Social-Life Science

Social-Life Science
Contents Abstract Introduction: 1. The Social Lives 1.1. Personality: The Social-Information Personality System 1.1.1. The Social Relation Type 1.1.2. The Information Process Type 1.1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness 1.1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network 1.1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context 1.1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating 1.1.3. The Big Five 1.2. The Social Lives 1.2.1. The Social Lives for the Primate Social Structures 1.2.2. The Human Instincts and the Social Lives 1.2.3. The Harmonious Social Life 1.2.3.1. Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct 1.2.3.2. Detection – The Detective Instinct 1.2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct 2. The Social-Life Biological Evolution 2.1. Ape Evolution 2.1.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape 2.1.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape 2.1.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape 2.1.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape 2.1.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape 2.2. Hominid Evolution 3. The Interaction of the Social Lives 3.1. The Properties of the Social Lives 3.2. The Enforcement of the Social Life 3.3. The Interaction of the Social Lives 4. The Prehistoric Period 4.1. The Prehistoric Harmonious Society 4.2. The Religious Prehistoric Harmonious Society 4.3. The Exit from the Harmonious Society 5. The Early Period 5.1. The Early Collective Society 5.2. The Early Individualistic Society 5.3. The Revival of the Harmonious Society 5.3.1. The Reasons for the Revival 5.3.2. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life 5.4. The Conversion of the Non-Harmonious Social Lives
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Part 1: The Social-Life Structural Theory

Part 2: The Social-Life Cultural Evolution

6 7 10 10 10 11 12 12 14 16 18 19 20 20 24 28 30 30 33 36 36 36 37 37 38 40 42 46 46 47 48 50 50 50 53 55 59 59 62 63 63 65 78

78 81 85 85 85 86 87 88 90 90 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 98 Part 3. The Postmodern Period 100 7. The Postmodern Divided Society 100 8. The Postmodern State Unified Society 102 8.1. The Reasons for the Existence of the Postmodern State Unified Society 102 8.2. The Formation of the Postmodern State Unified Society 103 8.3. The State Party 105 8.4. The Private Sector 106 8.5. Anti-corruption 108 8.6. Economic Equality 108 8.7. The Natural and the Unnatural Political Systems 110 9. The Postmodern Partisan Unified Society 111 9.1. The Legalization of the Two-Party Method 111 9.2. The Establishment of the Two-Party System 111 9.3. The Establishment of the Common Ground 113 9.4. The Establishment of Different Constituents 113 9.5. Technological Development and Policy Direction 114 10. The Postmodern Education 116 10.1. Elementary and Secondary Education 116 10.2. The Four Stages of Life 117 11. The Postmodern Economy: Crisis 122 11.1. The Social Changes 122 11.2. Financial Crisis 122 11.2.1. Income Inequality 124 11.2.2. Unregulated Financial Innovation 125 11.2.3. Greed 126 11.2.4. The Crisis 126 11.3. Environmental Crisis 127 11.3.1. Unsustainable Consumerism 127

5.4.1. The Conversion to the Collective Social Life 5.4.2. The Conversion to the Individualistic Social Life 6. The Modern Period 6.1. The Modern Individualistic Society 6.1.1. The Renaissance 6.1.2. The Industrial Revolution 6.2. The Modern Collective Society 6.3. The Modern Constitutional Two-Party Society 6.4. The Christian Church 6.4.1. The Early Church as the Harmonious Society 6.4.2 The Church as the State Religion 6.4.3 The Reformation: the breakdown of the intermediary 6.4.4. The Puritan Movement: the breakdown of the collective society 6.5. The Three-Branch Unified Society of America 6.5.1. The Decline of the State Religion 6.5.2. Description 6.5.3. The Requirements for the Unified Society 6.6. The Harmonious Moral Religions

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129 130 130 132 132 134 135 135 136 137 137 138 142 144 144 144 144 145 145 148 Part 4: The Social-Life Psychotherapy and Health of Individuals 153 15. The Formation of the Social lives 153 15.1. The Social Lives 153 15.2. Examples: The Biblical Characters and the American Presidents 155 15.2.1. The Biblical Characters 155 15.2.1.1. Moses 157 15.2.1.2. Jacob 158 15.2.1.3. Joseph 158 15.2.2. The American Presidents 158 15.2.2.1. Hero: Kennedy, Johnson, Reagan, and Bush 159 15.2.2.2. Peacemaker: Nixon and Clinton 164 15.2.2.3. Harmonist: Ford and Carter 165 16. Social-Life Psychotherapy for Sufferings and Sins 170 16.1. Social-Life Psychotherapy for Social-Life Sufferings 170 16.1.1. The Diagnosis of Social-Life Sufferings 170 16.1.1.1. Alienation 170 16.1.1.2. Unfulfillment 172 16.1.1.3. Disconnection 172 16.1.2. The Treatment for Social-Life Suffering 173 16.1.2.1. Stress-Anxiety Reduction 173 16.1.2.2. The Adoption of Social-Life Fitness 175 16.1.3. Sudden Social-Life Sufferings 176 16.2. Social-Life Psychotherapy for Social-Life Sins 177 16.2.1. The Diagnosis of Social-Life Sins 177 16.2.2. The Treatment for Social-Life Sins 179 16.2.3. Sudden Social-Life Sins 180

11.3.2. Unsustainable Technology 11.3.3. The Crisis 11.4. Social Crisis 12. The Postmodern Economy: Rebalance 12.1. The Previous Rebalances 12.2. Stable Economy 12.2.1. The Financial Reform 12.2.2. The Tax Reform 12.2.3. The Income Reform 12.3. Sustainable Environment 12.3.1. Sustainable Living 12.3.2. Sustainable Technology 12.4. Social Cohesion 13. The Postmodern Harmonious Society as the Harmonious Society of God 13.1. The Harmonious Society of God 13.2. Human 13.3. The Interaction 13.4. The Organism Structure of the Harmonious Society of God 13.5 The Harmonist Manifesto for the Harmonious Society of God 14. The Postmodern Unified Society as the Global Natural Society

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17. Social-Life Health of Individuals 17.1. The Social-Life Health Exercise 17.1.1. The Theoretical Exercise 17.1.2. The Observational Exercise 17.1.3. The Participation Exercise 17.2. Versatile Social Life 18. Summary and Conclusion 19. Reference Email address: Website (download all books): Books list: einsnewt@yahoo.com http://sites.google.com/site/einsnewt/ http://www.scribd.com/einsnewt

182 182 182 184 185 186 187 189

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Abstract
Social-life science deals with social interactions involving neuroscience, psychology, evolution, and social sciences. Social-life science is based on the social-life structural theory, dividing the human social life into the three social lives, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives, which are derived from the feminine, the masculine, and the neutral social lives, respectively. Sociallife science explains the principal differences among different human societies, constructs the healthy society, provides psychotherapy for sufferings, sins, and stress-anxiety, and maintains the social-life health of individuals. The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The unique human evolution produces the harmonious social life that transcends the collective and the individualistic social life, and represents harmonious cooperation. The social lives are derived from the neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The social-life structural theory is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory. The theory starts with the personality system based on the brain structure and neurotransmitters. Human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts. The human social lives come from social-life biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. Social-life science explains the social-life cultural evolution consisting of the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, and the Modern Period. The prehistoric huntergatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the collective society included Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism, and the individualistic society included Greek individualism (Greek mythology and science). Later, the harmonious society was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism). In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches (collective, individualistic, harmonious) of human society, resulting in the Modern Unified Society, such as America. The healthy society in terms of social life is the Postmodern Unified Three-branch Society where the different social lives work together constructively rather than destructively. The Postmodern Unified Society is constructed through psychology, politics, education, economy, and religion. The social lives of some Biblical characters and American presidents will be discussed. The social-life psychotherapy for social-life sufferings and sins involves the diagnosis of and the treatment for social-life sufferings and sins. The treatment involves stress-anxiety reduction and the adoption of social-life fitness. Harmonious cooperation corresponds to minimum conflict, resulting in minimum stress-anxiety. Social-life psychotherapy for stress-anxiety on a permanent base is the conversion to the harmonious social life. The conversion to the harmonious religions involves the rebirth into the harmonious society and the harmonious social life. Social-life health requires the exercises of social-life strength, balance, and flexibility.

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Introduction
Freud’s psychoanalysis is based on Freud’s psyche structural theory. Freud’s psyche structural theory divides the psyche into the id, the ego, and the super-ego. The id is the source of psychological energy derived from instinctual needs and drives. The superego is the internalization of the conscious extenuated by rules, conflict, morals, guilt, etc. The ego develops slowly and gradually, being concerned with mediating between the urgings of the id and the realities of the external world; it thus operates on the reality principle. Social-life science is based on the social-life structural theory. The social-life structural theory divides the human social life into the three social lives, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives, which are derived from the feminine, the masculine, and the neutral social lives, respectively. The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The unique human evolution produces the harmonious social life that transcends the collective and the individualistic social life, and represents harmonious cooperation. In Freud’s structural theory, the id is similar to the individualistic social life in terms of internal drive to promote self. The superego is similar to the collective social life in terms of rules for all people’s wellbeing. Unlike the ego, the harmonious social life transcends the collective social life as the superego and the individualistic social life as the id. Freud’s structural theory is essentially the structure of the individualistic social life, where the id represents the unmodified instinctive individualistic social life, while ego represents the modified individualistic social life by the external collective social life. The social-life structural theory consists of the three instinctive social lives. The book is divided into four parts: the social-life structural theory, the social-life cultural evolution, the healthy Postmodern Society, and the social-life psychotherapy and health of individuals. In Chapter 1 of Part 1, the social lives are derived from the neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The social-life structural theory is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory. In Chapter 2, the human social lives come from social-life biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. Chapter 3 deals with the interaction of the social lives. Part 2 deals with the social-life cultural evolution, consisting of the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, and the Modern Period. In Part 2, the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collective society and the individualistic society were formed separately as the Early Divided Society, in which different societies clashed to form exclusive societies. In the collective society, the state has the state collective religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism). In the individualistic society, the state has the state individualism (Greek mythology and science). Later, the harmonious society without the state of a large social group was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek harmonious

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cooperation among people in small social groups. In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches (collective, individualistic, harmonious) of human society, resulting in the Modern Unified Society, such as America. Part 3 involves the Postmodern Period starting from the global mass telecommunication for the Postmodern Revolution. In Chapter 7, by global telecommunication in the Postmodern Period, the traditional exclusive collective society is exposed to the outside influences, resulting in the Divided Society, including some developing countries. The clash among the three branches in the Divided Society has caused turbulence locally and globally. Global peace depends on the transformation of the Divided Society into the Postmodern Unified Society through communication and understanding among the three branches of human society. The Unified Society is divided into the State Unified Society (Chapter 8) as Russia, China, and Japan where the state represents politically both the collective and the individualistic societies or the Partisan Unified Society (Chapter 9) as USA, UK, and Germany where the political parties represent separately the collective and the individualistic societies. The harmonious religion in the Unified Society represents the harmonious society separated from the collective and individualistic societies. Chapter 10 deals with the postmodern education for learning the collective and individualistic social lives in elementary and secondary school as well as in the four-stage life. In terms of economy, the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society, which existed necessarily in small social group. After the emergence of civilization, materials have been procured by the large civilized social group rather than the small social group in the harmonious society. As a result, the materialistic society is the collective materialistic society, the individualistic materialistic society, or the combination of both societies. The harmonious society was nonmaterialistic. In the Postmodern Period, the collective and individualistic materialistic societies and the harmonious society coexist. The collective society is stable, but the long domination of the collective society turns stability into stagnation. The individualistic society is dynamic, but the long domination of the individualistic society turns dynamism into crisis. In America, the long domination of the individualistic society turned dynamism into crisis in 2008. The rebalance restores the balance between the collective society and the individualistic society, and turns financial crisis, environmental crisis, and social crisis into economic stability, sustainable environment, and social cohesion. Chapter 11 describes crisis, and Chapter 12 describes rebalance. Chapter 13 describes the postmodern harmonious society as the harmonious society of God. Chapter 14 deals with the Postmodern Unified Society as the global natural society. The State Unified Society is suitable for the non-West, while the Partisan Unified Society is suitable for the West. The Postmodern Unified Society is constructed through psychology, politics, education, economy, and religion. Part 4 deals with the social-life psychotherapy and health of individuals. For individuals, the formation of the social lives is from gene and upbringing. The social lives of some Biblical characters and American presidents will be discussed in Chapter 13. Chapter 14 deals with the social-life psychotherapy. Different people with different social

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lives suffer and commit sin differently. Social-life psychotherapy for social-life sufferings (alienation, unfulfillment, and loneliness) and social-life sins (injustice sin, repression sin, or disharmony sin) involves the diagnosis of and the treatment for social-life sufferings and social-life sins. In Chapter 15, harmonious cooperation corresponds to minimum conflict, resulting in minimum stress-anxiety. Social-life psychotherapy for stress-anxiety on a permanent base is the conversion to the harmonious social life. The conversion to the harmonious religions (Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity) involves the rebirth into the harmonious society and the harmonious social life In Chapter 16, social-life health requires the exercises of social-life strength, balance, and flexibility.

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Part 1: The Social-Life Structural Theory
Social-life science deals with social interactions involving neuroscience, psychology, evolution, social science, and political science. Human life consists of physical life, mental life, and social life for physical body, the brain, and the social interaction. The structure of physical life is based on anatomy. The structure of mental life is derived neuroscience. The structure of social life is based on the social-life structural theory. The social-life structural theory divides the human social life into the three social lives, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives, which are derived from the feminine, the masculine, and the neutral social lives, respectively. Social-life science is based on the social-life structural theory. The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The unique human evolution produces the harmonious social life that transcends the collective and the individualistic social life, and represents harmonious cooperation. The social lives are derived from the neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The theory of human social lives is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory as descried in Chapter 1. The human social lives come from sociallife biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution as described in Chapter 2.

1. The Social Lives
The three basic human social lives are yin (collective), yang (individualistic), and harmonious lives for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans. The social lives are derived from neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The social-life structural theory is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory. The theory starts with the personality system based on the brain structure and neurotransmitters. Human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts. 1.1. Personality: The Social-Information Personality System There are many personality theories. The two popular theories are the Big Five1 and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)2 derived from Carl Jung's personality type3. The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as the OCEAN model of personality. MBTI includes four factors: Introvert-extrovert,

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sense-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. The personality system matches these two popular personality theories. The proposed personality system is the social-information personality system. The two general types of personality involve the social relation type and the information process type. Human is a social animal, so the social relation type deals with the two different types of social relation. The human brain also processes information, so the information process type deals with how the human brain process information like a computer. There are four different factors in the information process type. These four factors correspond approximately to the four factors in MBTI. These four factors in additional to the social type correspond the five factors in the Big Five. 1.1.1. The Social Relation Type Social Relation Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five Agreeable (A)

Commitment High Bonding relation (B) Low Free relation (F)

Sociability is a function of all social animals. Committed sociability is bonding relation (denoted as B), while non-committed sociability is free relation (denoted as F). The most famous experiment to distinguish bonding relation and free relation was done by Insel and Winslow4. They looked at two closely related but have different social organization: the prairie vole with strong male-female pair bonding and the montane vole, which is promiscuous without strong bonding male-female pair bonding. They found that oxytocin (a hormone) attaches to receptors in reward-related areas of the brain in the pairbonding prairie vole but not in the non-bonding montane vole. When prairie voles intercourse, two hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, are released. If the release of these hormones is blocked, prairie voles become like montane voles. An injection of the hormones can invoke pair bonding without intercourse. Oxytocin sometimes is called “cuddle chemical” that builds bonds between mates, mother-child, and social members. Oxytocin and vasopressin are complementary in such way that oxytocin processes reward and vasopressin processes focus attention to the individuals for the bonding. Vasopressin is responsible for creating intense loving memories during passionate situations. Edorphin is a social neurotransmitter that response to touch and pleasing visual stimulus (such as smile). According the study by Pollack5 and his colleagues, infants raised in the uncaring environment of some Eastern European orphanages ended up with a long-lasting deficit in oxytocin and vasopressin. The deficits in oxytocin and vasopressin persisted even after the children were removed from the orphanages and placed with loving and stable families, resulting in the difficulties in forming social bonds. Bonding relates to empathy and trust. Like bonding, empathy and trust increase with oxytocin. Before committed social bonding, empathy is required to start social bonding. It was found that oxytocin helps empathy6 in terms of reading the mind of others. The maintenance of bond requires trust. Trust has relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. Thus, bonding relation (B) has relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. Oxytocin was found by Kosfeld to increase trust 7 , and by Light to decrease blood pressure8. Distrust, on the contrary, has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Thus,
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free relation (F) has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Committed and noncommitted relation can be pleasurable, but only committed relation has trust in terms of relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. A genetic example of free relation is autism, which has genetic impairment in forming social bonding. The people with autism have heightened emotion and narrow cognition. It was found that individuals with autism have lower level of oxytocin9. A genetic example of bonding relation is Williams Syndrome, which has genetic impairment to process visual–spatial information for independent living, but has unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter, and poor performance in non-social information, such as drawing. According to Simon Baron-Cohen10, the essential difference between the female brain and the male brain is that the average female brain favors slightly empathy, and the average male brain favors slightly in non-social information. Instead of social contact, the average male brain finds pleasure in systematizing non-social information. The overlapping of the male brain and the female brain is significant. 1.1.2. The Information Process Type In the information process type, the human mind is like computer. The human mind or computer is to process information, which can be compared with the personality types from Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality type. The combination of the information process type and the social information type can be compared with the Big Five personality model. Four important functions in the information process in human mind or computer are admission (the selection of the input data), resolution (the details of data), action (the format of the process program), and openness (the updating of the process program). In each of the process functions, there are two levels: high and low. These the information process types then are compared with the personality types from Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality type. The following table lists the information process type and its comparison with MBTI personality types. The information process type
Information Function Admission Resolution Action Openness Process The information process type High Low High Low High Low High Low Sensitivity (S) assertiveness (A) distinctness (D) Network (N) goal (G) context (C) Updating (U) Persistence (P) Personality Type (MBTI) introvert (I) extrovert (N) sense (S) intuition (N) thinking (T) feeling (F) perceiving (P) judging (J)

1.1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness

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Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five Admission High Low Sensitivity (S) Assertiveness (A) introvert (I) extrovert (N) Extrovert (E)

The admission of each set of input data can be high or low. In computer, program is written to recognize and admit a part of each set of input data. If every detail in a set of input data is important, the admission of data is high. In this case, under limited computer capacity, only few sets of data can be accepted. In the human mind, the perceived degree of harm determines the degree of admission. The high perceived degree of harm leads to the importance of every detail in a set of data, resulting in sensitivity (represented by S). The low perceived degree of harm leads to the importance of only few details, resulting in assertiveness (represented by A). The person of assertiveness has a low dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. The person of sensitivity has high dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. To maintain an optimal level of stimulation, the person of assertiveness requires numerous sources of stimulation sources. According to H. J. Eysenck 11, extroverts have persistently low cortical arousal and seek stimulation. The personality of assertiveness therefore is the personality of extrovert as described in MBTI and by Eysenck. On the other hand, the personality of sensitivity is introvert in MBTI. Introverts have persistently high arousal and avoid stimulation. Admission is like the gate for the entry of incoming information. It is the first reaction to the incoming information by opening or closing the gate. It is also the last reaction to the incoming information by closing the gate. Processing information requires energy and space, so it is necessary to keep incoming information minimum, just enough only for survival and reproduction. When survival and reproduction is secure, the admission of information can be low that leads to assertive. On the other hand, when survival and reproduction is insecure, the admission of information is high that leads to sensitivity. Therefore, security is the condition for assertiveness, and insecurity is the condition for sensitivity. Personality type is an adaptation to certain conditions during evolution and during personal development. Personality type that we were born with is an adaptation to certain conditions by our ancestors. Personality type that we develop later in life is an adaptation to certain condition we encounter. For human who is capable of the integration of various events, condition can also be belief system, a central theme for the past, the current, and the future events. In some cases, a new belief system can completely replace an actual condition. Under different conditions (belief systems), different behaviors appear. The behaviors resulted from normal and excessive conditions are normal and excessive behaviors. . Under the condition of insecurity for sensitivity, the normal behavior is association, incorporating stimuli as a part of experience. Under extreme condition of insecurity, the extreme behavior is freezing, a behavior of total avoidance. Under the condition of security for assertiveness, the normal behavior is disregard, excluding input information. Under condition of extreme security, the extreme behavior is inactivity, complete disregard.

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The personality in terms of social inhibition for a child older than 10 months can be predicted by the behavior of the child before four months old12. Four-months-olds who cry, fuss, or fret often in response to a novel stimulus, such as a brightly colored mobile or a whiff of an alcohol swab, are more likely end up being socially inhibited. This shows that a baby who has an especially low threshold for activation ends up being introvert. The behavior is facilitated by neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters facilitate communication between neurons (nerve cells). Different neurotransmitters enhance different personality types. Serotonin (5-HT) enhances the assertiveness type. The effect of serotonin is aided by drugs such as SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). This drug was popularized in the book, “Listening to Prozac” by Peter D. Kramer 13. It minimizes impulses and obsession, such as social fear shyness and eating disorders, because it decouples association from previous association learning. If excessive amount of serotonin is in the brain, the brain can become too selective, expressing as repetition or inactivity. This excessive behavior of assertiveness is different from the normal behavior, disregard. Serotonin is the oldest neurotransmitter. It is the index for perceived social security. In the study of crayfish 14, the winner in a fight between two crayfishes appears to have a higher amount of serotonin than the loser has. The winner perceives social security, while the loser perceived social insecurity. The loser has a quick response from the touch of tail, while the winner does not have this quick response. In social group of monkey, the leaders have the highest levels of serotonin reflecting the perceived security, while those on the bottom of have the lowest levels reflecting perceived insecurity. Assertiveness is more suitable strategy in a perceived secure environment to preserve energy, while sensitivity is more suitable strategy in a perceived insecure environment to enhance vigilance. Acetylcholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter to enhance sensitivity. Acetylcholine provokes fear and withdrawal (freezing). Acetylcholine decreases in Alzheimer’s dementia, so the patient with Alzheimer’s dementia has trouble in association in terms of memory. During dream in the rapid eye movement period, there are large increase in acetylcholine, and large decrease in serotonin. It is why there is virtually free association during dream without inhibition. Such free association is necessary to reinforce the learning of association during waking. The source of Ach and 5-HT is the brain stem, the primitive part of the brain. Ach has another source near amygdala, the center for fear. They distribute widely in the brain. 1.1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network Information Process Resolution High Low Personality system Distinctness (D) Network (N) Personality Type (MBTI) sense (S) intuition (N) The Big Five Consciousness (C)

When computer processes video pictures, it can have many pictures with coarse details (low resolution) or few pictures with distinct details (high resolution). The human brain has the same kind of trade-off. In some part of human brain such as the part for

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speech, there is distinctness with high resolution, but this part of the brain cannot cover many different areas of information at the same time. In another part of the brain, many areas of information can be covered at the same time, but distinctness is poor. The information process type with the high resolution is Distinctness (represented by D), while the information process type with low resolution and high connection is Network (represented by N). According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of sensing (represented by S) is a specialist, concerning with concrete details, facts, precision, single idea in depth, and step by step method. This sensing personality matches with the distinctness type in the information process type. According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of intuition (N) is a generalist, concerning with whole picture, speculation, many alternative ideas, and inventive ideas. The intuition type matches with the network type. Resolution is the detailed processing of information, which requires energy and space. With the same energy and space, high-resolution process can process a small picture with lots of distinctive details, while low-resolution process can process a large picture with few distinctive details. High-resolution process results in distinctiveness, and low resolution process leads to network. When the brain stores a number of pictures, Distinctiveness keeps maximum adjacent connections in the same picture and minimum broad connections among different pictures. Network keeps maximum broad connections among different pictures and minimum adjacent connections in the same picture. When the condition requires precision or single-minded approach, Distinctiveness is needed. Some tasks, such as fine motor movement and speech, require a series of distinctive space-time. When specific precise information is needed, the behavior is focus by inhibiting or disconnecting all other possible interference from other sources. Focus involves a specific task by a series of distinctive and small neural assembly. In multiple tasks, Network is needed to connect various tasks at the same time. The outer part of the brain is the cortex. The cortex consists of four lobes: the frontal cortex (motor cortex), parietal cortex (somatosensory cortex), temporal cortex (auditory cortex), and occipital cortex (visual cortex). The lobe other than the frontal cortex is called posterior cortex. The primary zone of the cortex receives input from the sense organs. The secondary zone receives input from the primary zone to integrate information from different primary zones. The association area receives information from the secondary zones, so it has the highest integration not only from the rest of the cortex but also from the subcortex. The frontal cortex has the largest area for the association area. It has the broadest connection to different parts of the brain. Therefore, the frontal cortex is the area for the overall distinctiveness or the excessive network involving the large areas, while the posterior cortex is the area for the specific distinctive or the normal network involving small specific areas. Mood involves overall distinctiveness and network, so the recognition of mood takes place in the frontal cortex. The cortex is divided into the left cortex and the right cortex. The left cortex, which expresses language, is the cortex for distinctness, while the right cortex, which is good in orientation, is the cortex for network15. S. H. Woodward 16 proposed the left cortex and the right cortex use different neuron connections. The cortical neurons are organized in columns. Neurons are connected vertically and horizontally. Woodward proposed that left cortex processing relies primarily on tight connections between vertical columns of neurons, whereas right cortex processing depends on weaker and longer horizontal connections.

