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FH WA-TS-80-216

HYDRAULIC FLOW
RESISTANCE FACTORS
FOR CORRUGATED
METAL CONDUITS

U.S. DEPARTMENT

OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Highway Administration


Offices of Research and Development
Implementation
Division (H DV-21)
January

1980

NOTICE

This document
is disseminated
under the sponsorship
of the
Department
of Transportation
in the interest
of information
exchange.
The United
States
Government
assumes no liability
for its
contents
or use thereof.
The contents
of this
report
reflect
the views of the authors
who are responsible
for the facts
and the accuracy
of the
data presented
herein.
The contents
do not necessarily
reflect
the official
views
or policy
of the Department
of
Transportation.
This report
or regulation.

does

not

constitute

a standard,

specification,

The United
States
Government
does not endorse
Trade or manufacturers'
names
manufacturers.
only because
they are considered
essential
to
this
document.

products
or
appear
herein
the object
of

U.S.

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal

Highway

HYDRAULIC

Administration

FLOW RESISTANCE

FACTORS FOR
CORRUGATED METAL CONDUITS

January

1980

-i-

ABSTRACT

Hydraulic design procedures require a reliable


determination
of the resistance
factors applicable
to each shape of corrugation
used in the manufacture or
fabrication
of corrugated metal conduits.
These resistance
factors vary over
a wide range for each of the corrugation
shapes now available.
In this
publication,
methods are presented which allow the designer to estimate
resistance
factors for all available
corrugation
shapes and methods of
manufacture.
Variables considered include conduit size and shape, corrugation
shape, flow rate, flow depth, and method of manufacture.
Resistance factors
are presented in terms of the Darcy f or the Manning n, and design charts,
geometric tables, and SI conversion factors are included.
A method of
estimating
resistance for untested corrugations
is also included, along with
design examples.

-ii-.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

A number
Mr.

of

Herbert

FHWA),

Frank

associated

with

of Mr.

Gilbert

delays

in

several

times,

equations
impossible.
produce

of

the

tables,

1970,

and Mr.
of

this

into

Robert

Donna
the

My thanks
document.

go to both

many

Karen

them,

this

problems

during

who drafted
text

document

and to

the

the

appreciated.

Huber,
the

were

The patience

FHWA staff,

also

FHWA,

was co-author

into

the

is

of

of which

Bossy

C. Wood of

of
of

insights

Administration,

all

invaluable.

who typed

preparation

Mr.

text.

publication.

Division

were

of Ms.

Ettaro,

Bridge

and comments,

this

this

Highway

resistance

publication,

and help

of

Federal

Branch,

and his

pipe

development

the

review

incorporated

metal

the

Hydraulics

valuable

corrugated

and Ms.

this

with

in

cooperation

and

formerly

publication

preparation

the

to

contributed

Trainer

Without

to

Johnson

and many ,were


previous

contributed

(retired,

L.

FHWA staff

considered
the

have

G. Bossy

Mr.

and the

of

individuals

the

and
would

its

the

numerous

have

many others

figures

been
who helped

iii

HYDRAULIC FLOWRESISTANCE FOR


CORRUGATED
METAL CONDUITS
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

OBJECTIVES .............................

HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE FACTORS ....................

ANNULARCORRUGATED
METAL PIPES ...................

Corrugation
Bolt

Shapes Considered

and Seam Resistance.

FlowRates

.................

5
7

...................

...........................

Darcy Resistance

Factors,

f ..................
..................

ManningResistanceFactors,n
Use of Resistance

Factor

Versus Diameter

Summary of Methods for Use of Figures

13
Curves (Figures

2-9 ...........

.................

ExamplesofUseofFigures2-9

Factors

Shapes Considered

Affecting

Darcy Resistance

Hydraulic
Factors,

ManningResistance"Factors.n
Re-Corrugated
Limitations

Annular

i..

............

23
24

............

Rings ..................

27
27
27

..........................

Examples of Use of Figures

19

23

f ..................
..

18

23

.................

Resistance.

20

HELICALLY CORRUGATED
METAL PIPES ..................
Corrugation

2-9)

10 and 11. .............

29

iv

APPENDIXES
APPENDIX

A - REFERENCES

APPENDIX

B - DEFINITION

APPENDIX

GEOMETRIC, AND HYDRAULIC


C - DIMENSIONAL,
CORRUGATED METAL CONDUITS

APPENDIX

D - DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN CURVES FOR CORRUGATED METAL CONDUITS

APPENDIX

E - CONVERSION FACTORS - ENGLISH

OF TERMS

UNITS

FACTORS FOR

TO SI UNITS

FIGURES

1.

Shapes

of

Annular

2.

Darcy f Versus Diameter


Annular
Corrugated
Metal

for 2-2/3Pipe

3.

Darcy

Diameter

for

6- by

l-inch

Annular

Corrugated

Metal

4.

Darcy f Versus Diameter


Corrugated
Metal
Pipe

for

6- by 2-inch

Annular

Structural

Plate

5.

Darcy f Versus .Diameter


Corrugated
Metal
Pipe

for

9- by 2-l/2-inch

6.

Manning
Annular

n Versus
Corrugated

Diameter
Metal

for
Pipe

2-2/3-

by

7.

Manning
Pipe

n Versus

Diameter

for

6- by

l-inch

Annular

Corrugated

Metal

8.

Manning
n Versus
Corrugated
Metal

Diameter
Pipe

for

6- by 2-inch

Annular

Structural

Plate

9.

Manning
n Versus
Corrugated
Metal

Diameter
Pipe

for

9- by 2-l/2-inch

10.

Darcy

11.

Manning

f Versus

f Versus
n Versus

Corrugations

Diameter
Diameter

for

by l/2-inch

Helically
for

Helically

and 3- by

Annular

l/2-inch

Corrugated
Corrugated

l-inch

Structural

Pipe

Plate

and 3- by l-inch

Akular

Metal
Metal

Structural

Pipe
Pipe

Plate

U.S.

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal
HYDRAULIC

Highway

FLOW RESISTANCE
By:

Administration

FACTORS FOR CORRUGATED METAL CONDUITS


Jerome

M. Normann

INTRODUCTION
Corrugated

metal

fabricate

circular

drainage

structures.

a fixed

sheets
pipes

the

shape,

corrugation

usually

hydraulic

Experimental

form,

are
as

Types of
Corrugated
Metal
Pipes
(C.M.P.)

flow

shown

of
Pitch

a Manning

depth,

such

for

coefficients

define

hydraulic

by

the

available

Numbers

in

used

conduits,

of

metal

to

as highway
test

regardless

of

used

was often

or method

a number

are

hydraulic

of 0.024,

flow.rate,

results,
used

of

to

size,

manufacture.

corrugation

below:

Nominal
Size
Corrugations
(c) x Depth
Inches

the

commonly

n value

all

forms

limited

of
Pitch

(k)

x l/4
2 x 7/16
2 x l/2
2-213 x l/2

to

early,

l-1/2

show that

resistance

of

of

corrugation

2-213 x l/2
6x1
6x2
9 x 2-l/2

Helical

data

of

conduits

now available

Annular

These

basis

resistance

data

configurations,

a variety

and pipe-arch

On the

coefficient,

define

having

forementioned
to varying

resistance

of

variables
degrees.
all

corrugated

Nominal
Size
Corrugations
(c) x Depth
Centimeters

6.8
15.2
15.2
22.9

x
x
x
x

1.3
2.5
5.1
6.4

3.8
5.0
5.0
6.8

x
x
x
x

0.65

do,
Use of

in

(k)
References1
1,2,3,4,5

3,798

9
10
4,6,9,10

1.1

1.3
1.3

5,6,11

fact,

affect

a constant

metal

pipes

the

coefficient
is

not

justified

facts.

parentheses

refer

to

corresponding

References

in

Appendix

A.

-2-

In

hydraulic

studies

by head-loss
been

which

measurements

for

obtained,

Therefore,

such

almost
a method

untested

pipe

the

factor

is

is

predominant

selecting

used,

flowing

full,

the

pipe

conduit-size

dimension

in

applications,

it

circular

pipes.

Accordingly,

measured

between

inside

circular

pipes

in

of

or

full.

coefficients

for
sections

the

C.M.P.

resistance

and depth

or graphic

of

corrugation.

presentation

hydraulic

radius

(R)

of
can be

full.

than

hydraulic

of

performed

these

used

For

most

investigations.

the
are

actual
used

f and Manning

diameter

inside

for

pipes

has been

to use pipe

report,

Darcy

on circular

radius,

convenient

crests,

the

flowing

size

the

were

this

pipes

non-circular

a tabular

tests

is more

have

determines

(D)

reports

data

resistance

conduit

flowing

corrugation

and values

of

diameter

rather

determined

resistance

circular

types,

been

conditions.

for

hydraulic

diameter,

the

that
terms

pipes

reliable

of

flow

dimension

circular

more

engineering

in

either

as D=4R for

the

the

roughness,

factors,

Because

full

have

rates,

corrugation

partly

size

flow

to estimate

characteristics

a conduit

resistance

of

by tests

untested
and

coefficients

a range

needed

diameters,

relative

resistance

exclusively;

as pipe-arches,

One of

In

in

the

n are

as

for

diameters,
dimensions

related

of

to

the

diameters.

Similarly,

resistance

though
to

determined

4R for

full

diameter

of

resistance
which

factors
from

flow
the

the

of

against

pipe-arch

radii,

sections,

also

can be related

4R can be considered

corresponds

Because

plotted

metal

hydraulic

in which

that

coefficient.

corrugated

respective

conditions,

pipe-arch

f or n is

for

to

this

a circular

pipe

relationship,

circular

pipe

the

the

diameter,

effective

with

an equal

same charts,

can be used

in

for

pipe-arches.

In most

partly

variation

of

full

flow

resistance

resistance

coefficient

type,

size,

pipe

information
tions

of

is

factor
to

and flow
available

resistance

for

it

conditions,
all

with
partial

rate.

At

on C.M.P.
very

shallow

is

depth

of

flow
this

flow,

depths
time,

resistance
flow

satisfactory

it

to
and

for
is

to permit
depths,

to

disregard
apply

a given
not

the

same

corrugation

felt

that

accurate

say below

the

d/D

enough
determina-

= 0.4.

-3-

Design

information

and four

forms

be used

to

hydraulic

of

complete

of

this

In

order

size

are

determine
and at

engineers
design

of

solutions

size

the

a given

can be applied
were

forms

of

flow

rate.

of

annular

This

for

depth

for

not

five

presented.

or storm-drain

or to

a given

resistance

corrugations

a culvert

slope,

of

to

of helical

select

and conduit
conduit

on hydraulic

information

a given

flow

corrugations

rate

occurring

of
in

The usual

can
flow

a long

methods

these

solutions.

considered

essential

to

designers

than

available

The presentation
the

purpose

publication.

to make

edition

only

(12),

text.

this

publication

the

The procedures

Appendix

design
used

D, Development

Discussions

of

resistance

the

of

more
charts

to

experimental

untested

are

develop

of Design

useful

presented

the

Charts
data

corrugation

to

in

design
for

charts

are

of

also

main

are

Corrugated

and methods
shapes

the

the
body

of

contained

Metal

the

in

the
in

Conduits.

estimating
found

1970

that

hydraulic

appendix.

OBJECTIVES
The objectives
usable

of

means

different

manual

estimating

corrugation

corrugation
estimate
should

for

this

used

resistance

these

the

shapes

shapes
the

are

become

in

to:

in

helical
for

to

line)

a given

under

the

other

factor

conditions
usual

(commonly

the

Manning

assumption

is

not

not

also

C.M.P.
and

with

factors

(2)

for

and four

five

different

to enable

new and untested

n)
vary

actually

rate

of

energy

of

flow

rate,

fixed.

practice

RESISTANCE

the

designer

corrugation

to

shapes,

the

determined

with

pipe

valid.

loss

in

to

(slope

conduit

to
of

size,

the

design
that

the

material

or other

factors;

the

a conduit
total

and depth

capacity,

assume

by the
size

applicable

hydraulic

Although
has been

is

FACTORS

or coefficient,

defines

are

the

and does

the

condition

conduits,
alone,

factor,

determine

The resistance

annular

designer

available.

resistance

can be used

the

resistance

C.M.P.

HYDRAULIC
The hydraulic

Provide

hydraulic

used

factors

(1)

or
of

flow

less

this

of

flow.

rate,

important

resistance
forming

head

the

factor
walls

simplified

when

-4-

Resistance
but

factors

also

on the

corrugations,
angle

is

that

indicates

pipe

diameter,

measured

from

the

that
to

the

the
the

not

a corrugated

metal

equations

for

pipe

the

of

conduit

Manning
=

the

discharge

in

a 3 percent

Av

f,

energy

axis.

to

Therefore,

the

2g

flow

line

corrugation,

angle

C.M.P.,

of
the

in

form

of

express

the
helix

rate

by the

ratio

of

corrugation

roughness.

velocity,
Using

increases

flow

capacity

of

or discharge,
the

resistance

factor

form:
(English

Sflf2

(SI
as n,

Units)

Units)

- - - - - - - - - -

(la)

- - - - - - - - - - - -

(lb)

and a 3 percent

flow

capacity.

the

equation

velocity

can also

a 6 percent

in

flow

capacity

particular

diameter

To use

the

terms

of

in

reduction

in

Darcy

resistance

the

n results

hydraulic

radius,

,:,)I2

that

As indicated

the
Sfq

Sf1/2

flow

pipe

f or n on the

from

slope,

the

R2j3

means

any

annular

or relative

either

be expressed

reduction
--

conduit

in

comparable

by comparing

equations

and flow

in

terms

of

the

Darcy

f,

- - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - (3)

f1/2

for

of

helix

as the

conduit,

Q = Av = A 16.04 R112 Sfli2,

n.

For

affected

evident

inversely

increase

can be modified

the

in

in

l-ig6

varies

usual

of

is

Equation

the

in

shape

and the

decreases

variations

Q = Av = A + R213

increase

on the

rate,

significantly

radius

a given

which

only

flow

factor
is

hydraulic

effect

factor

depend

resistance

resistance

The relative

n and

C.M.P.

90 degrees.

The fact

depth

for

depth.

to

f results
the

effect

(la)

and

in

about
of

(3),

a 3 percent

a 3 percent
n varies

reduction
as f l/2

-5-

These

demonstrations

on the

computed

of
discharge

estimating

these

variables

connected

resistance

factor

percent

in

design

For

effects

of variations

capacity

factors

is

with

of

flow

determination

f or 3 percent

a conduit

acceptable,

the

conditions

the

resistance

indicate

especially

method

in

in

that

since

in

resulting

in

n can be considered

some error

there
In

C.M.P.

factors

are

many

general,

errors

of

in

any

less

adequately

reliable

parameters

which

than

for

computations.

convenience

hydraulic
metal

of

flow
pipes,

the
are

from

the

For

helical

the

helix

axis,

C.M.P.,
angle.

have

in

the
(related

roughness

(ratio

For

all

resistance

is

it

that

appears
these

presented

of

flow

parameters

depth
helix

of

size,
to

angle,

Reynolds

roughness

are

in

this

hydraulic

conduit

by the

relative

corrugated

influencing

rate,

the

influence

separately

corrugation

determined

the

approaches

to

C.M.P.,

90 degrees.

and helical

parameters

annular

is

While

are
main

number,

the
annular

corrugations

C.M.P.,

some influence,
angle

different

of

annular

shape.

pipe

helix

types

Reynolds

and corrugation

and because

are

relative

temperature),

shape

two

For

resistance

presentation,

resistance

publication.

the

the

and

-conduit

size),

measured

number

and

and corrugation

little

significance

until

90'.

ANNULAR CORRUGATED METAL PIPES


Corrugation

Shapes

The corrugation
Figure
to vary
resistance
adequate.

1.

Considered

shapes

considered

The dimensions

somewhat

from

coefficients,

herein

presented

the

true
it

is

are

dimensions.
felt

that

for

annular

nominal

dimensions,

However,
nominal

C.M.P.
for

corrugation

are
which

purposes

shown

in

are

known

of

estimating

dimensions

are

FLOW

3X I IN.
c/k ~3.00

-FLOW

-FLOW

c=f3

l-

6X 2 IN.

c = 9

-FLOW

9 X 2+ IN.
c/k = 3.60
NOTE : C/k -CYCLE PITCH TO
DEPTH RATIO
cp=rv + t, t varies with
material,
and corrugation

pipe siie,
shape.

FIGURE
1.

Shapes

of

Annular

Corrugations

-7-

Nominal

Pitch

dimensions

are

Nominal
Size
Corrugation
(c) by Depth

of

2-213

6.8
7.6
15.2
15.2
22.9

Note

x
x
x
x
x

available

that

the

of

Radius
of
Corrugation
Valley,
r v, (4

(k),

(cm)

in

all

1 inch

terms

of

corrugation

depth

(k),

the

6 by

1 inch

while

the

3 by 1 inch

the

with

pipes

Bolt

and

Some of
by 2-l/2

to

flow

sizes

or materials.

(15.2

x 2.5

cm)

6 by

peaked

have

1 inch
for

in

rp/k

have

with

and

this

the

a large

terms

an average

corrugations

pipes

corrugations

Radius
of
Corrugation
Peak,
r , (cd
1.85-2.17
1.56-1.86
6.34-6.61
3.13-3.57
5.97-6.48

have

example;

cm) corrugations

resistance

more

For

height.

the

0.728-0.856
0.615-0.731
2.498-2.602
1.234-1.405
2.35-2.55

Available
Thickness*
t, (cm>

corrugations

the

annular

inch

(22.9

plate
heads
over

corrugation
x 6.4

C.M.P.,
or nuts

that

found

shapes

cm))

considered

using

bolts

protrude

into

in

(6 by

of

corrugation

corrugation

ratio

of

an rp/k

ratio

has

effect

the

corrugation

2.55,
of

0.673.

of

as compared

same relative

riveted

2 inch

herein

(15.2

are

field

and nuts

to assemble

the

and

pipe

or helically

of
Peak,

-2.?ze-

roughness.

