You are on page 1of 13

HCI How Did It Start?

Beginning of XX century - systematic study of human

Human-Computer
Interaction
Cezary Bolek

performance

Second World War impetus for studying the interaction


between humans and machines

1949 formation of Ergonomics Research Society


(ergonomics physical characteristics of machine and
systems, and how these affect user performance)

As computer became more widespread new terms: ManMachine Interaction and Human Computer Interaction

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

What is HCI ?

Human, Computer, Interaction


User (Human) an individual user, a group of users working

Interaction between people and computers, concerning


with physical, psychological and theoretical aspects of
this process

From designer point of view HCI involves the design,


implementation, and evaluation of interactive systems
in the context of the users task and work

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

together, a group of users in an organization,each dealing with


some part of the task or process.
Whoever trying to get job done using the technology
Computer technology ranging from the general desktop
computer to a large-scale computer system, a process control
system or embedded system
Interaction any communication between a user and computer,
be it direct or indirect
 Direct interaction involves a dialog with feedback and control
throughout performance of the task
 Indirect interaction may involve batch processing or intelligent
sensors controlling the environment

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

What is involved in HCI ?

What makes product successful ?

Psychology and cognitive science

to give knowledge of the users perceptual, cognitive and


problem-solving skills
Ergonomics
for the users physical capabilities
Sociology
to help understand the wider context of the interaction, human as
a part of society
Computer science and engineering
to be able to build necessary technology
Business
to be able to market it
Graphic design
to produce an effective interface presentation
Technical writing
to produce manuals

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

It must be:

USEFUL accomplish what is required: play music,


cook dinner, format a document

USABLE do it easily and naturally, without danger of


error, etc.

USED make people want to use it, be attractive,


engaging, fun, etc.

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

The human
Humans are limited on their capacity to process

The Human

information
Information is received and responses given via
number of input and output channels:
 visual, auditory, haptic, movement

Information is stored in memory:


 sensory, short-term (working), long-term

Information is processed and applied to:


 reasoning, problem solving, skill acquisition, error

Emotion influences human capabilities


Each person is different
Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Information Processing

Vision

Attention

Two stages in vision


Senses

Sensory
Store

Perception

Decision &
Response
selection

Action

Effector

physical reception of stimulus


processing and interpretation of stimulus

Short
Term
Memory

Long
Term
Memory

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

The Eye - physical reception

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Interpreting the signal


Size and depth

Retina
Cornea
Optic nerves
(blind spot)

Lens

Mechanism for
receiving light and
transforming it
into electrical
energy:

Pupil

 visual angle indicates how


much of view object
occupies (relates to size and

Visual
angle

distance from eye)

Iris

 visual acuity is ability to


perceive detail (limited)

Sclera

Muscles

light reflects from objects


images are focused upside-down on retina
retina contains rods for low light vision and cones for color vision
ganglion cells (brain!) detect pattern and movement

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

 familiar objects perceived


as constant size
(in spite of changes in visual
angle when far away)

Visual
angle

 cues like overlapping help


perception of size and
depth
Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Interpreting the signal (cont)


Brightness
 subjective reaction to levels of light
 affected by luminance of object
 measured and described in terms of the amount of luminance
that gives just a noticeable difference
 visual acuity increases with luminance as does flicker

Interpreting the signal (cont)


The visual system compensates for:
 movement
 changes in luminance.

Context is used to resolve ambiguity

Colour
 made up of hue (wave length), intensity, saturation (share of
whiteness)
 cones sensitive to colour wavelengths
 blue acuity is lowest
 8% males and 1% females colour blind

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Optical Illusions

Reading
Several stages:

Optical illusions sometimes occur due to over


compensation

 visual pattern perceived


 decoded using internal representation of language
 interpreted using knowledge of syntax, semantics, pragmatics

Reading involves saccades and fixations (including

the Ponzo illusion

the Muller Lyer illusion

regressions)
Perception occurs during fixation periods (94% of
reading time)
Word shape is important to recognition (removing the
word shape clues, e.g. by capitalization, is detrimental
to reading speed and accuracy)

Negative contrast improves reading from computer screen


(higher luminance, increased acuity)
Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Hearing
Provides information about environment:
distances, directions, objects etc.

Physical apparatus:
 outer ear protects inner and amplifies sound
 middle ear transmits sound waves as

Hearing (cont)
Humans can hear frequencies from 20Hz to 15kHz
 can distinguish frequency changes of less than 1.5Hz at low
frequencies
 less accurate distinguishing high frequencies than low.

vibrations to inner ear

 inner ear

chemical transmitters are released


and cause impulses in auditory nerve

Sound
 pitch
 loudness
 timbre

sound frequency
amplitude
type or quality

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Auditory system filters sounds


 can attend to sounds over background noise.
 for example, the cocktail party phenomenon.