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Vertical cortical circuitry provides distinctness, and horizontal cortical circuitry provides network. Woodward proposed that vertical circuitry carries inhibitory signals to the right cortex by the corpus collosum (the part dividing the right cortex and the left cortex), so the right cortex does not rely on vertical cortical circuitry. The left brain contains greater cell density and more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages. The right brain, in contrast, contains ore areas of "associative" with white myelinated fibers for long distant neural messages (higher integrative level)17. A number of neurotransmitters are unequally distributed in the right and left hemispheres. Dopamine is distributed more extensively in the left hemisphere. It was found that rather than signaling pleasure as previously thought, dopamine may be released by brain neurons to highlight significant stimuli 18. Significant stimuli are distinctive stimuli. Dopamine has been implicated in the controlled of fine motor movement. The patient with Parkinson’s disease, which is deficient in dopamine, cannot control fine motor movement. Excessive dopamine, on the other hand, brings about unrealistically excessive focus. The social relation affects the brain structure involving network. The bonding relation type requires extensive social network resulting the brain structure with extensive network. As discussed before by Simon Baron-Cohen, woman is more social relation type than man, so the female brain has more network than the male brain. It is shown in the thicker corpus collosum that connect the right brain and the left brain, more dendritic connections between brain cells, and more evenly distributed language centers in the brain for better communication. Therefore, for woman, the brain is wired more for the bonding relation type and the network type, and for man, the brain is wired more for the free relation type and the distinctiveness type. The mental disorders involving Distinctiveness and Network deal with the extreme presence or absence of Distinctiveness and Network. The extreme presence of Distinctiveness involves Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) characterized by perfectionism, orderliness, adherence to rules, exercise of control, hoarding and problems with personal relationships. The extreme absence of Distinctiveness involves diseases, such as in Parkinson’s disease. 1.1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context Information Process Action High Low Personality system Goal (G) Context (C) Personality Type (MBTI) thinking (T) feeling (F) The Big Five Neuroticism (N)

In a computer, each information process goes through an operating system that control the flow of information processing in terms of priority and scheduling of different information processes. A simple operating system put all information processes in a context from which priority and scheduling are determined. Thus, each information process has a specific goal to reach, while each simple operating system has a context to arrange all information processes. In terms of action for actual information output, information process has much higher action than operating system. In the human mind, there is also Goal (represented by G) for information process and Context (represented by C) for operation system. Goal is action-oriented resulting in

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the measurable intentional change. Context is option-oriented resulting in the context for possible action. The evolutionary origin of Goal and Context is the first difference between male and female animals. Male animal carries extremely high number of sperms, while female animal carries limited number of eggs. During the mating session, the presence of a female animal with eggs triggers the desire of action in a male animal. Such action can result in a measurable intentional goal in terms of mating. On the other hand, to a female animal, the presence of a male animal is merely an option for which a context is set for possible action. Such context can be the show of strength, superiority, and affection. The context is for possible action. A female animal has much less drive for action, and much higher ability for the discernment for possible actions. Another important action in Goal is problem solving in terms of removing obstacle during courtship and mating, such as chasing off another male competitor. Context is emotion with option, and Goal is emotion with action. The free-bonding relation type is closely connected with the goal-context type because the man-woman difference. For man, the combination of free relation type and the goal type results in the thinking type (T) for MBTI. According to MBTI, The thinking type (T) has characteristics of theoretical, rational, analytical, purposive, logic, and unconcerned with people's feeling. In terms of Goal, the thinking type is essentially the action of problem solving to remove an obstacle in terms of solving a problem. It has a definitive goal to make a measurable intentional change. Since the goal is combined with the free relation type, it does not concern with people’s feeling. For woman, the combination of the context type and the bonding relation type results in the feeling type in MBTI. According to MBTI, the feeling type (F) has characteristics of passionate, warm, personal, artistic, and concerned with people's feelings. In the Context, the feeling type does not have a particular propose to make a measurable intentional change. It is merely to discern the situation. Since the context type is combined with the bonding relation type, it concern with people’s feeling. On average, the female human brains have a larger deep limbic system than males. The larger deep limbic brain allows women more in touch with their feelings to prioritize all possible options. When the brain at rest without consciously thinking of anything, men, on average, had higher brain activity in the more ancient and primitive regions of the limbic system, the parts that are more involved with action. Women, on average, had more activity in the newer and more complex parts of the limbic system, which are involved in feelings19. The hypothalamus, which is a tiny structure at the base of the brain, regulates many basic functions, such as eating, sleeping, temperature control, and reproduction. One part of the hypothalamus responsible for sexual behavior is larger in male brains than in female brains, in human and non-human animals. In total Goal for nonhuman, the goals of life come from predominately biological self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. It includes hunger, thirst, and sex etc. For human, the goals of life come from not only biological self but also autobiographic self in the form of life story. Autobiographic self is self-knowledge as described by Nancy Cantor20 and Hazel Markus21 for cognition and motivation. Autobiographic self is from episodic memory, which is different from semantic memory. Semantic memory refers to one’s stored knowledge of facts, concepts, and general principles of how the world operates. Semantic memory is the essential memory used to live in the world. Episodic memory, on the other hand, is not essential,

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and more or less serves as the map for semantic memory. It is an autobiographic store of life experiences. The prefrontal cortex in the human brain is large. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of connections with different parts of the brain. Consequently, the large prefrontal cortex in human is capable to integrate the autobiographic store of life experiences into autobiographic self in the form of the life story. Other animals do not have such autobiographic self. All animals have biological self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. Only human has a strong autobiographic self to determine the boundary of experiential self. Only human has both biological self and autobiographic self. Autobiographic self in the form of life story brings about path, meaning, and goal of life. The path of life allows human to map the past, the present, and the future experiences. The meaning of life lets human to know the experiential position in the world. The goal of life permits human to prioritize life. Because of the changes in life experiences and life expectation, the life story is in a continuous process of revision, resulting in the continuous changes in path, meaning, and goal of life. The mental disorders involved are the extreme Goal and the extreme Context The extreme Goal is the extreme action-oriented without stopping, resulting in manic. Manic can lead to psychopath, seeking the unstopping thrill of action. The extreme Context is the extreme option-oriented without any possible action, resulting in depression. Depression can result in suicide, terminating all possible action. Both extremes are the results of chronic stress in terms of pain and loss. 1.1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five Openness High Low Updating (U) Persistence (P) perceiving (P) judging (J) Openness (O)

An elaborate operating system for a computer not only schedules information processes but also manipulate and update information from different information processes. For the human mind, the simple operating system corresponds to emotion, while the elaborate operating system corresponds to cognition for more elaborate manipulation and updating. In the human brain, the part involved in the update is the prefrontal cortex. The large size of the prefrontal cortex in human is an important difference between human and other apes. The opposite of update is persistence which keeps the program constant. The information process type for the low openness is persistence (represented by P), and for the high openness is updating (represented by U). According to MBTI, the judging type has characteristics of planned, orderly way, settled, organized, decisive, closeness, and finishing things. The judging type matches the Persistence type. The perceiving type has characteristics of flexible, spontaneous, flexible, tolerant, open option, understand life rather than control it. This perceiving type matches the Updating type. Updating is a change in information in order to be adaptable to the current situation. The change of information involves manipulation of several sets of information, including old sets of information, possible new sets of information, and the final set of information.

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The manipulation of several sets of information requires the involvement of the prefrontal cortex. It involves in new combination and arrangement of information. The prefrontal cortex has multiple components: working memory buffers and a “central executive,” the manager that manipulates and coordinates information stored in the buffers for updating 22. Working memory is a “blackboard memory” operating over mere seconds. The process includes moving information into working memory, updating what is already there, and using it to select a final updating. The whole updating process involves both the prefrontal cortex and the rest of the cortex. The prefrontal cortex has extensive connections to various parts of the brain. Neuroscientist Edmund Rolls 23 found that the prefrontal cortex in a monkey had fired strongly immediately before the monkey changed the behavior in behavior to a changing circumstance. The prefrontal cortex allows a quick switch of strategy in behavior to a change of circumstance. The reason for such a quick switch of strategy is that the prefrontal cortex has ample free neuron network which provides the space to construct a new strategy one after another free of previous experience and memory. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex cannot construct a new strategy one right after another. They tend to construct one strategy, and stay with the same strategy over and over again even there is a need for another strategy. They fail to select the most current strategy for their action. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex may also persistently follow whatever command given to them without change. The damage in the prefrontal cortex is the example for the extreme case of persistence. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that has expanded the most in primates. The large human prefrontal cortex provides human a very large space to construct new strategy in terms of new combination and arrangement of information. The large prefrontal cortex in human also provides an area to construct strategy overcoming salient and concrete experiences. Glutamate is the neurotransmitter for long-term potent (LTP) which is necessary for the working memory, which in turn is important for updating. Dopamine enhances the activity of few selective neurons by inhibiting the activity all other unrelated and unneeded neurons. Both glutamate and dopamine work together to accomplish updating. The mental disorders involved are the extreme Persistence without Updating. The extreme Persistence is impulsiveness without considering any possible consequences. One of such disorders is schizophrenia. The extremes are the results of chronic anxiety in terms of uncertainty. 1.1.3. The Big Five The most popular model of personality is the Big Five. The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as the OCEAN model of personality. Openness correlates to Updating in persistence-updating for the propensity for adapting to changing information. Conscientiousness relates to Distinctiveness in distinctiveness-network for the care for focusing attention. Extrovert corresponds to

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Assertiveness in sensitivity-assertiveness for the easy to receive incoming information. Agreeable corresponds to bonding relation in bonding relation-free relation in the way of social life for the propensity to form trust for social bonding. Neuroticism corresponds to Context in goal–context for emotion. Information Process Admission Resolution Action Openness Personality system High Low High Low High Low High Low Sensitivity (S) Assertiveness (A) Distinctness (D) Network (N) Goal (G) Context (C) Updating (U) Persistence (P) Bonding relation (B) Free relation (F) 1.2. The Social Lives The human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts. 1.2.1. The Social Lives for the Primate Social Structures The combination of the factors in the personality system results in the feminine yin personality and the masculine yang personality for collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement, respectively. The social lives are the combination of the yinyang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social units. The combination results in yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active, corresponding to Amiable, Expressive, Analytical, and Drive in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory. The harmonious social life is the unique new human social life that no other organisms have. The instinct for the harmonious social life (harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie. The social lives are derived from the personality system. The social lives for the primate social structures consist of three parts: the yin-yang personality, the intragroup interaction among basic social units, and the degree of openness. (1) Yin-Yang Personality (BNC-FDG) The feminine yin personality is the combination of the bonding relation type (B), the network type (N), and the context type (C), while yang is the combination of the free relation type (F), the distinctiveness type (D), and the goal type (G). For the yin personality (BNC) type, the combination leads to “collective wellbeing”, where collective means B and N, and wellbeing does not involve a specific action. For the masculine yang personality (FDG) type, the combination brings about “individualistic achievement”, where individual means F and D, and achievement involves a specific goal. Collective
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Personality Type (MBTI) introvert (I) extrovert (N) sense (S) intuition (N) thinking (T) feeling (F) perceiving (P) judging (J)

The Big Five Extrovert (E) Consciousness (C)

Neuroticism (N) Openness (O)

Social Relation Commitment High Low

Agreeable (A)

wellbeing deals with mainly people, while individual achievement deals with primarily with task. Therefore, yin represents people, while yang represents task. The society with the yin personality is the collective society, while the society with the yang personality is the individualistic society. (2) Passive-Active Intragroup Interaction (S-A) The social lives for primates are the combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social units (subgroups) within a social group. The basic social units (subgroups) can be single female and her offspring, monogamous family, polyandrous family (one-female-several-male group), polygynous family (one-male-several-female group), and multimale-multifemale group (noncommittal male-female). The intragroup interaction among the subgroups can be passive or active interaction, corresponding to introvert (Sensitivity) or extrovert (Assertiveness). The passive intragroup interaction leads to a loose social group where the intragroup interaction in not active. The active intragroup interaction leads to a tight social group. The tight social group helps to provide protection against predators. It also helps to protect scarce food resources. This is especially true for non-human primates when the food is fruit. Leaf-eaters, such as colobus monkeys and langurs, tend to form smaller loose social groupings since there is little competition for their food. The very few nocturnal species of primates are mostly small, relatively solitary hunters. In general, a social group under the condition of sufficiency resource and security leads typically to a loose social group, while a social group under the condition of insufficient resource and insecurity results typically in a tight social group. The combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions leads to yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active. The loose collective society and the tight collective society come from the yin passive and the yin active social lives, respectively, while the loose individualistic society and the tight individualistic society come from the yang passive and yang active social lives, respectively. In the tight collective society, the active intragroup interaction produces the group wellbeing that promotes care about all members of the group and the group identity in addition to basic collective wellbeing. In the tight individualistic society, the active intragroup interaction produces the group hierarchy that promotes individual strength and effort as well as the submission to the leader of group in addition to basic individualistic achievement. The tight collective society is more egalitarian than the tight individualistic society. In general, the tight individualistic society is under the condition of less sufficient resource and security than the tight collective society. The reason is that the competitive hierarchy social structure, like an army, is more suitable to overcome the difficulties in insufficient resource and insecurity than the group wellbeing social structure. A typical example in ape is the different social structures of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Bonobos have the female-centered collective society with the group wellbeing, while chimpanzees have the male-centered individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy.

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A primate society has typically more than one type of society. For example, the society of female mouse lemurs found in the Island of Madagascar as described by Robert Russell 24 is the tight collective society, and solitary male mouse lemurs have the loose individualistic society. Six to twenty female mouse lemurs form a lifelong social group. The basic lifelong unit of the social group is mother-daughter, so there are several units of mother-daughter from the same neighborhood. Mother and daughter have mutual growth relation. Mother takes care of daughter, and teaches her all skill of life. Daughter stays with her mother. About three to ten pairs of mother-daughter form a social group. They have a centrally located communal sleeping hollow for their daytime rest. The social group provides lifelong warmth, stimulation, shared experiences, and warning system for protection from the intrusion of predators. This form of social group increases greatly the chance of survival for female mouse lemurs. The ratio of adult females to adult males exceeds four females for every one male. For orangutans, there are the loose collective society for single female and her offspring and the loose individualistic society for solitary males. For chimpanzees, male chimpanzees have the tight individualistic society, while female chimpanzees have loose individualistic society. Female bonobos, on the other hand, have the tight collective society, while male bonobos have the loose individualistic society. Female bonobos as a group overpower male bonobos. From of the perspective of acquisition instead of condition, the tight individualistic society can acquire resource and security better than the tight collective society, and the tight society acquire resource and security better than the loose society. On the other hand, from the perspective of the cost for individuals in terms of energy and time spend in intragroup interaction, the tight individualistic society is more costly than the tight collective society, and the tight society is more costly than the loose society. The social structure of non-human primates is the balance among condition, acquisition, and cost.

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Condition Acquisition Cost

Tight individualistic Society 4 1 4

Tight collective Society 3 2 3

Loose individualistic society 2 3 2

Loose collective society 1 4 1

1 = under most abundant resource and security condition 1 = acquire most resource and security 1 = least costly for individuals in the intragroup interaction

Humans, on the other hand, have tendency and capability for accumulation (greed) rather than mere survival and reproduction, so humans allow high cost for individuals, such as stress and anxiety. (3) The Degree of Openness (P-U) The additional social life is the harmonious social life for harmonious cooperation that exists only in human that has the much larger prefrontal cortex responsible for the high openness in terms of Persistence-Updating in the personality system. The high openness allows the harmonious social life to transcend yin-yang and passive-active. Consequently, the society with the harmonious social life maximizes acquisition, and minimizes the cost for individuals in the intragroup interaction, resulting in the most successful society. However, the harmonious social group size has to be small. The description and the evolution of harmonious cooperation social life and harmonious society will be discussed in details in the next sections. The social life system consists of five different combinations of the factors in the personality system as in the following table. The Social lives Primate for Social Structures
Social lives yin (BNC ) –yang passive-active (introvert(FDG) or harmonious extrovert) or flexible cooperation (high Intragroup interaction openness) among basic social units Yin Passive Yang Yin Yang Harmonious cooperation Passive Active Active flexible Primate Social Structures Characteristics Merrill-Reid Social lives

the loose collective society the loose individualistic society the tight collective society the tight individualistic society the harmonious society

passive collective wellbeing passive individualistic achievement active collective wellbeing active individualistic achievement harmonious cooperation

Amiable Analytical Expressive Driver

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Merrill-Reid Social lives control emotion analytical ask amiable expressive emote driver tell

The Yin Yang Social life yang yang passive passive yin passive yang active active yin active yin

The social life system is similar to the Merrill-Reid social style theory 25 , consisting of amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social lives. According to the Merrill-Reid theory, the four social lives are described below. • Amiable: Place a high priority on friendships, close relationships, and cooperative behavior. They appear to get involved in feelings and relations between people. • Expressive: Appear communicative, warm approachable and competitive. They involve other people with their feelings and thoughts. • Analytical: Live life according to facts, principles, logic and consistency. Often viewed as cold and detached but appear to be cooperative in their actions as long as they can have some freedom to organize their own efforts. • Driver: Give the impression that they know what they want, where they are going, and how to get there quickly. Amiable and Expressive have yin (female type) characteristic for collective wellbeing, while Analytical and Driver have yang (male type) characteristic for individualistic achievement. Expressive and Driver are more active in interpersonal relations than Amiable and Driver. Merrill-Reid Social lives do not include harmonious cooperation. The amiable social life in the Merrill-Rein theory corresponds to the yin passive social life that involves and is keenly interested in the close relationship with people (yin) foe collective wellbeing. The expressive social life corresponds to the yin active social life that involves in both close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group wellbeing in addition to basic collective wellbeing. The analytical social life corresponds to the yang passive social life that involves and is keenly interested in only systemizing task (yang) for individualistic achievement. The driver social life corresponds to the yang active social life that involves both the close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group hierarchy in addition to basic individualistic achievement. 1.2.2. The Human Instincts and the Yin Yang Social Lives The social lives are derived from the human instincts. The human instincts include the humanized instincts and the dehumanized instincts. The humanized instincts are used originally involving human. The dehumanized instincts are used originally involving nonhuman. It is quite common among social animals to behave differently

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toward the animals of the same species and toward the animals of different species. For examples, cannibalism and the killing among the animals of the same species are rare in social animals even during the fighting among the animals of the same species. The fighting among the animals of the same species for the purpose of domination is often ritualistic without serious injury. The harms to the infant animals from the animals of the same species are infrequent. On the other hand, as predators, animals kill preys of different species without hesitation. As a prey, an animal makes a manipulative strategy to escape from a predator of different species. Animals make a clear distinction between the animals of different species and the animals of same species. The humanized instinct consists of the female-male instincts involving human. People possess all of the female-male instincts. The female instincts are in average stronger in women, while the male instincts are in average stronger in men. However, the overlap is large, so it is common for some men to have stronger female instincts, and for some women to have stronger male instincts. The female instincts include the bonding instinct to bond with other human and the nurturing instinct to nurture the love ones. The male instincts include the systemizing instinct to systemizing various objects into a system and the dominative instinct to have domination in social hierarchy. The dehumanized instincts involving nonhuman are the prey-predator instincts. The prey instincts include the freezing instinct to minimize the activity in the presence of strong nonhuman predator and the manipulative instinct to play tricks to a strong nonhuman predator for the protection of self and love ones. The predatory instincts include the addictive instinct to have obsession in terms of task and the predatory instinct to over-control a weak nonhuman prey. Such prey-predator instincts are for nonhuman, but in the large complicate civilized society where people relations are complicate, people misuse the prey-predator to subhuman that is defined as human who is treated as nonhuman. In an extreme case, a person regards all people as subhuman that activates the prey-predator instincts in the person, resulting in mental disorders, such as depression, borderline personality disorder, obsession, and psychopath. The prey instincts closely relate to the female instincts, while the predatory instincts closely relate to the male instincts. The human social lives are listed in the following table.

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The Positive Negative Yin Yang Social Lives
Social life Origin Description Perceived Condition Perceived Mechanism Merrill-Reid Instinct Behavior Role Idealized SelfImage POSITIVE YIN POSITIVE YANG Humanized female-male instincts involving human collective wellbeing in mostly people individual achievement in mostly task abundant resource and security deficient resource and security offensive mechanism for connecting people PASSIVE amiable bonding kindness friend loyalist ACTIVE expressive nurturing nurturing nurturer peacemaker defensive mechanism for survival PASSIVE analytical systemizing discipline systemizer idealist ACTIVE driver dominative strength leader hero

Origin Description Perceived Condition Perceived Mechanism Merrill-Reid Instinct Behavior Role Idealized SelfImage Mental Disorder

NEGATIVE YIN NEGATIVE YANG dehumanized prey-predator instincts involving subhuman Cool manipulation in mostly people obsessive over-control in mostly task deficient resource and security abundant resource and security defensive mechanism for protection PASSIVE amiable freezing withdraw prey loner depression ACTIVE expressive manipulative manipulation manipulator strategist borderline personality disorder offensive mechanism for hunting PASSIVE analytical addiction obsession addict specialist obsession ACTIVE driver predatory over-control predator master psychopath

As in the table above, the positive yin social life and the positive yang social life are derived from the humanized female instinct and male instinct, respectively. The general description of the positive yin social life from the female instincts is collective wellbeing in mostly people. The best perceived condition to have collective wellbeing is abundant resource and security. It is hard to have collective wellbeing under deficient resource and security. Under such abundant resource and security, the mechanism is the active offensive mechanism to connect with people instead of passively connecting with people. The general description of the positive yang social life from the male instincts is individual achievement in mostly task. The best perceived condition to have individual achievement is deficient resource and security. The deficient resource and security motivate an individual to achieve in order to survive and prosper. Under the deficient resource and security, the mechanism is passive defensive mechanism to achieve in order to survive and prosper.