Seam Resistance

structural
The bolt

of

hydraulic

pipe

x 2.5

Radius
Corrugation

.102-.427
.132-.427
.152-.417
.278-.711
.254-.762

corrugations

(7.6

shape

with

Wall

1.7
1.4
6.2
2.9
5.7

in

lowering

centimeters:

0.04-0.168
0.052-0.168
0.06-0.164
0.109-0.280
0.100-0.300

radius

rounded

and

11/16
9116
2-7116
l-l/8
2-l/4

6 by

The more

inches

112
1
1
2
2-l/2

inches

1.3
2.5
2.5
5.1
6.4

*Not

in

Available
Wall Thickness*
t, inches

Nominal
Size
Corrugation
(c) by Depth

Pitch

below,

Radius
of
Corrugation
Valley,
rv, inches

(k)

by
by
by
by
by

3
6
6
9

presented

x 5.1

cm) and

fabricated
the

metal

create

additional

fabricated

C.M.P.

into
plates.
resistance

-8-

In Appendix
and the

D, methods

results

figures.

have

inch

related

been

the

metal

plates

been

assumed

Flow

Rates

As it

is

to

for

size.

in

Appendix

size,

depth,

flow

rates

dimensionless
divided

to

SI System

the

Appendix

this

are

the

it

rate,

g,

on the

can be accomplished

to

English

the

a function

l/2

the

System;

the
has

of
to

conduit

select

is

essentially

dimensionless

power.

Since

SI System.

however,

conversion

in

hydraulic

Q/D2*5

truly

are

thickness

is

in

the

of

the

is

results

using

thickness

is

and

the

affects

it

(Q/D~=~

value

fabricating

Use of

since

factor

which

was necessary

curves.

size.

in

number

discussed,

6 by 2 inch

effects,

the

Number

design

on pipe

the

and a reasonable

Reynolds

flow

based

to

temperature,

a different

text

related

acceleration,

dimensionless,
in

if
Q/D 2.5

All

conversion

factors

given

in

E).

general,

Q/D2*5
fore,

based

gravitational

values

In

use in

for

resistance
used

are

resistance

curves

conduit,

since
and

following

and bolts

Reynolds

representing

ratio

by

not

of

and
rate,

for

means

D that

the

bolt

is

conduit

each

C.M.P.,

convenient

plates

the

of all

flow

of

seam resistance

resistance

due to

fabricate

resistance

certain

the

are

and

into

Seam resistance

used

shown

flow

in

number

conduit.

bolt

incorporated

corrugations

to

particular

is

estimating

The discontinuities

9 by 2-l/2
turn

for

at

value
these

their

design

of

about

2.0

two

flow

ratios

Interpolation

between

justified.

The curves

other

flow

Darcy

Resistance

Figures

2-5

equations:

flow

rates,

highway
operate

at

drains
operate
2.5
a Q/D
of about

depicted

in

the

and culverts

the

have
two

of

been

flow

Appendix

values,

storm

and

following

some limited

D can be used

to

at
4.0.

design

may be used

extrapolation

develop

accurate

is
curves

f
to

determine

the

Darcy

f for

use

Therecurves.

rates.

Factors,

in

the

following

for

-9-

t
-:

0.08

0.06

PIPE

IO

DIAMETER,

14

12

FT.
FIGURE

3.

Darcy

f Versus

Diameter

for

6- by l-inch

Annular

Corrugated

Metal

Pipe

NUMBER

OF PLATES

0.12

0.08

0.06

ti

.-

.-

IV

14

I2

ACTUAL

PIPE

DIAMETER,

16

18

20

FT.
FIGURE

4.

Darcy f Versus Diameter


Corrugated
Metal Pipe

for

6- by Z-inch

Annular

Structural

Plate

0.16

----T\

0.14

0.12

TLY FULL

FLOW

0.08

0.06
6

IO

ACTUAL

12

PIPE

DIAMETER,

I4

I6

I8

FT.
FIGURE

5.

Darcy f Versus Diameter


Corrugated
Metal
Pipe

for

9- by 2-l/2-inch

Annular

Structural

Plate

-13-

'f

hf
r

f V2
f V2
--=---------m----m-----4R 2g
= D 2g

(2)

and
16-04

Q=AV=A-

where

is

the

friction

slope

or

is

the

friction

head

loss,

is

the

pipe

is

the

mean velocity,

is

the

gravitational

is

the

flow

2 is

for

2-2/3

cm) corrugations.
4 is

for

9 by

2-l/2

are

used

in

by

for

l/2

(22.9

bolted

3 is

diameters

are

5.

the

corrugations,

equal

to

the

other
actual

Manning

Resistance

Manning

n values

Figure

inside

(15.2

corrugations.

by
it

is

x 2.5

tick

and Figure

The curves

are

crests

marks

assumed

at
that

of

x 2.5

cm) corrugations,

The latter

inside

(7.6

two
based

5 is
corrugations

on actual

corrugations.

the

top

of

the

nominal

Figures

4 and

diameter

is

diameter.

Factors,
are

1 inch

3 by 1 inch

cm) corrugations,

the

represented

(m2).

cm) and

C.M.P.

between

line,

and

x 1.3

x 5.1

plate

grade

(m),

feet

6 by

cm)

energy

(m/set>,

square

for

x 6.4

Nominal

ft.

the

(m),

(6.8

(15.2

measured

of

acceleration,

inch

structural

slope

fps.

in

(3)

(m3/sec>,

ft.

area

6 by 2 inch
inch

cfs

length,

Figure

diameters,

For

in

flow

hf
L

inside

rate

- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ - - -

the

sf

Figure

&I2
f

is

Figure

R112

f1/2

presented

in

Figures

6 - 9,

in

the

following

order:

Corrugation

2-2/3

6 by 1 inch

6 by 2 inch

9 by 2-l/2

by l/2

inch

(6.8

x 1.3

(15.2

x 2.5

cm)

(15.2

x 5.1

cm)

inch

(22.9

x 6.4

cm) and

3 by 1 inch

(structural
cm)

(structural

plate)
plate)

(7.6

x 2.5

cm)

-14-

0.28

0.26

E
c3
z
5 0.24

a
5
FULL

FLOW

0.22

0.20
0

PIPE

DIAMETER,

IO

12

14

FT.
FIGURE

7.

Manning
Pipe

n Versus

Diameter

for

6- by l-inch

Annular

Corrugated

Metal

22

02

81

91

tl

II

01

ZPOO

3wmN

035013N3

8fO'O

ENCLOSED

-FULL

PARTLY
FULL
d/D = 0.7 - 0.9

NUMBERS

INDICATE

FLOW

FLOW

0.032 -

0.030 4

IO

12

ACTUAL

PIPE

DIAMETER,

14

16

20

FT
FIGURE

9.

Manning
n Versus
Corrugated
Metal

Diameter
Pipe

for

9- by 2-l/2-inch

Annular

Structural

Plate

-18-

The Manning

n values
v =

where

1.486
n

is

the

flow

is

the

hydraulic

is

the

friction

(Q=AV),

8 and 9,

represented

by

Manning

of

for

Note

that

used

for

in

= 2.0.

Use of

Resistance
the

corrugation

shape,

with

the

flow

curve

for

extrapolate.
presented
designed

rate

and

for

the

to flow

full

designer's
partly

full

and

of

have

nominal

diameters

graph.

the

the

the

analytical

process,

following

to

the

equation:

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Darcy

shown,
flow

pipe

and Manning

a constant

depth

with

C.M.P.,

sizes

equations

Manning
very
full

Curves

error.

For

n value

(Figures

read

the

or 4.0;
flow

for
curves

other
(d/D

the

flow

rates

within

depth

range.

pipe

size,

appropriate
full

interpolate

drains

storm

with

or partly

to

since

this

full

= 0.7

convenience

full

2-9)

rate

from

of about

or partly

0.9)

have
are

(5)

velocity.

could

n value
for a given
circular
3 F
(Q/DLoJ),
simply
enter
the
f value

for

n value

little

a Manning

flowing

Diameter

f or Manning

The partly

(m),

the

by

the

Versus

diameter
and
2.5
Q/D
= 2.0

SI units,

C.M.P.,

3 by 1 inch

and flow

equation:

(mps),

of

(f>li2

all

known

results.

thetop

pipes

Factor
Darcy

graph

for

in

ft.

plate

the

6 for

be used

Q/D2'5

To obtain

flow

Figure

could

(1)

by equating

some of

a given

example,
0.027

for

1.0

radius,

by use

(R)li6

may be derived

to

obtained

n was accomplished

well

slope.

at

f,

following,

fps

Equation

Darcy

n = 0.0926
which

equal
velocity,

marks

the

--------------------(4)

structural

tick

the

using

Sf l/2

continuity

Conversion

R2,'3

a constant,

sf

Figures

applied

is

1.486

From

are

or
been
often

be

-19-

For non-circular
conduits,
such as pipe arches, obtain the equivalent pipe
diameter De from the full flow hydraulic
radius.
Then enter the appropriate
graph with De = 4Rfull and read the full or partly full resistance
factor
2.5
1.5
from the appropriate
Q/D
curve.
For pipe arches, use Q/BD,
in place
2.5
, where B is the pipe-arch span and Da is the pipe-arch rise.
of Q/D
For depths of flow outside the ranges shown (full
or d/D = 0.7 - 0.9),
determine the hydraulic
radius for the partly full flow prism, determine
the equivalent
diameter, De = 4R, enter the appropriate
graph and read the
resistance
from the appropriate
full flow curve.
Do not use the,partly
full flow curves for this procedure, and do not apply the technique if d/D
It is not felt that the state-of-the-art
permits accurate
is less than 0.4.
determination
of hydraulic
resistance
for very shallow flow depths.
Note
that since C.M.P. resistance
is affected by Reynolds number, the resistance
factors obtained by the latter
technique are approximate, but the errors
will not be significant.
Summary of Methods for Use of Figures
1.

From the tables

of Appendix

2-9

C or from Reference

13, "Computation

of

Uniform and Nonuniform Flow in Prismatic


Conduits,"
determine the true
diameter for circular
pipes or the effective
diameter, De = 4Rfull,
for non-circular
conduits such as pipe-arches.
2.

Determine Q/D2.5 for circular


pipes or Q/BDa 1.5 for pipe arches.
Values of D2.5 and BDa1.5 are given in Appendix C and in Reference

13.

3.

For Full Flow, enter the appropriate


figure and read the resistance
factor from the Full Flow curve.
Use the closest Q/D2.5 curve, or
(Note: if the Q/D2.5 value falls outside the Q/D2.5 = 2
interpolate.
to 4 range, refer to Figures D5 to D9 in Appendix D for guidance on
the potential
variation
in the resistance
factor.)

5.

For partly full flow,


enter the appropriate
appropriate
partly
rather than d/D).

full

with a depth between d/D = 0.7 and d/D = 0.9,


figure and read the resistance
factor from the
flow curve.

(Note:

for pipe arches use d/D,

-2o-

6.

For partly full flow, with a depth bettieen d/D = 0.4 and d/D = 0.7,
determine the equivalent diameter, D , for the partly full flow prism
by the equation De = 4 R, where R isethe hydraulic
radius of the flow
prism.
Then enter the appropriate
figure and read the resistance
factor from the Full Flow curve.

7.

For partly
interpolate

full flow with a depth between d/D = 0.9 and full flow,
between the full flow and partly full flow curves.

Examples of Use of Figures


1.

Circular

C.M.P.

Given:

6 ft.

2-9

(1.8 m) diameter

cm) corrugations
Required:

C.M.P. with

3- by l-inch

and a flow of 176 cfs

(7.6 x 2.5

(5.0 m3/sec).

Resistance factors f and n for full flow and partly full


flow.
Assume that the partly full flow depth will vary
between d/D = 0.7 and d/D = 0.9.

1)

True diameter

= nominal

2)

D2.5 = 88.18 ft.2*5

diameter

= 6 ft.

(From Table C-l,

(1.83 m).

Appendix C)

Q/D2*5 = 176/88.18 = 2.0


3)

d/D
1.0 (Full)
0.7-0.9

(Fii.

2)

0.0735
0.0700

n
(Fig.

6)

0.0268
0.0270

TO estimate the resistance


factors for other depths of flow, compute
the equivalent diameter of the partly full flow prism at the desired
depth, enter the appropriate
graph, and read the resistance
factor
from the Full Flow curve.

-21-

For

example,

= 0.6

is

Table

C-2,

From Fig.
From Fig.

1)
2)

Plate
(3.6

cm)

1515

cfs

Flow

(42.9

= (4)

.--.,.

d/D

ft.2*5

= 1515/505

ri-

d/D

R/D = 0.2776

(6)

= 6.66

(from

ft.

resistance

(2.03

factors

.~

---

= 0.7

m)

vary

Flow

full

and partly

full

ft.

(3.676

rate

flow.

(Table

C-3,

m)

Appendix

C)

(Pi:.

4)

0.0910
0.0850

,-.-

C.M.P.

= 3.0

were

.-- -

plate

- 0.9.

(Pi:.

.--T

structural

cm) corrugations.

f and n for

d/D

..

at

m3/sec;.

= 12.06

The above values


and Q/D 2.5 = 4 .

the

diameter)
x 5.1

1.0 (Full)
0.7-0.9

(.2776)

since

(15.2

Range:

= 505.1

3)

(D)

(nominal

factors

diameter

Q/D2*5

= 0.6,

factor

G.M.P.

6- by 2-inch

Resistance

D2.5

resistance

At d/D

approximate,

with

Full

= 2.0.

the

number.

12 foot

True

(R/D)

are

Structural

Partly

suppose

C).

values

Reynolds

Required:

pipe,
2.5

f = 0.0710
n = 0.0269

latter

Given:

Q/D

= 4R = (4)

2,
6,

Circular

2.

above

with

Appendix

De

These

the

required

Then

with

for

obtained

.?.

.---__-I-

by interpolation

-~-~-----.-.~-~~--~...---.-~~--~

8)

0.0335
0.0334
Q/D 2.5

between

-_-,

---

. .._.

-l.lll-l__

= 2

_-_-.

____-

_-_*

_ ._.___?

__._

-22-

3.

Corrugated Metal
Given:

Required:

1)

Structural

Plate

Pipe-Arch

Structural
Plate Corrugated Metal.Pipe-Arch
with 9 x 2-l/2
inch corrugations.
(28.8 inch (73.2 cm) corner radius).
Nominal size:

Span (B) = 10 ft.


Rise (Da) = 7 ft.

Flow rate =

760 cfs

Resistance
flow (d/D

- 5 in.
- 3 in.

(3.18 m).
(2.21 m).

(21.5 m3/sec)

factors,
f and n, for full
= 0.7 - 0.9).

flow and partly-full

From Table C-10, Appendix C,


R = 2.085 ft.

(0.636 m) (full

flow hydraulic

radius)

BD lo5 = 190.2
a
De = 4R = 4 (2.085)
2)

Q/BDa lo5 = 760/190.2

3)

Enter figures

d/D
1.0
0.7-0.9

with

= 8.34 ft.

(2.54 m).

= 4.0

De = 8.34 ft

and Q/BD 1.5 = 4.0


a

(Figf. 5)
0.104
0.095

(Fii.

9)

0.0338
0.0333

-23-

HELICALLY
Corrugation

Shapes

Corrugated

metal

helical
spot

welded

is

manufactured

available

C.M.P.

The following
this

Considered
pipe

C.M.P.,

with

seam process,

same range

are

of
and

presented

sizes

known

as the

as

riveted

or

seams.

in

the

design

figures

of

section:

Factors

Size
(c)

Affecting

Relative

of Corrugations
by Depth
(k)
(cd

(k/D)

hydraulic
until

the

helix

with

Reynolds

number

Reynolds

numbers,

The helix
corrugated
the

in

the

angle
metal

is

which

metal
diameter

of

Width
(cm>

30.5
50.8
40.6,50.8
61.0

appear

to have

corrugated

metal

the

corrugations,
area,

values

little

pipes

effect

flowing

The resistance

90 degrees.

sectional

resistance

0,

and

and

varies

secondarily
At

temperature).

seem to

reach

a constant

with
higher

value

for

conduits.

dependent

the

method

sheet
the

width

of metal

fed

into
the

pipe

the

metal

machine,

being

of

metal

and rolls

A fixed

of

upon

Coiled

pipes.

is

Plate

12
20
16,20
24

shape

approaches

cross

corrugations
seam.

the

the

0.65
1.1
1.3
1.3

corrugation

angle

(flow,

x
x
x
x

of helically

angle

circular

or welded
the

and

helix

Finished
Inches

Resistance

resistance

primarily

flow

3.8
5.0
5.0
6.8

Hydraulic

roughness

on the

with

lock

corrugations

shapes

x l/4
2 x 7/16
2 x l/2
2-213 x l/2

forms

the

annular

l-112

full

by the

in

corrugation

Nominal
Pitch
Inches

full

CORRUGATED METAL PIPES

is

manufacture
fed

into

is

produced.

the

helically

a pipe

mill

which

a spiral

used;

and

into

of
pipe

therefore,

thus

the

Since

the

helix
the

with

angle

angle,
pipe

a lock
at

varies

seam must

-24-

move ahead
the

helix

one

finished

angle

equals

strip
the

width
pipe

per

complete

circumference

revolution,
divided

the

by the

tangent

finished

of
strip

width:
0 = LL2D-~--~-------~----~--~~~~

tan

(6)

LS

where

is

the

helix

angle,

is

the

pipe

diameter,

Ls is

the

finished

The finished

plate

lines

fabricated

on the

In Table
combinations
angles,

of

Darcy

course,

are

pipes,

inches
with

these

40.6,

50.8,

is

a large

C.M.P.

resistance

annular

Flow
for
flow

rates
annular
values,

values
guidance.

can

annular

C.M.P.

are

for

C.M.P.
use
increase
1

distance

parallel

by Equation
plate

between

to

(6)

the

seam center

pipe

are

widths,

to manufacturing

with

pipe

axis.

presented

and pipe

for

various

diameters.

These

tolerances.

are

shown

reduction

pipe

of

for

size

is

assumed

corrugated
12,

16,

shapes

For

figure.

pipe

the
the

smaller

the

to approach

and

corresponding

helical

increases,

20,
pipe
pipes

as

helical
the

resistance

sizes.

2.5 , in the same manner as


parameter
Q/D
Q/D 2.5 = 2 and 4 are presented.
For higher

the

Values
of
2.5 = 4 curves.
the Q/D
drastically,

widths

resistance

and

helically

The corrugation

on the

As the

for

plate

cm).
in

increases,

using

diameter

finished

and 61.0

larger

covered

(cm).

as the

measured

C.M.P.

also

inches

f versus

full,

with

of

Darcy

widths

and

flowing

'compared

width,

subject

plate

there

sizes,

(cm),

forms,

Factors,

(30.5,

inches

computed

corrugation

(radius),

defined

pipe,

of

10 depicts

metal

is

angles

Resistance

Figure

strip

width

1, helix

degrees

so Figure

For

lower

Q/D2.5

D10 should

values,

be consulted

resistance
for

24

-25-

TABLE 1
HELIX ANGLES IN DEGREESFOR CORRUGATED
PIPES OF VARIOUS DIAMETERS

Diameter
in inches

0.12

LEGEND

b-d
+-+

SILBERMAN
SILBERMAN

---

HANDBOOK
ESTIMATED

I
AND DAHLIN ,I969
AND DAHLIN,IS7I

(IO )
( 6 )

0.10

FULL
2-2/3

0.08

FLOW
xl/2

I
CURVES
1
IN. ANNULAR

( I8 )
CURVE

I
C.M.P.