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Touch
Provides important feedback about environment.

Movement
Time taken to respond to stimulus:
reaction time + movement time

May be key sense for someone who is visually impaired.


Stimulus received via receptors in the skin:
 thermoreceptors
 nociceptors
 mechanoreceptors

heat and cold


pain
pressure
(some instant, some continuous)

Some areas more sensitive than others e.g. fingers.

Movement time dependent on age, fitness etc.


Reaction time - dependent on stimulus type:
 visual
 auditory
 pain

~ 200ms
~ 150 ms
~ 700ms

Kinesthesis - awareness of body position (due to receptors in


joints)
 affects comfort and performance.

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Increasing reaction time decreases accuracy in the


unskilled operator but not in the skilled operator.

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Movement (cont)
Speed and accuracy of movement are important
considerations in the design of interactive systems.

Memory
There are three types of memory function:

Fitts' Law describes the time taken to hit a screen target:


Mt = a + b log2(D/S + 1)
where:

a and b are empirically determined constants


Mt is movement time
D is Distance
S is Size of target

SENSORY
Memory
Iconic
Echoic
Haptic

Attention

SHORT-TERM
Memory
(working)

Rehearsal

LONG-TERM
Memory

Information received by sensors can get stuck on one


of the levels

Conclusions:

 targets as large as possible

 distances as small as possible


Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Sensory memory
Buffers for stimuli received through senses
 iconic memory: visual stimuli
 echoic memory: aural stimuli
 haptic memory: tactile stimuli

Example
 stereo sound (sounds reach the ears with different delays and
stored in sensory memory what allows to detect the direction
of the source)

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Short-term memory (STM)

Scratch-pad for temporary recall


 rapid access ~ 70ms
 rapid decay ~ 1000ms
 limited capacity:
7 2 symbols
7 2 chunks

Continuously overwritten
Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

STM - Examples
Multiply 35 x 6
(6x5, memory, 6x30, memory, add results)
(2x3=6, so 2x35=70, so 3x70 -> result)

Weve used short term memory.

Capacity 72 characters
212348278493202

Chunking increases efficiency

Long-term memory (LTM)


Repository for all our knowledge
 slow access ~ 1/10 second
 slow decay, if any
 huge or unlimited capacity

Two types
 episodic
 semantic

serial memory of events


structured memory of facts, concepts, skills

48 601 654 432

Context increases efficiency

Semantic LTM derived from episodic LTM what allows to build


new concepts based on previous experiences

HEC ATR UNU PTH ETR EET


Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Long-term memory (cont.)

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

LTM - semantic network

Semantic memory structure


 provides efficient access to information
 represents relationships between bits of information
 supports inference mechanism

Model: semantic network


 inheritance child nodes inherit properties of parent
nodes
 relationships between bits of information explicit
 supports inference through inheritance

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Models of LTM - Frames

Models of LTM - Scripts

Information organized in data structures


Slots in structure instantiated with values for instance of

Model of stereotypical information required to interpret

data
Typesubtype relationships

Script has elements that can be instantiated with


values for context

DOG

COLLIE

Fixed
legs: 4
Default
diet: carniverous
sound: bark
Variable
size
colour

Fixed
breed of: DOG
type: sheepdog
Default
size: 65 cm
Variable
colour

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Models of LTM - Scripts

Result:

Props:

Entry conditions
Result
Props
Roles
Scenes
Tracks

Roles:

dog better
owner poorer
vet richer
examination table
medicine
instruments

Entry conditions conditions that must be satisfied for the script to be


activated
Result
conditions that will be true after the script is terminated
Props
objects involved in the events described in the script
Roles
actions performed by particular participants
Scenes
the sequences of events that occur
Tracks
a variation on the general pattern representing an
alternative scenario

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Models of LTM - Production rules


Representation of procedural knowledge.

Script for a visit to the vet


Entry conditions:dog ill
vet open
owner has money

situation

vet examines
diagnoses
treats
owner brings dog in
pays
takes dog out

Scenes:

arriving at reception
waiting in room
examination
paying

Tracks:

dog needs medicine


dog needs operation

conditions that must be satisfied for the script to be activated


conditions that will be true after the script is terminated
objects involved in the events described in the script
actions performed by particular participants
the sequences of events that occur
a variation on the general pattern representing an alternative scenario

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Condition/action rules
 if condition is matched
then use rule to determine action.