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The positive yin passive social life (amiable) involves and is keenly interested in close relationships with people, so the instinct is the bonding instinct. The corresponding behavior is kindness toward people. The role for the yin passive social life is friend. A person with the role of friend can idealize (exaggerate) the role as loyalist. The positive yin active social life (expressive) involves in both basic social unit and intragroup. The instinct is the nurturing instinct in addition to the bonding instinct. The nurturing instinct’s involvement is active and broad. The role for the yin active social life is nurturer. A person with the role of nurturer can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as peacemaker to provide the peaceful environment for nurturing all love ones. The positive yang passive social life (analytical) involves and is keenly interested in only task. The instinct is the systemizing instinct for the intrinsic human capability and desire to make a system out of various objects. The corresponding behavior is discipline to follow a well-developed system. The role for the yang passive social life is systemizer. A person with the role of systemizer can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as idealist to have the idealistic system. The positive yang active social life (driver) involves in the basic social unit and intragroup. The instinct is the dominative instinct in addition to the systemizing instinct. The dominative instinct’s involvement is active and broad. The corresponding behavior is mental and physical strength. The role for the yang active social life is leader to provide the best (dominating) condition to survive and prosper. A person with the role of leader can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as hero who will fight for survival and prosperity. As in the table, the negative yin social life and the negative yang social life are derived from the dehumanized prey instinct and predatory instinct, respectively. The general description of the negative yin social life from the prey instincts is cool manipulation in mostly people. The perceived condition to have cool manipulation is deficient resource and security. Under the deficient resource and security, the mechanism is passive defensive mechanism to stay away and to manipulate in order to survive. The general description of the negative yang social life from the predatory instincts is obsessive over-control in mostly task. The perceived condition to have obsessive overcontrol is abundant resource and security. Under such abundant resource and security, the mechanism is the active offensive mechanism to obsess and to over-control. The negative yin passive social life is derived from the dehumanized prey instinct that is the freezing instinct to avoid the contact with strong subhuman predator as much as possible. The corresponding behavior is to withdraw (coolness) involving subhuman predator. It involves only subhuman. The role for the yin passive social life is passive prey. A person with the role of passive prey can rationalize the role as loner to avoid detestable people. In the extreme case, the person can regard all people as subhuman predator, resulting in the destruction of the intrinsic brain structure to distinguish human and nonhuman. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of depression. The negative yin active social life is derived from the dehumanized prey instinct that is the manipulative instinct in addition to the freezing instinct. The corresponding behavior is manipulation involving subhuman predator. Manipulation can be very deceptive as the broken wing trick that a mother bird plays to lead a predator away from the baby birds. It is the origin of the asymmetrical warfare. It involves both subhuman

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and task needed to carry on manipulation. The role for the yin active social life is manipulator. A person with the role of manipulator can rationalize the role as strategist to protect the person and the love ones from strong opponents. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of borderline personality disorder. People with borderline personality disorder frequently have unstable relationships, fly into rages inappropriately, or become depressed and cannot trust the actions and motives of other people26. In the study, directed by neuroscientist Brooks King-Casas27, people with borderline personality disorder played a "trust" game involving sending money and receiving money. They play the game while their brains are scanned by functional MRI. The fMRI shows areas of activities in parts of the brain during the game. In this study, in the normal people, a part of the brain showed activity that responded in direct proportion to the amount of money sent and the money received. However, in people with borderline personality disorder, that part of the brain responded only to sending the money, not to the money received. The interpretation in term of the preypredator relation is that money represents resource. In a prey-predator relation, a prey wants to protect its resource by measuring how much resource (money) that it gives away. It does not expect any resource from a predator. There is no mutuality in the preypredator relation. Most of people with borderline personality disorder are women. The negative yang passive social life is derived from the dehumanized predator instinct that is the addictive instinct. The corresponding behavior is obsession to do a very specific task all the time. It involves only task. The task can be an obsessive professional task for excessive wealth or an obsessive hobby task for excessive adventure. The role for the yin passive social life is addict. A person with the role of addict rationalizes the role as specialist. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of obsession. The negative yang active social life is derived from the dehumanized predatory instinct that is the predatory instinct in addition to the additive instinct. The corresponding behavior is over-controlling of weak subhuman prey. It involves both task and subhuman prey. The role for the yin active social life is predator to weak subhuman prey. A person with the role of predator can rationalize the role as master who controls an inferior person. The mental disorder in the extreme case is psychopath. People with psychopath are very egocentric individuals with no empathy for others, and they are incapable of feeling remorse or guilt. Psychopath is a combination of dominant and cold interpersonal characteristics Most of people with psychopath are men. In an fNRI study by neuroscientist Kent Kichl28, a certain part of the brain in criminal psychopaths showed much less activity in responses to emotional charged words like blood, sewer, hell, and rape than the normal people. It shows that psychopaths are relatively insensitive to the cruelty involving human. 1.2.3. The Harmonious Social Life and Society The yin social lives in general require long social memory of the special features and behaviors of friends, nurturers, and the one to be nurtured. With the dominative instinct, the yang social life produces dominance hierarchy. Yin (female) and yang (male) are distinctively different in the gender dichotomy.

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Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free cooperation among the members of society. Cooperation is important in survival strategies as described by Axelrod and Hamilton's evolution of cooperation29. To find different strategies for cooperation, they devised the prisoner's dilemma. The prisoner's dilemma refers to an imaginary situation in which two individuals are imprisoned and are accused of having cooperated to perform some crime. The two prisoners are held separately, and attempts are made to induce each one to implicate the other. If neither one does, both are set free. This is the cooperative strategy available to both prisoners. In order to tempt one or both to defect, each is told that a confession implicating the other will lead to his or her release and, as an added incentive, to a small reward. If both confess, each one is imprisoned. But if one individual implicated the other and not vice versa, then the implicated partner receives a harsher sentence than if each had implicated the other. Among all strategies, TIT FOR TAT is the best strategy. On the first move cooperate. On each succeeding move do what your opponent did the previous move. Thus, TIT FOR TAT was a strategy of cooperation based on reciprocity. From the further analysis of TIT FOR TAT, four features of TIT FOR TAT emerged: 1. Never be the first to defect: indicate eager cooperate 2. Retaliate only after your partner has defected: important to detect defection 3. Be prepared to forgive after carrying out just one act of retaliation: minimum social memory 4. Adopt this strategy only if the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3: essentially a strategy for a small social group. A distinctive character in TIT FOR TAT is eager cooperation as in the first feature above. It always cooperates first. Such eager cooperation has minimum social memory to forgive the past defection as in the third feature above. Such eager cooperation generates a large cohesive domain, resulting in the best strategy. However, if defection has no consequence as in a large group, TIT FOR TAT does not work as in the fourth feature above. TIT FOR TAT works only in a small group. In the yin and yang social lives, the high social barrier from long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy excludes eager cooperation in TIT FOR TAT strategy. To carry out TIT FOR TAT strategy, the evolution of human social life produced two additional new instincts. The two additional new instincts are the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct. The hyper friendly instinct allows human to cooperate eagerly, while the detective instinct allows human to detect defection. The combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct brings about the conscience instinct. The conscience instinct is the base for the harmonious social life. The following sections describe the hyper friendly instinct, the detective instinct, and the conscience instinct.

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The Harmonious Social Life
Social life Description HARMONIOUS COOPERATION maximum eager cooperation without lie: harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment) hyper friendly Detective Instinct eager cooperation theory of mind Behavior Harmonist Idealized Self-Image

1.2.3.1. Eager Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free eager cooperation among the members of society. To promote eager social cooperation, it is necessary to minimize such social barrier. One way for the minimization is the hyper friendly instinct. Through the hyper friendly instinct, the hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier. One example of the hyper friendly instinct is the frequent sexual activities among all members of bonobo social group30. The sexual activities can be between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. Comparing to chimpanzees, bonobos are much more peaceful and egalitarian because of this hyper friendly instinct. Another example of the hyper friendly instinct is expressed in very enthusiastic greeting from dogs. This hyper friendly instinct is inherited from wolfs that form highly cooperative society. The domestication of dog for thousands years has enhanced the hyper friendly instinct, resulting in the high cooperation between dog and human. In human, the hyper friendly instinct is expressed as language. Language as an instinct was proposed by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker 31 . The verbal communication minimizes effectively social barrier. Human learns language quickly and early. The human brain encourages language by rewarding language. For an example, the extremely hyper friendly people are the people with Williams Syndrome, which has unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. They have excellent verbal skills, superior and precocious musical ability, perfect pitch and a good memory for names and faces. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter. The highly developed human language instinct indicates the highly developed human hyper friendly instinct. 1.2.3.2. Detection – The Detective instinct In the advanced stage of verbal communication, a verbal statement can express an event occurred elsewhere. Since the event occurs elsewhere, a listener has to determine if the expressed statement is a truth or a lie. The detective instinct for detecting a lie in a verbal statement is necessary for the advanced stage of verbal communication. The detective instinct is for subtle lie instead of conspicuous lie, which can be detected easily without the new detective instinct. The neural network for the detective instinct is called the lie detection neural network. The neural network has been described by Hiram

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Brownell and Richard Griffin32 as the neural network for theory of mind. The network consists of the left brain, the right brain, and the prefrontal cortex as follows. The Lie Detection Neural Network left brain questionable statement 1 right brain internal alternative statement 1

expression

statement 1

prefrontal cortex statement 2 questionable statement 2 internal alternative statement 2

prefrontal cortex repeat or conclusion When a speaker expresses a statement, which describes an event occurred elsewhere, the statement is registered in the right brain and the left brain. The left brain has greater cell density and the more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages, so the left brain can have a good copy of the statement consciously from the speaker. The right brain, in contrast, has more areas of "associative" with more white myelinated fibers for long distant neural message. In the right brain, instead of the exact copy, the statement becomes a questionable statement waiting to be verified. The questionable statement triggers automatically an internal alternative statement that relates the event occurred elsewhere. The association of the original statement and the alternative statement can be very weak. In the right brain, the questionable statement and the alternative statement coexist. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements along with other information to determine the correct statement. The correct statement is realized by the left brain consciously as the statement 2. The statement 2 can undergo lie detection again or can become the conclusion. The reverse of the lie detection neural network is the lie making neural network as below.

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The Lie Making Neural Network left brain changeable statement 1 right brain internal alternative statement 1

statement 1

prefrontal cortex statement 2 Changeable statement 2 internal alternative statement 2

prefrontal cortex expression repeat or conclusion

In the lie making network, the statement 1 appears consciously in the left brain. The statement 1 becomes the changeable statement 1 in the right brain. The changeable statement in the right brain triggers automatically the internal alternative statement 1. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements in the right brain to determine the appropriate statement, which is realized consciously in the left brain as the statement 2. The statement 2 can undergo another lie making process or be the conclusion. The conclusion is then expressed. The lie detection neural network is for a subtle lie, and it is not needed for a conspicuous lie, which contradicts immediate observable evidences. Equally, a lie making neural network is for making a subtle lie, and it is not needed for making a conspicuous lie. Conspicuous lie can be detected and made in the left brain. The combination of the lie detection neural network and the lie making neural network brings about theory of mind that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. Automatic triggering of alternative statements in the right brain becomes the base for holistic thinking that requires a broad and non-obvious thinking. Automatic triggering of alternative statement in the left brain becomes the logical thinking that requires a narrow sequential thinking. The principle of humor is that subtlety in humor can be figured out by the right brain, not the left brain. When the subtlety is explained completely and logically by the left brain, the humor is no longer funny. Autism and schizophrenia are the two extremes in the detective instinct. Both of them have problems in bonding with people as indicated by that the people who have autism and schizophrenia are mostly men. Autism represents the inactive detective instinct, resulting in the theory of mind impaired33. People with schizophrenia have an overactive detective instinct. The prefrontal cortex is not able to sort out so many

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ridiculous alternative statements, so people with schizophrenia also are not capable of subtle sensible deception. The deficiency in the detective distinct, however, can lead to the very logical mind, while the excess in the detective distinct can lead to very creative mind. 1.2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct Theory of mind derived from the detective instinct is that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. The combination of the hyper friendly instinct and theory of mind derived from the detective instinct brings about the conscience instinct that is the instinct for maximum eager cooperation without lie that takes advantage of cooperation for selfish reason. People feel guilty about cooperation with lie, and feel other people should feel guilty about cooperation with lie. The conscience instinct as the self-regulation of cooperation results in maximum eager cooperation without lie, leading to harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment). Mutual empathy is love, while mutual empowerment is diligence. The result is the harmonious social life. The people with the harmonious social life are harmonists. The society with the harmonious social life is the harmonious society. This harmonious social life as the innate goodness was described by Mencius, the second most important saint in Confucianism. Mencius said: .... Everyone has the heart of sympathy, everyone has the heart of knowing shame, everyone has the heart of respect, and everyone has the heart of knowing right and wrong. The heart of sympathy is a benevolent, the heart of knowing shame is righteousness, the heart of respect is propriety, and the heart of knowing right and wrong is wisdom. Benevolent, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom that are not injected from outside were in us originally. Only we have not comprehended them. Thus, we can get them through search, and we can lose them through abandonment....” (Mengzi, chapter: human innate goodness) Benevolent and propriety come from the hyper friendly instinct of the conscience instinct, while righteousness and wisdom come from the detective instinct (theory of mind) of the conscience instinct. The summary of the social lives is as below.

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Summary of the Social Lives
Social life Instinct Bonding Nurturing Systemizing dominative freezing manipulative addictive Behavior kindness nurturing discipline strength withdrawing manipulation obsession √ Perceived Resource And Security abundant deficient √ √ √ √ √ √ Realistic Role Friend Nurturer systemizer Leader Prey manipulator Addict Idealized Self-Image loyalist peacemaker idealist hero loner strategist specialist

Positive Yin Passive (Amiable) Positive Yin Active (Expressive) Positive Yang Passive (Analytical) Positive Yang Active (Driver) Negative Yin Passive Negative Yin Active Negative Yang Passive Negative Yang Active Harmonious

predatory

over-control

Predator

master

conscience

initial eager cooperation without lie

harmonist

harmonist

The chart for the summary of the relationship between psychology in terms of personality and social life and social structure is as below.

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PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES PSYCHOLOGY
the brain structure–neurotransmitters for socialization and information processing PERSONALITY

admission resolution socialization (sensitivity(distinctiveness– (bonding relation– assertiveness) network) free relation)

action (goal– context)

openness (persistence– updating)

• • •

yin (network-bonding relation-context = collective wellbeing) and yang (distinctiveness-free relation-goal = individualistic achievement) passive (sensitivity) – active (assertiveness) intragroup interaction harmony = high openness (updating) to transcend yin-yang and passive-active the social instincts SOCIAL LIFE

yin passive social life (amiable)
bonding + freezing instincts

yin active social life (expressive)
nurturing + manipulative instincts

harmonious social life

yang active social life (driver)

yang passive social life (analytical)
systemizing + addictive instinct

conscience instinct = dominative + hyper friendly instinct predatory + detective instinct instincts

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collective collective society society the harmonious society the tight individualistic society the loose individualistic society

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2. The Social-Life Biological Evolution
Human social lives are derived from the social-life biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct fully developed. 2.1. Ape Evolution Early apes evolved during the Miocene epoch from 25 Ma (million years ago) to 5 Ma. Miocene warming began 21 Ma allowed tropical forests to prevail in Eurasia and Africa. The early ancestors of apes migrated to Eurasia from Africa about 17 Ma. Apes evolved in Eurasia. Miocene warming continued until 14 Ma, when global temperatures took a sharp drop. As a result, some apes migrated south into tropical forests in Africa. By 8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. Consequently, apes became extinct except in tropical forests in Southeast Asia and Africa. In Africa, the climate got even cooler and dryer and the forest patches shrank. By the end of the Miocene, East Africa had become mostly open grassland. About 2 Ma, a significant drying occurred in Africa. Cooling and drying cause the change in the density and type of trees in forest and the changes from forest to woodland, grassland, and desert. The difference between woodland and dense forest is in the canopy. Forest trees are tall and dense enough to hide most of the sky, while woodland trees are sparse enough for the sky to be visible and grass and brush to grow on the ground. Grassland has tall grass with few trees. Eventually, tropical forests are limited to a tight band around the equator. The original apes were arboreal animals in dense forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provided both food resource and security. Different apes evolved to adapt to the changes in environments. The family Hominidae (great apes) includes five apes: orangutans, bonobos, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. The most recent common ancestor of the Hominidae lived some 13 Ma, when the ancestors of the orangutans by the analysis of DNA diverged from the ancestors of the other four apes, which are in the subfamily Homininae. About 7 Ma, the ancestors of gorillas diverged from the ancestors of the three other apes, which are in the tribe Hominin. About 6 Ma, the ancestors of humans diverged from the other two apes, which are in the genus Pan. About 2 Ma, bonobos and chimpanzees diverged. The divergences in DNA coincide with the significant changes in climate. 2.1.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape The original great ape existed before 13 Ma, when the warm and wet climate allowed tropical forest to prevail in Eurasia. It was the orangutan-like common ancestor with the best food resource and security from dense forest. The orangutan-like common ancestor did not migrate to Africa. Apes evolved a new way of moving around in the trees – brachiation that is arm-over-arm swinging from one branch to another. Brachiation evolved as a way to get at fruits that were at the very tips of branches. This allows apes to get at fruits that a monkey cannot reach. Apes have larger brains than monkeys. Gestural communication is virtually limited to great apes.

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As the orangutan-like common ancestor, current orangutan is the solitary ape that has the loose social structure without the need of the support of tight social group. They are currently found only in rainforests on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Orangutan is the largest arboreal animals in forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provides both food resource and security. Orangutans are the most arboreal of the great apes, spending nearly all of their time in the trees. Every night they fashion sleeping nests from branches and foliage. They are more solitary than other apes; males and females generally come together only to mate. There is significant sexual dimorphism. Orangutans primarily eat fruit. 2.1.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape The Miocene warming began 21 Ma and continued until 14 Ma, when global temperatures took a sharp drop. About 13 Ma, the slight decrease in of tree-density in forest by climate change caused the first split from the orangutan-like common ancestor to produce the bonobo-like common ancestor with the second best food resource and security. It was necessary to have the support of social group for the procurement of food and for protection in this environment. With the support of social group, food and security posted no serious problems without the strong need to fight for food in a social group. As a result, as the bonobo-like common ancestor, bonobo is the peacemaking ape that has the matriarch collective society for collective wellbeing. Bonobos are now found in the wild only in the dense tropical forest south of the Congo River. Genetically modern bonobo is exactly as close to modern human as modern chimpanzee. For peacemaking, bonobo has “hyper friendliness” as shown in the frequent sexual activities among all members of bonobo social group34. The sexual activities can be between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. On the other hand, De Waal pointed out that 'sex for peace' precisely because bonobos have plenty of conflicts. There would obviously be no need for peacemaking if they lived in perfect harmonious cooperation. Bonobo walks upright approximately 25% of the time during ground locomotion. At the time of the split, its quadrupedal ground locomotion was orangutan-like forelimb fist or palm walking instead of the predominant use of knuckles developed later as characteristic of gorillas and the chimpanzees. Like human, bonobo has relatively small canines. These physical characteristics and its posture, give bonobo an appearance more closely resembling humans than that of chimpanzee. 2.1.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape By 8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. The further decrease in treedensity in some forests by further temperature drop caused the second split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce gorilla in diverse forests in about 7 Ma. In some regions in Africa, dense forest turned into diverse forest with various tree-densities. Gorilla

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is the loyal ape that has the patriarch collective society for collective wellbeing with strong loyalty to the dominatingly large male leader for protection. Gorillas are the largest of the living primates. Instead of relying trees for protection, gorillas rely on their physical sizes for protection. Relying on physical size for protection was adaptable to diverse forests with various tree-densities. Large gorillas could not climb trees easily, so gorillas were ground-dwelling. Gorillas move around by knuckle-walking. Gorillas are shy and peaceful vegetarians. Diverging from the bonobo-like common ancestors, early gorillas ancestors were basically the dominatingly large bonobos. Gorillas today live in tropical or subtropical forests in different parts of Africa. In social group, a silverback is the strong, dominant troop leader. He typically leads a troop (group size ranges from 5 to 30) and is in the center of the troop's attention, making all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the others to feeding sites and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop. All members of a social group are loyal to the dominatingly large silverback. 2.1.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape The progressive drying and cooling turned parts of forests in Africa into woodlands. The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce the bipedal human ancestor, who used free hands for the improvement in gestural communication to survive in hospitable woodland. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland. Free hands from bipedalism allowed continuous gestural communication during walking. The improvement in communication led eventually to the harmonious society. Human was the harmonious ape. Ardi (Ardipithecus ramidus) 35, the oldest human skeleton discovered, lived in 4.4 Ma. Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc. Ardi’s feet had a stout opposable big toe for climbing trees. She lived in grassy woodland with patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. Woodland allowed increasingly amount of food from bushes and low branches, which could be seen and reached from the ground. Chimpanzees today move on two legs most often when feeding on the ground from bushes and low branches. In the same way, feeding on fruits from bushes and low branches, Ardi moved on two legs often. When chimpanzees today are under duress from a poor fruit season, they break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment more thoroughly. In the same way, Ardi and the members of her social group fanned out to find food. Individuals could communicate with one another by vocal/gestural communication. Bipedal Ardi’s free hands allowed individuals from the searching group to communicate continuously and precisely during walking. (Without bipedalism, apes cannot walk and do gestural communication at the same time continuously.) Such effective coordination by vocal/gestural communication allowed them to find food efficiently. The effective coordination also allowed them effectively escaping from predators. They climbed trees mostly at night, for high branch fruits, and for safety. The tree-density was high enough, so they had easy access to trees to escape from predators, and did not need the rapid movement of quadrupedal locomotion, such as knuckle walking, to escape from predators. This initial woodland habitat was quite hospitable for

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early bipedal hominid. Bipedalism might possibly happen in a number of locations with similar hospitable woodland environment. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland. Gorillas did not develop bipedalism, because instead of searching for high quality food, such as fruits, gorillas today eat abundant low quality foods such as leaves, when high quality is not readily available. Gorillas today do not break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment more thoroughly. As seen later, chimpanzees did not develop bipedalism, because they needed knuckle walking to escape from predators and for the large foraging ranges in inhospitable woodland as the initial habitat. In inhospitable woodland, bipedal walking initially was not fast enough to escape from predators, and initially was not efficient enough for the large foraging ranges to survive. The continuous gestural communication allowed improved explanation gestural communication for improving mutual understanding and the improved cooperative gestural communication for establishing elaborate social rules. The improvement in communication reduced conflicts by the improvement of understanding among them and the establishment of some elaborate social rules. The primitive gestural communication emerged first involved the primitive natural gestures of pointing and pantomiming. Such primitive gestural communication did not require the large expansion of the brain. What robust vocal/facial/gestural communication needed was pleasure connecting with vocal/facial/gestural communication. For bonobos, hyper friendliness for peacemaking is expressed by causal sexual contact that gives them pleasure. Unlike other apes, humans, including babies, enjoy gestural/facial/vocal communication, such as dancing, singing, and talking. The pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication of early human ancestors gradually replaced pleasurable casual sexual contact of the bonobo-like common ancestors as pleasurable way to bond with one another. By the time of Ardi, pleasurable causal sexual contact disappeared, and replaced by pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication. Instead of group sex for peacemaking, human ancestors, like Ardi, had group dancing and group singing for peacemaking. The disappearance of casual sexual contact allowed human ancestors to develop monogamy for pair bonding. Communication became not only useful but also pleasurable. Communication became frequent. Communication became sharing information both related and unrelated physical needs. The human ancestors, like Ardi, evolved from the merely peacemaking bonobo-like common ancestors to the harmonious hominids as shown in the absence of large sharp canine teeth (fangs) for fighting. Other apes, particularly males, have thick, projecting, sharp canines that they use for displays of aggression and as weapons to defend themselves. Such harmonious coherent social group improved its ability to find and collect food and to fend off predators, resulting in improved chance for survival in woodland. The human ancestors inherited good gestural communication from the bonobolike common ancestors as shown by Amy Pollick and Frans de Waal in “Ape Gestures and Language Evolution” 36 . Gestural communication is virtually limited to the Hominoidea (great apes). Chimpanzees beg other chimpanzees for food by approaching them with open hands. Gestures seem less closely tied to specific emotions, hence they permit greater cortical control than other forms of communication. They compared bonobos and chimpanzees. They found that facial/vocal displays were used very similarly by both ape species, but bonobos showed greater flexibility in gestural

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communication than chimpanzees and were also the only species in which multimodal communication (i.e., combinations of gestures and facial/vocal signals) added to behavioral impact on the recipient. The bonobos' variable gestural repertoire and high responsiveness to combinatorial signaling indicate that the human ancestors came from the bonobo-like common ancestors. The development of free hands for the improvement of gestural communication was a natural extension of the gestural communication from the bonobo-like common ancestors. The connection between human communication and human cooperative infrastructure is shown by Michael Tomasello in “Origins of Human Communication” 37 Tomasello proposes that the most fundamental aspects of uniquely human communication are biological adaptations for cooperative social interaction. The cooperative infrastructure in human hominid ancestors was inherited from the bonobolike common ancestors who were the peacemaking apes. Gestural communication by free hands from bipedalism improved greatly such cooperative infrastructure. No other animals develop such human-like communication. Gestural communication served as a stepping stone for the evolution of human symbolic communication. Gesture production in humans is so automatic that it is relatively immune to audience effects: blind subjects gesture at equal rates as sighted subjects to a known blind audience. Gestural communication as gestural language is the predecessor of spoken language38. The generally right-handed dominant hominid caused the development of the gestural language area (Broca’s area) in the left-brain that eventually developed into the part for the spoken language later. In the study by Hickok, Bellugi and Klima39 , the impairment for sign language patients was identical with that of speaking patients. At the hemispheric level the neural organization of sign language is indistinguishable from that of spoken language. 2.1.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape Near the central Africa about 2 million years ago, the inhospitable woodland from the further decrease in tree-density caused the fourth split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce chimpanzee. Chimpanzee is the aggressive ape that has the patriarch individualistic society with individual and group aggression to survive in inhospitable woodland. The initial tree-density in the initial habitat of chimpanzees was the lowest among the five apes. Anatomical differences between chimpanzee and bonobo are slight, but in sexual and social behaviors there are marked differences. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Individual and group aggression of male chimpanzees became the mean to survive in such inhospitable woodland. Chimpanzees cannot abandon quadrupedal locomotion and its speed advantages because of their large foraging ranges and susceptibility to predation. Diverging from the bonobo-like common ancestors, early chimpanzee ancestors were basically the aggressive bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to inhospitable woodland.