II

+.
z
!!i

12 PLATE

0.06

l-l/2x

l/4

IN.

0.04

0.02
0

PIPE

DIAMETER,

FT.
FIGURE

10.

Darcy

f Versus

Diameter

for

Helically

Corrugated

Metal

Pipe

IO

-27-

While
of

all

corrugation
untested

other,

plate

width

helical

plate

is

are

not

shown,

it

may be adequately

diameter

is

with

as for

2-2/3

For

Factors,

a 24 inch
by

l/2

felt

estimated

as parameters.

fabricated

can be used

the

resistance

using

the

finished

example,

finished

inch

that
if

plate

6 by

width,

corrugations

with

1 inch
the

same

a 24 inch

width.

Manning

Resistance

Manning

n values

curves

are

helical

C.M.P.

as were

given

Annular

helical

short

for

presented

Re-Corrugated
For

shapes

and pipe

C.M.P.

curves

shapes

C.M.P.

are
in

on Figure

Figure

The same

11.

10 for

Darcy

f values.

annular

rings

on the

Rings
joined

with

re-corrugated

section

of

annular

C.M.P.

at

pipes),

add

10.5

percent

to

Darcy

percent

to

the

shown

Manning

the

n from

the

ends

to

facilitate

f determined

Figure

11.

C.M.P.

may have

joining

from

end

(a

the

Figure

10 or

Limitations
While
than

it

is

annular

helical
care

should

be exercised

much
in

lower

the

resistance

use of

the

values
reduced

values.

the

entire

that

C.M.P.,

resistance
Since

true

low values

cross-section

developed

spiral

flow

that

care

be taken

1.

Partly

full

2.

When high

on the

of

pipe,

flow

in

sediment

low

flow

spiral

flow

in

the

can occur

when

during
conduit.

depend

the

the
in

designer

his

following

the
loads

periods.
the

development

conduit

design

of

spiral

must

flow

assure

situation.

conditions

across

the

himself

that

is

recommended

It

fully

exist:

conduit.
can cause
This
until

sedimentation

sediment
the

in

may hinder
sediment

the
the

is washed

pipe

invert

development
out

of

of
the

-2%

0.024

0.020
C

0.016

RANGE

PIPE
11.

Manning

n Versus

Diameter

3
DIAMETER,
for

OF VALUES

FT.

Helically

6
FIGURE

Corrugated

Metal

Pipe

-29-

Regarding

condition

avoided

in

helically

resistance
type
full

Condition
of

a helical

consider

that

higher

resistance

If

following

annular
is

felt

into

the

which
3.

pipe

will

not

culverts,

cannot

fully

When the

the

a culvert.
resistance
often

significant

full

and

coefficient

sediment
if

corrugation
applicable

the

to

than

to

less

than

introduce

risk

usually

pipes
would

C.M.P.,

in

out

the

area

be prudent

to

and possibly

flow

use

resistance

shape,

pipe

have

the

factor

size,

some conservatism

flooding

washed

C.M.P.

full

same corrugation

better

it

annular

use

is

other

depth,

of helical

exist,

about

such

C.M.P.

by depending

and

for

flow

and extra

rate.
capacity

on a flow

condition

20 diameters

long,

where

the

spiral

lined

annular

flow

the

and

corrugation

the

case,

first

for
the

a partly

C.M.P.

11
C.M.P.

involve
it

is

helical
lower

for

type.

of helical
will

lined.
factor

10 and

The first

care.

partly

resistance

Figures
use

as pipe-arches.

is

use

so that
with

since

an equivalent

the

coefficients

exists,

be applied

is

the
In

of

for

with

of Use of

be presented.

partly

same size

resistance

However,

design

conduits,

5,

To illustrate

the

the

be

develop.

same size

Examples

the

helical

condition

lower

of

should

develop.

Short

5.

the

conditions

Otherwise,

C.M.P.

rapidly.

conditions

design

Non-circular

of

in

it

design

pipes.

a problem,

are

value

that

4.

For

which

C.M.P.

flow

C.M.P.

rather

fact

metal

than

as great

C.M.P.
deposits

It

helical

full

an annular

rather

not

sediment

the

in

2 is

the

for

be used

flow

partly

corrugated

coefficient

should

to

1 above,

resistance
a storm

helical

drainage

usually
C.M.P.

factors,

safe
In

C.M.P.

to

two

system
utilize

culverts,
resistance

examples

and
the

partly
factors

the

will
second

lower
full
must

flow

-JO-

1.

Given:

A,storm

Design

is

C.M.P.
(61

is

to

be designed

"just

full

flow".

to

coincide

with

the

with

2-2/3

assumed

for

drain

cm) plate

considered

by l/2

width.

That
roof

inch

The slope

the

convey

pipe.

cfs

(0.89

grade

Use circular

cm)

0.0045

ft/ft.

the

31.0

the.hydraulic

by 1.3

is

and

is,

of

(6.8

to be a problem,

to

conduit

line

is

helical

corrugations

and

Sediment

is

mj/s).

is

to be 300

ft

a 24 inch
not

(91.5

m)

long.
Since

Solution:
significant
and

is

the

pipe

sediment
unlined,

will

buildup,

the

flow
is

full

long

at

design

conditions,

(L greater

lower

resistance

coefficients

the

flow

capacities

for

(3)

can be used,

has no

than

20 D),

is

circular,

for

helical

C.M.P.

pipe

sizes.

Either

may

be used.

First,

determine

Equation

(la)

or

or Darcy

f resistance

several

depending

coefficient

is

D,m.

2.5
3.0
3.5

0.76
0.91
1.07

,ft.2W5
(Table
C-l)

Darcy
(Figure

Q/D2*5

9.882
15.59
22.92

the

Manning

chosen.

D2.5
D,ft.

on whether

f
10)

Manning
(Figure

0.041
0.045
0.048*

3.1
2.0
1.4

n
11)

0.0171
0.0187
0.0199*

*Extrapolated.

Use the

Manning

Q=A--n--

D
2.5
3.0
3.5

1.486

A/D2
(Table
C-2)
0.7854
I,
1,

Equation

(la):

R2/3

A,ft'
4.91
7.07
9.62

l/2

sf

----------

R/D
(Table
C-2)
0.2500
11
,I

- - - - - - - -

R,ft.
0.625
0.75
0.875

n
0.0171
0.0187
0.0199

(14

nY9

Q,

sf

- cfs

-m3/s

0.0045
,I
11

20.9
31.1
44.1

0.59
0.88
1.25

-31-

a 3 foot

Therefore,
situation.

Note
the

tions,

2.

that

full

capacity

would

capacity

of

(0.91
if

Manning

be 23.7

cfs

foot

A culvert

is

circular

helical

C.M.P.

is

(61

about

cm) plate

The

headwater

of

Hydraulic,Engineering

of

Highway

m3/s>,

2-2/3

by

7.0

feet

is

(1.83

5,

including

From

5 of Reference

the

flow

than

the

C.M.P.

(1.76

(6.8
is

m3/s).

x 1.3

0.005

edged

ft/ft.

in

Use the

Use

cm) corrugations

does

The culvert
not

appear

a headwall,

culvert

Hydraulic

check

inlet
the

control,

which

corrugation

and

design

Charts

for

to

procedures

the

Selection

20,

is

unaffected

by barrel

the

following

inlet

control

headwater

depths

determined:

HW*

D,m.

cfs

m3/s

2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0

0.76
0.91
1.07
1.22

62
(1
11
11

1.76
11
I,
II

3.4
1.7
1.2
0.9

*HW = headwater
Next,
for

checking
helical

C.M.P.
partly

inlet

outlet

control,

The latter
full

helical

outlet

control,

the

corrugation

helical)

depth,

C.M.P.

must

the

shape.

D,ft.

and

corruga-

(20).

conditions

In

design

and
more

deposition

m).

No.

6),

62 cfs

square

this

annular

slightly

inch

Sediment

Circular

Culverts

convey

The slope

entrance

with

helical

l/2

for

(Figure

or only

to

(61 m).

is

First

are

be 0.0245

width.

culvert

Solution:

Chart

n would

adequate

designed

m) diameter

with

is

were

be designed

200 feet

be a problem.
allowable

to

C.M.P.

conduit

(0.67

(0.76

Given:

length

the

flow

a 2.5

and a 24 inch

m) helical

HW,m.

8.5
5.1
4.2
3.6

2.59
1.55
1.28
1.10

control.

and partly
values

HW,ft.

use
full

assume

full

flow

n values
that

spiral

n values
from
flow

from

Figure
cannot

Figure

6,

11

for

annular

develop

in

C.M.P.

the

barrel

type

be considered.

roughness

and method

does

of pipe

influence
manufacture

culvert
(annular

capacity,
or

-32-

The total

losses

computed

using

H=

through
the
k

l+

the

following

Equation
text

is

the entrance
inlets)

is

the

Manning

is

the

barrel

is

the full
pipes);

is

the

(7)

is

and adding

both
resistance

The following
needed

D,ft.

to

tables

hydraulic

entrance

and

flow
will

contain

Equation

exit

(D/4

square

for

helical

(4)

losses.
C.M.P.

edged

circular

For

from

the

purposes

and partly

full

main
of
annular

be investigated.

the

development

of

the

parameters

(7):

9.882
15.59
22.92
32.00

6.3
4.0
2.7
1.9

0.041*
0.044
0.047
0.050

**Extrapolated.

for

Equation

Q/D2.5

= 4.0

(7)

barrel

(0.5

radius

Q/D2'5
(Table
C-l)

2.5

culvert

- -

factor

Full
Flow
Darcy f
10)
(F' lgure

Q/D

20:

velocity

by rearranging

full

the

are

length

factors

solve

2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0

*Use

the

Reference

coefficient

resistance

flow

derived

through
loss

flow
and

full

from

and friction)

V2

loss

ke is

illustration,
C.M.P.

total

outlet,

12g--- ----- ----

+ 29 n2 L
R1.33

the

(inlet,

equation

[
where,

barrel

curve.

Full
Flow
Manning
n
(Figure
11)
0.0169
0.0184
0.0197
0.0207

Partly
Full
Flow
Darcy f
2)
(Figure
0.072**
0.069
0.065
0.063

Partly
Full
Flow
Manning
n
(Figure
6)
0.0237**
0.0238
0.0239
0.0240

-33-

Full
Flow

V2

A,ft2

V,fps

z,ft.

4.91
7.07
9.62
12.57

12.63
8.77
6.44
4.93

A/D2
D,ft.

(Table

2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
Using

C-2)

0.7854
,1
11
11
the

Manning

Equation

(la)

Full
D,ft.

Then,

Where,

HWo

Ho

HWo = the
H

L
sO

dc
D

So

headwater

2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0

total

Partly
H,ft.

3.5
1.6
0.8
0.5

18.8
7.6
3.5
1.8

depth

in

outlet

_RI _ :3
-_

0.625
0.75
0.875
1.00

5.535
0.682
0.837
1.00

barrel
Full

losses:

Flow
m

5.7
2.3
1.1

0.5
-

(8)

control

2
= barrel

length

= barrel

slope

= critical

depth

= barrel

Equation

(81,

diameter
for

full

flow:

dc
D,ft.

the

R,ft.

= barrel
losses
dc + D

ho=

Using

C-2)

0.2500
,I
II
I,

Flow

11.4
5.3
2.7
1.5
=

2.48
1.20
0.64
0.38

to determine

H,ft.

2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0

R/D
(Table

H,ft.

11.4
5.3
2.7
1.5

(Chart

16,Ref.

2.5
2.5
2.4
2.3

(2))

ho,ft.

2.5
2.8
3.0
3.2

L So,ft.

Hwo,ft.

1.0
II
I,
11

12.9

6.8
4.7
3.7

-34-

For

partly

full

flow,

using

the

larger

resistance

factors

for

annular

C.M.P.:
D,ft.
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0

From

18.8
7.6
3.5
1.8

the

full,

a flow

feet

outlet
the

(3.93

end;

is

seen

that

rate

of

62 cfs

The 3.0

m).

will

flow

it

flow

completely

full

flow

The

3.5

definitely

(1.07

partly

control

full

headwaters

2.5

foot

of

the

pipe

the

m) and 4.0

foot

5.5

the
feet

will

partly

flow

length.

m) and 4.0

of

at

the

Also,

if

into

n values

m) diameter
rate,

depth
since

be forced

Manning

flow

full

full

will

(1.22
flow

(1.68

its

lower

design

is

to assume

most

and

m) pipe

and a headwater

m) pipe

safe

flow,

20.3
9.4
5.5
4.0
(0.76

m3/s)

(0.91

probably

under

are

foot

(1.76

condition,

be appropriate.

foot

the

design

HWo,ft.

1.0
II
11
I,

throughout

the

certainly

large

is

full

exceeds

L So,ft.

2.5
2.8
3.0
3.2

however,

barrel

actual

it

above,

with

12.9

ho,ft.

H,ft.

feet

will

pipes

and the

the

are

outlet

(1.22

m),

respectively.
For

this

culvert

barrel

is

exceed

6.8

the

adequate.
feet

headwater

It
(2.07

rises,

lower

resistance

A set

of

inlet

control

culvert

installation,

curve

operates

in

flow

outlet

factors,

while

the

the

Above
pipe

m) if
the

outlet

for

this

below

the

C.M.P.

headwater

could

maintained.
into

However,

full

flow

the

follows.

Note

outlet

control

curves;

over
is

curve
pipe

culvert

the

curve
full

exceeds

m) helical

as

and

the

be assured.

control

the

not

be forced

control

partly

(0.91
that

is

will

will

is well

90 cfs,

flow

barrel

outlet

foot

be noted

full

curves

The full

at

should

factors

performance

factors.

a 3.0

is
pipe

the
based

is

based

range

of

flows

on helical

that
thus,
of

C.M.P.

on annular

the
the

interest.
resistance

C.M.P.

resistance

definitely

full,

since

critical

diameter.

Also,

below

30 cfs,

depth
the

-35-

pipe

is

the

certain

top

is

not

of

partly

the

full

those

pipe.

full

is

cases

about

possible

between

prevail

at

it

and

depth
30 and

is

below

90 cfs,

the

lower

resistance

answer

would

require

probably

reasonable

to

60 cfs

upward.

A definite

solution

this

time,

damages

due

to

the

judgement

must

solution
are

low

is

and

lack

of

utilize

of

to

test

be used

indicated

it

use

is

a conservative

potential

headwater

range

The designer's

where

where

will

but

conditions.

those

the

the

A conservative

from

not

since

in

flow

curve,

curve

flow

cases

full

flow

problem

full,

However,

be justified.

flow

on such

be partly

where

will

the

select

the

known

factors

this

to

data

to

versus

some increased

risk

can be assumed.

,_._,-

. . ..-

. .

_~~,._

.,..

_..-

..-..--

--..

.-._

j,

__/,~..,

,~.-

_,.-

j__

*-ill.-..~l^l.-

----

-~-----~-___-

20

40

60

FLOW,

80

100

120

cfs
EXAMPLE

PERFORMANCE
CURVES
3 FOOT
DIAMETER
HELICAL
2 2/3x
I,2
INCH
CORRUGATIONS,
24 .IN.
PLATE
WIDTH,
0.005,
INLET:
SOUARE
EDGE
IN
HEADWALL

CORRUGATED
LENGTH

METAL
200
FT.,

PIPE

SLOPE=

-Al-

APPENDIX

(1)

Webster,
Marvin
J. and Metcalf,
Corrugated
Metal Pipe,"
Journal
85, No. HY9, Proc.
Paper 2148,

A - REFERENCES

Laurence
R. "Friction
Factors
in
of the Hydraulics
Division,
ASCE,
September
1959, pp. 35-67.

Vol.

(2)

Straub,
Lorenz
G. and Morris,
Henry M., "Hydraulic
Metal
Culvert
Pipes,"
Technical
Paper No. 5, Series
Minnesota,
St. Anthony
Falls
Hydraulic
Laboratory,
July
1950.

(3)

Neill,
Charles
R., Hydraulic
of the Hydraulics
Division,
May 1962, pp. 23-44.

(4)

Chamberlain,
A. R.,
Twelve
Inch Pipes,"
Colorado
Agricultural
June 1955.

(5)

Garde,
R. J.,
"Sediment
Colorado
State University
Fort Collins,
College),

(6)

Silberman,
Edward,
and Dahlin,
Warren Q., "Further
Studies
of Friction
Factors
for Corrugated
Aluminum
Pipes Flowing
Full,"
Project
Report
No.
121, University
of Minnesota,
St. Anthony
Falls
Hydraulic
Laboratory,
Minneapolis,
Minnesota,
April,
1971.

(7)

Grace,
J.
Corrugated
Waterways

(8)

Bauer,
W. J. and Val,
foot
Corrugated
Steel
April
1969.

(9)

Rice,
Charles
E., "Friction
Factors
ARS 41-119,
U.S. Dept.
of Agriculture,
February
1966.

(10)

Silberman,
Corrugated
Minnesota,
December,

(11)

Dahlin,
Warren Q., and Silberman,
Edward,
"Further
Studies
of Friction
Factors
for Helical
Aluminum
Pipes with Re-Corrugated
Annular
Rings on
Each End," Project
Report
No. 160, University
of Minnesota,
St. Anthony
Falls
Hydraulic
Laboratory,
Minneapolis,
Minnesota,
March,
1976.

Roughness
ASCE, Vol.

Tests
on Corrugated
B, University
of
Minneapolis,
Minnesota,

of Corrugated
88, No. HY3,

Pipes."
Journal
Proc.
Paper 3111,

"Effect
of Boundary
on Fine Sand Transport
CER No. 55 ARCG, Colorado
State University
and Mechanical
College),
Fort Collins,

Transport
Through
Pipes."
CER No.
(Formerly
Colorado
Agricultural
Colorado,
October
1956.

in
(Formerly
Colorado,

56 RJG 19,
and Mechanical

"Resistance
Coefficients
for Structural
Plate
L., Jr.,
Pipe,"
Technical
Report
No. 2-715,
U.S. Army Engineer
Experiment
Station,
Vicksburg,
Mississippi,
February
1966.
Alberto,
Pipe,"

"Determination
Bauer Engineering,

for

of Manning's
"n"
Inc.,
Chicago,

Helical
Agricultural

Corrugated
Pipe,"
Research
Service,

Edward.
and Dahlin,
Warren Q., "Friction
Aluminum
Pipe,"
Project
Report
No. 112,
St. Anthony
Falls
Hydraulic
Laboratory,
1969.

