78
711
82
53
55
57
59
6
6
6
6
7.25
7.70
7.93
8.15
5.27
5.42
5.60
5.78
1.515
1.567
1.622
1.677
30.60
32.92
35.39
37.95
87.72
97.17
105.07
113.28
9
10
11
12
87
810
94
96
511
6l
63
65
7
7
7
7
8.62
8.83
9.32
9.52
5.92
6.11
6.26
6.44
1.726
1.781
1.832
1.887
40.40
43.10
45.83
48.70
124.1
133.3
146.0
155.6
13
14
15
16
17
99
103
108
1011
1175
67
69
611
7l
73
7
7
7
7
7
9.72
10.22
10.70
10.92
11.40
6.62
6.77
6.91
7.09
7.24
1.940
1.989
2.037
2.092
2.142
51.64
54.51
57.46
60.70
63.87
165.5
180.0
194.3
206.2
222.1
18
19
20
21
22
23
117
1110
124
126
128
1210
75
77
79
711
8l
84
8
8
8
8
8
8
11.62
11.82
12.32
12.52
12.70
12.87
7.42
7.61
7.75
7.93
8.12
8.31
2.196
2.250
2.298
2.352
2.406
2.461
67.23
70.68
74.05
77.64
81.34
85.20
234.8
248.1
265.8
279.6
293.9
208.3
24
25
26
27
28
29
135
1311
14l
143
1410
154
85
87
89
811
9l
93
9
9
9
9
9
9
13.40
13.93
14.12
14.28
14.82
15.33
8.44
8.58
8.77
8.96
9.10
9.23
2.507
2.555
2.608
2.664
2.713
2.758
88.74
92.55
96.53
100.73
104.75
108.65
328.6
350.1
366.7
383.0
406.8
429.8
30
31
32
33
34
156
158
1510
165
167
96
97
910
911
10l
10
10
10
10
10
15.53
15.70
15.87
16.42
16.58
9.42
9.61
9.80
9.93
10.12
2.813
2.866
2.922
2.968
3.023
113.1
117.5
122.2
126.4
131.2
449.0
467.7
486.4
513.8
533.7
ClO
Section
No.
Nominal Size
Rise
Span
(Da)
(B)
FtIn
FtIn
Plates
Per
Ring
Number
Span
B
Feet

Rise
n
ua
Feet

13.28
13.52
13.97
14.22
14.40
9.36
9.53
9.68
9.87
10.04
Hydraulic
Radius
R
Feet
Area
A 2
Feet
BDalo5
2.715
2.764
2.811
2.857
2.927
98.30
102.00
106.00
110.88
115.28
380.3
397.8
420.8
441.0
458.1
133
136
14o
142
145
94
96
98
910
10O
6
7
1411
154
102
104
9
9
14.88
15.35
10.19
10.34
2.967
3.031
119.6
124.0
484.0
510.4
8
9
10
11
12
13
157
1510
163
166
17o
172
106
108
1010
11O
112
114
10
10
10
10
10
10
15.58
15.80
16.28
16.50
16.97
17.18
10.52
10.71
10.85
11.03
11.18
11.36
3.093
3.139
3.187
3.242
3.296
3.348
129.0
133.8
138.0
143.0
148.0
153.1
531.6
553.8
581.8
604.4
634.3
657.8
14
15
16
17
18
19
175
1711
18l
187
189
193
116
118
1110
12o
122
124
10
10
10
10
10
10
17.40
17.88
18.10
18.58
18.78
19.28
11.54
11.69
11.87
12.01
12.20
12.34
3.400
3.446
3.492
3.558
3.600
3.646
158.5
163.4
168.0
174.0
179.0
184.7
682.1
714.7
740.3
772.9
800.2
835.8
20
21
22
196
198
1911
126
128
1210
11
11
11
19.50
19.70
19.88
12.52
12.71
12.89
3.696
3.755
3.818
190.0
196.2
202.4
863.8
892.6
920.0
23
24
205
207
13o
132
12
12
20.40
20.58
13.03
13.22
3.866
3.919
207.8
214.0
959.4
989.3
Cll
R=Hydraulic
Radius,
Da
Da
1.00
0.95
0.90
0.336
0.294
0.85
0.80
0.356
0.358
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.357
0.353
0.345
0.335
0.321
0.349
B Da
Da
Da
B Da
0.788
0.775
0.754
0.726
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.306
0.286
0.264
0.443
0.239
0.295
0.211
0.246
0.657
0.618
0.577
0.534
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.179
0.197
0.148
0.489
0.05
0.144
0.107
0.068
0.030
0.693
0.10
0.393
0.346
0.101
0.056
0.020
c12
Section
No.
Nominal Size
Rise
Span
(Da)
@I
FtIn
FtIn
Plates
Per
Ring
Number
Span
B
Feet
Rise
Da
Feet
Hydraulic
Radius
R
Feet
Area
A 2
Feet
BDalo5
54
55
57
59
511
6l
2
2
2
2
2
2
5.91
6.28
6.65
6.96
7.34
7.65
5.32
5.46
5.60
5.76
5.91
6.08
1.415
1.472
1.533
1.590
1.646
1.704
25.16
27.37
29.73
32.11
34.55
37.13
72.52
80.13
88.11
96.19
105.48
114.67
9
10
11
12
13
8O
84
a7
9o
94
99
10O
62
64
66
68
610
611
7l
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
8.04
a.33
8.64
9.04
9.32
9.73
10.03
6.19
6.34
6.54
6.64
6.82
6.94
7.11
1.760
1.816
1.874
1.924
1.982
2.026
2.085
39.75
42.48
45.35
48.09
51.13
52.90
57.13
123.8
132.9
144.5
154.7
166.0
177.9
190.2
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
105
109
112
115
118
122
125
73
75
76
78
710
8O
82
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
10.45
10.73
11.15
11.44
11.69
12.15
12.40
7.24
7.41
7.54
7.71
7.84
8.01
8.15
2.141
2.193
2.243
2.296
2.360
2.392
2.451
60.38
63.61
66.85
70.29
74.14
77.06
80.90
203.6
216.4
230.8
244.9
256.6
275.4
288.5
21
22
23
24
25
26
1210
131
137
1310
143
146
83
a5
87
a9
810
9o
4
4
4
4
4
4
12.91
13.09
13.57
13.81
14.28
14.55
8.39
8.42
8.58
8.73
8.88
9.06
2.517
2.541
2.601
2.657
2.699
2.760
85.11
87.97
92.13
96.23
99.90
104.4
313.7
319.8
341.0
356.2
377.8
396.8
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
149
153
156
16O
162
92
94
96
97
99
911
10l
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
14.77
15.20
15.52
15.97
16.22
16.70
16.90
9.16
9.26
9.52
9.64
9.80
9.92
10.04
2.790
2.838
2.916
2.954
3.005
3.045
3.080
107.8
111.9
117.3
121.2
125.7
129.8
133.8
409.4
428.3
455.8
478.0
497.6
521.7
537.6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
a
511
63
68
611
74
78
168
1611
APPENDIX D  DEVELOPMENT OF
DESIGN CURVES FOR CORRUGATED METAL CONDUITS
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION
............................
Dl
Information.
Comparison
with
FullSize
Previous
of
of
Darcy
Data
in
Summary of
Untested
Procedure
Corrugation
Examples
HELICALLY
of
Plate
Derivation
of
Derivation
of Manning
Darcy
Curves
Derive
Types.
Corrugation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plate
Metal
q . . . . . .
D27
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
D28
for
New or
.............
..................
f Design
Curves
n Design
I
.., .., ..,
Curves
D28
D30
D38
....................
D17
Corrugated
Corrugated
Design
Curves
.................
D Curves.
Various
D23
Use of Appendix
Background
D7
Structural
n Design
to
. . . . . . . . . . . . . o e
Curves
Structural
of Manning
D4
for
C.M.P.
D15
f Design
Derivation
Plate
D3
. . . . .
f Curves
Bolt
Resistance
in Annular
Metalpipes.........................
Seam Resistance
Pipes.....................
. 1 ...........
Structural
Available
Development
of NRw Versus
Shapes............................
Derivation
Dl
Methodology.
Tests
of
Dl
....................
Hydraulic
Systematization
...................
D38
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D39
. . . . . . e . . . . . a
D39
APPENDIX
Dl
Darcy
Test
D2
NRw for
Annular
OF FIGURES
Corrugated
Metal
Conduits,
Based
on
Depth
Ratio
All
Curves
Results
Estimate
of
D3
f Versus
D  LIST
of NRw at Peak
Corrugations
Darcy
Darcy
f Values
Based
on Length
to
(c/k)
f Versus
Located
to Place
Selected
as 1
Peak
of
Corrugated
f Values
Conduits.