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Chimpanzees have the patriarch individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy. Primatologist Frans de Waal described male chimpanzees in Chimpanzee Politics40. The male chimpanzees fight to be the number one. A leader is under constant challenge. A leader is deposed after the other male chimpanzees have formed alliance and ganged up against the leader. In the wild, male chimpanzees are extraordinarily hostile to males from outside of the social group. Male patrolling chimpanzees attack and often kill the neighboring male chimpanzee outsider who might be traveling alone. On the contrary, bonobo males or females prefer sexual contact over violent confrontation with outsiders. In summary, the decrease of tree-density of dense forest in Africa by climate change generated the environments for ape evolution. The decrease of tree-density decreased food resource and security for apes. The orangutan-like common ancestors had the best food resource and security in dense forest. The bonobo-like common ancestors compensated the decreased food resource and security from the decreased treedensity with the support of the peacemaking social group. Gorilla compensated the further decreased food resource and security by following dominatingly large male leader for protection. Humans compensated the further decreased food resource and security with improved gestural communication by free hands from bipedalism. Chimpanzees compensated the further decreased food resource and security with individual and group aggression of male chimpanzees. Each species of apes made its initial niche divergence from the previous species to fit its initial environment. Each species stays the same, continues to evolve, diverges, or becomes extinct in the subsequent environment. The diagram and the table of ape evolution and social structures are listed below.

Ape Evolution and Social Structures
orangutan-like common ancestor (loose society)
13 million years ago (Ma)

Family Hominidae Subfamily Homininae
7 Ma

orangutan (loose society) bonobo-like common ancestor (matriarch collective)

gorilla (patriarch collective society) human (harmonious society)

Tribe Hominin
6 Ma 2 Ma

Genus Pan

chimpanzee (patriarch individualistic society) bonobo (matriarch collective society)

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Ape Evolution
History the original ape (> 13 Ma) the first split ( 13 Ma) the second split ( 7 Ma) the third split (6 Ma) the fourth split (2 Ma) Initial Habitat (1 = best food resource and security) dense forest/tree (1) dense forest/tree (2) diverse forest/ground (3) hospitable woodland/ground (4) Inhospitable woodland/tree (5) Characteristic the solitary ape the peacemaking ape the loyal ape the harmonious ape the aggressive ape Social Structure loose society matriarch collective society patriarch collective society harmonious society patriarch individualistic society

Orangutan Bonobo Gorilla Human Chimpanzee

2.2. Hominid Evolution Human social lives are derived from social-life biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was fully developed. Human is Homo sapiens, which is the only non-extinct species of hominids. Hominid evolution started from woodland in Africa. From 6 Ma to 2 Ma, the drier and cooler climate progressed slowly. By around 6 Ma to 2 Ma in Africa, an apelike species had evolved with two important traits that distinguished it from apes: (1) bipedalism and (2) small canine teeth. The two most complete skeletons for early hominids are Ardi and Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) 41. Ardi (45% complete skeleton) is estimated to be 4.4 million years ago. (Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc.) She lived in grassy woodland with patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. The further decrease in temperature and rain decreased food resource and security as shown in Lucy (40% complete skeleton) in 3.2 million years ago. (The brain size is 450-530cc.) The environmental pressure led to the small expansion of the brain as shown in the larger brain in Lucy than in Ardi. After about 2.8 Ma, in East Africa east of the African Rift System, the environment pressure came from the climate fluctuation and significant drying. During this period, parts of forest and woodland turned to grassland. Without the protection of forest, the bipedal hominid in the open grassland faced predators from both large dangerous animals 42 and intense inter-group competition. The climate fluctuation and open grassland forced hominids to evolve quickly in terms of the brain size to thrive in diverse environments including forests, woodlands, and grassland savannas. It involved the usage of tools and the emergence of the highly efficient cooperative harmonious society based on the conscience instinct as the combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind for social cooperation. The usage of tools and the highly efficient cooperative harmonious society allowed human to thrive in diverse environments. With bipedalism, the walking hands turned into free hands that allowed the potential for many usages. For the Australopithecines, the usage is gestural language to improve

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communication for survival as discussed previously. The brain size was only slightly larger than other apes. In the next 2 million years, the Australopithecine evolved into the Homo with larger brain than its predecessor. The next most significant gradual change of hominid evolution is the conversion of free hands into manipulative hands with precision grip resulting in the acquisition of tool-use and making. The most primitive stone tool-use hominid family is Homo habilis in about 2.2-1.6 Ma. (The brain size is 750-850cc.) Because tool-use and making required thinking and precision manipulation, the competitive advantage of the tooluse and making resulted in the rapid expansion of the brain for tool-use and making. The use of tools allowed hominids to hunt and butcher animals which provided the nutrients for the brain. Eventually, (1.9-0.1 Ma), Homo erectus had not only perfected stone tools considerably but had also learned how to control and use fire. (Homo habilis and Homo erectus coexisted. The brain size is 1000-1250 cc.) The hearth for fire and the gathering for cooperative tool manufacture promoted the development of social organization. The competitive advantage of social organization resulted in the rapid development of spoken language to aid gestural language in the same area of the brain. The bone structures of Homo erectus showed signs for commanding speech. For speech, Homo erectus had a larynx with an equivalent position to that of an 8-year-old modern child 43. Both brain-size and the presence of the Broca's area also support the use of articulate language44. The competitive advantage of the spoken language led to theory of mind as mentioned before. Ardi already had vocal/facial/gestural communication as hyper friendliness. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind from theory of mind led to the conscience instinct that is maximum eager cooperation without lie. The social life is the harmonious social life in the harmonious society. Homo erectus was probably the first hominid to live in small, familiar band-societies similar to modern hunter-gatherer bandsocieties45. Language alone cannot solve all social conflicts to achieve maximum eager cooperation without lie, so it is necessary to control social conflicts by will. The social behaviors were still affected greatly by the instincts from the old non-harmonious social lives that hinder frequently maximum eager cooperation without lie. The competitive advantage of the harmonious society (TIT FOR TAT strategy as the best strategy) resulted in the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Adult humans with injury in the prefrontal cortex know what to do for socialization, but do not have the will to do for socialization. Therefore, the conscience instinct can be divided into the conscience intelligence for the knowledge of socialization and the conscience will to control the non-harmonious instincts to achieve maximum eager cooperation without lie. A large part of the prefrontal cortex is for the conscience will connecting emotion and instinct areas in the brain. The competitive advantage of the harmonious society filtered out the less harmonious people and social groups (trouble makers) who were marginalized or forced to move out of the harmonious society. The remaining people with the harmonious social life continued to evolve into even more harmonious social life, and the less harmonious people and groups continued to be marginalized or move out. The technological and

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social 46 selections generated the unusually fast evolution of the hominid brain. Eventually, the most technologically advanced and harmonious hominid, Homo sapiens, emerged in Africa where the harmonious society originated. This social movement follows exactly the outcome for the TIT FOR TAT strategy as the best strategy to defeat all other strategies. The earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia were dated to be about 200,000 years old. (The brain size is 1,350 cc.) The brain of Homo sapiens reaches the maximum efficiency in terms of size and complexity. Any additional size and complexity to achieve higher harmonious social life are counter-productive47, so Homo sapiens have the maximum harmonious social life rather than the ideal harmonious social life. The genetic psychological reinforcement of the harmonious social life is achieved by both the positive good feeling in practicing the harmonious social life and the negative bad feeling in violating conscience for the harmonious social life. For the detection instinct in conscience, the automatic emergence of shame and uneasiness in lying is the negative bad feeling in violating conscience. Such bad feeling of lying moves people toward honesty. For hyper friendliness in conscience, the automatic emergence of miserable feeling in loneliness steers people toward social connection. Psychologist John Cacippo 48 finds that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to health as smoking or obesity. Since conscience involves significantly the prefrontal cortex, loneliness impairs the performance of the prefrontal cortex, such as in logical reasoning49. Such harmful and miserable effect of loneliness indicates the strong preference of social connection through the harmonious cooperation in a social group for our primitive ancestors. In summary, walking hands turned into free hands by bipedalism. Free hands allowed improved gestural language that became the expression of hyper friendliness. Such evolution took place in woodland without the requirement of additional brain expansion for intelligence. In the highly impoverished and insecure open grassland, the brain started to expand as free hands evolved into manipulative hands to make improved tools. The appearance of very useful spoken language greatly accelerated the expansion of the brain. The spoken language became the expression of theory of mind as theory of mind that exists only in human. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind resulted in the conscience instinct. The enhanced conscience instinct came from the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. Hominid evolution is the evolution of the conscience instinct. Hominid evolution as the evolution of the conscience instinct is as follows.

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Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct
walking hands (bonobo-like common ancestor)
bipedalism

free hands for gestural language as hyper friendliness (non-Homo hominids 6-1 Ma) manipulative hands for tool (Homo habilis 2.2-1.6 Ma) speech for theory of mind (Homo erectus 1.9-0.1 Ma)

hyper friendliness

theory of mind (detective instinct) conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex

enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens <0.2 Ma) conscience intelligence conscience will

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3. The Interaction of the Social Lives
3.1. The Properties of the Social Lives Life has many parts. Each specific part has specific fitness and disorder. Fitness enhances life, and disorder enhances demise. The instinctive response to fitness that enhances life is happiness to continue the fitness. Disorder that enhances demise is the loss of the function of certain adaptable life part. The instinctive response to disorder is suffering to prompt attention to disorder, so disorder can be dealt with urgently. For an example, a woman who has a good digest system enjoys digesting food. When the damage in her digest system induces the loss of the function of her digest system, she instinctively suffers from pain that prompts attention to the damage in her digest system, so she can deal with the damage urgently. The healing of suffering is the adoption of fitness to replace disorder. The healthy life allows all parts of life working together constructively rather than destructively. Social-life fitness enhances social life, and social-life disorder enhances social-life demise. The instinctive response to social-life fitness that enhances social life is social-life happiness to continue the pursuit of social-life fitness. The instinctive response to social-life disorder that enhances social-life demise is social-life suffering to prompt attention to sociallife disorder, so individuals can deal with social-life disorder urgently. Social-life sin is the action of social-life disorder. The healthy social life allows all three of social lives working together constructively rather than destructively. The social-life fitness for feminine social life is typically collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring, and social-life disorder is injustice, which enhances the social-life demise of feminine social life. Feminine social life is the yin (collective) social life. The response to injustice is the suffering of alienation. The action of injustice is injustice sin that causes alienation. The fundamental social unit is collective social group. A person who has the collective social life is a collective lifer. For an example, a woman who is a collective lifer enjoys collective wellbeing. When injustice induces the loss of her collective wellbeing, she suffers instinctively from alienation that prompt attention to the injustice, so she can deal with the injustice immediately. When she induces injustice, she commits injustice sin that causes alienation. The social-life fitness for masculine social life is typically individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate, and social-life disorder is repression, which enhances the social-life demise of masculine social life. Masculine social life is the yang (individualistic) social life. The response to repression is unfulfillment. The action of repression is repression sin that causes unfulfillment. The fundamental social unit is individual. A person who has the individualistic social life is an individualistic lifer. For an example, a man who is an individualistic lifer enjoys individualistic achievement. When repression induces his loss of individualistic achievement, he suffers instinctively from unfulfillment that prompts attention to the repression, so he can deals with the repression urgently. When he induces repression, he commits repression sin that causes unfulfillment. The unique human evolution produces harmonious cooperation as the harmonious fitness that transcends the feminine fitness and the masculine fitness, produces highly productive cooperation among all individuals, and works in small social group only. The

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fundamental social unit is the one-to-one relation without collective social unit and individuality, so it works only in a small social group. The social life is the harmonious social life. Social-life disorder is disharmony, which enhances the social-life demise of the harmonious social life. The response to disharmony is loneliness (disconnection). The action of disharmony is disharmony sin that causes the social-life suffering of loneliness (disconnection). A person who has the harmonious social life is a harmonious lifer. For an example, a man who is a harmonious lifer enjoys harmonious cooperation. When disharmony induces the loss of his harmonious cooperation, he suffers instinctively from disconnection that prompts attention to the disharmony, so he can deal with the disharmony urgently. When he induces disharmony, he commits disharmony sin that causes disconnection. The Social-Life Structural Theory
Yin (Collective) Social Life Symbol Social-life fitness Social-life disorder Sin Suffering Fundamental Social Unit Lifer (Person) Society collective wellbeing injustice injustice alienation collective social group collective collective Yang (Individualistic) Social Life Individualistic achievement repression Repression Unfulfillment Individual Individualistic Individualistic Harmonious Social Life harmonious cooperation disharmony disharmony loneliness (disconnection) one-to-one relation Harmonious Harmonious

Different social lives have different rules, so social-life sin as the violation of rules from a different society is inevitable. To all pigs, eating pork is a sin, and to most humans, eating pork is not a sin. The human society has different social lives (collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives) which have different rules, so social-life sins are inevitable. The severity of social-life sins decreases with decreasing separation and polarization among social lives. 3.2. The Enforcement of the Social Life Healthy society and individual in terms of social life enforce the adoption of social-life fitness and the avoidance of social-life disorder. The enforcement originates from the memories of happiness and suffering, social reward and punishment, and faith. The memory of social-life happiness enforces the adoption of fitness, while the memory of social-life suffering enforces the avoidance of disorder. The process can be manifested by the memories of extreme social-life suffering and happiness. The memory of extreme social-life suffering leads to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), involving painful persistent re-experience of traumatic suffering, such as extreme alienation, repression, and disconnection. The extreme sufferings of alienation, unfulfillment, and disconnection are the sudden extreme damages to collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, by death or violence.

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The re-experience is triggered by a similar experience to make the memory of the original painful traumatic experience even more painful. The re-experiencing traumatic experiencing brings about extreme avoidance and hyper-sensitivity. In PTSD, the reexperience of extreme suffering greatly damages the ability for normal life. The memory of normal social-life suffering enforces the avoidance of social-life disorder without damaging the ability for normal life. The memory of extreme social-life happiness brings about post peak experience fitness (PPEF), involving happy persistent re-experiencing of social-life happiness, such as extreme collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation. Peak experiences are described by American psychologist and philosopher Abraham H. Maslow50 as especially joyous and exciting moments in life, involving sudden feelings of intense happiness and well-being, wonder, and awe. The peak experience of collective wellbeing is the happiness for sudden extraordinary wellbeing in social togetherness. The peak experience of individualistic achievement is the happiness for sudden extraordinary individualistic achievement far above ordinary individualistic achievement. The peak experience of harmonious cooperation is the social happiness for sudden extraordinary mutual empathy and empowerment or the personal happiness for the sudden extraordinary sense of unity without self. The re-experience is triggered by a similar experience to make the memory of the happy original peak experience even happier. In PPEF, the re-experience of peak experience enforces the active participation and the confidence in social-life fitness. The memories of many experiences of normal social-life happiness can also enforce the active participation and the confidence in social-life fitness. Society rewards fitness as virtue, and punishes disorder as sin. The collective society rewards collective wellbeing, and punishes injustice as sin. The individualistic society rewards individualistic achievement as virtue, and punish repression as sin. The harmonious society rewards harmonious cooperation as virtue, and punishes disharmony as sin. As soon as a specific social life is established by the combination of memory and social enforcement, the faith in the social life can continue the enforcement even without the successful social life. Since social life enhanced by fitness is often interrupted, the faith in a specific social life is important to continue the social life. 3.3. The Interaction of the Social Lives The interactions among the social lives result in the unified multi-social life society and the single-social life society. A peaceful unified multi-social life society consisting of the collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives has the balanced social life. In the balanced social life, collective wellbeing is not violated severely by individualistic achievement and harmonious cooperation, individualistic achievement is not repressed severely by collective wellbeing and harmonious cooperation, and harmonious cooperation is not disharmonized severely by collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement. To have a balanced social life, a peaceful society must have a continuous checks and balances process, so all social lives have acceptable existences. An unbalanced multi-social life society does not have good checks and balances process to find acceptable existences for all social lives. For an example, in traditional marriage, husband is responsible for the individualistic life for individualistic achievement to achieve social status and wealth, while

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wife is responsible for the collective wellbeing of family. In a balanced marriage, the individualistic achievement by husband is not repressed by the collective wellbeing by wife, while the collective wellbeing by wife is not violated by the individualistic achievement by husband. A balanced marriage requires continuous checks and balances, so both collective life and individualistic life have acceptable existences in marriage. In an unbalanced family, the individualistic achievement by husband is repressed by the collective wellbeing by wife, and/or the collective wellbeing by wife is violated by the individualistic achievement by husband. An unbalanced marriage does not have good checks and balances process to find acceptable existences for both collective life and individualistic life. A balanced marriage has good checks and balances to work out acceptable effort, time, and risk for collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement, while an unbalanced marriage does not have good checks and balances. In dysfunctional marriage, one or both of the social lives are dysfunctional. A single-social life society has one complete social life. In the complete social life, dominant collective wellbeing represses individualistic achievement and disharmonizes harmonious cooperation, dominant individualistic achievement violates collective wellbeing and disharmonizes harmonious cooperation, and dominant harmonious cooperation violates collective wellbeing and represses individualistic achievement. For examples, a purely socialistic society represents the complete collective life. Dominant collective wellbeing requires equality that represses unequal individualistic achievement. Dominant collective wellbeing also requires justice system that violates oneto-one personal relation in harmonious cooperation. A purely capitalistic society represents the complete individualistic life. Dominant individualistic achievement comes with dominant individualistic underachievement that violates collective wellbeing. It also disharmonizes one-to-one relation in harmonious cooperation. A religious monastery represents the complete harmonious life. Dominant harmonious cooperation for one-to-one relation precedes inflexible collective social unit and individuality. Therefore, dominant harmonious cooperation violates collective wellbeing and represses individualistic achievement. A person who joins a purely single-social life society must choose the social happiness of the complete social life and the social-life sufferings of the other social lives. The conversion remains unchanged as long as the happiness is greater than the sufferings. A converted collective lifer chooses the social happiness of collective wellbeing and the social-life sufferings of unfulfillment and disconnection. A converted individualistic lifer chooses the social happiness of individualistic achievement and the social-life sufferings of alienation and disconnection. A converted harmonious lifer chooses the social happiness of harmonious cooperation and the social-life sufferings of alienation and unfulfillment. At the same time, a person who joins a purely single-social life society must choose the social happiness of the complete social life and the guilty feelings of the social-life sins of the other social lives. The conversion remains unchanged as long as the happiness is greater than the guilty feelings of social-life sins. A converted collective lifer chooses the social happiness of collective wellbeing and the guilty feelings of repression sin and disharmony sin. A converted individualistic lifer chooses the social happiness of individualistic achievement and the guilty feelings of injustice sin and disharmony sin. A converted harmonious lifer chooses the social happiness of harmonious cooperation and the guilty feelings of injustice sin and repression sin.

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Part 2: The Social-Life Cultural Evolution
The social-life cultural evolution is based on the social-life structural theory which consists of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and harmonious social lives that produce the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies, respectively. The social-life cultural evolution consists of the Prehistoric Period (Chapter 4), the Early Period Chapter 5), and the Modern Period (Chapter 6). The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collective society and the individualistic society were formed separately as the Early Divided Society, in which different societies clashed to form exclusive societies. In the collective society, the state has the state collective religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism). In the individualistic society, the state has the state individualism (Greek mythology and science). Later, the harmonious society without the state of a large social group was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek harmonious cooperation among people in small social groups. In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches (collective, individualistic, harmonious) of human society, resulting in the Modern Unified Society, such as America.