.~

,.,.

_.

.-.

j-,

:._,.

.(

__

_--,-,-,--.-

for 14Illinois,

--

Factors
for Helical
University
of
Minneapolis,
Minnesota,

----

--

.,_

..-.

-l.-.-,-.*

-._,

. .

^ _^,

___.

-A2-

(12)

Normann,
Jerome M. and Bossy,
Herbert
G., "Hydraulic
Flow :kx&tance
Factors
for Corrugated
Metal
Conduits,"
Research
and Develo;x+&t*WY Report,
Federal
Highway
Administra.;lon,
U.S. Department
of Transportation,
Office
of Research,
Washington,
D.C.,
September,
1970.

(13)

of Uniform
and Nonuniform
Flow in
Zelensky,
Paul N., "Computation
Staff
R&D Report,
U.S. Department
of Transportation,
Prismatic
Conduits,"
Offices
of Research
and Development,
Federal
Highway Administration,
Washington,
D.C.,
November,
1972.

(14)

Gibson,
A.H.,
Magazine,
Vol.

(15)

Kellerhals,
Rolf,
discussion
of
Pipes,"
Journal
of the Hydraulics
January
1963, pp. 201-202.

"Hydraulic
Division,

Roughness
of Corrugated
ASCE, Vol.
89, No. HYl,

(16)

Bossy,
Herbert
Journal
Pipes,"
July 1963, pp.

G. discussion
of
of the Hydraulics
202-205.

"Hydraulic
Division,

Roughness
of Corrugated
ASCE, Vol. 89, No. HY4,

(17)

Neill,
Charles
Pipes,"
Journal
July
1963, pp.

Roughness
R., closure
of "Hydraulic
of the Hydraulics
Division,
ASCE,
205-208.

"The
50,

Flow of Water
1925.

of Steel
Drainage
Steel
Institute,

in

a Corrugated

Pipe,"

The Philosophical

of Corrugated
Vol.
89, No.

HY4,

(18)

Handbook
Iron and
1971.

and Highway
Construction
Products,
American
150 East 42d St.,
New York,
New York,
10017,

(19)

"Hydraulic
Laboratory
Manning's
n and Grade Deviation
Zeigler,
E.R.,
Corrugated
Plastic
Tubing,"
Study for 4-Inch
Diameter
Non-Perforated,
REC-ERC-78-2,
U.S. Department
of Interior,
Bureau of Reclamation,
Engineering
and Research
Center,
Denver,
Colorado,
February,
1978.

(20)

Herr,
Lester
A. and Bossy,
Herbert
G., "Hydraulic
Charts
for
Selection
of Highway
Culverts,"
Hydraulic
Engineering
Circular
of Commerce,
Bureau of Public
Roads (now Dept.
of
U.S. Dept.
portation,
Federal
Highway Administration),
Washington,
D.C.,
December
1965.

the
No.
Trans-

5,

-Bl-

APPENDIX B - DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

area of flow,

feet*

average projected area of an obstruction,


nut, normal to flow, feet* (m*).

pipe-arch

cD

coefficient
of drag estimated
bolts and 1.0 for structural

pitch

pipe diameter,

Da

pipe-arch

De
d

equivalent

span, feet

feet

rise,

feet

circular

depth of flow,
critical

depth,

feet

Darcy resistance

peak Darcy resistance


gravitational
second*.

feet

to equal 1.1 for


plate seams.

structural

plate

Cm).
(m).
based on 4R, feet

(m).

(m).
(m).

factor.
factor,

acceleration

based on f vs. N curves.


Rw
= 32.16 feet/second*
or 9.807 meters/

total losses
feet (m).

HW

inlet control headwater for a culvert,


invert,
feet (m).

Hwo

outlet control
invert,
feet

hf

friction

ho

elevation

through a culvert

barrel

headwater for a culvert,


(m).

head loss,
of full

approximately

head or

(m).

pipe diameter,

feet

such as a bolt

(m).

of corrugation,

dc
f
P
I3

(m*>.

feet

(inlet,

exit,

and friction),

measured above inlet

measured above the inlet

(m).

flow hydraulic
grade line
dc + D
equal to
2
, feet (m).

at culvert

outlet,

-B2-

depth

k
k

length

Ls

finished

number

Rw

structural

plate

Reynolds

number

= v*

hydraulic

resistance
of

feet

VD/v

per

metal

length,

pipe,

inches

(cm).

L.

4VR/v.

k/v.

factor.

conduit,

perimeter
rate,

corrugated

bolts

wall

flow

feet

of

(m).

conduit,

feet3/second

feet

(m).

(m3/sec).

radius

= A/P

= D/4

measured

from

a pipe

for

full

flow

in

circular

pipes,

(m).

distance
radius

of

a circular

radius

of

corrugation

peak,

radius

of

corrugation

valley,

friction

slope

hydraulic
sO

helically

sf

width,

number

wetted

(m).

(m).

Reynolds

feet

pipe

perimeter

rP
r

conduit,

of

feet

coefficient

plate

Manning

loss
of

corrugation,

entrance

NR

of

culvert

pipe,

--

slope

grade
barrel

temperature,

thickness

mean velocity,

V*

mean

density

slope,

feet

in

outward,

(m).

(m) = rv + t.

feet

(m).

total
pipes

feet

(m).

feet

of

line

axis

energy

line,

flowing

equal

to

slope

at

60F

of

the

full.

feet/feet

OF ('C).
of

shear

corrugated
Q/A,

metal,
feet/second

velocity,

of water

(RSfg)OS5,
= 62.37

feet

(m).

(m/set).
feet/second

pounds/foot3

(m/set).

(9797.6

N/m3)

inward,

feet

(15.6OC).
Y

distance
the

measured
origin

is

from
at

a conduit

a corrugation

wall
crest.

(m).

For

C.M.P.,

-B3-

Af

incremental Darcy resistance


bolts or seams.

helix

kinematic viscosity
= 1.217 x 10-5 feet'/second
for water at 60F (15.6'C).

resulting

measured from the pipe axis,

from structural

unit

shear stress

in a fluid

at the conduit

plate

degrees (radians).
(1.131 x lOa

mass density of water = w/g = 1.939 pound second2/feet4


for water at 60F (15.6'C).

angle,

factor

wall,

m2/sec)

(999.3 kg/m2)

pound/feet2

(kg/m2).

-Cl-

APPENDIX

This

appendix

circular

contains

govern

rather

actual

be expected.
covered

in

First,

inch

main

circular

text

not

been
for

these
of

C.M.P.,

For

conduits,

have

standard

and hydraulic
complete

set

of

tables

shapes

may be found

in

Reference

Flow

in

Prismatic

convenience

utilizing

values

presented

in

factors

in

to determine
l-inch

Conduits."

in

The D2*5

for
the

terms

circular

accompanying
of

either

metal
if

divided

_.

13,

data

given

with

given

the

C-l

and

for

l-inch,

to

diameters.

determine

C-2).
of various

Uniform

herein

some

nominal

conduits
of

in

no significant

3- by

to

present.

31 inch

produce

can be used

"Computation

at

Secondly,

equal

Tables

geometric

The tables
this

resistance

corrugated

dimensionless

of

will

l/2-inch,

formulas

pipe-arches

dimensions

probably

(See

l-inch

C.M.P.

should

reasons.

available

nominal

diameters

properties.

not

and
shapes

two

as 6- by

by

actual

standards

of

plate

2-2/3-

and

the

conduit

coefficients.

riveted

tables

one

are

Use of

actual

A more

full

resistance

the

and

for

such

conduits

of

for

to be allowed

types

structural

obtained.

properties

terms

are

here

partly

2-l/2-inch

notably

l-inch

geometric

some conduits,

determination

and 6- by
these

for

flowing

catalogs

conduits,

included

FACTORS

Manufacturing

tolerances

not

9- by

have

small

are

radius),

in

dimensions.

on some corrugation

for

the

nominal

conduits

Information

corner

in

metal

and hydraulic

and

manufacturers'
errors

the

dimensions

radius

geometric

dimensions,

dimensions

corner

of

corrugated

than

the

actual

(28.8

tables

and pipe-arch

dimensions

True

C - DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRIC, AND HYDRAULIC


FOR CORRUGATED METAL CONDUITS

are

and Non-Uniform
for

the

designers'

publication.

pipes
tables,
Q/D205

coefficients

BDa 1.5

and

or

are

for

Q/BDalo5$
for

the

conduits.
Notice
that
0.5
by g
, a constant.

values
use

for
in

This

pipe-arches,

computing
flow

conduit

factor

flow

is

required

2-2/3-

by

l/2-inch

and

6- by

the

flow

factor

would

be

--

_...- .._ _..~-.-_..-___.___

.__-._--..-^ll_

_.

-c2-

Pipe-arches,

in

hydraulic
must

general,

radius

of

be determined

found

that

for

properties,
from

all

ratios

for

c-9.

Table

corner

l/Z-inch

A/BD,

6- by Z-inch
C-9 is

6- by i-inch

ratios

for

18-inch

corner

radii

mean value

more

A or

in

R from

Similar

of

than

data

for

with

inch

corner

at

28.8
various

C-9 for
values
without

still

down to

less

Z-l/2-inch

radius,
d/D

with

are

the

error.

units

presented

conversion

factors

of

for

given

full.

different

in
in

were

plate

determination

the

Appendix

in

Table
and 31-inch

R/D,
at

and
any given

pipe-arches
thus

deviate

with
from

The errors

determination

of

0.4.

identical

two

average

radii.
for

and AjBD,

nearly

significant

the

and

partly

introducing

English

of

5 percent

the

equal

plate

structural

flowing

of

corner

for

radius

structural

depth

R/D,

C-9 can be used

the

than

given

about

these
little

similar

corner

sizes

for

deviate

and
are

are

has been

ratios

averages

31-inch

a relative

ratios

arches

range

d/D,,

and
full,

it

ratios

C-6

l&inch
radii

with

Table

To convert
utilize

corner

arches

are

depths

6- by 2-inch
of

the

9- by

relative

the

Table

as the

a large

dimensionless

available

pipe-arches

both

both

comprise

flow

plate

The 6- by 2-inch

means

full

average

of

flow.

using

for

in

area

or partly

dimensionless

given

the

However,

depth,

these

pipe-arches,

conduits

depth

involved

structural

full

dimensionless

relative
of

are

to be used

relative
the

Mean values

and

dimensions.
the

a given

pipe-arches

flowing

its

sections,
at

similar,

section,
from

pipe-arch

value.

radius

geometrically

pipe-arch

and A/BD,

an average
by

each

not

individually

R/D,

Z-2/3-

are

computed

corrugated

pipe-arches

The values

so determined

with

of Table

corner

those
radii.

of

resistance

following

tables

E.

from

The
factors

to

SI units,

-c3-

2.5 VALUES FOR A RANGEOF PIPE DIAMETERS


TABLE C-l - D

True
Diameter
Inches

True
Diameter
Feet
1.0

D2.5 , feet205
1.000
1.747

TABLE C-2 - GEOMETRICFACTORSFOP r


(d&Depth of Flow, D=Pi-

-c3-

TABLE C-l - D*"

VALUES FOR A RANGEOF PIPE DIAMETERS

True
Diameter
Inches

True
Diameter
Feet

12
15
18
21
24
30
36
42
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
90
96
102
108
114
120

1.0
1.25
1.5
1.75
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0

-.

_,-

. .. .

.r-.^l-

._.....

D2.5 , feet205
1.000
1.747
2.756
4.051
5.657
9.882
15.59
22.92
32.00
42.96
55.90
70.94
88.18
107.72
129.64
154.0
181.0
210.6
243.0
278.2
316.2

~..

-c4-

TABLE C-2 - GEOMETRICFACTORSFOR CIRCULAR CONDUITS, FULL OR PARTLY FTJLL


(d=Depth of Flow, D=Pipe Diameter,

d
D

R
D

1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55

R=Hydraulic

Radius,

and A=Area of Flow)

R
D

D2

d
D

0.2500
0.2865
0.2980
0.3033
0.3042

0.7854
0.7707
0.7445
0.7115
0.6736

0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30

0.2500
0.2331
0.2142
0.1935
0.1709

0.3927
0.3428
0.2934
0.2450
0.1982

0.3017
0.2962
0.2882
0.2776
0.2649

0.6319
0.5872
0.5404
0.4920
0.4426

0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05

0.1466
0.1206
0.0929
0.0635
0.0325

0.1535
0.1118
0.0739
0.0409
0.0147

D2

-c5-

TABLE C-3 - DIMENSIONS AND D205 VALUES FOR 6- BY 2-INCH


STRUCTURALPLATE CORRUGATED
CIRCULAR PIPES, FULL-FLOW CONDITION

Nominal
Diameter
Feet

True
Diameter
Feet

5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5
20.0
20.5
21.0

4.93
5.43
5.94
6.45
6.97
7.48
7.98
8.49
9.00
9.51
10.02
10.53
11.04
11.55
12.06
12.57
13.08
13.58
14.09
14.60
15.11
15.62
16.13
16.64
17.15
17.66
18.17
18.67
19.18
19.69
20.21
20.72
21.22

Plates
Per Ring
Number
4
4
4
4
4
6
6
6'
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

53.97
68.71
85.99
105.66
128.26
153.0
179.9
210.0
243.0
278.9
317.8
359.8
405.0
453.4
5Q5.1
560.2
618.8
679.6
745.2
814.5
887.5
964.3
1044.9
1130.0
1218.0
1310.8
1407.0
1506.0
1611.0
1720.0
1836.0
1954.0
2074.0

-C6-

TABLE C-4 - DIMENSIONS AND D 2*5 VALUES FOR 9- BY 2-l/2-INCH


STRUCTURAL PLATE CORRUGATED CIRCULAR PIPES, FULL FLOW CONDITION

Nominal
Diameter
Feet

True
Diameter
Feet

5.0
7.0
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5

4.89
5.40*

9.0
9.5
10.0

10.5
11.0

11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0

Plates
Per Ring
Number

5.91*

6.42
6.93
7.44
7.96
8.46
8.97
9.48
9.99
10.50
11.01
11.52
12.04
12.52
13.05
13.57

14.08
14.59
15.10

2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5

52.9
67.8
84.9
104.4
126.4
151.0
178.8
208.2
241.0
276.7
315.4
357.2
402.2
450.4
503.0
554.6
615.2
678.3
743.9
813.1
886.0

*Estimated
Other pipe
dimensional

sizes
data

range up to 21 feet
in diameter;
are not presently
available
for

D2.5

however,
these pipes.

-c7-

TABLE C-5 - DIMENSIONS AND HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF 2-2/3- BY l/2-INCH


CORRUGATED
METAL PIPE-ARCHES, FULL-FLOW CONDITION

Nominal Size
Span
Rise
B
Da
Inches
Inches
18
22
25
29
36
.43
50
58
65
72
79
85

11
13
16
18
22
27
31
36
40
44
49
54

True Size
Span
Rise
B
Da
Feet
Feet
1.51
1.81
2.11
2.41
3.01
3.61
4.22
4.82
5.42
6.02
6.62
7.23

0.92
1.11
1.29
1.48
1.85
2.22
2.59
2.96
3.33
3.70
4.06
4.43

Hydraulic
Radius
R
Feet

Area
A 2
Feet

BDa 1*5

0.282
0.338
0.394
0.451
0.564
0.676
0.789
0.902
1.014
1.127
1.240
1.352

1.11
1.59
2.17
2.83
4.42
6.37
8.67
11.3
14.3
17.7
21.4
25.5

1.338
2.106
3.099
4.329
7.566
11.93
17.53
24.49
32.88
42.78
54.27
67.48

-C8-

TABLE C-6 - GEOMETRICFACTORSFOR 2-2/3- BY l/2-INCH


CORRUGATED
METAL PIPE-ARCHES, FULL OR PARTLY FULL FLOW
MEAN VALUES FOR ALL STANDARDSIZES
(d=Depth of Flow, Da=Rise of Pipe-Arch,

R=Hydraulic

Radius

A=Area of Flow, and B=Span of Pipe-Arch)

d
Da

R
Da

1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80

0.305
0.346
0.361
0.369
0.372

0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55

0.370
0.365
0.358
0.348
0.335

d
Da

Da

0.795
0.783
0.762
0.736
0.704

0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30

0.319
0.300
0.277
0.252
0.222

0.459
0.412
0.363
0.315
0.264

0.668
0.632
0.592
0.549
0.505

0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05

0.189
0.154
0.117
0.076
0.037

0.214
0.165
0.117
0.069
0.028

B Da

B Da.

-c9-

TABLE C-7 - DIMENSIONS AND HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF 6- BY 2-INCH


STRUCTURALPLATE CORRUGATED
METAL PIPE-ARCHES
WITH l&INCH CORNERRADIUS, FULL-FLOW CONDITION

Section
No.

Nominal Size
Rise
Span
(Da)
(B)
Ft-In
Ft-In

Plates
Per
Ring
Number

Span
B
Feet

Rise
Da
Feet

Hydraulic
Radius
R
Feet

Area
A 2
Feet

BDa 1*5

1
2
3
4

6-l
6-4
6-9
7-o

4-7
4-9
4-11
5-l

5
5
5
5

6.08
6.33
6.77
7.02

4.58
4.76
4.91
5.09

1.299
1.353
1.405
1.460

22.09
24.09
26.14
28.39

59.60
65.77
73.66
80.59

5
6
7
8

7-3
7-8
7-11
8-2

5-3
5-5
5-7
5-9

6
6
6
6

7.25
7.70
7.93
8.15

5.27
5.42
5.60
5.78

1.515
1.567
1.622
1.677

30.60
32.92
35.39
37.95

87.72
97.17
105.07
113.28

9
10
11
12

8-7
8-10
9-4
9-6

5-11
6-l
6-3
6-5

7
7
7
7

8.62
8.83
9.32
9.52

5.92
6.11
6.26
6.44

1.726
1.781
1.832
1.887

40.40
43.10
45.83
48.70

124.1
133.3
146.0
155.6

13
14
15
16
17

9-9
10-3
10-8
10-11
1175

6-7
6-9
6-11
7-l
7-3

7
7
7
7
7

9.72
10.22
10.70
10.92
11.40

6.62
6.77
6.91
7.09
7.24

1.940
1.989
2.037
2.092
2.142

51.64
54.51
57.46
60.70
63.87

165.5
180.0
194.3
206.2
222.1

18
19
20
21
22
23

11-7
11-10
12-4
12-6
12-8
12-10

7-5
7-7
7-9
7-11
8-l
8-4

8
8
8
8
8
8

11.62
11.82
12.32
12.52
12.70
12.87

7.42
7.61
7.75
7.93
8.12
8.31

2.196
2.250
2.298
2.352
2.406
2.461

67.23
70.68
74.05
77.64
81.34
85.20

234.8
248.1
265.8
279.6
293.9
208.3

24
25
26
27
28
29

13-5
13-11
14-l
14-3
14-10
15-4

8-5
8-7
8-9
8-11
9-l
9-3

9
9
9
9
9
9

13.40
13.93
14.12
14.28
14.82
15.33

8.44
8.58
8.77
8.96
9.10
9.23

2.507
2.555
2.608
2.664
2.713
2.758

88.74
92.55
96.53
100.73
104.75
108.65

328.6
350.1
366.7
383.0
406.8
429.8

30
31
32
33
34

15-6
15-8
15-10
16-5
16-7

9-6
9-7
9-10
9-11
10-l

10
10
10
10
10

15.53
15.70
15.87
16.42
16.58

9.42
9.61
9.80
9.93
10.12

2.813
2.866
2.922
2.968
3.023

113.1
117.5
122.2
126.4
131.2

449.0
467.7
486.4
513.8
533.7

-ClO-

TABLE C-8 - DIMENSIONS AND HYDRAULICPROPERTIES OF 6-BY 2-INCH


STRUCTURALPLATE CORRUGATED
METAL PIPE-ARCHES
WITH 31-INCH CORNERRADIUS, FULL-FLOW CONDITION

Section
No.