Darcy
f Versus
NRw for
22/3
D6
Darcy
f Versus
NRw for
6 by
linch
Annular
Corrugated
Metal
Pipe
D7
Darcy
f Versus
NRw for
3 by
linch
Annular
Corrugated
Metal
Pipe
D8
Darcy
f Versus
NRw for
6 by 2inch
Annular
Structural
Plate
Corrugated
Metal
Pipe
Darcy
f Versus
DlO
Darcy
Metal
f Versus
NR for
9 by 2l/2inch
(No Bolt
Helically
Corrugated
by l/2inch
or Seam Resistance
NRw for
Pipe
 Annular
Arbitrarily
D5
(No Bolt
f Values
at
Metal
Estimated
Corrugated
Darcy
Annular
D4
D9
Peak
NRw for
or
Annular
Pipes
Corrugated
Metal
Included)
Annular
Seam Resistance
Corrugated
Metal
Metal
Structural
Included)
Conduits
Plate
Pipe
Dl
APPENDIX
D  DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN
INTRODUCTION
In order
to
curves
of
design,
present
the
main
this
are
posing
presented.
in
undue
It
will
if
developing
obstacles
Herein,
material
must
and helical
involved
presented.
this
shapes
Annular
without
is
and understand
corrugation
methodology
text
appendix
and methodology
read
the
the
to
its
background
be necessary
design
the
for
information
design
use
for
information
the
for
user
to
new or untested
be developed.
C.M.P.
are
discussed
in
separate
sections
of
this
Appendix.
ANNULAR CORRUGATED METAL PIPES
Background
Information
Most
experimental
early
metal
conduits
Notable
at
dealt
among
the
North
Hydraulic
with
these
Pacific
Falls
corrugated
tests
on smaller
Neil1
(3)
Anthony
22/3
by
(0.30
more
Falls
roughnesses
Numbers
1.5
in
(0.38
m) pipe,
scatter
than
Hydraulic
of
the
l/2
parentheses
These
(2).
inch
corrugated
m) pipe
although
those
to
of
by 1.3
U.S.
of
(0.46
diameter
refer
work
7feet
Laboratories,
smaller
the
factors
to
the
data
North
possibly
corrugated
cm) corrugations.
Corps of Engineers
1
(1) , formerly
Bonneville
Straub
and Morris
tests
were
at
m) in
diameter.
pipes
were
conducted
from
Pacific
due
(4)
these
and
the
Other
by C. R.
Garde
(5)
exhibit
and
greater
St.
with
experiments
Division
to
the
concerned
2.13
and by Chamberlain
the
in
Army
Laboratory,
earlier
to
(6.8
of
Hydraulic
the
resistance
l/2inch
those
Laboratory
from
on a 15inch
on a 12inch
somewhat
and
of
by
are
Division
Hydraulic
pipes
2Z/3
studies
Laboratory,
Anthony
investigations
St.
relative
pipes.
corresponding
references
in
Appendix
A.
D2
Recognizing
the
by l/2inch
C.M.P.
2inch
(15.2
Engineer
of
x 5.1
gated.
corresponding
tests,
and
U.S,
resulted
in
todepth
a report
scale
These
distribution
for
deviation
this
l/2inch
scale
have
the
that
it
which
1 of
the
of
the
5foot
from
the
analysis
hydraulic
2inch
(15.2
by 5.1
series
of
Engineering,
cooling
water
several
resistance
which
cm)
intake
pipe
in
Public
investiof
Roads
(BPR,
Administration)
with
results
a 3~1 pitchof
22/3
results
(1)
both
indicates
that
here,
and only
the
at
the
fullsize
standard
in
reproduce
when modeled
the
a 1:4
model
pipe.
22/3the
on
explanation
deep
than
studies
by l/2inch
A possible
diameter
the
the
conducted
plate
may
Therefore,
by l/2inch
fullsize
C.M.P.
on fullsize
Neil1
(3)
60inch
(1.52
m) structural
tested
a 14foot
(4.27
Baileytown,
Indiana.
Reynolds
later.
accompanying
verify
been
at various
be discussed
in
generally
(8),
factors
will
have
structural
Inc.
illustrated
they
studies
on fullsize
Bauer
were
standard
considered.
Two separate
tests
in
Chief
Highway
standard
WES report
studies
are
of
the
l/8inch
WES model
pipes
Bureau
to precisely
only
corrugations
results
corrugations
Office,
tests
difficult
peaked
excluded
cm) deep
coefficient.
are
model
Relative
Army,
included
fullscale
is
Army
hydraulic
on corrugations
m) diameter
and resistance
U.S.
6 by
(7).
also
sharply
C.M.P.
that
from
began
to
ratio.
Federal
tests
had more
are
not
(1.52
plate
Commerce,
1966
of model
differed
Also,
C.M.P.
sizes,
in
the
m) diameter
U.S.
Transportation,
a 5foot
is
by 5.1
the
of
(7)
corrugations,
ratio.
by both
WES report
of
data
velocity
of
1958
22/3
especially
pitchtodepth
2inch
standard
pipe,
(WES) in
m, and 6.10
Department
results
the
model
m, 3.05
the
types,
corrugated
a 3:l
published
the
ratio,
C.M.P.
U.S.
applying
corrugation
to
sponsored
the
to
with
(1.52
Department
In addition
other
from
Station
depths
These
result
structuralplate
pipes
ZOfoot
now the
a 1:4
cm)
to
Experiment
and
Engineers,
might
corrugated
corrugation
lo,
that
results
Waterways
studies
5,
errors
Data
figures,
analysis
C.M.P.,
and
m) diameter
power
plant
methods
of
studies
for
for
the
two
plate
numbers
but
performed
These
points
6 by
the
these
discussion
this
report.
produced
two pipe
factors
will
are
show
D3
Edward
Silberman
and 66inch
C.M.P.
University
of
Also
tested
inch
(22.9
by 6.4
for
could
at
low
structural
plate
cm)
the
C.M.P.
therefore,
were
However,
Darcy
Figures
D5 through
In the
with
not
by the
issue
of
this
Corps
of
Engineers
6 by 2inch
(15.2
equal
to
the
other
on 22/3
costs
serious
resistance
Darcy
factors
(22.9
for
tests
on the
for
other
as presented
either
by 6.4
at
temperature
was
appear
very
consistent
low
occurs.
Reynolds
numbers
copper
model
In
of
the
for
these
the
general
Reynolds
(1.52
the
in
Reynolds
design
use,
reported
pattern
number)
Waterways
l/2
inch
tests
estimating
Figure
6 by linch
by
4 of
(15.2
. . ._
the
of
plots
shown
model
studies
given
by 1.3
used
the
Station
Silberman
For
cm) corrugations.
. . . . . ..
were
(6.8
methods
corrugations.
(12),
Experiment
cm) C.M.P.
by
scale
in
1970
one
1970
by 2.5
cm)
publication
or the
weight,
corrugations
and Dahlin
thing,
cm)
(WES) in
a large
earlier
m)
on 4inch
drainage
the
H.
by Rolf
60inch
and analysis
confirm
wall
by A.
pipe,
tests,
highway
discussion
(or
by 5.1
5).
doubt
f values
confirmed
inch
4,
water
corrugated
publication
for
3,
were
Methodolopy
(7)
2,
series
results
scatter
to
9 by 2l/2
D9.
1966
(1,
the
number
with
Reynolds
limit
in
the
(SAF).
do serve
Reynolds
test
the
tubing.
practical
tests
C.M.P.
these
cm) plastic
plastic
at
higher
at
by Neill,
included
Previous
previous
reported
the
these
f versus
Comparison
(9.1
corrugations
even
large
cm) diameter
on 48inch
otherwise,
The test
(4.6
corrugated
was below
series;
performed
tested
of
tests
Laboratory
Unfortunately,
were
on a 3.6inch
cm)
plate
Both
where
scale
Hydraulic
m) structural
test
numbers
full
by 2.5
Falls
achieved.
tests
diameter
range
herein.
the
on a 1.8inch
(15)
and
Anthony
(1.68
(15.2
numbers.
been
flow
(14)
number
St.
conducted
corrugations.
Reynolds
Kellerhals
(10.2
1 inch
two of
have
Some hydraulic
Gibson
cm)
(6)
6 by
Reynolds
freezing
except
with
Minnesota,
high
numbers
W. G. Dahlin
was a 66 inch
relatively
near
and
to
predict
the
trend
(.6)
were
9 by 2l/2
of
not
in
D4
After
long
favor
of
inch
(15.2
deliberation;
the
adequately
ft.
(1.52
Reynolds
reach
tests
which
on full
define
the
m, 3.05
m, and
This
enough
agreement
Reynolds
Possibly,
the
WES model
constant
f with
attained
(6.10
the
the
peak
f value.
did
underestimate
4.1
cm) and
number
in
only
were
their
"peak"
a new method
resistance
was needed.