4. The Prehistoric Period
4.1. The Prehistoric Harmonious Society Fitness Harmonious Society harmonious cooperation disorder (sin) Disharmony Suffering loneliness (disconnection)

In the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society, the social-life fitness that enhances social life is harmonious cooperation. Social-life disorder that enhances social demise is disharmony. The action of disharmony is disharmony sin that causes the disharmony suffering as loneliness (disconnection). The harmonious society rewards harmonious cooperation as virtue, and punishes disharmony as sin. The prefrontal cortex for the harmonious social life controls the old social lives: the collective and the individualistic social lives, so collective wellbeing to separate friends and outsiders and individualistic achievement to look down underachiever are minimized to maximize harmonious cooperation. The prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximized eager for the prehistoric primitive hunters and gatherers, social connection through the harmonious

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human relation instead of the accumulation of wealth, fame, pleasure, organization, and power was essential for human survival. The harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximum eager cooperation without lie is egalitarian, democratic, and peaceful. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Each person lived adequately. Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society may be similar to the modern Bushman in African’s Kalahari Desert as described by Marshall Sahlins’ “The Original Affluent Society”51. The hunter-gatherer society in small groups (about 20-35 people) adjusts its daily needs and desires with what is available to them. The period between childbirths is four to five years by the long prolonged lactation, so the population growth is very slow. Available food is actually fairly adequate for their modest need without population pressure. Without material accumulation, they work only for daily needs, so only the able-bodied work no more than 19 hours only a week, and 40% of people do not need to work. Without clear property lines, they welcome all visitors. They do not have to permanently stay in one social group. A great deal of evidence suggests that the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was much less war-like than later peoples. Archaeological studies throughout the world have found hardly any evidence of warfare the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. Many of the world’s cultures have myths that refer to an earlier time when life was the balance way of social life. In classical Greece and Rome this was known as the Golden Age; in China it was the Age of Perfect Virtue, in India it was the Krita Yuga (Perfect Age), while the Judeo-Christian tradition has the story of the Garden of Eden52. The harmonious social life is the origin of the uniquely human social life. The harmonious prehistoric society was based on the conscience instinct without external artificial rules, identities, and desires for wealth. For Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, the harmonious social life is the human original life created by God in the image of God. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27) The harmonious social life is based on conscience for all people as described by Paul in the Bible. Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law, since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them. (Romans 2:14-15) The goal of this command is love, which comes from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith. (1 Timothy 1:5) For Zen Buddhism, the harmonious social life as the original human social life is the Buddha nature that all people have in them. Everyone can achieve the Buddha nature. As mentioned before, Mencius, a great Confucian teacher, described the human innate

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goodness. He believed everyone could be Yao and Yu (the Chinese ancient mystic saintemperors). The imitation of the prehistoric harmonious society was described by Laozi, a founder of Daoism, as a small state with few people. Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs. Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80) For Laozi, there are two different ways, the Way (Dao) and the civilized way. The Way was practiced by the prehistoric harmonious society based on the harmonious social life with the conscience instinct. The civilized way is practiced by the civilized society based on the non-harmonious lives with external artificial rules, identities (names), and desires for wealth. The two different ways are described in the first chapter of Dao De Jing. The way can be spoken of is not the constant Way; the name can be named is not the constant Name. The nameless is the beginning of all things; the name is the mother of all things. Therefore, the one without constant desire will perceive its subtleties; the one with constant desire will perceive its boundaries. These two are the same in source but different in name. Both of them are called the mystery. It is the mystery of mysteries. It is the gateway to all subtleties. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 1) In the Chapter I of Dao De Jing, the Way (the harmonious social life) includes the constant Way, the constant Name, the nameless, and the one without constant desire. The civilized way (the non-harmonious social lives) includes the way, the name, the name, and the one with constant desire. The Way and the civilized way come from the same source in the mysterious and subtle human mind. Species evolve through a process of natural selection53. Natural selection is a consistent difference in survival and reproduction between different genotypes (a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic makeup) or different genes. Natural selection is the process by which species adapt to their environment. Natural selection leads to evolutionary change. The emergence of human race with the harmonious society and the harmonious social life evoked a new selection: supernatural selection. Human is a special creature as stated in the Bible. So God created man in his own image; in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27)

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The supernatural selection selects the harmonious social life as the chosen social life. The origin of harmony is the blessed harmonious social life and society. The purpose of supernatural selection is the preservation of the harmonious social life and the harmonious society in changing environments. The supernatural selection involves the divine revelation of and the human acceptance of the abstractness, the non-presentation of the expression in the human natural mind. The divine revelation involves the supernatural miracle: the non-representation of natural physical laws. Through the abstractness, the supernatural has saved humans from extinction and deviation from the harmonious society and the harmonious social life. The ultimate purpose of the supernatural participation in human is to return to the innate goodness, the harmonious social life and the harmonious society. In the different human societies in need, the supernatural has appeared in different functions to preserve the harmonious society and the harmonious social life. For about 160,000 years, when the harmonious society and the harmonious social life prevailed, the supernatural did not appear explicitly and directly in the human society. In the harsh environment of the Upper Paleolithic Period about 40,000 years ago, the supernatural became the supernatural bonder in order to add the abstract bond for bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment. For the immoral civilized society, the supernatural became the supernatural authority to add the abstract morality to prevent the destructive dehumanized prey-predator instincts. For the civilized people, the supernatural also became the supernatural liberator to add the abstract no-self to find the abstract rebirth. The purpose of the rebirth is to return to the harmonious social life. The abstractness is listed below.
Supernatural Symbol supernatural bonder Supernatural authority Supernatural liberator Abstractness abstract bond Abstract morality Abstract rebirth Religions Symbolic religion (female figurines and cave painting) Moral religions (Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, and Islam) Harmonious religions (Buddhism, Daoism, and Christianity)

The abstractness will be discussed in details later.

4.2. The Prehistoric Religious Harmonious Society For about 160,000 years, the livestyle as the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society society remained mostly unchanged until the Upper Palaeolithic Revolution about 40,000 years ago. The major human social life during this period was the harmonious social life. The natural biological instincts were adequate for the human survival. Similarly to the Industrial and Neolithic Revolutions, the Upper Paleolithic Revolution represents a short time span when numerous inventions appeared and cultural changes occurred. The revolution comprised new religions, technologies, hunting techniques, human burials, and artistic work. The Upper Paleolithic period extended from about 40,000 to between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago.

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The reasons for these changes in human behavior have been attributed to the changes in climate during the period which encompasses a number of sudden global temperature drops, meaning a worsening of the already bitter climate of the last ice age. A number of sudden temperature drops reduced significantly the area for forest in Europe and Asia. The reduction of forest reduced the food supply, usable timber, and other nonfood materials. The same climate change caused the extinction of Neanderthals, who had survived since 200,000 years ago, and had similar intelligence as Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens faced the same fate of extinction as Neanderthals. One distinct difference between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is the appearance of the new Homo sapiens’ religion, which saved Homo sapiens from extinction. At the time of the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural was immanent supernatural that appeared everywhere as a part of all objects in the world. Anything unexplained or unusual was attributed to the supernatural. The society was democratic and egalitarian, so there was no authoritative transcendental gods to be worshiped. Everyone and everything was equally an avatar, the incarnation of the supernatural. Such concept of immanent supernatural was prevalent before the Upper Paleolithic Revolution. The symbols for the immanent supernatural were typically the exaggerated and distorted representation of the real natural objects to represent the unexplained and unusual characteristics of the immanent supernatural, so the symbols represented partly the natural and partly the supernatural. (Symbol is the result of the exaggeration of a specific feature of a real object.) Such symbols brought the immanent supernatural to help people. They did not worship such symbols, because there was no concept of worshipping anything authoritative. During the harsh time in the Upper Paleolithic Period, the social group that was preoccupied with fertility and vitality for women and men, respectively, and had strong faith in the immanent supernatural had better chance to survive the harsh environment. The common symbols of the immanent supernatural for fertility were the exaggerated and distorted female figurines. In most cases, the female figurines are miniature sculptures of well-rounded female nudes with an overemphasis of the fleshy parts of the body (buttocks, stomach and chest). The sexual accent on the female breasts and the posterior are assumed by many to connote signs of fertility. The head and arms are mostly absent with the stress on the middle of the torso. Thighs tend to be exaggerated tapering into smaller legs. The head has no face. These distorted and exaggerate form of female body represents the immanent supernatural in a natural female body. These religious female figurines were valuable bringing the immanent supernatural to help fertility in the sense of bringing good luck to child birth. Another group of religious symbols is the cave paints for the immanent supernatural to achieve vitality. During the Upper Paleolithic Revolution, the harsh environment prompted people to find alternate mental states to revitalize. The alternate mental states involved hallucinatory or trance states by drugs or repetitive rhyme. The belief in the immanent supernatural within a person made the entrance into the alternate state easy and inevitable. The whole process was manifested in the Paleolithic cave paintings as described by David Lewis-Williams54. In the cave paints, the animals were mystic large strong animals or mystic animals with horns that symbolized maturation and strength. The mystic animal pictures were conceived during the trance states. The

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mystic powerful animal cave paintings were presented as evidence of spirit journeys previously undertaken. The difference in the religious practice during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is the increasingly shared religious symbols for the immanent supernatural among different social groups. The enormous distribution of these female figurines implied a ritualistic exchange system with the figurines playing a central role in inter-group relations 55 . Practicing alternate states of the mind also became community rituals among different social groups, often led by shaman inside or outside of caves. The practicing of the alternate state of mind together promoted unity among different social groups. The sharing of the religious symbols brought about the sharing of survival information and resource among different social groups. The sharing could actually improve the fertility and vitality of the groups involved, resulting in the validation of the power of the religious symbols. The result was the rise of the female figurine and cave painting religion. People spent much more energy and time to develop and make such religious symbols for the immanent supernatural, resulting in rapid development and spread in religious art and the involved skills. In terms of theology, when human faced the possibility of extinction in the harsh environment, the supernatural initiated the supernatural miracle by using the religious symbols for fertility and vitality in the forms of female figurines and cave paintings, respectively. Through sharing religious symbols among different social groups by the hyper friendly instinct, the religious symbols were blessed by the supernatural with the supernatural miracles. The religious symbols really worked miraculously. Different social groups identified with the common religious symbols, forming the social bond. The religious symbols become the abstract bond outside of the natural mind that relies on actual concrete human interaction. In other words, the religious symbols instantly evoke social bond without actual concrete human interaction. This abstract bond is revealed through the supernatural miracle. Bounded by the blessed religious symbols, different social groups worked together to overcome the harsh environment, avoiding extinction. After providing the way for the abstract bond among different social groups to avoid extinction, the supernatural miracle became increasingly unnecessary. Neanderthals never conceived of an "alternate reality”. From the perspective of Neanderthals, Homo sapiens were delusional to believe in the religious symbols of the immanent supernatural. Without bonding different social groups to overcome the harsh environment, Neanderthals became extinct in about 20,000 BC when female figurines and cave painting were popular. The society with the abstract bond is the unified prehistoric harmonious society. 4.3. The Exit from the Harmonious Society The Neolithic Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to the cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic Revolution may be caused by climatic change from the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age at about 12,000 BC. These climatic shifts prompted the migration of many big game animals to new pasturelands in northern areas. They left a dwindling supply of game for human hunters in areas such as the Middle East. Climatic shifts also

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led to changes in the distribution and growing patterns of wild grains and other crops on which hunters and gatherers depended. These changes forced people to systematic cultivation of plants and domestication of animals as the supplement for the undependable source of food by gathering and hunting. As cultivated crops and domesticated animals improved, people depended on cultivated crops and domesticated animals as the main food source. The first society resulted from the Neolithic Revolution is the horticulturalpastoral society56. Horticulture is agriculture before the invention of the plow. In simple horticultural societies, the gardeners used their hands assisted by digging sticks. Advanced horticultural societies used the hoe. They grew enough to support their families and local group but not enough to produce surpluses to sell to non-agricultural peoples. Because horticulture required more labor, to have more children became necessity. Women therefore had more children with shorter lactation period, and became less available in production. In horticulture, women were still able to farm and be productive while maintaining their reproductive roles. Gender inequality was not severe. The main source of food supply in pastoral societies was by domestication of animals. These societies were typically found in mountainous regions and in areas with insufficient rainfall to support horticultural societies. In desert areas they travel from water hole to water hole. In mountain areas they move up and down the terrain as the weather changes. The increase in population in the horticultural society forced people to use more productive method for the cultivation of crops. The method involved plow and draft animals, resulting in the agricultural-nomad society. Plowing maintained the fertility of the soil by turning topsoil. Agriculture could support population increases by more intensive use of the same piece of land. Agriculture could support a much larger population than horticulture. Farmers grew crops for sale rather than crops grown only for household use. Market became an important part of society. Surplus food production brought about non-food-producing professionals, such as religious or ruling elites. Large cities emerged. It is the start of civilization whose original meaning relates to being a citizen, who is governed by the law of one’s city, town or community. Plowing by draft animals allowed large farm far away from home. Plow technology, which required more upper body strength and allowed large farm far away from home, did not allowed women to participate in plowing the fields and rearing children at the same time. They still did much of the processing and preserving of food, but their contribution to the household was not as valued as the work that men did because they did not contribute economically by selling products. Gender inequality was severe in the agricultural society. Civilization was an irreversible process, because the large population caused by civilization had to be supported by agriculture. The reverse to the pre-agricultural-nomad society would have led to mass starvation. The agricultural society required to stay in the same place, so it was more prone to the periodic local natural disaster, unlike the hunter-gatherer society that was free to move away from local natural disaster. The constant population pressure and the periodic natural disasters caused the deficient resource and security. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Today, we are now as tall as we once were.

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The life expectancy in the agricultural-nomad society was actually shorter than in the hunter-gatherer society. Because one of the rules for TIT FOR TAT is the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3, the large size social group does not allow TIT FOR TAT strategy for the harmonious society. TIT FOR TAT is essentially a strategy for a small social group, like the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The agricultural society with large size social group and deficient resource and security forced the society moving away from the original harmonious society that had small social group and adequate resource and security. A sign of immorality in the agricultural-nomad society is warfare. Cultural anthropologist, Raymond C. Kelly 57 believes that warfare originated very late in human evolution. Archaeological evidence points to a commencement of warfare that postdates the development of agriculture. This strongly implies that earlier hunter-gatherer societies were warless and that the Paleolithic was a time of universal peace. One example is Japan where the agricultural society was established very late. In Japan, intensive agriculture came in with migrants from the mainland about 2,300 years ago. Archaeologists have excavated some 5,000 skeletons that predate the intrusion, and of those only ten show signs of violent death. In contrast, out of about 1,000 post-migration excavated skeletons, more than a hundred show such signs. The result was the immoral yin-yang civilized society, deviated greatly from the harmonious society. Consequently, humans moved out of the Garden of Eden. The deviation from the human innate goodness of the prehistoric harmonious society has been described by various religions. In the Bible, the deviation represents the exit from the Garden of Eden. In the Bible, the Garden of Eden symbolizes the harmonious society. The forbidden fruit symbolizes civilization. The eating of the forbidden fruit by Adam and Eve resulted in the death, as commanded by God, “…but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die (Genesis 2:7). “For as in Adam, all die.” (1 Corinthians 15:22)”. “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23).” The deviation represents the spiritual death after civilization. For Daoism, the emergence of the civilized society is the deviation from the Great Way in the harmonious society in the prehistoric time. Therefore, when the Great Way is rejected, it is then that we have the virtues of humanity and righteousness. When knowledge and wisdom appear, it is then that there is great hypocrisy. When the six relations are not in harmony, it is then that we have filial piety and compassion. When the country is in chaos and confusion, it is then that there are virtuous officials. (Chapter 18, Dao De Jing) Daoism considers humans were corrupted by culture and civilization. Zhuangzi, a founder of Daoism, stated, The humans of old dwelt in the midst of crudity and chaos; side by side with the rest of the world, they attained simplicity and silence there. At that time the yin and yang were harmonious and still, ghosts and spirits worked no mischief, the four seasons kept to their proper order, the ten thousand things knew no injury,

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and living creatures were free from premature death. Although humans had knowledge, they did not use it. This was called the Perfect Unity. At this time, no one made a move to do anything, and there was unvarying spontaneity.58 In prehistoric past, all was in harmonious cooperation and all were happy, living in a simple state of nature. Nothing and nobody died prematurely. Zhuangzi explained how and why humans went downhill since those ancient, pristine times: The time came, however, when natural potency began to dwindle and decline, and then Suiren and Fuxi stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result there was compliance, but no longer any unity. Natural potency continued to dwindle and decline, and then Shennong and the Yellow Emperor stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result, there was security, but no longer any compliance. Virtue continued to dwindle and decline, and then Yao and Shun stepped forward to take charge of the world. They set about in various fashions to order and transform the world, and in doing so defiled purity and shattered simplicity. The Way was pulled apart for the sake of goodness; natural potency was imperiled for the sake of conduct. After this, inborn nature was abandoned and minds were set free to roam, mind joining mind in understanding; there was knowledge, but it could not bring stability to the world. After this, 'culture' was added on, and 'breadth' drowned the mind, and after this the people began to be confused and disordered. They had no way to revert to the true form of their inborn nature or to return once more to the Beginning.59 It was culture that ultimately came to stand between humans and their true nature. For the Daoism, the primitive state of nature was the high point of human development. It was a time when humans lived in accordance with the Way and their own inborn natures. Human development went steadily downhill since then. Zen Buddhism, particularly the Sixth Patriarch who was illiterate, believes in human original nature much more than in symbols and rules as in civilization. To Zen Buddhism, the reliance in symbols and rules rather than human original nature is a deviation. To Zen Buddhism, even the symbol of Buddha can be a deviation.

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5. The Early Period
The harmonious society was evolved to adapt to small social group. The prehistoric society whose basic social unit was small social group was the harmonious society until the emergence of civilization that required large social group. The civilized society was completely dominated by the collective society (Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, Islam, and socialism) and the individualistic society (Greek individualism and capitalism) that allow disharmony sin and disconnection. The harmonious society (Buddhism, Daoism, and Christianity) revived later as humans had propensity for the harmonious social life. The return to the harmonious social life requires the conversion to the harmonious social life that involves the threestage conversion: the harmonious relationship, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation. The conversions to the collective and the individualistic social lives involve the corresponding three-stage conversions. 5.1. The Collective Society Disorder Suffering (sin) Collective Society collective wellbeing Injustice alienation In the collective society, the social-life fitness that enhances social life is collective wellbeing. Social-life disorder is injustice. The action of injustice is injustice sin that causes the injustice suffering as alienation. The collective society rewards collective wellbeing, and punishes injustice. In the society dominated by the collective society, individualistic achievement to disregard collective wellbeing and harmonious cooperation to disregard the distinction between friends and outsiders are minimized to maximize collective wellbeing. The collective society includes the moral religions and socialism. The collective religions include Hinduism, Confucianism, Judaism, and Islam. Collective wellbeing is expressed as the moral code for the wellbeing of all people in a religion. Socialism has the centralized economic plan for the wellbeing of all people in a socialistic society. The moral code in the collective religions prevents injustice. The supernatural authority rules over all human rulers with morality. The supernatural authority becomes the “High Ruler”. Judaism and Islam believe in one personal God or Allah, while Confucianism believes in one impersonal God (Heaven (Tian) or High Ruler (Shang-di)). Hinduism is polymorphic monotheism where one God assumes many forms. A typical example of the moral code is the Ten Commandments from Exodus 20, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself an idol. You shall not make wrongful use of the name of your God. Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy. Honor your father and mother. You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery.
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Fitness

8. You shall not steal. 9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. 10. You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbor. The first four commandments are to accept the Lord as the supernatural authority. The fifth commandment is to accept parents as the earthly authority. The rest of the commandments are for the prevention of injustice. God is powerful, benevolent, and righteous as a shepherd to a flock of sheep. The LORD is my shepherd, I shall not be in want. He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters, he restores my soul. He guides me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows. Surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the LORD forever. (Psalm 23) In the Old Testament, the Garden of Eden represents the harmonious social life. God of Israel represents the collective social life. The devil and the sinners represent the individualistic social life where people are free to worship different gods and practice injustice. In China, the prevalent and official version of God is one impersonal God with the interchangeable names of the Heaven and the High Ruler. The worship of the Heaven by emperors took place in the Temple of Heaven. The current Temple of Heaven was built in 1420 A.D. According to historical records, such formal worship of the Heaven can be traced back to 2000 BC. The emperors built the Temple of Heaven that demanded the highest level of skills and the perfection in the art of construction. During the worship, emperors knelled down before the Heaven like every one else. The first three Dynasties (the Xia, Shang, and Zhou) all arose in the north in the second millennium BC. The founders of Zhou believed that the Shang dynasty has lost the mandate because of its gross ritual and moral failings. They received the mandate from Heaven to rule China because of their virtue, consisting of kindness, humbleness, and just. The founders of Zhou accepted the high ruler for the abstract morality of morality. Confucius was born around 551 BC in China. The Zhou dynasty had been in power for 600 years, and was to persist until 253 BC, but the Zhou king had not been able to rule the whole China for the last 200 years. Without a centralized power, feudal states engaged in frequent and devastating wars among themselves. The wars among nobilities destroyed the framework of virtue established in early Zhou. Confucius devised a moral system for common people to claim the legitimacy of the mandate from Heaven. A person who knows the will of Heaven becomes a superior man. The Master said, "Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man.” Analects XX: 3: 1

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Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages. “ Analects XVI: 8.1 When Confucius was in danger being killed by Huan Tui, The Master said, 'Heaven produced the virtue that is in me. What can Huan Tui do to me?' (Analects VII: 22) For Confucius, the virtue of Heaven in him formed a mysterious protection over him. When Confucius was sick, one of his students wanted to pray for him. The Master said, 'My praying has been for a long time.' (Analects VII: 34) By following the will of Heaven, Confucius was in continuous contact with Heaven in a form of prayer. The Confucius’ teaching is about mostly how to establish human relations among various people. The end result is the rational moral civilized society. At the high end, the high ruler serves as the abstract morality for morality. At the low end, family serves as the natural small group for love and diligence. The whole civilized society aligns with the line connecting the two ends. Confucius described the concept of extension. Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their states were rightly governed. Their states being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy. (Great Learning) Such system is particularly suitable for the agricultural society where family is the basic production unit. Confucianism prevailed as the main social system in the agricultural China without any serious opposition and interruption. The enforcement of collective wellbeing comes from instinct, social enforcement, and faith as the combination of instinct and social enforcement. Collective wellbeing and injustice cause instinctively happiness and alienation suffering, respectively. The collective society rewards collective wellbeing, and punishes injustice. As soon as the faith in collective wellbeing is established by the combination of instinct and social enforcement, the faith in collective wellbeing can continue even without instinct and social enforcement. Since the social life enhanced by collective wellbeing is often interrupted, the faith in collective wellbeing is important to continue the pursuit of collective wellbeing. For an example, for Judaism, when Israelites suffered from injustice sin from the invaders, the prophets told Israelites that the reason for such suffering was due to failure to follow the moral code as the God’s law. A righteous savior would come to save them from suffering by following the God’s law. Typically, in the civilized society before the modern period, human society had the complete fitness of one social life that caused the suffering and sin of another social life.

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The complete collective life in terms of wanting wellbeing for all people in all conditions brings about repression sin and unfulfillment as an individual cannot fully develop one’s potential under complete collective life. The cessation of injustice sin and alienation is to return to collective wellbeing. The complete collective life requires the end of the individualistic social life to have the complete cessation of injustice sin and alienation. To have complete justice for equality, the collective society with complete collective life disallows freedom for individualistic achievement. 5.2. The Individualistic Society Suffering Disorder (sin) Individualistic Society individualistic achievement repression unfulfillment Adaptation In the individualistic society, the social-life fitness that enhances social life is individualistic achievement. Social-life disorder as sin is repression. The suffering as the response to repression is unfulfillment. The individualistic society rewards individualistic achievement, and punishes repression. In the society dominated by the individualistic society, collective wellbeing to restrict individualistic achievement and harmonious cooperation to disregard the merit hierarchy based on individualistic achievement are minimized to maximize individualistic achievement. The individualistic society includes Greek individualism and capitalism. In period from 500-336 BC, classical Greece was divided into small city states, each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside. In this period Athens reached its greatest political and cultural heights: the full development of the democratic system of government under the Athenian statesman Pericles, and the founding of the philosophical schools of Socrates and Plato. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern largely dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges. It prevented the formation of the collective society over all communities, resulting in the tight individualistic society in many separated states in Greece. Furthermore, the tight individualistic society with competitive hierarchy could acquire great wealth for the costal cities from trades. In the tight individualistic society, the active intragroup interaction produces the group hierarchy that promotes individual strength and effort as well as the submission to the leader of group. This individualistic society developed state individualism. Greek individualism allowed individuals to understand rationally the physical universe, unrelated to human relations at all. It permitted individuals to have self-reliance to question all traditional religions and human authorities. Individual achievement rather than collective wellbeing became the primary concern. The two distinctive features in Greek culture are Greek mythology and science. Greek mythology involves essentially the individualistic supernatural achievement. All gods engage in the competition of individualistic achievement. The high honor is to be a high heroic achiever to overcome all obstacles and become an immortal. Morality is not the main concern. Science involves essentially the individualistic intellectual achievement. It involves no human relation for collective wellbeing. The main pursuit of

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science is to find the most beautiful and perfect methods and natural laws, which do not involve any practical usage for human. The individualistic society has the merit hierarchy based on individualistic achievement. Before the modern time, the merit hierarchy could be inherited based on the individualistic achievements of ancestors. Greek mythology involves essentially the individualistic supernatural achievement. All gods engage in the competition of individualistic achievement. The high honor is to be a high heroic achiever to overcome all obstacles and become an immortal. Morality is not the main concern. The individualistic civilized society, the complete individualistic life requires the end of the collective social life to have the complete cessation of repression sin and unfulfillment. To have complete freedom for individualistic achievement, the individualistic society with complete individualistic life disallows justice for equality. 5.3. The Revival of the Harmonious Society 5.3.1. The Reasons for the Revival For about ten thousand years after the Neolithic Revolution, the two-branch civilized society consisting of the collective society and the individualistic society dominated the civilized society. The revival harmonious societies including Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity were found by Laozi, Buddha, and Jesus, respectively. The five reasons for the revival of the harmonious society are the propensity for harmonious cooperation as a part of human social lives, the futility of the existing fitness in the chaotic society, the affluence of society to allow the existence of the dependent harmonious society as a small social group, the miraculous supernatural selection to reveal complete harmonious life, and the examples of the founders to choose complete harmonious life. The Propensity for Harmonious Cooperation The harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct exists only in humans. The human propensity for harmonious cooperation is strong. As mentioned earlier, the genetic psychological reinforcement of the harmonious social life is achieved by both the positive good feeling in practicing the harmonious social life and the negative bad feeling in violating conscience for the harmonious social life. For the detection instinct in conscience, the automatic emergence of shame and uneasiness in lying is the negative bad feeling in violating conscience. Such bad feeling of lying moves people toward honesty. For hyper friendliness in conscience, the automatic emergence of miserable feeling in loneliness steers people toward harmonious social connection. Psychologist John Cacippo finds that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to health as smoking or obesity. Loneliness as suffering is harmful to mental and physical health. The Futility of the Existing Fitness The founders of the revived harmonious society lived in the chaotic society. In the chaotic society, the existing fitness as collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement could not last long in the frequent and brutal conflicts. It often was futile to pursue the existing fitness in the chaotic society. Laozi was born in a chaotic period in China. The king of China could no longer rule the whole country. His power could not reach beyond the small territory where he lived.