Nominal Size
Rise
Span
(Da)
(B)
-Ft-In
-Ft-In

Plates
Per
Ring
Number

Span
B
Feet
-

Rise
n
ua
Feet
-

13.28
13.52
13.97
14.22
14.40

9.36
9.53
9.68
9.87
10.04

Hydraulic
Radius
R
Feet

Area
A 2
Feet

BDalo5

2.715
2.764
2.811
2.857
2.927

98.30
102.00
106.00
110.88
115.28

380.3
397.8
420.8
441.0
458.1

13-3
13-6
14-o
14-2
14-5

9-4
9-6
9-8
9-10
10-O

6
7

14-11
15-4

10-2
10-4

9
9

14.88
15.35

10.19
10.34

2.967
3.031

119.6
124.0

484.0
510.4

8
9
10
11
12
13

15-7
15-10
16-3
16-6
17-o
17-2

10-6
10-8
10-10
11-O
11-2
11-4

10
10
10
10
10
10

15.58
15.80
16.28
16.50
16.97
17.18

10.52
10.71
10.85
11.03
11.18
11.36

3.093
3.139
3.187
3.242
3.296
3.348

129.0
133.8
138.0
143.0
148.0
153.1

531.6
553.8
581.8
604.4
634.3
657.8

14
15
16
17
18
19

17-5
17-11
18-l
18-7
18-9
19-3

11-6
11-8
11-10
12-o
12-2
12-4

10
10
10
10
10
10

17.40
17.88
18.10
18.58
18.78
19.28

11.54
11.69
11.87
12.01
12.20
12.34

3.400
3.446
3.492
3.558
3.600
3.646

158.5
163.4
168.0
174.0
179.0
184.7

682.1
714.7
740.3
772.9
800.2
835.8

20
21
22

19-6
19-8
19-11

12-6
12-8
12-10

11
11
11

19.50
19.70
19.88

12.52
12.71
12.89

3.696
3.755
3.818

190.0
196.2
202.4

863.8
892.6
920.0

23
24

20-5
20-7

13-o
13-2

12
12

20.40
20.58

13.03
13.22

3.866
3.919

207.8
214.0

959.4
989.3

-Cll-

TABLE C-9 - GEOMETRICFACTORSFOR 6- BY 2-INCH


STRUCTURALPLATE CORRUGATED
METAL PIPE-ARCHES
WITH 18-INCH OR 31-INCH CORNERRADIUS, FULL OR PARTLY FULL FLOW
MEAN VALUES FOR ALL SIZES, BOTH CORNERRADII
(d=Depth of Flow, Da=Rise of Pipe-Arch,

R=Hydraulic

Radius,

A=Area of Flow, and B=Span of Pipe-Arch)

Da

Da

1.00
0.95
0.90

0.336

0.294

0.85
0.80

0.356
0.358

0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55

0.357
0.353
0.345
0.335
0.321

0.349

B Da

Da

Da

B Da

0.788
0.775
0.754
0.726

0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30

0.306
0.286
0.264

0.443

0.239

0.295

0.211

0.246

0.657
0.618
0.577
0.534

0.25
0.20
0.15

0.179

0.197
0.148

0.489

0.05

0.144
0.107
0.068
0.030

0.693

0.10

0.393
0.346

0.101
0.056
0.020

-c12-

TABLE C-10 - DIMENSIONS AND HYDRAULICPROPERTIES OF 9- BY 2-l/2-INCH


STRUCTURALPLATE CORRUGATED
METAL PIPE-ARCHES
WITH 28.8-INCH CORNERRADIUS, FULL-FLOW CONDITION

Section
No.

Nominal Size
Rise
Span
(Da)
@I
Ft-In
Ft-In

Plates
Per
Ring
Number

Span
B
Feet

Rise
Da
Feet

Hydraulic
Radius
R
Feet

Area
A 2
Feet

BDalo5

5-4
5-5
5-7
5-9
5-11
6-l

2
2
2
2
2
2

5.91
6.28
6.65
6.96
7.34
7.65

5.32
5.46
5.60
5.76
5.91
6.08

1.415
1.472
1.533
1.590
1.646
1.704

25.16
27.37
29.73
32.11
34.55
37.13

72.52
80.13
88.11
96.19
105.48
114.67

9
10
11
12
13

8-O
8-4
a-7
9-o
9-4
9-9
10-O

6-2
6-4
6-6
6-8
6-10
6-11
7-l

3
3
3
3
3
3
3

8.04
a.33
8.64
9.04
9.32
9.73
10.03

6.19
6.34
6.54
6.64
6.82
6.94
7.11

1.760
1.816
1.874
1.924
1.982
2.026
2.085

39.75
42.48
45.35
48.09
51.13
52.90
57.13

123.8
132.9
144.5
154.7
166.0
177.9
190.2

14
15
16
17
18
19
20

10-5
10-9
11-2
11-5
11-8
12-2
12-5

7-3
7-5
7-6
7-8
7-10
8-O
8-2

3
3
3
3
3
3
3

10.45
10.73
11.15
11.44
11.69
12.15
12.40

7.24
7.41
7.54
7.71
7.84
8.01
8.15

2.141
2.193
2.243
2.296
2.360
2.392
2.451

60.38
63.61
66.85
70.29
74.14
77.06
80.90

203.6
216.4
230.8
244.9
256.6
275.4
288.5

21
22
23
24
25
26

12-10
13-1
13-7
13-10
14-3
14-6

8-3
a-5
8-7
a-9
8-10
9-o

4
4
4
4
4
4

12.91
13.09
13.57
13.81
14.28
14.55

8.39
8.42
8.58
8.73
8.88
9.06

2.517
2.541
2.601
2.657
2.699
2.760

85.11
87.97
92.13
96.23
99.90
104.4

313.7
319.8
341.0
356.2
377.8
396.8

27
28
29
30
31
32
33

14-9
15-3
15-6
16-O
16-2

9-2
9-4
9-6
9-7
9-9
9-11
10-l

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

14.77
15.20
15.52
15.97
16.22
16.70
16.90

9.16
9.26
9.52
9.64
9.80
9.92
10.04

2.790
2.838
2.916
2.954
3.005
3.045
3.080

107.8
111.9
117.3
121.2
125.7
129.8
133.8

409.4
428.3
455.8
478.0
497.6
521.7
537.6

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
a

5-11
6-3
6-8
6-11
7-4
7-8

16-8

16-11

APPENDIX D - DEVELOPMENT OF
DESIGN CURVES FOR CORRUGATED METAL CONDUITS

CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION

............................

Dl

ANNULAR CORRUGATED METAL PIPES


Background

Information.

Comparison

with

Full-Size

Previous

of

of

Darcy

Data

in

Summary of
Untested

Procedure
Corrugation

Examples
HELICALLY

of

Plate

Derivation

of

Derivation

of Manning

Darcy

Curves

Derive
Types.

Corrugation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plate

Metal
q . . . . . .

D27

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

D28

for

New or

.............

..................

f Design

Curves

n Design

I
.., .., -..-,

Curves

D28
D30
D38

....................

D17

Corrugated

Corrugated

Design
Curves
.................

D Curves.

CORRUGATED METAL PIPES


Information.

Various

D23

Use of Appendix

Background

D7

Structural

n Design
to

. . . . . . . . . . . . . o e

Curves

Structural

of Manning

D4

for

C.M.P.

D15

f Design

Derivation

Plate

D3
. . . . .

f Curves

Bolt
Resistance
in Annular
Metalpipes.........................
Seam Resistance
Pipes.....................

. 1 ...........

Structural

Available

Development
of NRw Versus
Shapes............................
Derivation

Dl

Methodology.

Tests
of

Dl

....................

Hydraulic

Systematization

...................

D38
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D39

. . . . . . e . . . . . a

D39

APPENDIX

Dl

Darcy
Test

D2

NRw for

Annular

OF FIGURES

Corrugated

Metal

Conduits,

Based

on

Depth

Ratio

All

Curves

Results

Estimate
of

D3

f Versus

D - LIST

of NRw at Peak

Corrugations

Darcy

Darcy

f Values

Based

on Length

to

(c/k)

f Versus

Located

to Place

Selected

as 1

Peak

of

Corrugated

f Values

Conduits.

a Common NRw Value,

Darcy

f Versus

NRw for

2-2/3-

D6

Darcy

f Versus

NRw for

6- by

l-inch

Annular

Corrugated

Metal

Pipe

D7

Darcy

f Versus

NRw for

3- by

l-inch

Annular

Corrugated

Metal

Pipe

D8

Darcy

f Versus

NRw for

6- by 2-inch

Annular

Structural

Plate

Corrugated

Metal

Pipe

Darcy

f Versus

DlO

Darcy

Metal

f Versus

NR for

9- by 2-l/2-inch
(No Bolt

Helically

Corrugated

by l/2-inch

or Seam Resistance

NRw for
Pipe

- Annular

Arbitrarily

D5

(No Bolt

f Values

at

Metal

Estimated

Corrugated

Darcy

Annular

D4

D9

Peak

NRw for

or

Annular

Pipes

Corrugated

Metal

Included)

Annular

Seam Resistance

Corrugated

Metal

Metal

Structural
Included)

Conduits

Plate

Pipe

-Dl-

APPENDIX

D - DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN

CURVES FOR CORRUGATED METAL CONDUITS

INTRODUCTION

In order

to

curves

of

design,

present

the

main

this

are

posing

presented.

in

undue

It

will
if

developing

obstacles

Herein,

material

must

and helical

involved

presented.

this

shapes

Annular

without
is

and understand

corrugation

methodology

text

appendix

and methodology
read

the

the

to

its

background

be necessary
design

the

for

information

design
use

for

information
the

for

user

to

new or untested

be developed.

C.M.P.

are

discussed

in

separate

sections

of

this

Appendix.
ANNULAR CORRUGATED METAL PIPES
Background

Information

Most

experimental

early

metal

conduits

Notable
at

dealt

among

the

North

Hydraulic

with

these
Pacific

Falls

corrugated
tests

on smaller

Neil1

(3)

Anthony

2-2/3

by

(0.30

more
Falls

roughnesses

Numbers

1.5-

in

(0.38

m) pipe,

scatter

than

Hydraulic
of

the

l/2

parentheses

These

(2).

inch

corrugated

m) pipe
although
those

to

of

by 1.3

U.S.

of

(0.46

diameter

refer

work

7-feet

Laboratories,

smaller

the

factors

to

the

data
North

possibly

corrugated

cm) corrugations.

Corps of Engineers
1
(1) , formerly
Bonneville

Straub

and Morris

tests

were

at

m) in

diameter.

pipes

were

conducted

from
Pacific
due

(4)

these

and

the

Other
by C. R.
Garde

(5)
exhibit

and

greater

St.

with

experiments

Division
to

the

concerned

2.13

and by Chamberlain
the

in

Army

Laboratory,

earlier

to

(6.8

of

Hydraulic
the

resistance

l/2-inch

those

Laboratory

from

on a 15-inch

on a 12-inch
somewhat

and

of

by

are

Division

Hydraulic

pipes

2-Z/3

studies

Laboratory,

Anthony

investigations

St.
relative

pipes.

corresponding

references

in

Appendix

A.

-D2-

Recognizing

the

by l/2-inch

C.M.P.

2-inch

(15.2

Engineer

of

x 5.1

gated.

corresponding

tests,

and
U.S,

resulted

in

to-depth

a report

scale

These

distribution

for

deviation

this

l/2-inch
scale
have
the

that

it

which

1 of

the

of

the

5-foot

from

the

analysis

hydraulic

2-inch

(15.2

by 5.1

series

of

Engineering,

cooling

water

several

resistance
which

cm)

intake

pipe

in

Public

investiof

Roads

(BPR,

Administration)

with
results

a 3~1 pitchof

2-2/3

results

(1)

both

indicates

that

here,

and only

the
at

the

full-size

standard

in

reproduce
when modeled

the

a 1:4

model

pipe.

2-2/3the

on

explanation

deep

than

studies
by l/2-inch

A possible

diameter

the

the

conducted

plate

may

Therefore,

by l/2-inch

full-size

C.M.P.

on full-size
Neil1

(3)

60-inch

(1.52

m) structural

tested

a 14-foot

(4.27

Baileytown,

Indiana.
Reynolds

later.

accompanying

verify

been

at various

be discussed
in

generally

(8),

factors

will

have

structural

Inc.

illustrated
they

studies

on full-size

Bauer

were

standard

considered.

Two separate

tests

in

Chief

Highway

standard

WES report

studies

are

of

the

l/8-inch

WES model

pipes

Bureau

to precisely

only

corrugations

results

corrugations

Office,

tests

difficult

peaked

excluded

cm) deep

coefficient.

are

model

Relative

Army,

included

full-scale

is

Army

hydraulic

on corrugations

m) diameter

and resistance

U.S.

6- by

(7).

also

sharply

C.M.P.

that

from

began

to

ratio.

Federal

tests

had more

are

not

(1.52

plate

Commerce,

1966

of model

differed

Also,

C.M.P.

sizes,

in

the

m) diameter

U.S.

Transportation,

a 5-foot

is

by 5.1

the

of

(7)

corrugations,
ratio.

by both

WES report

of

data

velocity

of

1958

2-2/3-

especially

pitch-to-depth

2-inch

standard

pipe,

(WES) in

m, and 6.10

Department

results

the

model

m, 3.05

the

types,

corrugated

a 3:l

published

the

ratio,

C.M.P.

U.S.

applying

corrugation

to

sponsored

the

to

with

(1.52

Department

In addition

other

from

Station

depths

These

result

structural-plate

pipes

ZO-foot

now the

a 1:4

cm)

to

Experiment

and

Engineers,

might

corrugated

corrugation
lo-,

that

results

Waterways

studies

5-,

errors

Data
figures,

analysis

C.M.P.,

and

m) diameter

power

plant

methods

of

studies
for

for
the

two

plate

numbers

but

performed

These

points

6- by

the

these
discussion

this

report.

produced
two pipe

factors
will

are
show

-D3-

Edward

Silberman

and 66-inch

C.M.P.

University

of

Also

tested

inch

(22.9

by 6.4

for

could
at

low

structural

plate
cm)

the

C.M.P.

therefore,

were

However,

Darcy

Figures

D5 through

In the

with

not

by the

issue

of

this

Corps

of

Engineers

6 by 2-inch

(15.2

equal

to

the

other

on 2-2/3

costs

serious

resistance
Darcy

factors

(22.9

for

tests

on the
for

other

as presented
either

by 6.4

at

temperature

was

appear

very

consistent

low

occurs.

Reynolds

numbers
copper

model

In

of

the

for

these

the

general

Reynolds

(1.52

the

in

Reynolds

design

use,

reported
pattern

number)

Waterways

l/2

inch

tests

estimating

Figure

6 by l-inch

by

4 of
(15.2

. . ._

the

of

plots

shown

model

studies

given

by 1.3

used

the

Station

Silberman

For

cm) corrugations.

. . . . . ..

were

(6.8

methods

corrugations.

(12),

Experiment

cm) C.M.P.

by

scale

in

1970

one
1970

by 2.5

cm)

publication
or the

weight,

corrugations

and Dahlin

thing,

cm)

(WES) in

a large

earlier

m)

on 4-inch

drainage

the

H.

by Rolf

60-inch

and analysis

confirm

wall

by A.

pipe,

tests,

highway

discussion

(or

by 5.1

The new full

5).
doubt

f values

confirmed
inch

4,

water

corrugated

publication

for

3,

were

Methodolopy

(7)

2,

series

results
scatter

to

9 by 2-l/2

D9.

1966

(1,

the

number

with

Reynolds

limit
in

the

(SAF).

and by E.. R. Zeigler

do serve

Reynolds

test
the

tubing.

practical

tests

C.M.P.

these

cm) plastic

plastic

at

higher

at

by Neill,

included

Previous

previous

reported

the

these

f versus

Comparison

(9.1

corrugations

even

large

cm) diameter

on 48-inch

otherwise,

The test

(4.6

corrugated

was below

series;

performed

tested

of

tests

Laboratory

Unfortunately,

were

on a 3.6-inch

cm)

plate

Both

where

scale

Hydraulic

m) structural

test

numbers

full

by 2.5

Falls

achieved.

tests

diameter

range

herein.

the

on a 1.8-inch
(15)

and

Anthony

(1.68

(15.2

numbers.

been

flow

(14)

number

St.

conducted

corrugations.

Reynolds

Kellerhals

(10.2

1 inch

two of

have

Some hydraulic
Gibson

cm)

(6)

6 by

Reynolds

freezing

except

with

Minnesota,

high

numbers

W. G. Dahlin

was a 66 inch

relatively
near

and

to

predict

the

trend

(.6)

were
9 by 2-l/2

of
not

in

-D4-

After

long

favor

of

inch

(15.2

deliberation;
the

adequately
ft.

(1.52

Reynolds
reach

tests

which

on full

define

the

m, 3.05

m, and
This

enough

agreement

Reynolds

Possibly,

the

WES model

constant

f with

attained
(6.10
the

the

peak

f value.

did

underestimate

4.1

cm) and

number

in

only

were

their

"peak"

a new method

resistance

was needed.

(3),
making

annular

Hydraulic

most

of

the

an accurate

reach
herein
it

of

Tests
of
tests

were

resistance

values

(2)

the
the

to

a basic

to a scale

reach

factor

a region

scatter
test

of

of

series

the
actually

m) and 20 ft.

their

peak

f values.