(3),
making
annular
Hydraulic
most
of
the
an accurate
reach
herein
it
of
Tests
of
tests
were
resistance
values
(2)
the
the
to
a basic
to a scale
reach
factor
a region
scatter
test
of
of
series
the
actually
m) and 20 ft.
their
peak
f values.
Thus,
define
clear
the
that
factor
the
for
20
of
(3.05
(6)
shape
while
of
earlier
the
FHWA report
6 by 2 inch
Structural
60inch
performed
to define
(15.2
resistance
was also
and
developed
resistance
factor
did
10 and
10 ft.
considered
systematizing
fullsize
5,
not
capacity
or
due
did
the
and Dahlin
equations
of
flow
in
by
cm) C.M.P.
were
C.M.P.
the
f,
However,
seems
resistance
peak
that
results
on 6 by 2
at high
of
m) pipe
to help
SAF Report
the
Therefore,
studies
not
f values
discounted,
prototype
(7)
WE'S tests
for
lack
the
of
the
least
(1)
to verify
by 2.5
1971
at
the
(1.52
1966
of Neil1
f curves
number.
by Silberman
define
In Neill's
(7.6
to
that
attain
and
The model
f curves,
adequately
FullSize
to
5 foot
utilized
1 inch
due
possible
maximum
used
C.M.P.
that
are
the
3 by
been
model
did
versus
The methodology
fact
not
definitely
number
annular
is
curves
models,
the
those
judged
m) pipe
Reynolds
it
is
versus
the
increasing
that
WES pipe
Reynolds
of
such
m) pipes
the
including
It
number
between
discount
number
may have
recognized.
is
6.10
to
pipe,
(3).
Reynolds
was not
data
scale
cm) C.M.P.
number.
of
was decided
by 5.1
a high
lack
it
evaluated.
the
are
over
judged
a range
Plate
C.M.P.
(1.52
m) structural
partly
determination
Due to
effects
and predicting
under
values
full
difficult.
of
flow
annular
to
conditions.
C.M.P.
plate
flow
the
Reynolds
deficient
of
for
C.M.P.
conditions,
All
tests
in
D5
the
first
series
the
second
outlet.
were
series
in
were
a freesurface
in
The resistance
0.14
which
seemed
when
In Bossy's
discussion
(16)
were
to
the
given
a fullflow
factors,
high
explain
condition;
however,
condition
in
terms
compared
with
of Neill's
of
owing
the
other
paper,
Darcy
overestimation
(5.0
or
the
f,
tests
in
submerged
averaged
about
three
suggestions
estimates.
the
possible
to
two
following
of
the
resistance
in
resistance
coefficients:
The nominal
diameter
coefficient
calculations
1.50
coefficient
resulting
that
Neill,
in
on the
true
flow
of
in
The free
tests
the
rather
1.52
m) was used
than
the
actual
surface
increase
his
in
determining
closure
apparent
(17),
S3,
of
slope
or
bolt
rate
may be too
low,
and outlet
effects
the
water
surface
resistance
f values
and
profiles.
coefficients
were
seam effects,
based
computed
for
and without
full
correction
coefficient:
ft./set.
s2
s3
Engineering
fullsize
6 by
m) long
capacity
determined
and
of
the
from
2.11
2.32
tests
2inch
(9)
(15.2
14 feet
power
NRw
m/set.
6.91
7.60
The Bauer
were
ft.
inlet
Velocity
the
(4.93
Q.
revised
The following
including
flow
n include
of
presents
diameter.
S2 and
of
determinations
the
pipe
weir
used
an underestimation
Test
(465.1
diameter
m).
The weir
ft.
(4.3
plant
conducted
cm)
diameter.
intake
pumps,
velocitydistribution
on a completely
submerged
plate
C.M.P.,
1,526
feet
Two flow
rates,
based
on
structural
m) in
0.130
0.132
13,000
14,400
were
by 5.1
Revised
were
studied.
measurements
The flow
obtained
from
rates
both
D6
horizontal
and vertical
scan
only
for
were
derived
the
horizontal
The total
the
higher
from
head
and outlet
levels
tests
were
These
represent
A subsequent
loss,
including
staff
the
was in
pipe
by the
the
flow
high
scan
the
of
the
to
BPR staff
were
The high
Reynolds
data
the
number
the
pipe.
and
0.74
the
been
test
data
exhibit
(NRw),
minor
inlet,
in
bend,
between
the
Flow
for
two
rates
(15.3
the
m3/,sec).
loss
Federal
velocity
in
flow
suspect,
tests
because
a downward
whereas
all
trend
other
data
in
head
the
Bauer
of
The revised
low
Highway
modification
an underestimation
the
is
used
difference
The main
f value.
for
was also
as minor
overestimated
a low
flow
tube
caused
0.0675
a horizontal
respectively.
by the
of
losses
from
measurements
540 cfs
f values.
have
minor
the
and
higher
loss , producing
test.
of wall
0.46
and
as well
m3/sec)
evaluation
values
of
of
Bauer
appeared
head
computed
(9.6
rate
a pitot
by measuring
produced
which
friction
the
but
friction
and downstream
of
flow
velocitydistribution
readings,
pipe
The overestimation
lower
Most
was determined
Administration)
coefficients,
meter
as a check.
analysis
reanalysis
the
rate.
scans
upstream
quite
for
flow
current
losses,
water
scans
report.
the
f values
and 0.0650
only
at
for
one velocity
low,
increasing,
show an opposite
trend.
Silberman
and
a 66inch
(1.68
6.4
Dahlin
and
f peak)
For
test
shows
16;000,
34'F
number
seam effects
and
deducted
f to
including
bolt
to
were
from
total
(1.1
conducted
m) (nominal)
cm) corrugations.
bolt
(6)
OC) during
some extent.
full
circular
with
estimated
increase
test
results
with
test
series,
results
= 0.0051,
for
NRw to
Water
value
the
(22.9
on nonbolted
comparison.
of
0.137
were
attained
of
by
pipes,
= 0.0036
of
temperatures
limited
tests
inch
Afseams
purposes
a peak
which
controlled
9 by 2l/2
other
(Afbolts
laboratory
with
C.M.P.
comparison
the
scale
at
at
This
NRw =
low,
about
Reynolds
D?
Tests
of
of
the
full
size
large
structural
size
of
the
plate
C.M.P.
conduits,
which
However,
it would be beneficial
to
.
sizes,
perhaps
through
instrumentation
Until
further
should
information
be adequate
Systematization
the
mean velocity
viscosity
value
Reynolds
number
to
reach
time
the
estimates
the
dependence
pipe
of
and
pipe
curve"
a constant
value
with
increasing
However,
of
it
was determined
the
the
maximum
pipe
sizes
pipes
with
(Further
exactly
The wall
lack
pipe
of
with
the
a given
22/3
by
examination
but
Reynolds
N
Rw=.=
tests
v*k
the
inch
of
the
this
manual
use
data
be close
number
is
defined
(Rsfg'o*5
of
occur
shape.
annular
where
the
kinematic
that
the
first
Darcy
continues,
in
a manner
is
will
not
increases
further
f value
V is
eventually
clear
at
this
N
Rw'
data,
'
In
as
numbers.
Reynolds
in
systematizing
at
about
For
peak
for
shows
number
by H. G. Bossy
enough
the
with
a wall
NR, aided
of
declines
the
Reynolds
corrugations
should
decline
f would
corrugation
l/2
of
NR = VD/V,
probably
then
Reynolds
high
number,
Darcy
shape
or whether
at
that
Reynolds
value
true,
of
pipe
installations.
and V is
data
and
the
"smooth
the
diameter,
available
peaks,
Whether
to
larger
or planned
number,
corrugation
number,
increases.
Reynolds
the
the
due
place
available,
pipe
D is
pipe
Reynolds
capacities.
for
existing
emphasize
A comparison
a particular
increasing
similar
on the
flow,
of water.
for
with
of
data
of
results
factor
further
flow
because
Data
experimental
resistance
high
limited
use.
of Available
The available
C.M.P.
design
necessarily
require
obtain
becomes
for
are
the
example,
at
number,
the
same N Rw for
f values
a NRw value
indicates
practical
that
of
for
all
all
about
this
1600.
is
not
purposes.)
as:
       _ _  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (Dl)
D8
Where,
v*
is
the
mean
shear
is
the
hydraulic
velocity,
ft/sec.
radius,
ft.
(m/see)
= D/4
(m),
0.5
= (RSfg)
for
full
flow
,
in
circular
pipes
Sf is
the
friction
equal
to
slope
the
slope
(slope
of
the
of
the
hydraulic
total
energy
grade
line
line),
in
pipes
flowing
full,
g
is
the
(9.80
gravitational
is
the
corrugation
is
the
kinematic
One reason
for
the
number
wall
any
given
capacity
the
set
This
seen.
their
is
data
flow
and
In the
known
past
to
are
presented.
In
peak
first
the
f value
are
some cases,
estimates.
calculation
comparisons
of
to be the
the
f with
f.