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Without a centralized power, feudal states engaged in frequent and devastating wars among themselves. The feudal states themselves were not stable. The successions of feudal lords were often difficult and bloody. The nobilities under the feudal lords often had great power, overshadowed the feudal lords, and sometimes overthrew the feudal lords. The disposed aristocrats and bureaucrats became common people. The distinction between fortune and misfortune became blurry. Laozi wrote Misfortune is what fortune depends upon Fortune is where misfortune hides beneath Who knows their ultimate end? They have no determined outcome. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 58) Buddha also lived in a chaotic period in India. The ancient Vedic aristocracy decayed. This situation was expressed by a king in the Upanishads: The great kings and heroes of the past have abandoned their glory and passed to the next world ... The oceans dry up, the mountain-tops fall, the Pole star trembles, the stars are loosened, the earth founders, the gods leave their stations. Jesus lived in the society with confusing fitness. The individualistic fitness (individualistic achievement) from the individualistic Roman society collided with the collective fitness (collective wellbeing) from the collective Jewish society. The Roman society had a high degree of religious freedom, but had little social justice for equality. The Jewish society had a high degree of social justice for equality, but had little religious freedom. The faiths in the collective fitness and the individualistic fitness were weakened by the futility of existing fitness in the chaotic society. People started to look for another faith in another way of social life. The Affluence of Society The civilized society is a necessarily large social group to support the complexity of civilization. The harmonious society is a necessarily small social group to support the harmonious cooperation, but such small social group cannot support civilization. The harmonious society as a small social group cannot exist independently in the civilized society. However, when the civilized society is affluent enough, the affluence of the civilized can support the harmonious society as a small dependent social group, such as small isolated social group in monastery. Many small social groups can be connected into a large social group, but the basic unit is small social group without the capability and the claim to support civilization. The founders of the revived harmonious society lived in the society that had the affluence to support dependent small social group. At the beginning of Buddha’s quest of the truth, Buddha became a monk in a small social group outside of mainstream society. At the beginning of Jesus’ mission, Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist who had a small social group outside of mainstream society. The Miraculous Supernatural Selection In natural selection in the biological evolution, fitness enhances biological survival. In supernatural selection, the supernatural selects human as the chosen species,

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the harmonious social life as the chosen social life, and the harmonious society as the chosen society. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. In the non-harmonious world, the abstract rebirth into the harmonious social life was revealed through the supernatural miracle to the founders of the revived harmonious society. The Examples of the Founders The complete fitness of one social life causes the sufferings of sins of other two social lives. Individuals who choose the complete fitness of one social life must accept the sufferings of other two social lives, because the happiness of the chosen fitness is much greater than the sufferings of the other two social lives. The complete fitness of one social life requires the end of the other two social lives to have the complete cessation of the suffering and sin of the chosen social life. To achieve complete harmonious life, the founders refused to differentiate insiders and outsiders in collective wellbeing, and to separate achievers and underachievers in individualistic achievement. They identified with outsiders and underachievers, and accepted the sufferings of alienation and unfulfillment. According to the Shiji (Records of the Historian) by the Han dynasty court historian Sima Qian, Laozi gave up the normal comfortable civilized life as the symbol of individualistic achievement, and ventured west to become an outsider. At the western gate of the kingdom, he was recognized by a guard. The sentry asked Laozi to produce a record of his wisdom. This is the legendary origin of the Dao De Jing. Laozi lived as a hermit in the unsettled frontier. Buddha gave up the throne (the symbol of individualistic achievement and collective wellbeing) for the harmonious life in the monastery. Jesus allowed the ultimate suffering, the total rejection by both the individualistic society and the collective society. They set the examples for choosing the social happiness of harmonious cooperation and the social-life sufferings of alienation and unfulfillment. 5.3.2. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life The civilized society is dominated by the non-harmonious evolutionary societies (the collective and the individualistic societies) that support civilization. Essentially, every civilized human grows up predominately for the non-harmonious fitness (collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement). The reduction of the suffering of disconnection (loneliness) and the atonement of disharmony sin are the typical causes for the conversion to the harmonious social life. The conversion to the harmonious social life involves the three-stage conversion: the harmonious relationship, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation. The most suitable identity for the harmonious relationship is the kingdom of God from Christianity. The kingdom of God represents the kingdom of the harmonious relationship based on love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is love. A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35)

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The kingdom of God requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives and the “rebirth” into the harmonious social life. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into the kingdom of God is “justification” (to make just). The most suitable identity for the harmonious mind is the fourfold harmonious mind from Buddhism. The harmonious mind is achieved by practicing meditation diligently. The last advice and words from Buddha is “All things are perishable. Strive with earnestness (vayadhamma sankhdra appamddena sampadetha).” The harmonious mind also requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives and the “rebirth” into the harmonious social mind. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into the harmonious mind is “sanctification” (to make sacred). The most suitable identity for the harmonious adaptation to the world (nonharmonious civilization) is water from Daoism. To Laozi, the adaptation of the harmonious social life to the world is like the adaptation of water to its environment. The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with them. It flows to the lowest level that people disdain. In this it comes near to the Way. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8) The three-stage conversion constitutes the seven-step conversion is as follows. The Seven-Step Conversion: The harmonious relationship: justification 1. the harmonious relationship identity: the kingdom of God 2. the self-ending 3. the rebirth The harmonious relationship identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God. To enter the kingdom of God requires the self-ending of the non-harmonious social lives, which can cause disharmony. The self-ending involves first the confession of disharmony sin and then the repentance from disharmony sin. The rebirth into the harmonious society is through the acceptance of the salvation by Jesus whose forgiveness of disharmony sin allows the repentant person to have complete harmonious life. The harmonious mind: sanctification 4. the harmonious mind identity: the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind) 5. the self-ending 6. the rebirth The starting of sanctification as the rebirth into the harmonious mind is justification as the rebirth into the harmonious relationship. The harmonious mind identity is the fourfold harmonious mind, consisting of the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind to transform from the non-harmonious social lives into the harmonious social life. The meditation through the fourfold harmonious mind produces the sudden realization of the non-existence (self-ending) of the nonharmonious autobiographic self and the reappearance (rebirth) of the original human nature with the innate goodness as the harmonious social life. The harmonious adaptation: adaptation:

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7. the harmonious adaptation identity: water The harmonious adaptation identity of the harmonious social life to the world (non-harmonious civilization) is non-competitive water. The Seven-Step Conversion: the harmonious relationship: justification Step 1: the harmonious relationship identity The harmonious relationship identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God. To enter into the kingdom of God requires the rebirth. In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again." "How can a man be born when he is old?" Nicodemus asked. "Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother's womb to be born!" Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born again.' (John 3:3-7) To Jesus, the kingdom is not of this world as the civilized society. Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place." (John 18:36) To Jesus, the kingdom of God is not political, and the state of the Roman Emperor was separated from the kingdom of God, as described by Jesus. Then he said to them, "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's." (Matthew 22:21) The kingdom of God is within a person as the harmonious social life. Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, "The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation, nor will people say, 'Here it is,' or 'There it is,' because the kingdom of God is within you." (Luke 17:20-21) According to Jesus, the kingdom of God does not belong to the kingdom of civilization as described in the parable of mustard seed and bush. Again he said, "What shall we say the kingdom of God is like, or what parable shall we use to describe it? It is like a mustard seed, which is the smallest seed you plant in the ground. Yet when planted, it grows and becomes the largest of all garden plants, with such big branches that the birds of the air can perch in its shade." (Mark 4:30-32)

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The kingdom of God starts small like a mustard seed, and it becomes a modest mustard bush. According to the rabbinical law, a mustard plant was forbidden in a household garden because it was fast spreading and would tend to invade the veggies. Mustard is a common, fast-spreading plant, which grows to about four feet in height. Garden symbolizes artificial civilization, while mustard represents a plant unlike the normal plants in the artificial civilized garden. The kingdom of God as the kingdom of mustard bush is small and ubiquitous unlike normal civilized plants, but the kingdom of God grows in the civilized garden. The kingdom of God consists of small groups of people. "Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom. (Luke 12:32) The civilized society has the propensity to accumulate. The kingdom of God as the harmonious society does not have the propensity to accumulate. Jesus looked at him and said, "How hard it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God!” (Luke 18:24) Looking at his disciples, he said: "Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. (Luke 6:20) But Jesus called the children to him and said, "Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these. (Luke 18:16) Therefore, the kingdom of God consists of ubiquitous small groups of people unlike the kingdom of civilization and without accumulation and grandiosity. The kingdom of God corresponds to the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society consisting of ubiquitous small groups of people unlike civilization and without accumulation and grandiosity. The small group of people led by Jesus followed Jesus’ command. A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) With love from God, the kingdom of God is harmonious as in the prehistoric kingdom of God. Finally, the people in the kingdom of God follow the will of God as Jesus said, "Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. (Matthew 7:21) The will of God is the harmonious society. The same aspiration to return to the prehistoric harmonious society is expressed in Daoism. In Daoism, the harmonious relationship identity is the “small state”. Laozi describes the small group society as following.

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Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs. Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80) This small state has no ambition to become big and grandiose. The people are plain and content. Step 2: the self-ending The complete harmonious life requires the end of the non-harmonious social lives to have the complete cessation of disharmony sin and disconnection. The end of the nonharmonious social lives involves first the confession of disharmony sin and then the repentance from the disharmonious sin. Disharmony sin is defined as disharmony against fellow humans as described by Paul in Romans 1:29-32. They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed and depravity. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips, slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing evil; they disobey their parents; they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless. Although they know God's righteous decree that those who do such things deserve death, they not only continue to do these very things but also approve of those who practice them. (Romans 1:29-32) It is impossible for civilized individuals under the domination of the non-harmonious social lives to avoid all disharmony sins described by Paul. It is not surprising that all civilized humans are not righteous. There is no one righteous, not even one. (Romans 3:10) For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23) The confession of disharmony sin is followed by the repentance from disharmony sin. According to Jesus, "The time has come," he said. "The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe the good news!" (Mark 1:15) Also, according to Peter, Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord, (Acts 3:19) Step 3: the rebirth

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The rebirth into the spiritual harmonious relationship requires complete harmonious life. Because of disharmony sin, humans cannot achieve complete harmonious life. Through the salvation by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross, disharmony sin can be forgiven. The repentant people who accept the salvation can claim complete harmonious life for the rebirth into the harmonious society. The acceptance of Jesus is the end of self. I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. (Galatians 2:20a) An individual accepts the salvation to become just (righteous) as complete harmonious life which allows the rebirth with Jesus into the harmonious society, the God’s family. “This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. (Romans 3:22)”. “That if you confess with your mouth, "Jesus is Lord," and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. (Romans 10:9)”. “Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of God's household. (Ephesians 2:19)” “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, one is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come! (2 Corinthians 5:17).” Jesus represents “the last Adam, a life-giving spirit (1 Corinthians 15:45)” to bring back the original harmonious society of the Garden of Eden. Jesus found the new covenant. For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance—now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant. (Hebrews 9:15) It is a tremendous life-changing experience to liberate from disharmony sin and disconnection, and to enter into the warm, loving, and egalitarian harmonious society, which is build by Jesus to fill with love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) According to Paul, Christians in the church are interconnected as the body of Christ as he stated,” Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it. (1 Corinthians 12:27)” In terms of organization, the church in small group unit is essentially similar to the pre-historic hunter-gatherer harmonious society. the harmonious mind: sanctification: Step 4: the harmonious mind identity: the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind and the no-self mind) for sanctification The starting of sanctification as the rebirth into the harmonious social mind is justification as the rebirth into the harmonious relationship. The harmonious mind (social life) identity is the fourfold harmonious mind, consisting of the calm mind, the clear mind,

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the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind to transform from the non-harmonious mind into the harmonious mind. They correspond to faith, wisdom, love, and perishable flesh, respectively, in Christianity, and right concentration, right mindfulness, loving-kindness, and emptiness, respectively, in Buddhism. For neuroscience, the calm mind and the clear mind relate to the prefrontal cortex to control non-conscience instincts, and the loving-kindness and the no-self relate to the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, respectively, in the conscience instinct.
Fourfold harmonious mind Christianity Buddhism Neuroscience Purposes Calm mind Clear mind loving-kindness mind Love Loving-kindness no-self perishable flesh Emptiness

Faith Wisdom right right mindfulness concentration prefrontal cortex control non-conscience instincts stress reduction anxiety reduction relaxation and emotional stability integrity and objectivity

Hyper friendly detective instinct instinct enhance conscience instinct Hyper friendly = love detection of the and kindness no-self

As mentioned before, the evolution of the conscience instinct required the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the old instincts from the non-harmonious social life. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Thus, the prefrontal cortex serves as executive function for the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections between both drives and instincts in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. A neurological principle in sanctification is to strengthen the neural connection between the prefrontal cortex and drive, instinct, emotion, and cognition in the brain. One indication of the importance of the prefrontal cortex in sanctification is the increased thickness of areas in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex associated with the longterm meditation practice of Buddhist monks60. the calm mind: right concentration The calm mind is mainly for stress reduction. The calm mind is based on the prefrontal cortex and the harmonious cooperation among senses, feelings, and thoughts in the mind of person. A calm focus that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words, the calm mind is through the prefrontal cortex that concentrates non-judgmentally at one point or task. Distractive emotion is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the calm mind trains the mind to focus calmly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the calm mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to stress. The calm mind is faith from Christianity and right concentration from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path

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(right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right concentration, and right mindfulness). The calm mind is strengthened by meditation and prayer. The meditation for the calm mind is the concentrative meditation. In terms of meditation, the non-verbal method includes concentrating on the breath, movement (walking, Sufi dancing, yoga, Qi Gong, and Tai Chi), and mantra. The verbal method involves prayer. In prayer, the close relation with God as a close friend establishes the personal harmonious cooperation within the mind of the person who prays. The personal harmonious cooperation within the mind establishes the calm mind. One of the prayer methods for the calm mind is the centering prayer61 to center at a sacred word. The faith in harmonious cooperation with God during prayer allows calm and objective perception. During meditation, the brain’s activity alters significantly, as mapped by a device called an electroencephalograph (EEG). The most well-known brain waves evident during many kinds of meditation are called alpha waves. When the brain moves into an alpha wave state, many physiological changes occur, such as the parasympathetic half of the autonomic nervous system. This results in lowered blood pressure and heart rate, a reduction in stress hormones and slowed metabolism. If meditation is practiced regularly, these beneficial changes become relatively permanent. The opposition to the calm mind is ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). The common symptom is a persistent pattern of impulsiveness and inattention, with a component of hyperactivity. Typically, ADHD is a developmental disorder. In one study, the region with the greatest average delay is the middle of the prefrontal cortex 62 , lagged a full five years in development occurred in elementary school aged ADHD patients. The drug, Ritalin, for ADHD stimulates activity in the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is important for the calm mind that requires concentration through the prefrontal cortex. One of the symptoms for ADHD is the failure to follow instruction because of the deficiency in the prefrontal cortex. For adult, following instruction is important part of morality, so the calm mind as concentration is important to resist temptation as distraction from the right moral path. Alcohol is forbidden because alcohol also depresses the activity of the sophisticated prefrontal cortex, resulting in lowering the resistance against temptation. Therefore, the calm mind is for both relaxation and integrity through the prefrontal cortex. the clear mind: right mindfulness The clear mind is mainly for anxiety reduction. The clear mind is based on the prefrontal cortex and the harmonious cooperation among senses, feelings, and thoughts in the mind of person. A clear awareness that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words, the clear mind is through the prefrontal cortex that is aware clearly and nonjudgmentally of specific sense, feeling, or thought. Distractive awareness is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the clear mind trains the mind to aware clearly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the clear mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to anxiety. The clear mind is right mindfulness from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path and wisdom from Christianity.

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The meditation for the clear mind is called mindfulness or insight meditation. The meditators pay close attention to sensations and thoughts as they come and go each passing moment but refraining from judging or acting on those objects, thoughts and feelings. The basic principle is labeling information. When the scan of self becomes difficult, it is necessary to return to the calm mind step. The prayer for labeling emotion is the mindfulness prayer to talk to God freely because of the personal harmonious cooperation with the Spirit. Guided by the spontaneous Spirit, the prayer is a free association private talk with God. The scan of self is through confession, thanksgiving, and supplication for thoughts and feelings of guilt, happiness, and stress-anxiety, respectively. Basically, it is a free association private talk to God about self, as Paul states. In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express. And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints in accordance with God's will. (Romans 8:26-27) The clear harmonious communication with God during prayer allows clear and objective perception. The study by Matthew D. Lieberman 63 showed that while the emotion part (amygdala) of the brain was less active when an individual labeled the negative feeling, the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was more active. The individuals trained in the scan of self by the mindfulness meditation have higher activity in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and lower activity in the emotional part of the brain than the individual without the training in the mindfulness meditation. Unlabeled emotional information can lead to stress-anxiety, so labeling information reduces stress-anxiety. Labeling information corresponds to the mindfulness prayer or meditation. A person experienced in the clear mind meditation or prayer can experience all things objectively, particularly during meditation or prayer, because the perception of all things involves the prefrontal cortex. It can overcome instinctive reflexes, such as startle and habituation. Paul Eckman observed and measured the ability of a seasoned meditation practitioner to suppress the startle reflex while meditating. Loud sounds went off out of view and failed to startle this individual while doing his mindfulness (open) meditation, but not during his concentrative (fixed point) meditation. He has found that in general meditators don't get as shocked as nonmeditators to such unpredictable loud sounds64. Similarly, the people with clear mind can handle shocking, unpleasant, and difficult social encounters objectively, because they are experienced in the control of emotion by the prefrontal cortex. In this way, they are able to stay in the middle-way, not psychological extreme. Therefore, the clear mind is for both emotional stability and objectivity through the prefrontal cortex. the loving-kindness mind: Loving-kindness toward all people is derived from the activation of the hyper friendly instinct of the conscience instinct. The loving-kindness is the foundation of morality. The loving-kindness mind can be practice during meditation (the Buddhist non-

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referential compassion meditation 65 ) or prayer. kindness mind from Christianity are

Typical sacred verses for the loving-

For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. (John 3:16) Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. (1 Corinthians 13:4-8) For Buddhism, typical verses are from the Karaniya Metta Sutta (Hymn of Universal Love). Let none deceive or decry his fellow anywhere; let none wish others harm in resentment or in hate. Just as with her own life, a mother shields from hurt her own son, her only child, let all-embracing thoughts for all beings be yours. Cultivate an all-embracing mind of love for all throughout the universe in all its height, depth and breadth — Love that is untroubled and beyond hatred or enmity. As you stand, walk, sit or lie, so as long as you are awake, pursue this awareness with your might: It is deemed the Divine State here and now. the no-self mind: The no-self as no non-harmonious autobiographic self is basically derived from the non-existence of non-harmonious autobiographic self with respect to the harmonious social life that was the normal social life in the prehistoric time before the civilization. The realization of the no-self as no non-harmonious autobiographic self is derived from the activation of the detective instinct of the conscience instinct. The non-harmonious autobiographic self becomes questionable. The no non-harmonious autobiographic self along with the questionable non-harmonious autobiographic self is in the right brain. The prefrontal cortex chooses the no non-harmonious autobiographic self to represent the non-harmonious autobiographic self. For Christians, the abstract no-self is the perishable sinful self. For Christianity, “all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23), and “the wages of sin is death. (Romans 6:23a)” The self-ending is equivalent to the complete surrendering self to God for the salvation. For Buddhism, the abstract no-self is impermanent and imperfect illusive-self absent of reality and independence. The illusive civilized life is source of disconnection and suffering. For Buddhism, the self-ending is to extinct the illusive no-self. Step 5: the self-ending Nirvana For Christianity, the no-self is the perishable sinful self (flesh), the self-ending is to die on the cross with Christ, and the rebirth is to resurrect with Christ into the kingdom of God. For Buddhism, the no-self is the impermanent and imperfect illusive- self and the self-ending is Nirvana that extinguishes the flame of life. Rebirth in the Buddhist context relates to reincarnation. For Buddhism, the rebirth into the harmonious mind corresponds to the way of Bodhisattva that is a person who has achieved enlightenment has chosen to remain in this world to help those who are suffering, instead of going on to Nirvana. Therefore, for Buddhism, the harmonious mind is the Bodhisattva Way rather than reincarnation. For Zen Buddhism, Nirvana and the Bodhisattva Way correspond to

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the Insight (dun wu) into the futility of the civilized nature and one’s own original nature (Buddha nature), the harmonious social life. To reach the Insight as the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life, it is necessary to have all four minds in the fourfold harmonious mind involving the conscience instinct and the prefrontal cortex. When the combined fourfold harmonious mind reaches certain critical point unconsciously, the Insight occurs suddenly. The critical point is how a person feels comfortable enough unconsciously to change the social life. The Insight consists of the sudden realization of the non-existence (self-ending) of the non-harmonious autobiographic self and the reappearance (rebirth) of the original human nature with the innate goodness. The Insight is sudden because the mind is mostly unconscious. Since the non-harmonious social life and the harmonious social life always appear and disappear, the Insight is a process rather a fixed point. For Christianity, the Insight is the spiritual Insight into the ultimate relationship between Christ and the perishable flesh from the civilized world. In the Insight for Paul in the Bible, all things are rubbish. What is more, I consider everything a loss compared to the surpassing greatness of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whose sake I have lost all things. I consider them rubbish, that I may gain Christ. (Philippians 3:8) For Buddha, all things are perishable. The last advice and words from Buddha is All things are perishable. Strive with earnestness. (vayadhamma sankhdra appamddena sampadetha) To prehistoric hunters and gatherers who had very little material accumulation, it was not difficult to regard all things as rubbish and perishable. More important than all things, the harmonious social life was the best prehistoric survival strategy, the TIT FOR TAT with maximum eager cooperation without lie. The Insight consists of the self-ending and the rebirth. The self-ending is through the extinguishment of the abstract no-self. The self-ending is Nirvana in Buddhism and the death of self on the cross in Christianity. In the meditation or prayer practice, the self-ending comes from the combination of the no-self mind with any one of the three minds, the calm mind, the clear mind, and the loving-kindness mind. During such practice, self disappears. Occasionally, the self-ending comes suddenly outside of meditation and prayer. After experiential self-ending, there is a sense of letting go of self. The emotion, due to autobiographic self, loses its emotional impact as if the emotional memory of the self-identity fades away. Neurologically, the self-ending is the deliberate inhibition of biological self that determines the boundary of biological self in space and time. The self-ending is observed by the brain activity in meditation and prayer examined by neurologist, Andrew Newberg 66 . When the meditation by the Tibetan Buddhist monks and the prayer by Franciscan nuns reached to the “peak”, he found increase in activity in the prefrontal lobe and marked decrease in activity in the parietal lobes. The prefrontal lobe is for mental concentration. The parietal lobe is for the orientation of self in space, determining where the self ends and where the external space begins. The decrease in activity in the parietal lobes means the loss of self. At the peak, people have a loss of the sense of self and
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frequently experience a sense of no space and time. Therefore, the brain activity observed by Newberg corresponds to the self-ending of the biological self, which for a meditator is the self-ending of autobiographic self. Thus, the self-ending of autobiographic self has a real brain experience of self-ending, allowing the brain to end or minimize the non-harmonious autobiographic self. Step 6: the rebirth: the Bodhisattva Way Without self, one can feel oneness with the universe in the sense of completely harmonious cooperation with the universe without self. The self-ending leads to the rebirth into the harmonious social life, the human original social life. The harmonious social life is friendlier toward all people, calmer, more contented, more attentive, and more moral than the non-harmonious social lives. The result of sanctification is the harmonious social life with maximum tranquility and contentment. After sanctification, a person with the harmonious social life and compassion in the harmonious society and in the world is described by Paul in the Bible. Love must be sincere. Hate what is evil; cling to what is good. Be devoted to one another in brotherly love. Honor one another above yourselves. Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor, serving the Lord. Be joyful in hope, patient in affliction, faithful in prayer. Share with God's people who are in need. Practice hospitality. Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn. Live in harmony with one another. Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position. Do not be conceited. Do not repay anyone evil for evil. Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody. If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone. (Romans 12:9-18) The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Step 7: the harmonious adaptation: adaptation
The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Daoism Christianity The harmonious adaptation identity The harmonious adaptation identity The cross Water

The world as non-harmonious civilization consists of the collective and the individualistic societies. Both societies work well and consistently as large social groups in the world. There is a competition between these two societies to determine the most suitable dominant society for civilization. The harmonious society, however, does not work well and consistently as a large social group to support civilization. The harmonious society is simply not a suitable dominant society for the world, so realistically there should not be competition between the harmonious society and the world. The harmonious adaptation identity of the harmonious social life to the world is non-competitive water from Daoism.