Thus,

define

clear

the

that

factor

the

for

20

of

(3.05

(6)

shape

while

of

earlier

the

FHWA report

6 by 2 inch

Structural
60-inch
performed

to define

(15.2

resistance

was also
and

developed

resistance

factor

did

10 and

10 ft.

considered

systematizing

full-size

5,

not

capacity

or

due

did

the

and Dahlin

equations

of

flow

in

by

cm) C.M.P.

were

C.M.P.

the

f,

However,

seems

resistance

peak

that

results
on 6 by 2

at high
of

m) pipe

to help

SAF Report

the

Therefore,

studies

not

f values

discounted,

prototype

(7)

WE'S tests

for

lack

the

of

the

least

(1)

to verify

by 2.5

1971

at

the

(1.52

1966
of Neil1

f curves

number.

by Silberman

define

In Neill's

(7.6

to

that

attain

and

The model

f curves,

adequately

Full-Size

to

5 foot

utilized

1 inch

due

possible

maximum

used

C.M.P.
that

are

the

3 by

been

model

did

versus

The methodology

fact

not

definitely

number

annular

is

curves

models,

the
those

judged

m) pipe

Reynolds

it

is

versus

the

increasing

that

WES pipe

Reynolds

of

such

m) pipes

the

including

It

number

between

discount

number

may have

recognized.

is

6.10

to

pipe,

(3).

Reynolds

was not

data

scale

cm) C.M.P.

number.

of

was decided

by 5.1

a high

lack

it

evaluated.
the

are

over

judged

a range

Plate

C.M.P.

(1.52

m) structural
partly

determination

Due to

effects

and predicting

under

values

full
difficult.

of

flow

annular

to
conditions.

C.M.P.

plate
flow

the

Reynolds

deficient
of

for

C.M.P.

conditions,
All

tests

in

-D5-

the

first

series

the

second

outlet.

were

series

in

were

a free-surface

in

The resistance

0.14

which

seemed

when

In Bossy's

discussion

(16)

were

to

the

given

a full-flow

factors,

high

explain

condition;

however,

condition
in

terms

compared

with

of Neill's

of

owing
the

other

paper,

Darcy

over-estimation

(5.0

or

the

f,

tests

in

submerged

averaged

about

three

suggestions

estimates.

the

possible

to

two

following
of

the

resistance

in

resistance

coefficients:

The nominal

diameter

coefficient

calculations

1.50

coefficient

resulting

that

Neill,

in

on the

true

flow
of

in

The free

tests
the

rather

1.52

m) was used

than

the

actual

surface

increase

his

in

determining

closure

apparent

(17),

S3,

of
slope

or

bolt

rate

may be too

low,

and outlet

effects

the

water

surface

resistance
f values

and

profiles.

coefficients

were

seam effects,

based

computed

for

and without

full
correction

coefficient:

ft./set.

s2
s3
Engineering

full-size

6- by
m) long

capacity
determined

and
of

the
from

2.11
2.32

tests

2-inch

(9)

(15.2

14 feet
power

NRw

m/set.

6.91
7.60

The Bauer

were

ft.

inlet

Velocity

the

(4.93

Q.

revised

The following

including

flow

n include

of

presents

diameter.

S2 and

of

determinations
the

pipe

weir

used

an under-estimation

Test

(465.1

diameter

m).

The weir

ft.

(4.3
plant

conducted
cm)

diameter.

intake

pumps,

velocity-distribution

on a completely

submerged

plate

C.M.P.,

1,526

feet

Two flow

rates,

based

on

structural

m) in

0.130
0.132

13,000
14,400

were

by 5.1

Revised

were

studied.

measurements

The flow

obtained

from

rates
both

-D6-

horizontal

and vertical

scan

only

for

were

derived

the

horizontal

The total

the

higher

from

head

and outlet
levels

tests

were

These

represent

A subsequent

loss,

including

staff

the

was in

pipe

by the

the

flow

high

scan

the

of

the

to

BPR staff

were

The high

Reynolds

data

the
number

the
pipe.

and
0.74

the

been

test

data

exhibit

(NRw),

minor

inlet,

in

bend,

between

the

Flow

for

two

rates
(15.3

the

m3/,sec).

loss

Federal

velocity
in

flow

suspect,

tests

because

a downward

whereas

all

trend

other

data

in

head

the

Bauer
of

The revised

low

Highway

modification

an underestimation

the
is

used

difference

The main

f value.

for

was also

as minor

overestimated

a low

flow

tube

BPR (now the

caused

0.0675

a horizontal

respectively.

by the

of

losses

from

measurements

540 cfs

f values.

have

minor

the

and

higher

loss , producing

test.

of wall

0.46

and

as well

m3/sec)

evaluation

was made and because

values

of

of

Bauer

appeared

head

computed

(9.6

rate

a pitot

by measuring

produced

which

friction

the

but

friction

and downstream

of

flow

velocity-distribution

readings,

pipe

low, 338 cfs


2.5
Q/D
values

The overestimation

lower
Most

was determined

Administration)

coefficients,

meter

as a check.

analysis

re-analysis

the

rate.

scans

upstream
quite

for

flow

current

losses,

water

scans

report.
the

f values
and 0.0650
only
at

for

one velocity
low,

increasing,

show an opposite

trend.

Silberman

and

a 66-inch

(1.68

6.4

Dahlin

and

f peak)

For

test

shows

16;000,
34'F
number

seam effects
and

deducted
f to

including

bolt

to

were
from

total

(1.1

conducted

m) (nominal)

cm) corrugations.

bolt

(6)

OC) during
some extent.

full

circular

with

estimated

increase

test

results

with

test

series,

results

= 0.0051,
for

NRw to

Water

value

the

(22.9

on non-bolted

comparison.

of

0.137
were

attained

of
by

pipes,

= 0.0036

of

temperatures

limited

tests

inch

Afseams

purposes

a peak

which

controlled

9 by 2-l/2

other

(Afbolts

and seam effects.


this

laboratory
with

C.M.P.

comparison

the

scale

at

at
This

NRw =

low,

about

Reynolds

-D?-

Tests
of

of

the

full

size

large

structural

size

of

the

plate

C.M.P.

conduits,

which

However,
it would be beneficial
to
.
sizes,
perhaps
through
instrumentation
Until

further

should

information

be adequate

Systematization

the

mean velocity

viscosity
value

Reynolds

number
to

reach
time

the

estimates

the

dependence

pipe
of

and

pipe

curve"

a constant

value

with

increasing

However,
of

it

was determined

the

the

maximum

pipe

sizes

pipes

with

(Further
exactly

The wall

lack

pipe

of

with

the

a given

2-2/3

by

examination
but

Reynolds

N
Rw=.=

tests

v*k

the

inch
of

the

this

manual

use

data

be close

number

is

defined

(Rsfg'o*5

of

occur

shape.

annular

where

the

kinematic

that

the

first

Darcy

continues,

in

a manner

is

will
not

increases
further

f value

V is

eventually
clear

at

this

N
Rw'
data,

'
In
as

numbers.

Reynolds

in

systematizing

at

about

For
peak

for

shows

number

by H. G. Bossy
enough

the

with

a wall

NR, aided

of

declines

the

Reynolds

corrugations

should

decline

f would

corrugation

l/2

of

NR = VD/V,

probably

then

Reynolds

high

number,
Darcy

shape

or whether

at

that

Reynolds

value

true,

of

pipe

installations.

and V is
data

and

the

"smooth

the

diameter,

available

peaks,

Whether

to

larger

or planned

number,

corrugation

number,

increases.

Reynolds

the

the

due

place

available,

pipe

D is

pipe

Reynolds

capacities.

for

existing

emphasize

A comparison

a particular

increasing

similar

on the

flow,

of water.
for

with

of

data

of

results

factor

further

flow

because

Data

experimental

resistance

high

limited

use.

of Available

The available
C.M.P.

design

necessarily

require

obtain

becomes

for

are

the

example,
at

number,
the

same N Rw for
f values

a NRw value
indicates

practical

that

of

for

all
all

about
this

1600.
is

not

purposes.)

as:
- - - - - - - _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (Dl)

-D8-

Where,
v*

is

the

mean

shear

is

the

hydraulic

velocity,

ft/sec.

radius,

ft.

(m/see)
= D/4

(m),

0.5

= (RSfg)

for

full

flow

,
in

circular

pipes
Sf is

the

friction

equal

to

slope

the

slope

(slope

of

the

of

the

hydraulic

total

energy

grade

line

line),
in

pipes

flowing

full,
g

is

the

(9.80

gravitational

is

the

corrugation

is

the

kinematic

One reason

for

the

number

wall

any

given

capacity
the

set

This

seen.

their

is

data

flow

and

In the

known

past

to

are

presented.

In

peak
first
the

f value

are

some cases,

estimates.
calculation

comparisons

of

to be the
the

f with
f.

Thus,
to

increasing

one pipe

only

three

for

a portion

conclude

is

data

for
data

that

method
the

the

available

peak

bolt

otherwise

f values

some a
are

a corrugation
for

annular

C.M.P.

C.M.P.

True

and

peak

seam effects
later

in

corrugations

this

on annular
nominal

or the

The estimated

presented
several

data

dimensions

are

NRw corresponding
f values

have

been

appendix
shapes.

of

that

number,

diameter,
of

only

Reynolds

problem

new sets

that

N
curve
is
Rw
by available
flow

governed

Another

fact

f versus

some investigators

available;

known.

Also,

between

thought

Reynolds

obtained.

where

not

between

facility.

only

summarizes

shown

relationship

are

test

leads

or even

been

table

dimensions

This

the

results

particular

10 years,

have

The following

test

some a constant

to a few,

of

(m2/sec).

a portion

an increasing

restricted

are

the

obtained.

f,

ft./sec.2,

and

and f is

only

the

at

decreasing

type

views

tests,

(m),
ft.2/sec.

number)

because

indicate

ft.

viscosity,

Reynolds
of

is

depth,

differing

and head

curve

32.16

m/sec2)

(or

acceleration,

are

to
unadjusted,

removed
to

the

by using

facilitate

TABLE Dl
SUMMARY
OF AVAILABLE TESTS ON ANNULARC.M.P.,
D,
ft

Corrugation
2 213 by l/2 in

6 by 1 in.
6 by 2 in.'
6 by 2 in.4

9 by 2 l/2 in.2

1 Full
2 Full

1.008
1.25
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.95
7.05
5.03
3.97
5.45

5;

ft

D/k

c/k

c/rP

Estimated
Peak f

Estimated
N at Peak f
Rw

.0635
.066

5.34
8,
I1

3.50
3.37
,I

4.75

3.38

0.133
.114
.1013
.0910
.0766
.064
.054
.068

1330
1830
1420
1580
1790
1480
1540
1640

11

11

.0468

.2224

.0658

.0798

.0784

0.5
0.5

0.2093
.2118

49.8
69.5

6.26
6.38

2.39
2.36

4.925
4.925

0.1667

0.5

0.1028
,,

29.5
II

3.00

4.86

4.99
10.0
20.0

0.1665
.156
.157

0.4994
.500

0.1074
,104
.1025

30.0
64.1
127.4

3.00
3.21
3.18

4.65
4.81
4.88

5.38

0.207

0.75

0.1958

26.0

3.62

3.83

2 points

only.

bolt

effects

deleted.

scale,

bolt

effects

deleted.

3 Model. Corrugations not to scale.


4 Models. No bolt effects included.

.2225
1,

rP'
ft

24.2
30.0
36.0
48.0
72.0
118.8
169.2
106.8

scale,

.04167
II
,1

WITH DIMENSIONS

I1

11

11

11

11

1,
II

I1

II
,I

(1

11

1,

11

11

11

11

11

(1

,I

1,

,I

11

11

Ref.
435
3
2
2
192

1
1
7
6
6

0.1215
.1235

>13,000
>14,400

3
3
7
7
7

0.132

16,000

-DlO-

In order

to

is

all

data

The model

prepared.
inch

study

(6.8

by 1.3

otherwise

test

cm)

represent

lation

beyond

The curves

the

of

the

true

the

relationships

data

the

Figure

are

kinematic

m) pipe

2-2/3

the

respective

based

on wall

Reynolds

viscosity

the

water

general

for

by l/2

information

shown

numbers

during

are

it

a temperature

(1.1305

x 10

No extrapo-

test.

is

at

curves

computed

each

solutions,

water,

Dl was

references.

performed.

1 to

adequate

The lines

has been

of

with

since

data

v,

figure

Figure

corrugations.
from

viscosity,
of

(1.52

on one plot,

was deleted,

points

Dl

C.M.P.

5 ft.

these

available

kinematic

an average

for

for

the

annular

corrugations

available

which

for

from
In

applying

convenient
of

to

60F,

use

for

which,
v = 1.217
This

is

permissible

of tlOF

of

would
the
to

as it

(55.6'C)

From Figure
values

x 10B5 ft2/sec.

affect
it

Dl,
wall

is

obvious

the

N
curves,
Rw
peak f value.

the

Thus,

NRw at

the

magnitude
pitch

discounting

previously

2 inch

(15.2

the

good

and

the

As the

to

by 5.1

fair
next

step,

f position,

Figure

(In

Dl.

semi-logarithmic

for

the
all

of

1 inch

NRw at

for

peak

for

9 by

inch

the

data
the

2-2/3

same log

graph

A 5 inch

log

a Af of

0.02).

cycle

paper

used

cycle

the

and error,
line
to

by

this

Figure

it

shapes

of

was found
on Figure

12).

the

inch

model

and

D3 shows

6 by

due to

seems

was plotted

was 2 cycle

the

corrugations

this

as for

D2.

required

However,

l/2

scale

of

figure

for

C.M.P.

was used,

Since

be a function

of

(7,

it

shown

corrugations,

on annular

different

NRw corresponding

f magnitudes

C.M.P.

temperature

shapes.
the

trial

at

defining

estimate

indicated

plate
2-l/2

occur

by the

f location

using
cases,

of

in

The development

available

paper.

f is

structural
peak

definition

peak

must

data

deal

water

amounts.

corrugation

was to

ratio.

defined
of

common peak

on a scale

depth

f values

be approximated

NRw at

cm)

definition

step

in

by insignificant

available

a great

f could
of

corrugation

next

2
m /set)

differences

different

all

After

peak

peak

for

to utilize

that

factors

that

number

f vs.

that

resistance

Reynolds

be desirable

the

can be shown

-6

the

justified.

with

plots

of

by 70 division
f was represented

the

results

of

0.1 L
I
BONNEVILLE

HYDRAULK

ST. ANTHONY

C.R. NEILL

CHAMBERLAIN

SILBERMAN

AND

WATERWAYS

EXPERIMENT

0.1; 2 -.

FALLS

LABORATORY

HYDRAULIC

( I 1

LABORATORY

( 2 1

( 3 1
(4

1 AND GARDE ( 6 1
DAHLIN

(6

2-2/3x

STATION

l/2

IN. (

( 7 1

9x2-$2
IN. C.&R
D=5.38,
D/k = f5.99,
/k 3.f
I

;/rg)

6x2

IN. C.M.P. (MODELI.

O.l(

2-2hx

l/2

o.ot

2-2/3x
D:24:
I

IN.C.M.P

k+d

2-2)3x1/2

l/2
IN. C.M.P.
D/k=4B;
C/kt5.34+

/-

.M.P.
D/k. 49.8,

IN! C.M.P.

ik.6.26

c/k
YY

0.04

6-.--

o.ot 5

6x2 Ih
D= 20.0
D/k = 127.4,
c/k =3.18

0.02

0
2

_ _

6789

1x102

9L

II

*-f

6769

Ix103

1x10*

NRW

Dl

Darcy
Test

f Versus
Results

NRw for

Annular

Corrugated

Fetal

Conduits,

Based

on

FIGURE

DI

I
z
7

M
0
7
mm
I-W
Lo

r)

0.14
I

LEGEND

BONNEVILLE
LABORATORY

HYDRAULIC
(I)

ST. ANTHONY FALLS


HYDRAULIC
LABORATORY(2)
C.R. NEILL (31
CHAMBERLAIN(4)
GARDE (5 1
SILBERMAN

AND

AND DAHLIN(6)

WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT
STATION (71

0.06

I
&PEAK

5 IN. LOG CYCLE


2

789

VARIOUS
D3

Darcy

f Versus

Located

to Place

Selected

as 1

NRw for
Peak

NRw
WALL
Annular

I\

E
I

5 IN. LOG CYCLE


I

AT
PEAK
REYNOLDS

Corrugated

of f Values

at

NUMBERS
Metal

I
I

FIGURE
Conduits.

a Common NRw Value,

All

03

Curves

Arbitrarily

A
v

-D14-

this

It

exercise.

increasing
with

f with

increasing

exhibit

peak

assume
NRw,

N
Rw'

all

followed
of

curves

all

for

pipes

versus

exhibit

later

that

the

Therefore,

used

f with

to

it

f value

was decided

f with

further

define

seem to

constant

an increasing
in

range

increasing

increases

the

to

shapes

in

NRw.

of NRw vs.

C.M.P.

is

peaked

in

shape

to

also

seen
than

incorporated

further

relative

were

examined

over

a range

that

the

those

into

systematize

roughness
for
of

all

curves

for

the

the

later

the

available

of

the

by 1 inch
(22.9

relative

(15.2

various

D/k

by 2.5

cm) C.M.P.

corrugation

for

lower

the

smaller

Darcy

development

D/k

values

f values.
of

curves.
cm),

the

used

shapes,

This

design

NRw

of

the

(c),

the

depth

(k),

not

judged

(It

f values,
in

multiple
conjuction

conclusion

that

(Af)

at

value

the
the

with
ratio

peak

vs.

at
the

that

factors

D/k

different

the

spread

three
of

the
of

were

most

best

corrugation

for

other

9 by 2-l/2
Darcy

were

shapes.

6
inch

f for

shapes.

are

necessary:

corrugation

important

estimate

by

f values

corrugation

by hand,

(6.8
the

dimensions

the

data

to define

between
for

numbers)
inch

and

inside

analyses
studies

peak

curves

least

correlation
gives

by l/2

cm),

(fp)

complete

as a basis

the

radius

decimal
most

2-2/3

by 5.1

radius
the

the

estimated

(15.2

graphical

c/rp
for

other

fp

which

variate

the

develop

a corrugation,

To determine

as important.)
analyses,

is

to

and

Since
for

f values

small

was used

and the

shape

(rp).

are

Then,

peak

eliminate

6 by 2 inch

were

data,

data.

corrugation

the

crest

to

C.M.P.

To define
pitch

D/k

roughnesses
this

fp vs.

by 6.4

(using

existing

cm) corrugations,

slope

peak

(7).