Thus,
to
increasing
one pipe
only
three
for
a portion
conclude
is
data
for
data
that
method
the
the
available
peak
bolt
otherwise
f values
some a
are
a corrugation
for
annular
C.M.P.
C.M.P.
True
and
peak
seam effects
later
in
corrugations
this
on annular
nominal
or the
The estimated
presented
several
data
dimensions
are
NRw corresponding
f values
have
been
appendix
shapes.
of
that
number,
diameter,
of
only
Reynolds
problem
new sets
that
N
curve
is
Rw
by available
flow
governed
Another
fact
f versus
some investigators
available;
known.
Also,
between
thought
Reynolds
obtained.
where
not
between
facility.
only
summarizes
shown
relationship
are
test
leads
or even
been
table
dimensions
This
the
results
particular
10 years,
have
The following
test
some a constant
to a few,
of
(m2/sec).
a portion
an increasing
restricted
are
the
obtained.
f,
ft./sec.2,
and
and f is
only
the
at
decreasing
type
views
tests,
(m),
ft.2/sec.
number)
because
indicate
ft.
viscosity,
Reynolds
of
is
depth,
differing
and head
curve
32.16
m/sec2)
(or
acceleration,
are
to
unadjusted,
removed
to
the
by using
facilitate
TABLE Dl
SUMMARY
OF AVAILABLE TESTS ON ANNULARC.M.P.,
D,
ft
Corrugation
2 213 by l/2 in
6 by 1 in.
6 by 2 in.'
6 by 2 in.4
9 by 2 l/2 in.2
1 Full
2 Full
1.008
1.25
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.95
7.05
5.03
3.97
5.45
5;
ft
D/k
c/k
c/rP
Estimated
Peak f
Estimated
N at Peak f
Rw
.0635
.066
5.34
8,
I1
3.50
3.37
,I
4.75
3.38
0.133
.114
.1013
.0910
.0766
.064
.054
.068
1330
1830
1420
1580
1790
1480
1540
1640
11
11
.0468
.2224
.0658
.0798
.0784
0.5
0.5
0.2093
.2118
49.8
69.5
6.26
6.38
2.39
2.36
4.925
4.925
0.1667
0.5
0.1028
,,
29.5
II
3.00
4.86
4.99
10.0
20.0
0.1665
.156
.157
0.4994
.500
0.1074
,104
.1025
30.0
64.1
127.4
3.00
3.21
3.18
4.65
4.81
4.88
5.38
0.207
0.75
0.1958
26.0
3.62
3.83
2 points
only.
bolt
effects
deleted.
scale,
bolt
effects
deleted.
.2225
1,
rP'
ft
24.2
30.0
36.0
48.0
72.0
118.8
169.2
106.8
scale,
.04167
II
,1
WITH DIMENSIONS
I1
11
11
11
11
1,
II
I1
II
,I
(1
11
1,
11
11
11
11
11
(1
,I
1,
,I
11
11
Ref.
435
3
2
2
192
1
1
7
6
6
0.1215
.1235
>13,000
>14,400
3
3
7
7
7
0.132
16,000
DlO
In order
to
is
all
data
The model
prepared.
inch
study
(6.8
by 1.3
otherwise
test
cm)
represent
lation
beyond
The curves
the
of
the
true
the
relationships
data
the
Figure
are
kinematic
m) pipe
22/3
the
respective
based
on wall
Reynolds
viscosity
the
water
general
for
by l/2
information
shown
numbers
during
are
it
a temperature
(1.1305
x 10
No extrapo
test.
is
at
curves
computed
each
solutions,
water,
Dl was
references.
performed.
1 to
adequate
The lines
has been
of
with
since
data
v,
figure
Figure
corrugations.
from
viscosity,
of
(1.52
on one plot,
was deleted,
points
Dl
C.M.P.
5 ft.
these
available
kinematic
an average
for
for
the
annular
corrugations
available
which
for
from
In
applying
convenient
of
to
60F,
use
for
which,
v = 1.217
This
is
permissible
of tlOF
of
would
the
to
as it
(55.6'C)
From Figure
values
x 10B5 ft2/sec.
affect
it
Dl,
wall
is
obvious
the
N
curves,
Rw
peak f value.
the
Thus,
NRw at
the
magnitude
pitch
discounting
previously
2 inch
(15.2
the
good
and
the
As the
to
by 5.1
fair
next
step,
f position,
Figure
(In
Dl.
semilogarithmic
for
the
all
of
1 inch
NRw at
for
peak
for
9 by
inch
the
data
the
22/3
same log
graph
A 5 inch
log
a Af of
0.02).
cycle
paper
used
cycle
the
and error,
line
to
by
this
Figure
it
shapes
of
was found
on Figure
12).
the
inch
model
and
D3 shows
6 by
due to
seems
was plotted
was 2 cycle
the
corrugations
this
as for
D2.
required
However,
l/2
scale
of
figure
for
C.M.P.
was used,
Since
be a function
of
(7,
it
shown
corrugations,
on annular
different
NRw corresponding
f magnitudes
C.M.P.
temperature
shapes.
the
trial
at
defining
estimate
indicated
plate
2l/2
occur
by the
f location
using
cases,
of
in
The development
available
paper.
f is
structural
peak
definition
peak
must
data
deal
water
amounts.
corrugation
was to
ratio.
defined
of
common peak
on a scale
depth
f values
be approximated
NRw at
cm)
definition
step
in
by insignificant
available
a great
f could
of
corrugation
next
2
m /set)
differences
different
all
After
peak
peak
for
to utilize
that
factors
that
number
f vs.
that
resistance
Reynolds
be desirable
the
can be shown
6
the
justified.
with
plots
of
by 70 division
f was represented
the
results
of
0.1 L
I
BONNEVILLE
HYDRAULK
ST. ANTHONY
C.R. NEILL
CHAMBERLAIN
SILBERMAN
AND
WATERWAYS
EXPERIMENT
0.1; 2 .
FALLS
LABORATORY
HYDRAULIC
( I 1
LABORATORY
( 2 1
( 3 1
(4
1 AND GARDE ( 6 1
DAHLIN
(6
22/3x
STATION
l/2
IN. (
( 7 1
9x2$2
IN. C.&R
D=5.38,
D/k = f5.99,
/k 3.f
I
;/rg)
6x2
O.l(
22hx
l/2
o.ot
22/3x
D:24:
I
IN.C.M.P
k+d
22)3x1/2
l/2
IN. C.M.P.
D/k=4B;
C/kt5.34+
/
.M.P.
D/k. 49.8,
IN! C.M.P.
ik.6.26
c/k
YY
0.04
6.
o.ot 5
6x2 Ih
D= 20.0
D/k = 127.4,
c/k =3.18
0.02
0
2
_ _
6789
1x102
9L
II
*f
6769
Ix103
1x10*
NRW
Dl
Darcy
Test
f Versus
Results
NRw for
Annular
Corrugated
Fetal
Conduits,
Based
on
FIGURE
DI
I
z
7
M
0
7
mm
IW
Lo
r)
0.14
I
LEGEND
BONNEVILLE
LABORATORY
HYDRAULIC
(I)
AND
AND DAHLIN(6)
WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT
STATION (71
0.06
I
&PEAK
789
VARIOUS
D3
Darcy
f Versus
Located
to Place
Selected
as 1
NRw for
Peak
NRw
WALL
Annular
I\
E
I
AT
PEAK
REYNOLDS
Corrugated
of f Values
at
NUMBERS
Metal
I
I
FIGURE
Conduits.
All
03
Curves
Arbitrarily
A
v
D14
this
It
exercise.
increasing
with
f with
increasing
exhibit
peak
assume
NRw,
N
Rw'
all
followed
of
curves
all
for
pipes
versus
exhibit
later
that
the
Therefore,
used
f with
to
it
f value
was decided
f with
further
define
seem to
constant
an increasing
in
range
increasing
increases
the
to
shapes
in
NRw.
of NRw vs.
C.M.P.
is
peaked
in
shape
to
also
seen
than
incorporated
further
relative
were
examined
over
a range
that
the
those
into
systematize
roughness
for
of
all
curves
for
the
the
later
the
available
of
the
by 1 inch
(22.9
relative
(15.2
various
D/k
by 2.5
cm) C.M.P.
corrugation
for
lower
the
smaller
Darcy
development
D/k
values
f values.
of
curves.
cm),
the
used
shapes,
This
design
NRw
of
the
(c),
the
depth
(k),
not
judged
(It
f values,
in
multiple
conjuction
conclusion
that
(Af)
at
value
the
the
with
ratio
peak
vs.
at
the
that
factors
D/k
different
the
spread
three
of
the
of
were
most
best
corrugation
for
other
9 by 2l/2
Darcy
were
shapes.