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The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with them. It flows to the lowest level that people disdain. In this it comes near to the Way. In their dwellings, they love the earth. In their hearts, they love what is profound. In their friendship, they love humanity. In their words, they love sincerity. In government, they love good order. In business, they love ability. In their actions, they love timeliness. It is because they do not compete that there is no resentment. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8) To Laozi, the adaptation of the harmonious social life to the world (nonharmonious civilization) is like the adaptation of water to its environment. Water does not compete with its environment in terms of what form to exist. The harmonious social life simply survives whatever form that the world allows it to exist as long as there is a place for the harmonious social life that is different from the social lives of the world. Therefore, the harmonious social life does not mind to exist in the place that the world dislikes. The motivation for the harmonious society to exist is mutual empathy and empowerment, instead of winning. It is like water that benefits the world. Water is close to the Way. The ways to benefit the world is to have down-to-earth living place, thoughtful mind, loving relationship, trustworthy words, orderly government, capable business, and timely action. In the long run, the world appreciates the non-competing harmonious society. Without competing with the world, the harmonious society as Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism actually survives and thrives in the world. Laozi further described the leadership in the social life. It is also like water, soft and yielding. Nothing in the world is as soft and yielding as water, yet nothing can better overcome the hard and strong, for they can neither control nor do away with it. The soft overcomes the hard. The yielding overcomes the strong. Every person knows this, but no one can practice it. Therefore the sage declares: One who accepts the humiliation of the nation may be the priest at the altar. One who accepts the misfortunes of the nation is the Empire's Sovereign. True words are often paradoxical. (Dao De Jing Chapter 78) For Daoism, a leader of the Way accepts the humiliation and the misfortunes of the nation. For Christianity, the symbol of the humiliation and the misfortunes is the cross, and paradoxically, through the cross Jesus reaches priesthood and kinghood. The harmonious adaptation identity of the kingdom of God to the world is the cross that accepts the humiliation and the misfortunes of the world rather than the domination of the world. In the way, paradoxically, the kingdom of God as the harmonious society survives and thrives in the world. The summary of the seven-step conversion to the harmonious social life is as below.

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The Seven-Step Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life
Typical causes of the conversion: the reduction of the suffering of disconnection (loneliness) and the atonement of the sin of disharmony The Harmonious Relationship: Justification 禅宗 (Zen Buddhism) Christianity The harmonious relationship identity The kingdom of God The self-ending The rebirth into the harmonious relationship The Harmonious Mind: Sanctification 和谐四心 The harmonious mind identity 镇定心, 清晰心, 仁慈心, 无我心 the fourfold harmonious mind (正定 right concentration, 正念 right mindfulness, 仁慈 the calm mind, the clear mind, the lovingkindness mind, the no-self mind (faith, wisdom, loving-kindness, 无 emptiness) love, and perishable flesh) 灭我 the self-ending 一刹那间妄念俱灭 the non-harmonious autobiographic self-ending 重生 the rebirth into the harmonious social mind
顿见真如本性

1 2 3 4

5 6 7

The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Daoism Christianity The harmonious adaptation identity The harmonious adaptation identity The cross Water

5.4. The Conversion of the Non-Harmonious Social Lives Some people in different social situations and different ages have to undergo the conversions to different social lives. The conversion to the harmonious social life was described. The conversions of the non-harmonious social lives will be described. 5.4.1. The Conversion to the Collective Social Life The typical causes for the conversion to the collective social life are the reduction of the suffering of alienation and the atonement of the sin of injustice. The conversion to the collective social life involves the three-stage conversion: the collective relationship, the collective mind, and the collective adaptation. 1. the collective relationship: the collective society In the first stage, the collective relationship is obtained by joining the collective society, including the socialistic society, the moral religions (Judaism, Islam, Confucianism, and Hinduism), and people-oriented work. The goal of the socialistic society and the moral religions is collective wellbeing. People-oriented work relates to also collective wellbeing. The collective relationship is the group-oriented relationship for collective wellbeing of social group. Within a nuclear family group, there are husband-wife, fatherchild, mother-child, and sibling-sibling relationships for collective wellbeing of a family. Within a religious group, there are God-believers and believer-believer relationships. It is not a person-to-person relationship without a social group. Different kinds of love extend to the inside of and the outside of social group.

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2. the collective mind: the fourfold mind: the intense mind, the bold mind, the bonding mind and the nurturing mind The joining of the collective society provides the start of the conversion to the collective social life. The next step is the development of the collective mind as the fourfold mind consisting of the intense mind for collective wellbeing, the bold mind for collective wellbeing, the bonding mind, and the nurturing mind.
Fourfold collective mind Neuroscience Purposes Intense mind Bold mind prefrontal cortex concentrate in collective wellbeing high tolerance for high tolerance for stress anxiety bonding mind Nurturing mind bonding nurturing instinct instinct enhance collective instinct bonding mind nurturing

the intense mind and the bold mind The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. The prefrontal cortex for collective wellbeing concentrates instincts and emotions in collective wellbeing. Because of the inevitable conflicts in social groups, the drive for collective wellbeing inevitably generates stress and anxiety. In the prefrontal cortex, the intense mind in terms of perseverance allows high tolerance for the stress under difficult situation. In the prefrontal cortex, the bold mind in terms of confidence allows high tolerance for the anxiety under unpredictable situation. For Judaism, the intense mind and the bold mind come from God’s power as described in Psalm 23. The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not be in want. He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters, he restores my soul. He guides me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows. Surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the LORD forever. (Psalm 23) It is a poem to describe high tolerance of stress and anxiety in a stressful and unpredictable society. Individually, the high tolerance of the stress and anxiety is developed from personal experiences, learning, determination, hard work, diligence, and perseverance. The high tolerance is manifested as focus and commitment to collective wellbeing. The intense mind and the bold mind are the opposites of the calm mind and the clear mind, respectively, in the conversion to the harmonious social life. The intense mind allows and tolerates stress, while the calm mind prefers calmness and reduces stress. The clear mind prefers clearness (mindfulness) and reduces anxiety, while the bold mind

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allows unclearness (unpredictability) and tolerates anxiety. In Psalm 23, the intense mind perceives and tolerates the stress in the presence of enemies, and the bold mind perceives and tolerates the anxiety in the valley of the shadow of death. The calm mind perceives enemies not as threat, and feels no stress. Jesus said, “But I tell you: Love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you” (Matthew 5:44). During the meditation for the calm mind, the focus is calmness without stress. The clear mind perceives death not as uncertainty, and feels no anxiety. Jesus said, “"For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life” (John 3:16). During the meditation for the clear mind, the mindfulness of the present does not perceive uncertainty that leads to anxiety. In Psalm 23, the intense mind and the bold mind need goodness and love to overcome and tolerate stress and anxiety. The calm mind and the clear mind feel content and peaceful without constant need for goodness and love. the bonding mind As mentioned before, the collective instincts include the bonding instinct to bond with other human and the nurturing instinct to nurture the love ones. The bonding mind and the nurturing mind come from the bonding instinct and the nurturing instinct. The bonding mind is for group-oriented bonding for collective wellbeing. The bonding mind is to bond the members of a social group to achieve collective adhesion. Within collective adhesion, there are different bonds among members of a social group, such as parent-child, sibling-sibling, and husband-wife. For each bond, such as parentchild, each person has proper social role in terms of love, authority, and responsibility for collective adhesion. Proper social role is reinforced externally by proper social manner, including proper dress, grooming, language, and salutation for each social role. Proper social role and proper social manner are the foundations for the bonding mind in a large society. The stable bonds in a large social group are based on healthy instinctive bonds in a small natural functional social group, such as the instinctive bond between people and God and the instinctive bonds among family members. For Confucianism, the bonding mind is trained first in a small natural social group, such as extended family. A person first has to practice the proper social role and ritualistic proper social manner in a family all the time with proper love, authority, responsibility, dress, grooming, language, and salutation. With the proper social role and proper social manner, a person is reminded constantly that one is bonded to a family. This proper social role and proper social manner in a family are extended to a large society, so all people are reminded constantly that they are bonded to a large society regardless of individualistic achievement. When a large society becomes dysfunctional, it is duty of people to reestablish the functional society where people again can practice proper social roles and social manners in the large functional society. the nurturing mind The nurturing mind is the attitude of the leaders and the elders toward the followers and the youngsters of the collective society. The nurturing mind is benevolent based on the parental instinct. In organizations, the nurturing mind results in benevolent leadership style. The benevolent leaders believes that all their employees should be guided and treated with benevolence and wisdom like parents treats their children Benevolent leaders listen to, coach, and mentor their employees to support their growth,

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development, and goals and to align their goals to organizational goals. They tolerate and accept others’ mistakes and imperfections. They salvage the situations of crisis by active involvement of themselves. They walk the talk. Benevolent leadership is suitable in a large mature and stable organization. The completion of the fourfold mind can result in the peak experience that is the total collective social life happiness from the total collective social life fitness: collective wellbeing. The peak experience of collective wellbeing is the happiness for sudden extraordinary wellbeing in social togetherness. The peak experience reinforces collective social life. 3. the collective adaptation The adaptation of the collective social life to the individualistic social life is competition. The survival of the collective social life requires competition against the individualistic social life that is opposite from the collective social life. The adaptation of the collective social life to the harmonious social life is non-competition, because while the collective social life works in a large social group, the harmonious social life works only in a small social group. They do not compete against each other. The Three-Stage Conversion to the Collective Social Life
1. 2. Typical causes of the conversion: the reduction of suffering of alienation and the atonement of the sin of injustice The Collective Relationship Joining the collective society The Collective Mind the fourfold collective mind the intense mind, the bold mind, the bonding mind, the nurturing mind The Collective Adaptation Competitive to the individualistic social life Non-competitive to the harmonious social life

3.

5.4.2. The Conversion to the Individualistic Social Life The typical causes for the conversion to the individualistic social life are the reduction of the suffering of unfulfillment and the atonement of sin of repression. The conversion to the individualistic social life involves the three-stage conversion: the individualistic relationship, the individualistic mind, and the individualistic adaptation. 1. the individualistic relationship: the individualistic society In the first stage, the individualistic relationship is obtained by joining the individualistic society, including the capitalistic society and task-oriented work. The goal of the capitalistic society is individualistic achievement. Task-oriented work relates to also individualistic achievement. The individualistic relationship is the individual-oriented relationship for social hierarchy based on individualistic achievement in a social group. Individualistic achievement deals mostly with impersonal systemizing, such as highly developed systematizing skills in military, literature, athletics, music, business, science, and technology in the modern society. The drive for domination forms social hierarchy. 2. the individualistic mind: the fourfold mind: the intense mind, the bold mind, the systemizing mind and the dominating mind

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The joining of the individualistic society provides the start of the conversion to the individualistic social life. The next step is the development of the individualistic mind as the fourfold mind consisting of the intense mind for individualistic achievement, the bold mind for individualistic achievement, the systemizing mind, and the dominative mind.
Fourfold collective mind Neuroscience Purposes Intense mind Bold mind systemizing Dominating mind mind systemizing dominative instinct instinct enhance individualistic instinct systemizing domination

Prefrontal cortex concentrate in individualistic achievement high tolerance for high tolerance for stress anxiety

the intense mind and the bold mind The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. The prefrontal cortex for individualistic achievement concentrates instincts and emotions in individualistic achievement. Because of the inevitable conflicts in individuals, the drive for individualistic achievement inevitably generates stress and anxiety. In the prefrontal cortex, the intense mind in terms of perseverance allows high tolerance for the stress under difficult situation. In the prefrontal cortex, the bold mind in terms of confidence allows high tolerance for the anxiety under unpredictable situation. Individually, the high tolerance of the stress and anxiety is developed from personal experiences and learning. The high tolerance is manifested as focus and commitment to collective wellbeing. With the high tolerance of the stress and anxiety, one can deal with the stress and anxiety with continuous individual efforts to minimize the stress and anxiety. The training for the intense mind and the bold mind for individualistic achievement is quite common in the individualistic society. It includes many individualistic motivation courses to train individuals to develop tough and bold mind to have high tolerance of stress and anxiety. Typically, the courses start with unfulfillment of individuals, and then, train individuals to have high tolerance of stress and anxiety in order to accomplish difficult and unpredictable task. For the training in classical Greece, Greek mythological hero had high tolerance for stress and anxiety in the pursuit of a heroic task. Socially, the stress and anxiety from individualistic achievement are dealt with by a well-defined social hierarchy typically based on merit of individualistic achievement in the modern society. High individualistic achievement that results typically from high tolerance of stress and anxiety is rewarded with high position in a social hierarchy. the systemizing mind As mentioned before, the individualistic instincts include the systemizing instinct to systemize various objects into a system and the dominative instinct to have domination in social hierarchy. The systemizing mind and the dominative mind come from the systemizing instinct and the dominating instinct. The systemizing mind is for taskoriented work, while the dominative mind is to motivate individuals to have personal

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achievement above other people. They can be trained as in the individualistic competition to compete against one another in task. As discussed before, bipedalism of human ancestors allowed the free hands to develop gestural language and tool making. Gestural language led to hyper friendliness, while tool making led to hyper systemizing. The properties of raw materials, such as stone, had to be precise to make good tool. The methods to make tool had to be precise and repeatable. The shapes and properties of tools had to be precise and repeatable. The usages of tools had to be precise and repeatable. The whole process of tool making-usage required highly systematic thinking, resulting in hyper systemizing that is unique for humans and their ancestors. The instinct for hyper systemizing is the hyper precisionrepetition instinct, because a viable and significant system is precise and repeatable. The extreme form of the hyper precision-repetition instinct is manifested in autism that has an excessive passion for precision and repetition. The three-step process for systemizing is 1. the analysis of data, 2. the construction of elaborate, precise, and repeatable system from the data, and 3. the verification of the system in all conditions. For science, technology, or organizational management, systemizing represents elaborate, precise, and repeatable physical laws, manufacture-usage, or organizational charts, respectively. For literature, music, art, or sport, systemizing represents elaborate, precise, and repeatable writing, musical, artistic, or athletic skill, respectively. the dominative mind The dominative mind is the mind for competitive social hierarchy. The three ways to achieve the dominative mind are dominative posturing, dominative social maneuver, and dominative systemizing. Dominative posturing is the domination in social gathering. A person who has the ability in the domination in social gathering has charisma. Dominative social maneuver is the domination by partisan competition in terms of coalition and confrontation of competitive groups and individuals. Since human society is highly systematic, people who are good in systemizing occupy high positions in competitive social hierarchy. People with the best dominative posturing, dominative social maneuver, and dominative systemizing are the dominative leaders. The dominative leadership is decisive, charismatic, task-oriented, and transformational. It is suitable for a dynamic organization (e.g. entrepreneur organization) that requires frequent short-term critical decisions and a large mature organization that requires one time critical short-term change to become a more viable organization. The completion of the fourfold mind can result in the peak experience that is the total individualistic social life happiness from the total individualistic social life fitness: individualistic achievement. The peak experience of individualistic achievement is the happiness for sudden extraordinary individualistic achievement far above ordinary individualistic achievement. The peak experience reinforces individualistic social life. 3. the individualistic adaptation The adaptation of the individualistic social life to the collective social life is competition. The survival of the individualistic social life requires competition against the collective social life that is opposite from the individualistic social life. The adaptation of the individualistic social life to the harmonious social life is noncompetition, because while the individualistic social life works in a large social group,

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the harmonious social life works only in a small social group. They do not compete against each other. The Three-Stage Conversion to the Individualistic Social Life
1. 2. Typical causes of the conversion: the reduction of suffering of unfulfillment and the atonement of the sin of repression The Individualistic Relationship Joining the individualistic society The Individualistic Mind the fourfold collective mind the intense mind, the bold mind, the systemizing mind, the dominative mind The Individualistic Adaptation Competitive to the collective social life Non-competitive to the harmonious social life

3.

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6. The Modern Period
The Modern Period starts from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution to the Postmodern Revolution. Chapter 6 deals with the Modern Revolution in the West starting from the Renaissance, which added individualism to the essentially collective society. The mass printing and increased literacy allowed individualism to spread in the West. Such individualistic innovation and motivation particularly favored the start and the spread of the Industrial Revolution that required individualistic innovation and motivated entrepreneur. As a result, the modern individualistic society as capitalism emerged. At the same time, the counter movement as socialism for the modern collective society also emerged. The modern individualistic society and the modern collective society formed the modern two-party society. In the Modern Three-Branch Unified Society, Christian church and America played critical roles. The Christian church changed from the original harmonious society into the state collective religion as the Roman Empire selected it as the state religion. The Modern Revolution gradually moved the church back to the harmonious society, particularly in America. In the Modern Unified Society, such as America, political parties replace states, partisan socialism replaces state religion, partisan capitalism replaces state individualism, and religions become harmonious religions without political state of large social group. The Unified Society is the system of separation and balance of powers in the three-branch society, consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society. 6.1. The Modern Individualistic Society 6.1.1. The Renaissance Greek individualism assisted the early Christianity to thrive in the collective society by the emphasis on individuals rather than worldly authorities. After the fall of the Roman Empire and the end of the dominance of the Greek culture, the Western World returned to the collective society dominated by the human authorities in the Christian church in the Middle Ages. It had rigid social code to maintain the order in the society. The Greek culture and its individualism again became important in the Renaissance. The Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, Italy. Italy was divided into smaller city states and territories, similar to the classical Greece. Italy was one of the most urbanized areas in Europe. They were in the Roman Empire that inherited Greek culture. Italy at this time was notable for its merchant Republics, similar to the exclusive individualistic society in the classical Greece, resulting in the individualistic society. Greek individualism gave people self-reliance to change traditions and authorities. The Renaissance expresses the changes in art, religion, philosophy, science, and politics. The highly spiritual art in the Middle Ages was transformed into worldly and secular art. The religion that depended on the church authority and tradition in the Middle Ages was transformed into the personal rational reading of the original scripture. People again were interested the rational system of the nature. Politics was understood in more realistic power struggle among individuals.

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The change in the society as a whole was more gradual than the change in ideas. The broad power of the church was replaced by small national powers. The society as a whole continued to be the collective society. In some areas, the exclusive democratic society appeared. The exclusive democratic society was controlled by small wealthy males. Within this small group, there was democracy, while the whole society was still the collective society with rigid social code and hierarchy. The situation was changed by the industrial revolution. 6.1.2. The Industrial Revolution Greek individualism assisted not only in the development of new science after the Renaissance but also the development of new technology and new commerce, resulting in the industrial revolution in the areas where individualism was strong. Such areas were mostly occupied the protestants whose belief relied on distinctively individual connection with God. The food shortage by the climate change forced gatherer-hunters to change the way to produce food. The Neolithic Revolution worked temporally to minimize the food shortage. The food shortage again appeared in the agricultural-nomad society by the high population and periodic natural disasters and wars. By the standard today, people in the agricultural-nomad society were in poverty, not much different from the people living today in the poor agricultural societies. About 10,000 years after the Neolithic Revolution, the Industrial Revolution occurred to change the yin-yang civilized society (agricultural-nomad society) with material poverty into the affluent society with material affluence. The Industrial Revolution replaced an economy based on manual labor by one dominated by machinery. The dramatic increase in productivity lifted most people from the poverty in the agricultural-nomad society. The Industrial Revolution started in the mid 18th century and early 19th century in Britain and spread throughout the world. The success of the Industrial Revolution in Britain is due to the simultaneous combination of financial capital, labor, technology, and free market with economic growth, all of which Britain had in the mid 18th century. At that time, none of other locations had all elements for the successful start of the Industrial Revolution. The financial capital came mostly from the successful agricultural improvement imported from Holland during the early 18th century. The agricultural improvement involved new crop rotation, the usages of horse plowing, the increased usage of manure, and the improved breeding techniques for animals. By 1870, Britain produced 300% agriculturally more than in 1700, but only 14% of population works on land. Many successful landowners used the wealth accumulated from the land to invest in the Industrial Revolution. Some of financial capital came from the colonization of Britain. The excess labors free from the farm work due to the agricultural improvement became the low cost labors for the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution started with the mechanized textile industries powered by steam engine. The improved steam engine invented by James Watt, and patented in 1769. Steam engine enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated textile and other factories at any locations. The factory system started to form industrial cities to

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attract labors and investors. With strong scientific establishment, technology advancement was sustainable. As an island nation, Britain had broad international market. The lack of the interferences from domestic feudal system allowed competitive free domestic market. People could choose to buy goods and service in market without interference. The competitive free market allowed the existence of large industrial production. The simultaneous combination of financial capital, labor, technology, and free market with economic growth in Britain made the Industrial Revolution successful in the mid 18th century. The same combination spread to other regions. Britain and her former colonies remain the top free market industrial nations in all continents of the world. There are two different kinds of capital systems: material capital and expertise capital. The material capital system relates to tangible properties, such as monetary investment, building, and machine. The expertise capital system relates to intangible properties, such as technical skill and innovation. The core of entrepreneur free market structure is the legal capital system. Free market requires stable, mobile, and large investment in terms of capital. This kind of large-scale capital needs standardization of each business transaction in order to avoid misunderstanding and repetitive reexamination. This standardization and the enforcement of the standardization are the legal capital systems67. The legal capital system provides a legal system for the free and large collections of investment for sustainable free market. Without the legal capital system in free market, capital is too fragmentary to sustain a robust free market. The most important aspect of the legal capital system is ownership. The free market society is the individualistic society with minimum code and hierarchy. Individual property right is strongly protected. The individualistic society requires abundant resource and security. For the free market society, the abundant resource comes from the continuous economic growth from new technology, additional natural resource and labors, and additional trade. Security comes from the protection by laws. The continuous success of the free market society carries the individualistic society into the extreme individualistic society as the affluent society. In the affluent society, the combination of consumerism, globalization, and productive technology fuels the economy. Productive technology improves the productivity that increases the living standard for all people. It produces attractive and low-cost goods and services for consumerism. The volume of consumption increases rapidly, stimulating increasing production. New productive technology continues to appear to maintain continuously the increase in productivity. When productivity slows down at a specific location, the globalization of production and consumption takes over to move production to a different location where high productivity can be maintained. The ever-increasing economic growth in production and consumption allows ever-increasing numbers of people to consume low-cost goods and services. The material affluence and consumerism are spreading to the whole global society.