(1)

by decreasing

in

refute

of

f curves.

order

1.3

to

consisting

followed

curves

tending

WES report

exists,

f,

NRw values,
thus

D3 were

trend

a peak

and a decrease

annular

is

higher

corrugated

Figure

a common

NRw (2)

the

it

phenomenon
versus

in

D3,

From Figure

that

pattern,

by a peak

The curves

In

At

suggested

that

more

seen

increasing

a declining

after

are

is

valley
in

defining

performed.
resulted

of

the

is
These

in

the

incremental

-D15-

As a result
values,

of

it

in

= 0.2788

D/k

the

= 36.0,

range

from

based

increasing

bolt

and

to

interest,

from

data

D/k

= 24.0

data

on peak

Darcy

well

- - - - _ _ _ - _ - - _ - -

from

to

D/k

= 36.0

curve

upward

to D/k

= 36.0,

the

2-2/3

by l/2

for

equation

appear

data

analyses

While

the

values

develop

Figures

of

are

032)

upward.

with
fp vs.

inch

depicted

lines

in

appear

D/k.

Note

D2,

D3,
given

f for

the

on the

ratio

of

peak

f values
D4,

D4 for

using

the

f Curves

standardized

peak

Figure

Figure

f data

of NRw Versus

order

Second,

C.M.P.

decreasing

D/k,

D/k

were

C.M.P.,

curves
and

the

so

fp values

Figure

D4,

which

to be parallel,

that

the

is

they

fp values

of

plotted

on

actually

Figure

converge

D4 exclude

seam resistance.

Development

based

the

available

(c/rp)0s356

the

these

scale.

with

the

all

D2.
of

a log-log

peak

on the

Equation

The results

to

that

(D/k)-oe4021

all

adjusted

In

of

the

from

analyses

was determined

represents

Below

these

for

Various

f vs.

and D4 were

Corrugation

NEW curves
utilized.

corrugation

for

Shapes

the

First,

shape

is

corrugations
the

obtained

of

NRw corresponding
from

Figure

D2,

c/k.

are

obtained

the

calculated

corrugation

for

the
D/k

of

various

pipe

values.

interest,

(If

utilize

sizes

of

no curve

Equation

interest

is

(D2)

given

on

to develop

a new curve.)

Next,

using

peak

f values

vertical
to

a semi-logarithmic

scale

approximate

at
of
the

the

graph

NRw value

1 inch
curves

obtained

= 0.02
of

paper

(Af)

Figure

with

from
so that

5 inch

Figure
the

cycles,

D2.

plot

Be sure

curve

shapes

the

to use a

can be sketched

D3.

-. _.,

. ..--

--.

-...

_ ..---.

^-_-_-_.---

-D17-

Then,

sketch

in

Use curves

for

interest.

It

basis

of

the

corrugations
is

steps

with

suggested

comparison

The above

f vs NRw curves

have

been

Figure

a shape

that

between

using

the

D3 as a guide

similar

c/k

to

and c/rp

corrugation

The partly

full

effective

flow

performed

curves

of

be used

as the

shapes.

for

the

following

corrugations:

Figure

by l/2 inch
by 1 inch
by 1 inch
by 2 inch
by 2-l/2
inch

6
3
6
9

shape.

corrugations

parameters

Corrugation
Shape
Pitch
by Depth,
inches
2-2/3

the

for

D5
D6
D7
D8
D9

of

Figures

D5-D9

were

derived

by using

full

flow

prism.

partly

full

flow

the

diameter,
D = 4R
e

when

R is

depth

the

(d/D)

Figures

hydraulic
of

D5-D9

0.75

was used

because

the

range

of

depths

value

is

obtained

Derivation
Figures
D9

of

of

from

Darcy

Equation

to

= 0.7

5 of

(f)"*5

D3 was derived

partly

develop

the

= 0.9

very

D/k

using

radius
well.

= De/k

A relative
curves

of

represents
Then,

the

the

peak

= 4R/k.

main

using

the

(A/D2)

text

were

following
(D)Oo5

obtained
relationship

(k)

__------

from

Figures
for

D5 through

N
Rw:
(D3)

.v
Equation

Dl,

as follows:

l/2

V*k
NRw = yj--

(R 'f
V

Curves

the

from

hydraulic

d/D

D2,

(Q/D205)

2.828

the

to

Figure

f Design

Appendix,
N
Rw =

of

corresponding

d/D

from

2 through
this

radius

g'

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

(Dl)

PAFTLY

d/D = 0.7 -0.9


h
I

kiLL
I
I

I
-

FULL

FLOW

.FiOW-CiiVE
WHEN CURVES OVERLAY,
FULL FLOW CURVE
IS

0.10

u-

0.08

>
ii
2
0.06
nzn4

I
I

1000

2000

3000

WALL

REYNOLDS

-.-T ,
II/
_ a-2.5
1-u/u---

=4a

6000

4000

NUMBER,

II -1I

8000

NRVV
FIGURE

D5

Darcy f Versus NRw for


Corrugated
Metal
Pipe

2-2/3-

by

l/2-inch

Annular

05

.i3

FULL

f-

FLOW

.I2
(D = X)
INDICATES
FULL
FLOW CURVE

PARTLY

.II

.I0

FULL

.09

(D=48)

-T-

*PEAK

AT
NRw= 550

In3

REYNOLDS

NUMBER,

1.5

I
I

6789

WALL

D6

Darcy

f Versus

NRw for

6- by

l-inch

NR
Annular

FIGURE
Corrugated

Metal

Pipe

D6

A
)--L
\o
I

.I4

.I3

PARTLY
FULL
d/D =0.7-0.9

(D= X.Xx) INDICATES


FULL PIPE
CURVE

.I2

SELECTED
.II

FLOW

WHEN

PIPE

CURVES

PARTLY

SIZES

SHOWN

OVERLAY,

FUL

.I0

.06

WALL

REYNOLDS

NUMBER,

NRw
FIGURE

D7

Darcy

f Versus

NRw for

3- by

l-inch

Annu .lar

Corrugated

Metal

Pipe

07

$
l-4
7

PARTLY
FULL
d/D = 0.7- 0.9

(D-X.Xx)
INDICATES
FULL PIPE
CURVE

0.1 I

Sb;\TED

PIPE

FLOW

I I

PARTLY

SIZES

ARE

I\

I
0.10

w-

= 0.09
ifi
0.08

0.07

w-I--t-l-

0.06

0.05

0.04
6

WALL

REYNOLDS

NUMBER,

NRw
FIGURE

D8

Darcy

f Versus

Metal

Pipe

NRw for

(No Bolt

or

6- by 2-inch
Seam Resistance

Annular

Structural

Included)

Plate

Corrugated

08

-D22-

0.16
&APE
BASED ON 6~ 2 I
CMP CURVES

0.08
f

I III
[1
-

FULL

--

PARTLY
FULL
d/D -0.7-0.9

]
7

2 2,3!x
CMP

,,2

CURVES

FLOW

( D =X.Xx)
IN DlCAT==
FULL
PIbE
CURI IE
I-

DADTI

FLOW

CURVE

IS

nL

SELECTED

PIbE

SIZES
.

ARE

SHOWN.;

0.07

WALL

REYNOLDS

NUMBER,

NRw
FIGURE

D9

Darcy

f Versus

Corrugated

Metal

NRw for

9- by

2-l/2-inch

Pipe

(No Bolt

or

Annular

Seam Resistance

Structural
Included)

D9

Plate

-D23-

v2
Sf = rhf = f
4R -2g if D is replaced
Substituting
into Equation Dl,

From the Darcy equation,


diameter,

4R.

fog5 V k = g&L$
NRw = 2.828 v
.

by the equivalent

----------

- -

Using dimensionless
terms, Equation D4 is transformed
The above terms are defined in Appendix B.

into

(D4)

Equation

D3.

From the f vs NRw curves of Figures D5-D9, the values of f for various pipe
diameters flowing full and partly full at Q/D2*5 values of 2.0 and 4.0 can be
determined using Equation D3. A trial
and error procedure is required,
where
NRw is estimated,
f is computed, and the resultant
f is compared with the
diameter.
The steps are then repeated until the
NRw curve for the particular
desired accuracy is obtained.
The values obtained by this process are connected
by the steeply sloped lines,
labeled Q/D2.5 = 2 and 4, Full and Partly Full,
in Figures D5-D9. The intercepts
of the two curves for flow and diameter
are the source of the f versus diameter curves of Figures 2 through 5, after
bolt and seam resistance
estimates
not include bolt or seam effects.
Bolt

Resistance

in Annular

Structural

are added.

Plate

Note that Figures

Corrugated

D5-D9 do

Metal Pipes

The resistance
of bolt heads or nuts on the inside crests of corrugations
must be considered for the structural
plate pipes having 6- by 2 inch
and 9- by 2-l/2 inch corrugations.
It was assumed that bolt heads or nuts
in corrugation
troughs do not affect resistance.
The methods presented by
Bossy in Appendix A of the WES report (7) were used in computing the Darcy
resistance
increment, Af, caused by these isolated
roughness elements,
which must be added to the wall resistance
to obtain the total f value.
Bossy evaluates

the resistance

increment
(Full

(Partly

by the formula:
flow)

full

- - - - - - -

flow)

- - - -

(D5a)

(D5b>

-D24-

Where,
Af

is

the

incremental

Darcy

CD is

the

coefficient

of drag,

nuts

or bolt
the

average

a is

the

projected

v is

the

velocity
of

estimated

number

of

bolts

area

of

one nut

near

to

equal

1.1

for

hexagonal

the

per

wall

length

L.

normal

to

flow.

at mid-height

of

a nut

located

on the

a corrugation.

L is

the

length

R is

the

hydraulic

A is

the

flow

area.

V is

the

mean

flow

(Lengths

factor.

heads.

N is

crest

resistance

are

of

in

pipe

being

considered.

radius.

velocity.

feet

(m),

areas

in

square

2
(m ),

feet

and

time

is

in

seconds.)

In

the

main

text

of

the

2-inch

annular

structural

nearly

constant

inward

corrugation
nut)

and

depth
follows

WES report
plate
from

(which
the

is

the

(7),

page

corrugated
crests

is

pipes,
for

much greater

it

14,

the

local

a distance
than

the

shown

of

height

that

for

velocity
0.7
of

times
a bolt

6-by
remains

the
head

or

relationship:

Where,
v is
v*

Also,

is

as the

without
be used:

bolts

the

local

velocity,

the

shear

velocity.

resistance
have

already

and

factors
been

for

structural

estimated,

plate
the

following

corrugated

pipes

relationship

can

-D25-

;*v

Where

V is

These
the

two

8
-_------------------f

the

mean flow

equations'

local

(without

bolts):

For

of

lack

therefore

at

better

structural

plate

C.M.P.

close

enough

derivation

the

it
to

plate

C.M.P.,

as well

is

estimation

L
4R

and the

the

of bolt

relationship

not

in

6- by

exactly

resistance

based

equation

velocity

as to

between

mean velocity

that

local

probably

CD N a (3.78f)
Af =

following

was assumed

applies

this

the

nut

(DS),

Although
for

of

projecting

information,

equation

annular

velocity.

permit

velocity

(D7)

(D6),
9- by

2 inch
true,

on f

and

2-l/2

inch

structural
it

should

be

effects.

---------a-----

@9a)

= 15*12 DN a (R/D)f _ - - - - - - - - - - - - (Dgb)


(A/D2)

For

the

6- by 2 inch

inside

crests

number

of

The average
total

bolts

number

number

8-foot

structural

of both

crest

at

plates

of

the

D L

corrugated

longitudinal

and

in

L,

a length,

bolts

in

inside

and one

plate

6-foot

equal

in

plate,

with

circumferential

a length

crests

pipes

to

seams,

the

equal
a length

producing

nuts
the

diameter,

average

D, was computed.

to

D was determined

of

102 feet

a total

on the

from

made up of

of

the
twelve

13 circumferential

joints.
For
heads

partly

full

or nuts

flow,

was necessary

on corrugation

flow

depth,

d=0.75D,

flow

depths

(d/D

I~

it

used

= 0.7

to

crests
here

.i~

that

to

_,j

determine
were

represent
At

0.9).

to

..,, _ ,...,._

._

_r.,

actually
a usual

points

_-_

the

where

^_

. .

__

..,.

range

__..__/^.

of

submerged

one of

.^_

number

of
the

._

bolt
by the

partly

full

longitudinal

._,.__.__.___..

._

-D26-

seams might

or might

an average

pipe,
This

analysis

occurs

in

the

plates.

In Figure

4 of

bolts

used

in

structural
between

used

this
2-l/2

single

bolt

are

in

are

of

per

are

plates

shown
the

in

seams.

of

circum-

for

the

6- by

curves

for

pipes

to

the

the

which

number

used

change

of

joints,

in

steel

Figure

for

steel

fabricate

number

the

of

bolts

pipe.

pipe

only

two joints

on each

the

5;

The steel
plate

bolt

differences

C.M.P.

First,

seam bolts

neglected.
crest,

Also,

instead

of

the

C.M.P.

Either

bolts

are

same size

C.M.P.,

the

but

the

cm) compared

fasteners

Af should

the

plate

(1.74

aluminum

in

One minor

submerged.
designatedBin

inside

structural

Figure

changes

joints

an average

are

inch

were

used

be increased

aluminum
as

aluminum

nuts

to

13/16-inch

in

the

computa-

by a small

amount

nuts.

cm) and

has four

curve

to

the

assembly

circumferential

bolts

11/16-inch

9- by 2-l/2

plate

its

so these

nuts,

the

due to

has

structural

of

for

structural

C.M.P.

two bolts

in

size

foot

2 inch

6- by 2-inch

due

(4.45

pipes,

6- by

can be used.

the

resistance
different

and nuts

also

14-59

bolt

troughs,

discontinuities

the

smooth

an abrupt

6- by 2 inch

Af for

particular

these

in

the

the

0.0005

The curve
C.M.P.

number

plate

The dimensions

the

of about

in

than

cm).
of

the

seam has

bolts

shorter

tion

area

D curves

of

number

longitudinal

maximum

the

was slightly

structural

used

used

(2.06

in

determine

corrugation

longitudinal

steel

to

and

inch

inside

those

of

f versus

orientation

a fractional

The discontinuities

results

C.M.P.

pipe

each

or

changes

plate

the

with

the

C.M.P.

which

spacing

sections

text,

in

on the

fabrication.

The procedure

g-by

pipe

plate

pipe,

resulted

on an equal

main

indicate

particular

in

the

structural

with

which

was used,

optimum

depending

be submerged,

was based

ferential

2-inch

not

15.10

9 for
the

9- by

number

exception

foot

(4.60

of

m) (true

at

d=0.75D

Rather

than

plot

of
Figure

bolts
5.

inch

plates

was made

submerged
number

2-l/2

used
for

to

partly

diameter)

whereas
individual

was used

structural

for

plate

construct

the

full

in

flow

pipes.

the

15.10

points
both,

The 14.59
foot

pipe

for

each

resulting

in

of
the

has

-D27-

Seam Resistance
In

the

the

in

structural

flow

plate

direction

function

of

the

The

longitudinal

are

neglected.

create

of

15.12

Equation

CD N a (R/D)

N be the

number

of

a be the

projected

area

L be the

distance

between

N is

equal

perimeter

of

metal

full
the

For

plate,

Af

seams

m)

plates

for

in

seams

seams normal

This

resistance

to fabricate

to
is

the

on resistance,

to predict

conduit.
and thus

circumferential

seam

a is

L,

seam normal

to
the

(meters).
when

is

to:

equal

d/D

(R/D)

x 5.1

assumes

it

that
is

1..~.1

that

to hydraulic

.-

conduit

(.

. . .

For

I___

..-.-.-.

feet

all

they

assumed

contribute

,..

is,

t is

conduit,

p is

the

the

thickness
p/D

= 3.1416

@lo)

C.M.P.,

made

twelve

9 by 2-l/2

inch

(1.46

not

_-,.

..__

L equals

of

,,..

8-foot
(22.9

7.85

feet

(2.44
x 6.4

m).

protected

C equals
1.0
D
resistance.

-.-._.

where

and

circumferential
are

(t),

a circular

plate

4.79

that

and

----------

m) plate).

L equals

(D)

diameter,

cm) structural

(1.82

flow,

= 0.75.

(31 m) of

the

(p/D)

For

= 2.0944

(A/D21

C.M.P.,

to

seams.

equal
D is

velocity;

Also,

length

one

cD (P/D)

6-foot

development

do not

CD%)

circumferential

on 102 feet

plate

local

of

feet

seams

(15.2

and one

The above

valleys.

used

influence

(based

structural

the

little

per

conduit,

and p/D

6 by 2 inch

(2.39

plates

pipe

---------------

joints

the

15.12
Af

flow.

can be used

to l.O;and
of

flow,

Then,

have

(D9b)

D ' L

the

to

metal

wetted

to

should

(A/D2)

for

the

Pipes

circumferential

some resistance
of

Metal

as follows:

Af

Since

Corrugated

the

C.M.P.,

seams

resistance,

Plate

thickness

A modification

Let

Structural

and

._.

joints

are

within

corrugation

that

..--~-.

longitudinal

exposed

m)
cm)

-D28-

Derivation

of Manning n Design Curves

The Manning n curves of Figures 6 through 9 were derived by applying the


of
following
equation to the f values, including bolt and seam resistance,
Figures 2 through 53
n

0.0926

(@j

This same equation


R is the hydraulic

(f)1/2

- - (Dll)

is listed
as Equation (5) in the main text.
radius of the flow prism.

In this

case,

Summary of Procedure to Derive Desipn Curves for New or Untested Corrugation


Types
L the NRw at peak f from Figure D2, using c/k for the corrugation
Determine
1.
of interest.
2.

Determine the
full circular
circular
pipes
radius of the

3i

Determine the inverse of the relative


corrugation
depth in feet.

4.

Enter figure D4 with the De/k ratio and read f from the curve for the
appropriate
corrugation
type.
This is the peak f value, which is the
total f for riveted or welded C.M.P., and the wall f, excluding bolt
and seam resistance,
for structural
plate C.M.P.
Note :

effective
diameter, De, of the conduit in feet (m). For
pipes, this is the true diameter.
For partly full
or for pipe-arches,
De equals four times the hydraulic
flow prism.
roughness,

De/k, where k is the

If a curve for the corrugations


of interest
is not included
in Figure D4, compute the curve using Equation D2, and adjust
the curvature below D/k = 36.0 based on the other curves.
f

= O-2788 (De/k)-oe4021

(c/I: p >o*356 - _ - _ _ _ - _ - CD21

-D29-

5.