6
inch
f for
shapes.
are
necessary:
corrugation
important
estimate
by
f values
corrugation
by hand,
(6.8
the
dimensions
the
data
to define
between
for
numbers)
inch
and
inside
analyses
studies
peak
curves
least
correlation
gives
by l/2
cm),
(fp)
complete
as a basis
the
radius
decimal
most
22/3
by 5.1
radius
the
the
estimated
(15.2
graphical
c/rp
for
other
fp
which
variate
the
develop
a corrugation,
To determine
as important.)
analyses,
is
to
and
Since
for
f values
small
was used
and the
shape
(rp).
are
Then,
peak
eliminate
6 by 2 inch
were
data,
data.
corrugation
the
crest
to
C.M.P.
To define
pitch
D/k
roughnesses
this
fp vs.
by 6.4
(using
existing
cm) corrugations,
slope
peak
(7).
(1)
by decreasing
in
refute
of
f curves.
order
1.3
to
consisting
followed
curves
tending
WES report
exists,
f,
NRw values,
thus
D3 were
trend
a peak
and a decrease
annular
is
higher
corrugated
Figure
a common
NRw (2)
the
it
phenomenon
versus
in
D3,
From Figure
that
pattern,
by a peak
The curves
In
At
suggested
that
more
seen
increasing
a declining
after
are
is
valley
in
defining
performed.
resulted
of
the
is
These
in
the
incremental
D15
As a result
values,
of
it
in
= 0.2788
D/k
the
= 36.0,
range
from
based
increasing
bolt
and
to
interest,
from
data
D/k
= 24.0
data
on peak
Darcy
well
    _ _ _  _   _  
from
to
D/k
= 36.0
curve
upward
to D/k
= 36.0,
the
22/3
by l/2
for
equation
appear
data
analyses
While
the
values
develop
Figures
of
are
032)
upward.
with
fp vs.
inch
depicted
lines
in
appear
D/k.
Note
D2,
D3,
given
f for
the
on the
ratio
of
peak
f values
D4,
D4 for
using
the
f Curves
standardized
peak
Figure
Figure
f data
of NRw Versus
order
Second,
C.M.P.
decreasing
D/k,
D/k
were
C.M.P.,
curves
and
the
so
fp values
Figure
D4,
which
to be parallel,
that
the
is
they
fp values
of
plotted
on
actually
Figure
converge
D4 exclude
seam resistance.
Development
based
the
available
(c/rp)0s356
the
these
scale.
with
the
all
D2.
of
a loglog
peak
on the
Equation
The results
to
that
(D/k)oe4021
all
adjusted
In
of
the
from
analyses
was determined
represents
Below
these
for
Various
f vs.
and D4 were
Corrugation
NEW curves
utilized.
corrugation
for
Shapes
the
First,
shape
is
corrugations
the
obtained
of
NRw corresponding
from
Figure
D2,
c/k.
are
obtained
the
calculated
corrugation
for
the
D/k
of
various
pipe
values.
interest,
(If
utilize
sizes
of
no curve
Equation
interest
is
(D2)
given
on
to develop
a new curve.)
Next,
using
peak
f values
vertical
to
a semilogarithmic
scale
approximate
at
of
the
the
graph
NRw value
1 inch
curves
obtained
= 0.02
of
paper
(Af)
Figure
with
from
so that
5 inch
Figure
the
cycles,
D2.
plot
Be sure
curve
shapes
the
to use a
can be sketched
D3.
. _.,
. ..
.
...
_ ...
^___.
D17
Then,
sketch
in
Use curves
for
interest.
It
basis
of
the
corrugations
is
steps
with
suggested
comparison
The above
f vs NRw curves
have
been
Figure
a shape
that
between
using
the
D3 as a guide
similar
c/k
to
and c/rp
corrugation
The partly
full
effective
flow
performed
curves
of
be used
as the
shapes.
for
the
following
corrugations:
Figure
by l/2 inch
by 1 inch
by 1 inch
by 2 inch
by 2l/2
inch
6
3
6
9
shape.
corrugations
parameters
Corrugation
Shape
Pitch
by Depth,
inches
22/3
the
for
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
of
Figures
D5D9
were
derived
by using
full
flow
prism.
partly
full
flow
the
diameter,
D = 4R
e
when
R is
depth
the
(d/D)
Figures
hydraulic
of
D5D9
0.75
was used
because
the
range
of
depths
value
is
obtained
Derivation
Figures
D9
of
of
from
Darcy
Equation
to
= 0.7
5 of
(f)"*5
D3 was derived
partly
develop
the
= 0.9
very
D/k
using
radius
well.
= De/k
A relative
curves
of
represents
Then,
the
the
peak
= 4R/k.
main
using
the
(A/D2)
text
were
following
(D)Oo5
obtained
relationship
(k)
__
from
Figures
for
D5 through
N
Rw:
(D3)
.v
Equation
Dl,
as follows:
l/2
V*k
NRw = yj
(R 'f
V
Curves
the
from
hydraulic
d/D
D2,
(Q/D205)
2.828
the
to
Figure
f Design
Appendix,
N
Rw =
of
corresponding
d/D
from
2 through
this
radius
g'
             
(Dl)
PAFTLY
kiLL
I
I
I

FULL
FLOW
.FiOWCiiVE
WHEN CURVES OVERLAY,
FULL FLOW CURVE
IS
0.10
u
0.08
>
ii
2
0.06
nzn4
I
I
1000
2000
3000
WALL
REYNOLDS
.T ,
II/
_ a2.5
1u/u
=4a
6000
4000
NUMBER,
II 1I
8000
NRVV
FIGURE
D5
22/3
by
l/2inch
Annular
05
.i3
FULL
f
FLOW
.I2
(D = X)
INDICATES
FULL
FLOW CURVE
PARTLY
.II
.I0
FULL
.09
(D=48)
T
*PEAK
AT
NRw= 550
In3
REYNOLDS
NUMBER,
1.5
I
I
6789
WALL
D6
Darcy
f Versus
NRw for
6 by
linch
NR
Annular
FIGURE
Corrugated
Metal
Pipe
D6
A
)L
\o
I
.I4
.I3
PARTLY
FULL
d/D =0.70.9
.I2
SELECTED
.II
FLOW
WHEN
PIPE
CURVES
PARTLY
SIZES
SHOWN
OVERLAY,
FUL
.I0
.06
WALL
REYNOLDS
NUMBER,
NRw
FIGURE
D7
Darcy
f Versus
NRw for
3 by
linch
Annu .lar
Corrugated
Metal
Pipe
07
$
l4
7
PARTLY
FULL
d/D = 0.7 0.9
(DX.Xx)
INDICATES
FULL PIPE
CURVE
0.1 I
Sb;\TED
PIPE
FLOW
I I
PARTLY
SIZES
ARE
I\
I
0.10
w
= 0.09
ifi
0.08
0.07
wItl
0.06
0.05
0.04
6
WALL
REYNOLDS
NUMBER,
NRw
FIGURE
D8
Darcy
f Versus
Metal
Pipe
NRw for
(No Bolt
or
6 by 2inch
Seam Resistance
Annular
Structural
Included)
Plate
Corrugated
08
D22
0.16
&APE
BASED ON 6~ 2 I
CMP CURVES
0.08
f
I III
[1

FULL

PARTLY
FULL
d/D 0.70.9
]
7
2 2,3!x
CMP
,,2
CURVES
FLOW
( D =X.Xx)
IN DlCAT==
FULL
PIbE
CURI IE
I
DADTI
FLOW
CURVE
IS
nL
SELECTED
PIbE
SIZES
.
ARE
SHOWN.;
0.07
WALL
REYNOLDS
NUMBER,
NRw
FIGURE
D9
Darcy
f Versus
Corrugated
Metal
NRw for
9 by
2l/2inch
Pipe
(No Bolt
or
Annular
Seam Resistance
Structural
Included)
D9
Plate
D23
v2
Sf = rhf = f
4R 2g if D is replaced
Substituting
into Equation Dl,
4R.
fog5 V k = g&L$
NRw = 2.828 v
.
by the equivalent

 
Using dimensionless
terms, Equation D4 is transformed
The above terms are defined in Appendix B.
into
(D4)
Equation
D3.
From the f vs NRw curves of Figures D5D9, the values of f for various pipe
diameters flowing full and partly full at Q/D2*5 values of 2.0 and 4.0 can be
determined using Equation D3. A trial
and error procedure is required,
where
NRw is estimated,
f is computed, and the resultant
f is compared with the
diameter.
The steps are then repeated until the
NRw curve for the particular
desired accuracy is obtained.
The values obtained by this process are connected
by the steeply sloped lines,
labeled Q/D2.5 = 2 and 4, Full and Partly Full,
in Figures D5D9. The intercepts
of the two curves for flow and diameter
are the source of the f versus diameter curves of Figures 2 through 5, after
bolt and seam resistance
estimates
not include bolt or seam effects.
Bolt
Resistance
in Annular
Structural
are added.