IF dog is wagging tail


THEN pat dog
IF dog is growling
THEN run away

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

LTM - Operations

LTM - Storage of information


Storing information is done bye rehearsal

There are three main activities related to long-term


memory :

information storing (remembering)


information forgetting
information retrieval (recall)

(multiple exposition of information or stimulus)


 information moves from STM to LTM

Total Time Hypothesis


 amount of retained information is proportional to rehearsal
time

Distribution of Practice effect


 Memorizing can be optimized by spreading learning over time

Structured, meaningful and familiar information


 easier and faster to remember

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

LTM - Forgetting
Two phenomena:

Decay
 Information is lost gradually but very slowly

Interference
 New information replaces old: retroactive interference
 Old may interfere with new: proactive inhibition
so may not forget at all, but memory is selective

LTM - retrieval

Recall
 information reproduced from memory can be
assisted by cues, e.g. categories, imagery

Recognition
 information gives knowledge that it has been seen
before
 less complex than recall - information is cue

affected by emotion can subconsciously `choose' to forget

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Deductive Reasoning

Thinking

Deduction:
 Derive logically necessary conclusion from given premises.
e.g.

If it is Friday then she will go to work


It is Friday
Therefore she will go to work.

Reasoning
deduction, induction, abduction

Problem solving

Logical conclusion not necessarily true


(if premises are not true):
e.g.

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

If it is raining then the ground is dry


It is raining
Therefore the ground is dry

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Deduction (cont.)

Sometimes deduction is used incorrectly


When truth and logical validity clash
e.g.

Some people are babies


Some babies cry
Inference - Some people cry

Correct?

Invalid deduction we are not told that all babies are


people, so it is therefore logically possible that the
babies who cry are those who are not people

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Inductive Reasoning
Induction:
 Generalize: from cases seen to cases unseen
e.g.
All elephants we have seen have trunks,
Therefore all elephants have trunks.
These grains come from this sack.
They are white.
All grains in sack are white

Unreliable:
 Can only prove false not true

but useful!

Humans not good at using negative evidence (better in positive)


e.g. Wason's cards.

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

10

Wason's cards

7 E 4 K

Abductive reasoning

Reasoning from event to cause


(if B is true and if A causes B, then A is true)
e.g.

If a card has a vowel on one side it has an even number on the other

Is this true?
How many cards do you need to turn over to find out?
. and which cards?
Common response: E i 4.

This uses only positive evidence.

Negative evidence: if we can find a card which has an odd number on one side
and vowel on the other, we have disproved the statement.

Sam drives fast when drunk.


If I see Sam driving fast, assume drunk.
These grains are white.
Grains in the sack are white.
These grains come from this sack.

Unreliable:
 Can lead to false explanations

Therefore: E i 7.
Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Problem solving
Process of finding solution to unfamiliar task using
knowledge.

Several theories.
Gestalt theory







Created be behaviourists
Based on idea of duplicating known reactions (tries, mistakes)
Problem solving both productive and reproductive
Productive draws on insight and restructuring of problem
Attractive but not enough evidence to explain `insight' etc.
Move away from behaviourism and led towards information
processing theories

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Problem solving (cont.)


Problem space theory
 Problem space comprises problem states
 Problem solving involves generating states using legal
operators (actions, activities)
 Heuristics may be employed to select operators
e.g. means-ends analysis
 Operates must be defined within human information
processing system
e.g. STM limits etc.
 Largely applied to problem solving in well-defined areas
e.g. puzzles rather than knowledge intensive areas

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

11

Problem solving (cont.)


Analogy

Errors
Types of error

 Analogical mapping:
novel problems in new domain?
use knowledge of similar problem from similar domain

 Analogical mapping difficult if domains are semantically different

Skill acquisition
 Skilled activity (experience) bases on chunking and categorization
solutions
Chunked (grouped) information results in optimizing of STM usage

 Conceptual rather than superficial grouping of problems


 Information is structured more effectively

Slips
 Right intention, but failed to do it right
 Causes: poor physical skill, inattention etc.
 Change to aspect of skilled behaviour can cause slip

Mistakes
 wrong intention
 Cause: incorrect understanding
Humans create mental models to explain behaviour.
If wrong model (different from actual system) errors can occur

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Emotion
Various theories of how emotion works
 James-Lange: emotion is our interpretation of a physiological
response to a stimuli
 Cannon: emotion is a psychological response to a stimuli
 Schacter-Singer: emotion is the result of our evaluation of our
physiological responses, in the light of the whole situation we
are in

Emotion clearly involves both cognitive and physical


responses to stimuli

Emotion (cont.)
The biological response to physical stimuli is called
affect

Affect influences how we respond to situations


 positive creative problem solving
 negative narrow thinking

Negative affect can make it harder to do even easy


tasks; positive affect can make it easier to do difficult
tasks
(Donald Norman)

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

12

Emotion (cont.)

Implications for interface design


 Stress will increase the difficulty of problem
solving
 relaxed users will be more forgiving of
shortcomings in design
 aesthetically pleasing and rewarding
interfaces will increase positive affect

Cezary Bolek. Department of Computer Science. University of Lodz

13