On a sheet
the

6.

peak

Using

in

c/k

and c/r

Based

semi-logarithmic

f values

Figure

plotted

7.

of

at

the

graph
appropriate

D3 as a guide,
step

5.

paper

draw

with

5 inch

cycles,

plot

the

points

NRw value.

NRw vs.

Use corrugations

f curves

with

through

a similar

shape,

based

on

P'

on Equation

(Q, conduit

(D3),

size,

determine

relative

the

depth,

relationships

A,

and

between

are

either

known

NRw and

f.

or have

been

estimated).

8,

By a trial
7,

determine

relative

9.

and error

depth
f value

rate,

and depth

Determine

heads

for

the

of

based

particular

in

11.

Determine
the

bolt

Steps
12.

Convert

on the

number

inside

valleys

depth,

seams

the

total

and

from

9 and 10 apply
Darcy

step

only

f to

Af,

for

of

crest

of

using

using

Darcy

resistance

the

intersect
6.

derived

on the
This

corrugation

resistance,

seam resistance

circumferential

relationship

is

type,

in

step

appropriate

the

desired

conduit

shape,

flow

flow.

relative

Determine

in

specific

the

that

constructed

the

bolt

or nuts

using

f and NRw values


curve

Darcy

pipe-arch,

10.

'the

procedure,

the

bolts

Equation

Equation
metal

9, and

to

structural

the
the

plate

(do not

pipe

include

submerged

or

bolt
by

the
.'

(D9b).

(DlO),

plate

step

Manning

structural

corrugations)

f by adding

the

the

based

on the

spacing

of

thickness.

wall

resistance

seam resistance
plate

from
from

step
step

8,

10.

conduits.

n by use of

Equation

(Dll),

if

desired.

,.

~1__.

_ ^_I_r. .._l_i

._..._.._ I,.;-._
rl.

I__;--. __-:_

.-

,^ .-...-^-

_______.--- .-

-D30-

Examples
Example
Given:

Required:

of
Dl

Use of Appendix

D Curves

- Use of NRw vs.

f curves:

A 14 foot

(4.27

plate

C.M.P.

rates

are

Determine
for
True

this

m) (nominal

with

338 cfs

the

at

diameter

(15.2

(9.57

and 540

m3/s)

by 5.1

above

flow

= 14.06

feet

(4.29

feet

(5.1

annular
cm)

cfs

including

f values,

the

From Equation

circular

6 by 2 inch

Darcy

pipe

diameter)

corrugations.

(15.3

bolt

structural
Flow

m3/s).

and

seam resistance,

rates.
m) from

field

test

data.

(D2):

f"- 5 (Q> 04
NRw = 2.828
(A)(v)
k = 2 inches
A = A/D2
v ='1.215

For

= 0.1667

(D)2

= 0.7854

N
Rw = 2.828

For

Q = 540
N

Rw

(1.131

(9.57

m3/s):

foe5

(338)(.1667)

(155.3)(i.217

= 10,542

cfs

(14.43

m2)

x 10B6 m2/sec.)

(f)Om5

(15.3

= 16,842

m3/sec.):

(f)Oa5

Figure

D8 for

6 by

plate

C.M.P.,

and

interpolating

10.53

feet

(3.21

D = 14.06

ft2

x 10-5>

Using

for

= 155.3

(14.06)2

x 10m5 ft2/sec.

Q = 338 cfs

cm)

feet

2 inch

m) and D = 14.60
(4.29

m).

(15.3
between
feet

by 5.1

cm)

full

flow

(4.45

m),

annular
curves
sketch

structural
for
in

D =
a curve

-D31-

Then,

using

a trial

intercepts

and error

on the

The results

are

curve

14.06
,I

To estimate

constructed

for

determine

the

D = 14.06

feet.

NRw and

Q,cfs

N
Rw

f*

338
450

2718
4456

0.0665
0.0700

or seams.
bolt

effects,

use

Equation

(D9a):

D N
a (3-78
f, - - _ _ _ _ - _ - _ - _ _ _ - _ _ _ (DC&)
L
A

Af=

4R'

where:

= 1.1
cD
N = 2256

102 ft.

= 102 feet

(31.1

14.06

= 155.3

(&-)

Therefore,
wall

..,.^

bolt

resistance

..-.

I-

-_x

-,

of

of

conduit

one bolt

head,

(4.28

(14.42

m)

m2)
f)

155.3
f

resistance
for

.,

m) length

m)

feet

ft2

(31.1

m2) = area

(1.1)(2256>(.0070)(3.78
bolts

= 0.0583

per

= 0.0070
ft2
(.00065
normal
to flow

bolts

4R=D=

Af

as follows:

D,ft.

*NO bolts

procedure,

-.

this

..----

---.

amounts
structural

..-

l-_.

._,,

to

about

plate

,_ ^ __

_:,_.

6 percent

of

the

conduit.

,.~

._.__

-...

..~

_...

__,

.,_

__

-D32-

To estimate

seam effects,
15.12

Af

Af

cD (p/~)

Equation

t (R/D)

(DlO):

seams

Where,

use

&'D2)

CL)

CD

= 1.0

P/D

= 3.1416

for

full

= 0.0182

ft.

(0.0055

R/D

= 0.25

A/D2

= 0.7854

= 7.85

for

flow

full
for

flow
full

feet

m) (assumed)
(Table

flow

(2.39

C-2)

(Table

C-2)

m)

= (15.12)(1.0)(3.1416)(0.0182)(0.25)(f)
(0.7854)
(7.85)

seams

= 0.0351

Seam resistance
conduit,

is

and the

10 percent

of

about

total

the

3.5

percent

bolt

wall

and

of

the

wall

resistance

seam resistance

amounts

for
to

this

almost

resistance.

;
The total

f values

D,ft.
14.06
II
These

Q,cfs

NRw

338
450

2718
4456

total

f values

Engineering

(9)

and

0.8650

the

difference

accuracy

for
for

for
is

0.0665
0.0700

are

comparisons

developed

in

above

design

development

than

of

the

those

same size

as interpreted
to

be within

between
curves.
of

Af

bolts

0.0039
0.0041

higher

a pipe
thought

Af

Q = 450 cfs,

dently
the

are:

losses

0.0023
0.0025
obtained
(0.0675
by the

an acceptable

field

measurements

Also,

some of

are

seams

estimates

the

total

0.0727
0.0766
by Bauer
for

Q = 338 cfs

BPR staff),
range
and

but
of

indepen-

factors
of parameters

used
not

-D33-

contained in the test data.


The differences
in pipe capacity due
to using the calculated
resistance versus the measured resistance
would be 3.8 percent and 8.6 percent, respectively.
Example D2 - Derivation

of Design Curves for an Untested

Corrugation

Type

Assume that 2 by l/2 inch (5.1 by 1.3 cm) corrugated metal is used to
fabricate
annular C.M.P. as well as helical
C.M.P. This corrugation
shape
has never been tested in annular C.M.P. The corrugations
have the following
dimensions:
=
=
=
=

k
rV
t

The pipe will


(2.44 m).

1.

be fabricated

in sizes

Check the following

D,ft.

D, m.

t,in.

1.0
2.0
4.0
8.0

.305
.61
1.22
2.44

0.052
0.064
0.079
0.109

Note the r
Follow

2 inches (5.1 cm)


0.5 inch (1.3 cm)
0.375 inch (0.95 cm)
0.030 inch - 0.109 inch

from D = 1.0 ft

specific
r

tends to increase

steps l-12,

(0.076 - 0.277 cm)

with

at the beginning

(.305 m) to D = 8.0 ft.

sizes:

= rv + t,in.

-D/k

-c/k

c/r p

0.427
.439
.454
.484

24
48
96
192

4.0
"
11
1,

4.68
4.56
4.40
4.13

diameter

due to increases

of this

Determine NRWat peak f from Figure


of interest.

in wall

thickness.

section:

D2, using c/k for

the corrugations

c/k = 4.0
From Figure
2.

Determine

D2, for c/k = 4.0,


the effective

NRw at peak f = 9 x 103.

diameter,

De, of the conduit.

For these conduits,


assume that the nominal diameter
diameter.
Therefore, for full flow, De = D.

_._...

.-_,

. . .. I._i-.

- .. ..

.1 -,~

,.

,.

___

equals

,_

- ___

_--.-

the true

.-.-

--.-

. ..--.

--~

____.

.,

_~ .I .__

-D34-

For

partly-full

the

range

from

d/D

3.

Determine

De/k

Figure

using

Since
must

each

flow

prism

of

interest

Equation

there

is

the

D2,

De/k

ratios

fp = 0.2788

no curve

for

2 by l/2

inch

table

values,
~c,rpj0.356.

corrugations,

Flow

for

to

represent

d/D

= 0.75,

table

following

following

or

compute

peak

Partly
D,,ft.

Ckp

fp

R,ft.

1.0
2.0
4.0
8.0

24
48
96
192

4.68
4.56
4.40
4.13

0.1480*
.1009
.0754
.0558

0.302
.603
1.21
2.41

On a sheet
peak
f

P'

Using

of

NRw = 9,000,

plotted
6 x 2 inch

approximately
also

semi-logarithmic

f values

Figure

points

is

C-2,

(see

and read
-.4021
(De/k)

De/k

The

= 0.75

D, and De = 4R (see

D,ft.

At

d/D

From Table

= 0.9.

R = 0.3017

at

f values

be computed.

plot

6.

for

D4 with

Full

5.

to d/D

radius

4).

Enter
fp

= 0.7

hydraulic

4).

step

4.

the

Therefore,

R/D = 0.3017.
step

use

flow,

used

at

graph

the

appropriate

from

step

D3 as a guide,
in

step

same.

as a guide

Flow

De/k

c/r

1.21
2.41
4.84
9.64

29.0
57.8
116.2
231.4

4.68
4.56
4.40
4.13

with

a 5 inch

log

fp
0.1285*
.0936
.0698
.0517

cycle,

NRw value.

1 (see
draw

following

NRw vs.

graph).

f curves

through

the

peak

5.

corrugates
the

paper

Full

have

a similar

Therefore,
for

this

c/r

Figure
step

(see

ratio,
and their
c/k is
P
D8 for 6 x 2 inch corrugations
the

following

graph).

-D35-

7.

Based

on Equation

example,

and

partly

2.828

full

full
and

(f)O05
Rw =

2.828

between

NRw and

--------------

Q/D205

= 2.0,

= 0.6318),

with

inch

= 0.0417

f.

(D3)

full

flow

v = 1.217

(A/D2

= .7854)

x 10B5

ft2/sec

ft.

partly

(2.0)(D)oo5(0.0417)
(0.7854)(1.212

full

flow

(f)"*5
2.828

a trial

x 10-5>

(f)0'5(D)0*5

(d/D

= 0.75):

(2.0)(D)"'5(.0417>
(0.6318)(1.217

= 3,835

Using

(A/D2

k = 0.5

relationship

flow:

N Rw =

8.

the

f for

flow

= 3,085

For

(A/D2)

determine

(T = 60F),
For

determine

(f>Oa5 (Q/D~*~)(D)'*~(~)

N
Rw =

For

(D3),

x 10-5)

(f)"*5(D>o*5

and error

procedure,

with

determine

the

f and NRw values

that

from

6.

For

the

step

N
Rw

Trial
1
2
3
4

example,

3085

(f>Oa5
II
,t
t,

for

the

relationships

intersect
1 foot

on the
pipe

flowing

Estimated
f

Computed
N
Rw

0.1180
.1075
.1062
.I060

1059
1011
1005
1004

from
appropriate

step

7,

curve

full:

Corresponding
f
0.1075
.1062
.1060
.1060

-D36-

By a similar
plotted

on the

D,ft.

0.75
1.0
0.75
1.0
0.75
1.0

0.75
step

11.

bolt

graph,

all

Rw

Darcy

1004
1215
1271
1557
1610
1954
2020
2419

0.1060
.1005
.0850
.0825
.0682
.0650
.0537
.0498

resistance,

applicable,

Determine
Not

were
NRw and f values
2.5
= 2.0.
for Q/D

following

R,ft.*

Rl/6*

0.250
.3017
.500
.603
1.0
1.207
2.0

0.794
.819
.891
.919
1.0
1.032

determined

Manning

n*

0.0239

.0240
.0241
.0244
.0242
.0244
.0241
.0239

1.122
1.158

2.414

and

12.

Determine
Not

1Q.

1.0

*See

the

following

d/D

1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
4.0
4.0
8.0
8.0

9.

process,

no bolts

in

seam resistance,

applicable,

Determine

seams

the

total

are

using

Equation

this

conduit.

using

Equation

negligible

Darcy

(D9b).

(DlO).

in

f by adding

riveted

the

or welded

results

from

C.M.P.

steps

8,

9,

and

10.

12.

Since

steps

Darcy

f value.

9 and

10 are

Darcy

f to

Convert

the

For

results,

the

see the

not

the

applicable,

Manning

table

in

Darcy

step

n by use of

step

8.

for

in

f and n values

a similar

diameter

fashion.
as in

Figures

Then,

the

2 through

coefficients

9 of

the

Equation

That

f and Manning
n resistance
C.M.P.,
at Q/D 5/2 = 2.0.
Values

other

8 yields

table
for

flow
main

this
rates

the

total

(Dll):

contains
hypothetical

can be developed

can be plotted
text.

the

versus

-D3704

I
FULL
FLOW
--PARTLY
FULL
d/D = 0.7- 0.9

0.14

FL0

(D =X)
INDICATES
PARTLY
FULL
FLOW
CURVE

0.12

0.10
Y-

0.06

0.06

REY NOLDS

6789

NUMBER,

Ifi4

NRW
EXAMPLE

DARCY f VERSUS
NRw
FOR
CORRUGATED
METAL
PIPE

-i
I

-_,,

..----..-.

BY

l/T

lNCH

D2

ANNULAR

.;
_

_.

_,.

u.~__

__-----.--

-.____--

-D38-

HELICALLY CORRUGATED
METAL PIPES
Background Information
The handbook of the American Iron and Steel Institute
(AISI) (18) presents a
range of f values for different
pipe diameters that were obtained from flow
tests in which air was used as the fluid.
However, the reason for the range
of values is not explained and no indication
of the Reynolds numbers of the
tests is presented.
Chamberlain (4) tested 12-inch (0.305 m) helically
corrugated metal pipe with 2- by l/2-inch
(5.1 by 1.3 cm) corrugations
in
conjunction
with his sediment transport
studies.
No systematic variation
with Reynolds number changes was detected, and the mean f value was determined
to be 0.040.
Rice (9) conducted flow tests on 8-inch (0.203 m) and 12:inch
(0.305 m) helically
corrugated metal pipe with l-1/2- by l/4-inch
(3.8 by
0.64 cm) and 2- by l/2-inch
(5.1 by 1.3 cm) corrugations
respectively,
and
a decline in f with increasing Reynolds number was detected in the 8-inch
pipe.
Silberman

and Dahlin

conducted the following

metal pipes at the University


Laboratory:
Pipe Size,
Nominal,
(in.)
(cm)
-12
18
24
48
12
48
12*
24*

30.5
45.7
61.0
121.9
30.5
121.9
30.5*
61.0*

*Re-corrugated

of Minnesota,

tests on helically
corrugated
St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic

Corrugation Shape
Pitch by Depth
(inches)
(cm)
2
2
2
2
2-213
2-2/3
2-213
2-213

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

annular

7/16
7116
l/2
l/2
7116
l/2
7116
l/2
rings

5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

1.1
1.1
1.3
1.3
1.1
1.3
1.1
1.3

Strip Width
(inches)
(cm)
20
20
20
20
24
24
24
24

Reference

51
51
51
51
61
61
61
61

on pipe ends.

The last two tests served to verify


the earlier
finding was that the re-corrugated
end sections
percent in Darcy f and an increase of 6 percent
The results from Reference 11 are not discussed

results,
and the principal
cause an increase of 10.5
in the Manning n value.
further here.

10
10
10
6
6
6
11
11

-D39-

Figure

D10 contains

and

corrugations

and

then

reach

Derivation

of

To develop

Figure

for

each

curves

2-2/3

line

serious,

24-inch

pipe

to Manning

the

It

will

value

In

example,

f versus
be seen

with

the
the

by 1.3

when

compared

on the

order

actually

main

n values,

plots

that

increasing

of

Figure

results

for

cm)

corrugations

with
of

all

seven

number

the

for

f value

Reynolds

the

tends

pipe

to

sizes

decrease

Numbers.

the

other
percent,

10,

were
read

some curve

24 inch
were

(0.61

from

the

smoothing
m) pipe

disregarded,

results.

computed

was

with
since

they

The potential

should

the

test

error

results

for

be correct.

n Design
text
using

Curves

was developed
Equation

by converting

the

Darcy

f values

(Dll).

._
9

Reynolds

Curves

(6.8

of Manning
11 of

Darcy

f Design

DlO.

inch

of

of

10 of the main text,


Reynolds
number values
2.5
Q/D
values
of 2 and 4, and the f values

for

l/2

Derivation
Figure

Darcy

For

by

not

the

a constant

of Figure

seem out
is

tested.

pipe

performed.

plots

..j___

.,._,__----

_ __._,

_i

.,.-._.

....-

.---.

--

-,,

__.-_

_..-..._.

1 -.--._

I..._-

.-,.-

--.--.-.

0.12

I
HELICAL

C.M.P.

SILBERMAN
1969 ( IO )

AND

DAHLlN

SILBERMAN
1971 ( 6 )

AND

DAHLIN

0.10
m-

RICE

( 9

CHAMBERLAIN

( 4

0.08

u-

D=48:

24

PLATE,

e = 81.0,
D-48,

= 0.08

20

2-2/3xl/2
PLATE,

8 =82.5,

2~

l/2

2
cl

0.04
12

PLATE

e=62.0

0.02

0
5

678

1x106

Ix105

D10

Darcy

f Versus

REYNOLDS
NUMBER
NR
NR for Helically
Corrugated

Metal

Conduits

FIGURE

DIO

-El-

APPENDIX E - CONVERSIONFACTORS- ENGLISH UNITS TO SI UNITS

To Convert From

To

Multiply

By

Degree

Radian

0.017453

Foot

Meter

0.3048

Foo~'*~

Meterl'5

0.168276

Foot2

Meter2

0.092903

Foot205

Meter2'5

0.05129

Foot/Second

Meter/Second

0.3048

Foot'/Second

Meter3/Second

0.02831685

Inch

Centimeter

2.540

Inch:

Centimeter2

6.4500

Pound

Kilogram

0.453592

Pound/Foot3

Kilogram/Meter3

Q/D2'5 (English)

Q/D205 (SI)

* U. S. GOVERNMENT

16.01846
0.552093

PRINTING

OFFICE : 1980

311~586/365