Plate
Corrugated
D5D9 do
Metal Pipes
The resistance
of bolt heads or nuts on the inside crests of corrugations
must be considered for the structural
plate pipes having 6 by 2 inch
and 9 by 2l/2 inch corrugations.
It was assumed that bolt heads or nuts
in corrugation
troughs do not affect resistance.
The methods presented by
Bossy in Appendix A of the WES report (7) were used in computing the Darcy
resistance
increment, Af, caused by these isolated
roughness elements,
which must be added to the wall resistance
to obtain the total f value.
Bossy evaluates
the resistance
increment
(Full
(Partly
by the formula:
flow)
full
      
flow)
   
(D5a)
(D5b>
D24
Where,
Af
is
the
incremental
Darcy
CD is
the
coefficient
of drag,
nuts
or bolt
the
average
a is
the
projected
v is
the
velocity
of
estimated
number
of
bolts
area
of
one nut
near
to
equal
1.1
for
hexagonal
the
per
wall
length
L.
normal
to
flow.
at midheight
of
a nut
located
on the
a corrugation.
L is
the
length
R is
the
hydraulic
A is
the
flow
area.
V is
the
mean
flow
(Lengths
factor.
heads.
N is
crest
resistance
are
of
in
pipe
being
considered.
radius.
velocity.
feet
(m),
areas
in
square
2
(m ),
feet
and
time
is
in
seconds.)
In
the
main
text
of
the
2inch
annular
structural
nearly
constant
inward
corrugation
nut)
and
depth
follows
WES report
plate
from
(which
the
is
the
(7),
page
corrugated
crests
is
pipes,
for
much greater
it
14,
the
local
a distance
than
the
shown
of
height
that
for
velocity
0.7
of
times
a bolt
6by
remains
the
head
or
relationship:
Where,
v is
v*
Also,
is
as the
without
be used:
bolts
the
local
velocity,
the
shear
velocity.
resistance
have
already
and
factors
been
for
structural
estimated,
plate
the
following
corrugated
pipes
relationship
can
D25
;*v
Where
V is
These
the
two
8
_f
the
mean flow
equations'
local
(without
bolts):
For
of
lack
therefore
at
better
structural
plate
C.M.P.
close
enough
derivation
the
it
to
plate
C.M.P.,
as well
is
estimation
L
4R
and the
the
of bolt
relationship
not
in
6 by
exactly
resistance
based
equation
velocity
as to
between
mean velocity
that
local
probably
CD N a (3.78f)
Af =
following
was assumed
applies
this
the
nut
(DS),
Although
for
of
projecting
information,
equation
annular
velocity.
permit
velocity
(D7)
(D6),
9 by
2 inch
true,
on f
and
2l/2
inch
structural
it
should
be
effects.
a
@9a)
For
the
6 by 2 inch
inside
crests
number
of
The average
total
bolts
number
number
8foot
structural
of both
crest
at
plates
of
the
D L
corrugated
longitudinal
and
in
L,
a length,
bolts
in
inside
and one
plate
6foot
equal
in
plate,
with
circumferential
a length
crests
pipes
to
seams,
the
equal
a length
producing
nuts
the
diameter,
average
D, was computed.
to
D was determined
of
102 feet
a total
on the
from
made up of
of
the
twelve
13 circumferential
joints.
For
heads
partly
full
or nuts
flow,
was necessary
on corrugation
flow
depth,
d=0.75D,
flow
depths
(d/D
I~
it
used
= 0.7
to
crests
here
.i~
that
to
_,j
determine
were
represent
At
0.9).
to
..,, _ ,...,._
._
_r.,
actually
a usual
points
__
the
where
^_
. .
__
..,.
range
__..__/^.
of
submerged
one of
.^_
number
of
the
._
bolt
by the
partly
full
longitudinal
._,.__.__.___..
._
D26
seams might
or might
an average
pipe,
This
analysis
occurs
in
the
plates.
In Figure
4 of
bolts
used
in
structural
between
used
this
2l/2
single
bolt
are
in
are
of
per
are
plates
shown
the
in
seams.
of
circum
for
the
6 by
curves
for
pipes
to
the
the
which
number
used
change
of
joints,
in
steel
Figure
for
steel
fabricate
number
the
of
bolts
pipe.
pipe
only
two joints
on each
the
5;
The steel
plate
bolt
differences
C.M.P.
First,
seam bolts
neglected.
crest,
Also,
instead
of
the
C.M.P.
Either
bolts
are
same size
C.M.P.,
the
but
the
cm) compared
fasteners
Af should
the
plate
(1.74
aluminum
in
One minor
submerged.
designatedBin
inside
structural
Figure
changes
joints
an average
are
inch
were
used
be increased
aluminum
as
aluminum
nuts
to
13/16inch
in
the
computa
by a small
amount
nuts.
cm) and
has four
curve
to
the
assembly
circumferential
bolts
11/16inch
9 by 2l/2
plate
its
so these
nuts,
the
due to
has
structural
of
for
structural
C.M.P.
two bolts
in
size
foot
2 inch
6 by 2inch
due
(4.45
pipes,
6 by
can be used.
the
resistance
different
and nuts
also
1459
bolt
troughs,
discontinuities
the
smooth
an abrupt
6 by 2 inch
Af for
particular
these
in
the
the
0.0005
The curve
C.M.P.
number
plate
The dimensions
the
of about
in
than
cm).
of
the
seam has
bolts
shorter
tion
area
D curves
of
number
longitudinal
maximum
the
was slightly
structural
used
used
(2.06
in
determine
corrugation
longitudinal
steel
to
and
inch
inside
those
of
f versus
orientation
a fractional
The discontinuities
results
C.M.P.
pipe
each
or
changes
plate
the
with
the
C.M.P.
which
spacing
sections
text,
in
on the
fabrication.
The procedure
gby
pipe
plate
pipe,
resulted
on an equal
main
indicate
particular
in
the
structural
with
which
was used,
optimum
depending
be submerged,
was based
ferential
2inch
not
15.10
9 for
the
9 by
number
exception
foot
(4.60
of
m) (true
at
d=0.75D
Rather
than
plot
of
Figure
bolts
5.
inch
plates
was made
submerged
number
2l/2
used
for
to
partly
diameter)
whereas
individual
was used
structural
for
plate
construct
the
full
in
flow
pipes.
the
15.10
points
both,
The 14.59
foot
pipe
for
each
resulting
in
of
the
has
D27
Seam Resistance
In
the
the
in
structural
flow
plate
direction
function
of
the
The
longitudinal
are
neglected.
create
of
15.12
Equation
CD N a (R/D)
N be the
number
of
a be the
projected
area
L be the
distance
between
N is
equal
perimeter
of
metal
full
the
For
plate,
Af
seams
m)
plates
for
in
seams
seams normal
This
resistance
to fabricate
to
is
the
on resistance,
to predict
conduit.
and thus
circumferential
seam
a is
L,
seam normal
to
the
(meters).
when
is
to:
equal
d/D
(R/D)
x 5.1
assumes
it
that
is
1..~.1
that
to hydraulic
.
conduit
(.
. . .
For
I___
.....
feet
all
they
assumed
contribute
,..
is,
t is
conduit,
p is
the
the
thickness
p/D
= 3.1416
@lo)
C.M.P.,
made
twelve
9 by 2l/2
inch
(1.46
not
_,.
..__
L equals
of
,,..
8foot
(22.9
7.85
feet
(2.44
x 6.4
m).
protected
C equals
1.0
D
resistance.
.._.
where
and
circumferential
are
(t),
a circular
plate
4.79
that
and

m) plate).
L equals
(D)
diameter,
cm) structural
(1.82
flow,
= 0.75.
(31 m) of
the
(p/D)
For
= 2.0944
(A/D21
C.M.P.,
to
seams.
equal
D is
velocity;
Also,
length
one
cD (P/D)
6foot
development
do not
CD%)
circumferential
on 102 feet
plate
local
of
feet
seams
(15.2
and one
The above
valleys.
used
influence
(based
structural
the
little
per
conduit,
and p/D
6 by 2 inch
(2.39
plates
pipe

joints
the
15.12
Af
flow.
can be used
to l.O;and
of
flow,
Then,
have
(D9b)
D ' L
the
to
metal
wetted
to
should
(A/D2)
for
the
Pipes
circumferential
some resistance
of
Metal
as follows:
Af
Since
Corrugated
the
C.M.P.,
seams
resistance,
Plate
thickness
A modification
Let
Structural
and
._.
joints
are
within
corrugation
that
..~.
longitudinal
exposed
m)
cm)
D28
Derivation
0.0926
(@j
(f)1/2
  (Dll)
is listed
as Equation (5) in the main text.
radius of the flow prism.
In this
case,
Determine the
full circular
circular
pipes
radius of the
3i
4.
Enter figure D4 with the De/k ratio and read f from the curve for the
appropriate
corrugation
type.
This is the peak f value, which is the
total f for riveted or welded C.M.P., and the wall f, excluding bolt
and seam resistance,
for structural
plate C.M.P.
Note :
effective
diameter, De, of the conduit in feet (m). For
pipes, this is the true diameter.
For partly full
or for pipearches,
De equals four times the hydraulic
flow prism.
roughness,
= O2788 (De/k)oe4021
D29
5.
On a sheet
the
6.
peak
Using
in
c/k
and c/r
Based
semilogarithmic
f values
Figure
plotted
7.
of
at
the
graph
appropriate
D3 as a guide,
step
5.
paper
draw
with
5 inch
cycles,
plot
the
points
NRw value.
NRw vs.
Use corrugations
f curves
with
through
a similar
shape,
based
on
P'
on Equation
(Q, conduit
(D3),
size,
determine
relative
the
depth,
relationships
A,
and
between
are
either
known
NRw and
f.
or have
been
estimated).
8,
By a trial
7,
determine
relative
9.
and error
depth
f value
rate,
and depth
Determine
heads
for
the
of
based
particular
in
11.
Determine
the
bolt
Steps
12.
Convert
on the
number
inside
valleys
depth,
seams
the
total
and
from
9 and 10 apply
Darcy
step
only
f to
Af,
for
of
crest
of
using
using
Darcy
resistance
the
intersect
6.
derived
on the
This
corrugation
resistance,
seam resistance
circumferential
relationship
is
type,
in
step
appropriate
the
desired
conduit
shape,
flow
flow.
relative
Determine
in
specific
the
that
constructed
the
bolt
or nuts
using
Darcy
pipearch,
10.
'the
procedure,
the
bolts
Equation
Equation
metal
9, and
to
structural
the
the
plate
(do not
pipe
include
submerged
or
bolt
by
the
.'
(D9b).
(DlO),
plate
step
Manning
structural
corrugations)
f by adding
the
the
based
on the
spacing
of
thickness.
wall
resistance
seam resistance
plate
from
from
step
step
8,
10.
conduits.
n by use of
Equation
(Dll),
if
desired.
,.
~1__.
_ ^_I_r. .._l_i
._..._.._ I,.;._
rl.
I__;. __:_
.
,^ ....^
_______. .
D30
Examples
Example
Given:
Required:
of
Dl
Use of Appendix
D Curves
f curves:
A 14 foot
(4.27
plate
C.M.P.
rates
are
Determine
for
True
this
m) (nominal
with
338 cfs
the
at
diameter
(15.2
(9.57
and 540
m3/s)
by 5.1
above
flow
= 14.06
feet
(4.29
feet
(5.1
annular
cm)
cfs
including
f values,
the
From Equation
circular
6 by 2 inch
Darcy
pipe
diameter)
corrugations.
(15.3
bolt
structural
Flow
m3/s).
and
seam resistance,
rates.
m) from
field
test
data.
(D2):
f" 5 (Q> 04
NRw = 2.828
(A)(v)
k = 2 inches
A = A/D2
v ='1.215
For
= 0.1667
(D)2
= 0.7854
N
Rw = 2.828
For
Q = 540
N
Rw
(1.131
(9.57
m3/s):
foe5
(338)(.1667)
(155.3)(i.217
= 10,542
cfs
(14.43
m2)
x 10B6 m2/sec.)
(f)Om5
(15.3
= 16,842
m3/sec.):
(f)Oa5
Figure
D8 for
6 by
plate
C.M.P.,
and
interpolating
10.53
feet
(3.21
D = 14.06
ft2
x 105>
Using
for
= 155.3
(14.06)2
x 10m5 ft2/sec.
Q = 338 cfs
cm)
feet
2 inch
m) and D = 14.60
(4.29
m).
(15.3
between
feet
by 5.1
cm)
full
flow
(4.45
m),
annular
curves
sketch
structural
for
in
D =
a curve
D31
Then,
using
a trial
intercepts
and error
on the
The results
are
curve
14.06
,I
To estimate
constructed
for
determine
the
D = 14.06
feet.
NRw and
Q,cfs
N
Rw
f*
338
450
2718
4456
0.0665
0.0700
or seams.
bolt
effects,
use
Equation
(D9a):
D N
a (378
f,   _ _ _ _  _  _  _ _ _  _ _ _ (DC&)
L
A
Af=
4R'
where:
= 1.1
cD
N = 2256
102 ft.
= 102 feet
(31.1
14.06
= 155.3
(&)
Therefore,
wall
..,.^
bolt
resistance
...
I
_x
,
of
of
conduit
one bolt
head,
(4.28
(14.42
m)
m2)
f)
155.3
f
resistance
for
.,
m) length
m)
feet
ft2
(31.1
m2) = area
(1.1)(2256>(.0070)(3.78
bolts
= 0.0583
per
= 0.0070
ft2
(.00065
normal
to flow
bolts
4R=D=
Af
as follows:
D,ft.
*NO bolts
procedure,
.
this
..
.
amounts
structural
..
l_.
._,,
to
about
plate
,_ ^ __
_:,_.
6 percent
of
the
conduit.
,.~
._.__
...
..~
_...
__,
.,_
__
D32
To estimate
seam effects,
15.12
Af
Af
cD (p/~)
Equation
t (R/D)
(DlO):
seams
Where,
use
&'D2)
CL)
CD
= 1.0
P/D
= 3.1416
for
full
= 0.0182
ft.
(0.0055
R/D
= 0.25
A/D2
= 0.7854
= 7.85
for
flow
full
for
flow
full
feet
m) (assumed)
(Table
flow
(2.39
C2)
(Table
C2)
m)
= (15.12)(1.0)(3.1416)(0.0182)(0.25)(f)
(0.7854)
(7.85)
seams
= 0.0351
Seam resistance
conduit,
is
and the
10 percent
of
about
total
the
3.5
percent
bolt
wall
and
of
the
wall
resistance
seam resistance
amounts
for
to
this
almost
resistance.
;
The total
f values
D,ft.
14.06
II
These
Q,cfs
NRw
338
450
2718
4456
total
f values
Engineering
(9)
and
0.8650
the
difference
accuracy
for
for
for
is
0.0665
0.0700
are
comparisons
developed
in
above
design
development
than
of
the
those
same size
as interpreted
to
be within
between
curves.
of
Af
bolts
0.0039
0.0041
higher
a pipe
thought
Af
Q = 450 cfs,
dently
the
are:
losses
0.0023
0.0025
obtained
(0.0675
by the
an acceptable
field
measurements
Also,
some of
are
seams
estimates
the
total
0.0727
0.0766
by Bauer
for
Q = 338 cfs
BPR staff),
range
and
but
of
indepen
factors
of parameters
used
not
D33
Corrugation
Type
Assume that 2 by l/2 inch (5.1 by 1.3 cm) corrugated metal is used to
fabricate
annular C.M.P. as well as helical
C.M.P. This corrugation
shape
has never been tested in annular C.M.P. The corrugations
have the following
dimensions:
=
=
=
=
k
rV
t
1.
be fabricated
in sizes
D,ft.
D, m.
t,in.
1.0
2.0
4.0
8.0
.305
.61
1.22
2.44
0.052
0.064
0.079
0.109
Note the r
Follow
from D = 1.0 ft
specific
r
tends to increase
steps l12,
with
at the beginning
sizes:
= rv + t,in.
D/k
c/k
c/r p
0.427
.439
.454
.484
24
48
96
192
4.0
"
11
1,
4.68
4.56
4.40
4.13
diameter
due to increases
of this
in wall
thickness.
section:
the corrugations
c/k = 4.0
From Figure
2.
Determine
diameter,
_._...
._,
. . .. I._i.
 .. ..
.1 ,~
,.
,.
___
equals
,_
 ___
_.
the true
..
.
. ...
~
____.
.,
_~ .I .__
D34
For
partlyfull
the
range
from
d/D
3.
Determine
De/k
Figure
using
Since
must
each
flow
prism
of
interest
Equation
there
is
the
D2,
De/k
ratios
fp = 0.2788
no curve
for
2 by l/2
inch
table
values,
~c,rpj0.356.
corrugations,
Flow
for
to
represent
d/D
= 0.75,
table
following
following
or
compute
peak
Partly
D,,ft.
Ckp
fp
R,ft.
1.0
2.0
4.0
8.0
24
48
96
192
4.68
4.56
4.40
4.13
0.1480*
.1009
.0754
.0558
0.302
.603
1.21
2.41
On a sheet
peak
f
P'
Using
of
NRw = 9,000,
plotted
6 x 2 inch
approximately
also
semilogarithmic
f values
Figure
points
is
C2,
(see
and read
.4021
(De/k)
De/k
The
= 0.75
D, and De = 4R (see
D,ft.
At
d/D
From Table
= 0.9.
R = 0.3017
at
f values
be computed.
plot
6.
for
D4 with
Full
5.
to d/D
radius
4).
Enter
fp
= 0.7
hydraulic
4).
step
4.
the
Therefore,
R/D = 0.3017.
step
use
flow,
used
at
graph
the
appropriate
from
step
D3 as a guide,
in
step
same.
as a guide
Flow
De/k
c/r
1.21
2.41
4.84
9.64
29.0
57.8
116.2
231.4
4.68
4.56
4.40
4.13
with
a 5 inch
log
fp
0.1285*
.0936
.0698
.0517
cycle,
NRw value.
1 (see
draw
following
NRw vs.
graph).
f curves
through
the
peak
5.
corrugates
the
paper
Full
have
a similar
Therefore,
for
this
c/r
Figure
step
(see
ratio,
and their
c/k is
P
D8 for 6 x 2 inch corrugations
the
following
graph).
D35
7.
Based
on Equation
example,
and
partly
2.828
full
full
and
(f)O05
Rw =
2.828
between
NRw and

Q/D205
= 2.0,
= 0.6318),
with
inch
= 0.0417
f.
(D3)
full
flow
v = 1.217
(A/D2
= .7854)
x 10B5
ft2/sec
ft.
partly
(2.0)(D)oo5(0.0417)
(0.7854)(1.212
full
flow
(f)"*5
2.828
a trial
x 105>
(f)0'5(D)0*5
(d/D
= 0.75):
(2.0)(D)"'5(.0417>
(0.6318)(1.217
= 3,835
Using
(A/D2
k = 0.5
relationship
flow:
N Rw =
8.
the
f for
flow
= 3,085
For
(A/D2)
determine
(T = 60F),
For
determine
(f>Oa5 (Q/D~*~)(D)'*~(~)
N
Rw =
For
(D3),
x 105)
(f)"*5(D>o*5
and error
procedure,
with
determine
the
that
from
6.
For
the
step
N
Rw
Trial
1
2
3
4
example,
3085
(f>Oa5
II
,t
t,
for
the
relationships
intersect
1 foot
on the
pipe
flowing
Estimated
f
Computed
N
Rw
0.1180
.1075
.1062
.I060
1059
1011
1005
1004
from
appropriate
step
7,
curve
full:
Corresponding
f
0.1075
.1062
.1060
.1060
D36
By a similar
plotted
on the
D,ft.
0.75
1.0
0.75
1.0
0.75
1.0
0.75
step
11.
bolt
graph,
all
Rw
Darcy
1004
1215
1271
1557
1610
1954
2020
2419
0.1060
.1005
.0850
.0825
.0682
.0650
.0537
.0498
resistance,
applicable,
Determine
Not
were
NRw and f values
2.5
= 2.0.
for Q/D
following
R,ft.*
Rl/6*
0.250
.3017
.500
.603
1.0
1.207
2.0
0.794
.819
.891
.919
1.0
1.032
determined
Manning
n*
0.0239
.0240
.0241
.0244
.0242
.0244
.0241
.0239
1.122
1.158
2.414
and
12.
Determine
Not
1Q.
1.0
*See
the
following
d/D
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
4.0
4.0
8.0
8.0
9.
process,
no bolts
in
seam resistance,
applicable,
Determine
seams
the
total
are
using
Equation
this
conduit.
using
Equation
negligible
Darcy
(D9b).
(DlO).
in
f by adding
riveted
the
or welded
results
from
C.M.P.
steps
8,
9,
and
10.
12.
Since
steps
Darcy
f value.
9 and
10 are
Darcy
f to
Convert
the
For
results,
the
see the
not
the
applicable,
Manning
table
in
Darcy
step
n by use of
step
8.
for
in
f and n values
a similar
diameter
fashion.
as in
Figures
Then,
the
2 through
coefficients
9 of
the
Equation
That
f and Manning
n resistance
C.M.P.,
at Q/D 5/2 = 2.0.
Values
other
8 yields
table
for
flow
main
this
rates
the
total
(Dll):
contains
hypothetical
can be developed
can be plotted
text.
the
versus
D3704
I
FULL
FLOW
PARTLY
FULL
d/D = 0.7 0.9
0.14
FL0
(D =X)
INDICATES
PARTLY
FULL
FLOW
CURVE
0.12
0.10
Y
0.06
0.06
REY NOLDS
6789
NUMBER,
Ifi4
NRW
EXAMPLE
DARCY f VERSUS
NRw
FOR
CORRUGATED
METAL
PIPE
i
I
_,,
.....
BY
l/T
lNCH
D2
ANNULAR
.;
_
_.
_,.
u.~__
__.
.____
D38
HELICALLY CORRUGATED
METAL PIPES
Background Information
The handbook of the American Iron and Steel Institute
(AISI) (18) presents a
range of f values for different
pipe diameters that were obtained from flow
tests in which air was used as the fluid.
However, the reason for the range
of values is not explained and no indication
of the Reynolds numbers of the
tests is presented.
Chamberlain (4) tested 12inch (0.305 m) helically
corrugated metal pipe with 2 by l/2inch
(5.1 by 1.3 cm) corrugations
in
conjunction
with his sediment transport
studies.
No systematic variation
with Reynolds number changes was detected, and the mean f value was determined
to be 0.040.
Rice (9) conducted flow tests on 8inch (0.203 m) and 12:inch
(0.305 m) helically
corrugated metal pipe with l1/2 by l/4inch
(3.8 by
0.64 cm) and 2 by l/2inch
(5.1 by 1.3 cm) corrugations
respectively,
and
a decline in f with increasing Reynolds number was detected in the 8inch
pipe.
Silberman
and Dahlin
30.5
45.7
61.0
121.9
30.5
121.9
30.5*
61.0*
*Recorrugated
of Minnesota,
tests on helically
corrugated
St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic
Corrugation Shape
Pitch by Depth
(inches)
(cm)
2
2
2
2
2213
22/3
2213
2213
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
annular
7/16
7116
l/2
l/2
7116
l/2
7116
l/2
rings
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1.1
1.1
1.3
1.3
1.1
1.3
1.1
1.3
Strip Width
(inches)
(cm)
20
20
20
20
24
24
24
24
Reference
51
51
51
51
61
61
61
61
on pipe ends.
results,
and the principal
cause an increase of 10.5
in the Manning n value.
further here.
10
10
10
6
6
6
11
11
D39
Figure
D10 contains
and
corrugations
and
then
reach
Derivation
of
To develop
Figure
for
each
curves
22/3
line
serious,
24inch
pipe
to Manning
the
It
will
value
In
example,
f versus
be seen
with
the
the
by 1.3
when
compared
on the
order
actually
main
n values,
plots
that
increasing
of
Figure
results
for
cm)
corrugations
with
of
all
seven
number
the
for
f value
Reynolds
the
tends
pipe
to
sizes
decrease
Numbers.
the
other
percent,
10,
were
read
some curve
24 inch
were
(0.61
from
the
smoothing
m) pipe
disregarded,
results.
computed
was
with
since
they
The potential
should
the
test
error
results
for
be correct.
n Design
text
using
Curves
was developed
Equation
by converting
the
Darcy
f values
(Dll).
._
9
Reynolds
Curves
(6.8
of Manning
11 of
Darcy
f Design
DlO.
inch
of
of
for
l/2
Derivation
Figure
Darcy
For
by
not
the
a constant
of Figure
seem out
is
tested.
pipe
performed.
plots
..j___
.,._,__
_ __._,
_i
.,.._.
....
..

,,
__._
_....._.
1 .._
I..._
.,.
...
0.12
I
HELICAL
C.M.P.
SILBERMAN
1969 ( IO )
AND
DAHLlN
SILBERMAN
1971 ( 6 )
AND
DAHLIN
0.10
m
RICE
( 9
CHAMBERLAIN
( 4
0.08
u
D=48:
24
PLATE,
e = 81.0,
D48,
= 0.08
20
22/3xl/2
PLATE,
8 =82.5,
2~
l/2
2
cl
0.04
12
PLATE
e=62.0
0.02
0
5
678
1x106
Ix105
D10
Darcy
f Versus
REYNOLDS
NUMBER
NR
NR for Helically
Corrugated
Metal
Conduits
FIGURE
DIO
El
To Convert From
To
Multiply
By
Degree
Radian
0.017453
Foot
Meter
0.3048
Foo~'*~
Meterl'5
0.168276
Foot2
Meter2
0.092903
Foot205
Meter2'5
0.05129
Foot/Second
Meter/Second
0.3048
Foot'/Second
Meter3/Second
0.02831685
Inch
Centimeter
2.540
Inch:
Centimeter2
6.4500
Pound
Kilogram
0.453592
Pound/Foot3
Kilogram/Meter3
Q/D2'5 (English)
Q/D205 (SI)
* U. S. GOVERNMENT
16.01846
0.552093
PRINTING
OFFICE : 1980
311~586/365