6.2. The Modern Collective Society

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By the mid-nineteenth century, many reformers from Europe and America realized the need to transform capitalist industrial society into a much more egalitarian system in which collective wellbeing is above individualistic achievement. The system is socialism. The word was first used in the early 1830s by the followers of Owen in Britain and those of Saint-Simon in France. They criticized the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution. They advocated reform via the egalitarian distribution of wealth without private property. The principle of socialism is collective wellbeing. There are different ways to carry out collective wellbeing. Socialism can be cooperative socialism, total state ownership socialism, partial state ownership socialism, and regulatory socialism. In cooperation socialism, without private ownership, people cooperate with freedom and equality. It is possible only in a relatively small simple community. The large complicate industrial society requires a centralized government that plans and controls the economy in order to achieve collective wellbeing. Therefore, for large socialistic society, collective wellbeing is carried out by systems of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned or regulated by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy. Total state ownership socialism, such as Communism, does not allow free market. The means of producing and distributing goods is owned totally by a centralized state that plans and controls the economy. Partial state ownership socialism allows both free market for private ownership and state ownership. Regulatory socialism demands private own business to be as transparent as possible, so state can monitor and regulate private own business to follow a certain degree of collective wellbeing. Most socialism systems today consist of partial state ownership socialism and regulatory socialism. 6.3. The Modern Democratic Two-Party Society The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society under normal condition was the democratic society. It was democratic and egalitarian. Democracy is defined as a political system in which all the members of the society have equal access to power. The requirements for such democratic society are small size, homogeneity, and adequacy in resource and security. Small size and homogeneity allow the member of the group to build social bonding. Such social bonding minimizes the disastrous conflict in the sharing of power. Adequacy in resource and security minimizes aggression in the conflict during the sharing of power. Deficiency in resource and security forces individuals to make desperate attempt to obtain scarce resource and security. Deficiency in resource and security results in the collective society that has rigid social code and hierarchy to avoid continuous disastrous conflict. Abundance in resource and security leads to the individualistic society where individuals do not need a committed social group to survive. In the yin-yang civilized society, a small political group simply cannot survive. How can people build a democratic and egalitarian democratic political society in the yin-yang civilized society? It is possible to have a democratic society, because the human nature is evolved to have the propensity for democratic society as in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. People want democratic society. In the yin-yang civilized society, it is not possible to have the exactly same democratic society as the

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prehistoric hunter-gatherer society, so people have developed approximate democratic society with approximate small size, approximate homogeneity, and approximate adequacy in resource and security. The history of democratic society, therefore, is the history of different approximation methods to reach approximate democratic society. The first approximation method is the representation to select few people to represent a large group. The selection method was lot for Athenians during the democratic period between the 5th and the 4th century BC. The Athenians used lot for selecting officials. It was to ensure all citizens were qualified for office equally, and to avoid any corruption when allotment machines were used. The more popular representation is election by ballot. The size of the representative group is small enough to build social bonding among representatives. It is common to find good social bonding among political enemies in the representative group. The second approximation method is the exclusion to make democratic society exclusively for a particular homogeneous group. For Athenians, the exclusive group was free men. It excluded slave and women. In Athens, the exclusive group represented only 20% of the total population. It was the same way for the early United States. The exclusive group was for free wealthy men. Poor people were typically excluded. Such exclusion method had prevailed for a long time until only recently. The exclusion method prevents disastrous conflict among heterogeneous groups. With the exclusion method, the society as whole is not democratic. It is democratic only within the exclusive group. The exclusion method is also used for resource and security. The exclusive group controls resource and security. Thus, a society as a whole may not have adequate resource and security, but because the exclusive group controls resource and security, the resource and security within the exclusive group is adequate. The West had used the representation method and the exclusion method for a very long time for the approximate democratic society. They built the firm foundation for democracy in the West. Without them, there would have had no democracy in the West. After the industrious revolution, the exclusion method has become increasingly ineffective for the approximate democratic society. The exclusive group has lost its control intellectually and economically. The easy communication after the industrious revolution does not allow the intellectual control over any specific groups. The economic income become fluidic, so any economic control over any specific groups has become difficult. The actual changes, however, occurred slowly even thought there were significant legal changes that eliminated the legal status of the exclusive group. The exclusive group continued to exist to prevent possible chaos from the heterogeneous society with deficient resource and security as a whole. The modern individualistic society as capitalism and the modern collective society as socialism clashed to create tremendous turbulence in many parts of the modern world. The modern mass printing and increased literary at the same time allowed communication and understanding between the two Modern branches of human society. The result was the establishment of the democratic modern two-party society, such as in America. Roosevelt transformed Democratic Party into the yin party that represented the collective society for the people who were not in the traditional exclusive group. Roosevelt at the same time allowed Republican Party to exist, representing the individualistic society for the traditional exclusive group. In any modern society, poor people prefer the collective society that takes care of welfare of all people, and rich

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people prefer individualistic society that gives freedom for individuals to develop fully. Women who have natural tendency for collective welfare prefer the collective society, while men who have natural tendency for individual achievement prefer the individualistic society. This two-party system is natural in the modern society. This twoparty method to replace the exclusion method saves the approximate democratic society in the modern society. In the world today, all mature and stable democratic nations have this two-party method for the approximate democratic society. The two-party system consists of the socialistic political party for the yin (collective) society and the free market (capitalistic) political party for the yang (individualistic) society. The nations that do not have the two-party system usually do not have stable democratic system. 6.4. The Christian Church In the Modern Three-Branch Unified Society, Christian church and America played critical roles. The Christian church changed from the original harmonious society into the state collective religion as the Roman Empire selected it as the state religion. The Modern Revolution gradually moved the church back to the harmonious society, particularly in America. In the Modern Unified Society, such as America, political parties replace states, partisan socialism replaces state religion, partisan capitalism replaces state individualism, and religions become harmonious religions without political state of large social group. The Unified Society is the system of separation and balance of powers in the three-branch society, consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society. 6.4.1. The Early Church as the Harmonious Society The early church from 30 to 312 AD represented the harmonious society established by Jesus Christ. It is the harmonious society, small and ubiquitous like the prehistoric harmonious society. Since human society was the harmonious society in the prehistoric time, and human was evolved to adapt to the harmonious society, humans have propensity for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society. Such propensity for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society is the basic reason for the growth of the early church from the obscure, marginal Jesus Movement to become the religious force in the Western World in a few centuries as described by sociologist Rodney Stark68. E. R. Dodds has put this as well as anyone: A Christian congregation was from the first a community in a much fuller sense than any corresponding group of Isiac or Mithraist devotees. Its members were bound together not only by common rites but by a common way of life.... Love of one's neighbor is not an exclusively Christian virtue, but in [this] period Christians appear to have practiced it much more effectively than any other group. The Church provided the essentials of social security.... But even more important, I suspect, than these material benefits was the sense of belonging which the Christian community could give.

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Christianity did not grow because of miracle working in the marketplaces (although there may have been much of that going on), or because Constantine said it should, or even because the martyrs gave it such credibility. It grew because Christians constituted an intense community, able to generate the "invincible obstinacy" that so offended the younger Pliny but yielded immense religious rewards. And the primary means of its growth was through the united and motivated efforts of the growing numbers of Christian believers, who invited their friends, relatives, and neighbors to share the "good news." The early church spread in the urban area, the center of civilization. The center of civilization was also the place farthest away from harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society. Most people in the urban area suffered from endless conflicts, diseases, and loneliness. The church as the community with harmonious cooperation attracted a lot of people in the urban area. They loved each other and took care of each other. During the time of plague and conflict, the people in the harmonious society survived much better than the people outside. In the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society, men and women were equal. The rise of civilization lowered the status of women. The early church had much better equality between men and women than the Roman Empire. Many leaders in the early church were women. The equality attracted women, contributing to the growth of the early church. The Roman Empire required people to worship the emperor as a divine being. When Christians refused to worship the emperor as a divine being, the unity of the Roman state appeared to be threatened. Some Christians refused to serve in the army and opposed the use of violence. Numerous persecutions ensued. Such persecutions forced the early church to gather in small groups for regular worship. In the urban area, many Christians came from the middle and upper classes, which prepared their houses for worship, resulting in the house church. The small social group in the house church actually worked very well for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society whose ideal size of social group is small. In this way, the persecution actually helped rather than weakened the growth of the early church. The contemporary pagan religions were essentially civilized religions that concentrated in the building of grandiose temples and the presentation of magnificent festivals, like what civilized institutes wanted to do. They relied on the support of government and wealthy class rather than community. The loss of such support doomed the pagan religions. From the perspective of the human propensity for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society, the rise of the early church in Europe was unstoppable and almost a certainty. 6.4.2. The Church as the State Religion in the Collective Society The decline of the harmonious society as the church resulted from the rise of the state religion as the persecution ended in 313 AD when Edict of Milan gave Christians equal rights. It was issued by Constantine in the West and Licinius in the East. The church started to rely on the state. Eventually, the church became the state religion of the

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Roman Empire. The society became the collective society, consisting of the collective state and the state religion. Facing the rise of the church, Constantine decided to use the church for the unity of the Roman Empire. The church started to have a similar hierarchical structure as the Roman Empire. People started to compete to obtain the positions of bishops. After that, the church was no longer a person-to-person movement. The weakening of the Roman Empire near the end of the Roman Empire also forced the church to assume the role of maintaining social and political order. The church became powerful socially and politically. After the end of the West Roman Empire, the spread of Christianity beyond the empire was almost entirely by political means such as treaty and baptizing kings and queens. The state religion was a large social group activity instead of small group activity as the harmonious society. At its peak, the state religion excommunicated a king, and sold people the right to go to the heaven. The state religion became an intermediary between people and the head of the collective state, and also an intermediary between people and God The human propensity for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society as the tradition of the harmonious society was maintained by devoted monks and nuns who gave up the accumulation of wealth and devoted entirely to God and the Christian community. 6.4.3. The Reformation: the breakdown of the intermediary In period from 500-336 BC, classical Greece was divided into small city states, each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside. In this period Athens reached its greatest political and cultural heights: the full development of the democratic system of government under the Athenian statesman Pericles, and the founding of the philosophical schools of Socrates and Plato. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern largely dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges. This Greek culture generated individualism and the individualistic society. The Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, Italy. Italy was divided into smaller city states and territories, similar to the classical Greece. Italy was one of the most urbanized areas in Europe. They were in the Roman Empire that inherited Greek culture. Italy at this time was notable for its merchant Republics. The wealthy merchants constituted the affluent upper class, resulting in the individualistic society, similar to the individualistic society in the classical Greece. Greek individualism gave people self-reliance to change traditions and authorities. The Renaissance expresses the changes in art, religion, philosophy, science, and politics. The highly spiritual art in the Middle Ages was transformed into worldly and secular art. The religion that depended on the church authority and tradition in the Middle Ages was transformed into the personal rational reading of the original scripture. People again were interested the rational system of the nature. Politics was understood in more realistic power struggle among individuals.

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Individualism from Renaissance changed the dual society consisting of the collective state and the state religion. For the collective state, individualism led to the breakdown of the state religion (the church) as the intermediary between people and the head of the collective state, resulting in nationalism without the interference of the church. For the state religion, the religious individualism brought about the breakdown of the state religion (the church) as the intermediary between human and God, resulting in the Reformation with direct relation between human and God and the Bible as the sole authority without an intermediary. The Reformation was started by Martin Luther. The breakdown of the intermediary is manifested in his speech to defend his faith in front of the representative of Pope before the Diet of Worms in 1520 AD. Since your most serene majesty and your high mightiness require of me a simple, clear and direct answer, I will give one, and it is this: I can not submit my faith either to the pope or to the council, because it is as clear as noonday that they have fallen into error and even into glaring inconsistency with themselves. If, then, I am not convinced by proof from Holy Scripture, or by cogent reasons, if I am not satisfied by the very text I have cited, and if my judgment is not in this way brought into subjection to God’s word, I neither can nor will retract anything; for it can not be right for a Christian to speak against his country. I stand here and can say no more. God help me. Amen. . Without the intermediary, the dual society, however, continued to exist. The national state and the state religion continued to support each other. The national state as the collective state recognized the state religion as the exclusive religion within a nation, while the state religion recognized the national state as the exclusive state with the divine right. Each one concentrated in its domain of authority. The state religion continued to be a large social group activity, unlike the harmonious society. 6.4.4. The Puritan Movement: the breakdown of the collective society The further development of individualism resulted in the Enlightenment. Individualism from the Enlightenment brought about further change in the collective society consisting of the national collective state and the state religion. Individualism from the Enlightenment forced the national collective state to accept the individualistic society coexisting with the original collective society, resulting in the constitutional democracy to allow individualistic expression in the collective society. The religious individualism from the Enlightenment objected the conformity imposed by the state religion (the Church of England), resulting in the Puritan movement. The Puritans objected to ornaments and ritual in the churches for the state religion. They also objected to ecclesiastical courts. They refused to endorse completely all of the standardized ritual directions and formulas of the state religion. The state religion could not exist well as a large group collective society with all the individualistic religious expressions. The nonconformable denominations had to be silent or expelled. 6.6. The Three-Branch Unified Society of America

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When the United States of America was formed, the United States Constitution was written by a coalition of Enlightenment rationalists and evangelical Christians who were deeply concerned about entanglements between religion and government. It established the base for the separation of state and church, resulting eventually the threebranch Unified Society of America for the modern kingdom of God. 6.5.1. The Decline of the State Religion The return of the harmonious society resulted from the decline of the state religion. The religious individualism and pluralism brought about the decline of the state religion. The religious individualism led to the migration of the persecuted nonconformable Puritan and other denominations to America. The most famous and wellknown emigration to America was the migration of the Puritan separatists from the Anglican Church of England, who fled first to Holland, and then later to America, to establish the English colonies of New England, which later became the United States. These Puritan separatists were also known as "the pilgrims". The original intent of the colonists was to establish spiritual Puritanism, which had been denied to them in England and the rest of Europe to engage in peaceful commerce with England and the Native American Indians and to Christianize the peoples of the America. The collective society consisting of the collective state and the state religion, initially, continued to exist in America. Each state sanctioned but one official church that was supported by taxes and received privileges granted to no other denomination. Almost every colony founded in the western hemisphere before the mid-seventeenth century. The religious pluralism69 in America changed such collective society consisting of the collective state and the state religion. Historians conventionally note that early New England’s religious character was shaped primarily by English Puritans, and the religious character of the South by English Anglicans. The Middle Colonies—comprised of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware—became a stage for the western world’s most complex experience with religious pluralism. The mid-Atlantic region, unlike either New England or the South, drew many of its initial settlers from European states that had been deeply disrupted by the Protestant Reformation and the religious wars that followed in its wake. Early American churchmen and churchwomen soon discovered that if they wanted to practice their beliefs unmolested in a diverse society, they had to grant the same right to others. No single state religion could be imposed on such a mixed population. Instead, a new form of religious practice emerged in the middle region: the voluntary church—an institution supported by the free choice and personal commitment of its adherents. As a result, there was the separation between state and religion. Religion actually flourished under this system. As Thomas Jefferson wrote, “Pennsylvania and New York…have long subsisted without any establishment. … They flourish infinitely. Religion is well supported.” James Madison concurred: “The example of the Colonies…which rejected religious establishments altogether, proved that all Sects might be safely & advantageously put on a footing of equal & entire freedom.” The religious individualism allows a non-conformable person to follow what one believes, while the religious pluralism disallows the existence of a single religion as the

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state religion. The collapse of the state religion without destroying the religion itself led to the return of the harmonious society as a small group activity for harmonious cooperation. 6.5.2. General Description The three-branch Unified Society of America is the system of separation and balance among the three social powers: yin, yang, and harmony as describe below. The Three-branch Unified Society of America
Branch Social life = principle Basic group unit Social activity Political party Preferred economic policy Yin Collective wellbeing Large group Politics Democratic Party Collective socialism Yang Individualistic achievement Large group Politics Republican Party Individualistic capitalism Harmony Harmonious cooperation Small group Religion None None

The social lives or the principles for yin, yang, and harmony are collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The basic social group unit for yin and yang is large, while the basic social group unit for harmony is small. The main social activity for yin and yang is politics, while the main social activity for harmony is religion, which is mostly Christianity, a harmonious religion as the harmonious society. The political parties for yin and yang are typically the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, respectively. The preferred economic policies for yin and yang are collective socialism and individualistic capitalism, respectively. Since economic policy is for large social group unit, harmony as a small social group unit does not have an economic policy. The evolution of the system of separation and balance among the yin, the yang, and harmonious societies is still in progress. The three-branch Unified Society of America has evolved through different stages. Different stages have established different foundations for the Unified Society. A society must meet the following requirements to evolve into the Unified Society. The requirements include adequate resource and security, the absence of a dictatorial power, the amiable presence of the three societies, and the clear separation and balance among the three societies. 6.5.3. The Requirements for the Unified Society 1. Adequate Resource and Security To start a nation in the modern time requires adequate resource and security. Adequate resource includes natural resource and human resource in terms the human capability to manage a modern nation. Adequate security requires an adequate military power. Without adequate resource and security, a nation is in a continuous conflict and chaos. Such a nation becomes too weak to evolve into the Unified Society. America had

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adequate natural resource and the educated people to manage a modern nation. America had adequate military power to protect itself. 2. The Absence of a Dictatorial Power A dictatorial power does not allow three different separated societies. America practices democracy. In democracy, the government is answerable to citizens, who may change it through elections. In this way, a dictatorial power cannot exist. The American political system is clearly defined by basic documents. The Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the Constitution of 1789 form the foundations of the United States federal government. The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the basic structure of the federal government. At the heart of the US Constitution is the principle known as 'separation of powers'. This means that power is spread between three institutions of the state - the executive, the legislature and the judiciary - and no one institution has too much power and no individual can be a member of more than one institution. This system of checks and balances prevents the emergence of dictator. 3. The Amiable Presences of the three Societies Some political revolutions are hostile toward one or two of the three societies. The communism revolution was hostile toward the yang individualistic society and the harmonious religious society. The French Constitution of 1905 and the Spanish Constitution of 1931 have been characterized as the two most hostile of the twentieth century toward religion, although the current schemes in those countries are considered friendly. The United States Constitution has an amiable relation with religion. The United States Constitution was written by a coalition of Enlightenment rationalists and evangelical Christians who were deeply concerned about entanglements between religion and government. 4. The Clear Separation and Balance among the three Societies The American Revolution met the first three requirements for the Unified Society. It takes long time to meet the requirement of the clear separation and balance among the three societies. The initial distinction between the yin-yang secular society and the harmonious religious society is an amiable difference as described in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, which reads, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ". It means that Congress as state is different from religion, so Congress does not establish or prohibit religion. The phrase "separation of church and state" is derived from a letter written by Thomas Jefferson in 1802 to a group identifying themselves as the Danbury Baptists. In that letter, referencing the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Jefferson writes: Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man & his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of government reach actions only, & not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should "make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," thus building a wall of separation between Church & State.

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Jefferson moved the amiable difference in the Constitution to the amiable separation. The wall between Church and State was quite permeable. State freely used broad religious symbols and rituals without establishing a specific religion. As American society has become more pluralistic, there is no broad religious symbol and ritual that applies to all religious beliefs and non-belief. The amiable separation gradually evolves into the clear separation to accommodate the pluralistic society. The separation is natural for Christianity as described by Pope Benedict. In October 2008 Pope Benedict XVI said in a Papal address to a visiting ambassador, with reference to the Church, that: She carries out this mission fully aware of the respective autonomy and competence of Church and State. Indeed, we may say that the distinction between religion and politics is a specific achievement of Christianity and one of its fundamental historical and cultural contributions. The United States Constitution is silent on the subject of political organizations, mainly because most of the founding fathers disliked them. They wanted individual citizens to vote for individual candidates, without the interference of organized groups. Yet, major and minor political parties and groups soon arose. By the 1790s, the followers of Alexander Hamilton, the Hamiltonian faction, took up the name "Federalist"; they favored a strong central government that would support the interests of commerce and industry. The followers of Thomas Jefferson as AntiFederalists took up the name "Democratic-Republicans" They preferred a decentralized agrarian republic in which the federal government had limited power. Immediately, the predecessors of the collective society and the individualistic society were formed. Since the 1790s the country has been run by two major parties The clear separation of principles in the yin society (the Democratic Party) and the yang society (the Republican Party) started to occur after most people could vote during the 20th century, when collective wellbeing was for most people instead of the few privileged people who were qualified to vote. The significant separation started with the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, whose New Deal included the founding of Social Security as well as a variety of other federal services and public works projects. Roosevelt's success in the twin crises of the Depression and World War II led to a sort of polarization in national politics, centered on him; this combined with his increasingly liberal policies to turn FDR's Democrats to the left and the Republican Party further rightward. Because many Americans choose a political party based on race, ethnicity, religion, and geographic location, the clear division of principles in the yin and the yang parties evolve slowly. Only recently, the division becomes obvious from the delegates to the party conventions. The delegates who attend the yin party convention clearly prefer and are benefited from collective wellbeing, while the delegates who attend the yang party convention clearly prefer and are benefited from individualistic achievement. Regardless of political parties, Americans place high value in harmonious cooperation in individual religious communities separated from government.

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The clear separation and balance among the three societies allow the existences of the clear and significant social organizations for all three human social lives. Since human society needs all three social lives, the three societies are unified in the Unified Society. The Unified Society provides the return of the harmonious society. 6.6. The Harmonious Moral religions A major difference between the Western European social system and the American social system is religion. In the Western Europe, religion loses prevalence in favor of secularism, while in America, religion continues its prevalence. The main reason for the decline in Christianity in the Western Europe is the historic position of Christianity. Christianity in Europe was state religion, a large social group associated with politics. Such Christianity as state religion is not the original form of Christianity. Christianity as state religion loses the vitality of social and personal harmony associated with harmonious religion. Without its vitality, Christianity loses power in the Western Europe. Furthermore, the increasing pluralistic world also causes the weakening of any state religions closely associated with large society politics as state religions become the source of conflict. All state religions are not viable religions in the pluralistic world as witnessed in Europe. Early Christians came to America to escape from the control of state religions in Europe. The United States Constitution was written by a coalition of Enlightenment rationalists and evangelical Christians who were deeply concerned about entanglements between religion and government. Without being state religion, Christianity in America has maintained its vitality of social and personal harmony associated with harmonious religion. Without associating closely with large social group politics, Christianity can survive in the increasing pluralistic world. People come to Christian churches for social and personal harmonious cooperation in a small social group and in one own self. The viable religions today are harmonious religions which thrive in small social groups as in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society for nearly 200,000 years. In today’s pluralistic world, the state religions that seek domination often and inevitably undergo zero-sum competition, even though sometimes they coexist peacefully. The permanent solution for such zero-sum competition is the conversion of state religion into the harmonious religion that does not engage in the dominative competition among large social groups. The conversion in fact has already taken place in today’s pluralistic world. The mainstream religions of the collective religions, including Islam, Judaism, Confucianism, and Hinduism move toward the harmonious moral religions. The harmonious moral religions include harmonious Judaism, harmonious Islam, harmonious Hinduism, and harmonious Confucianism that separate themselves largely from large social group state politics, and concentrate in building harmonious cooperation in local communities. Instead of political religions, the harmonious moral religions become cultural and spiritual religions. Most countries disestablished state religions or maintain relatively weak state religions. The few state and semi-state religions today can survive well mostly because of their unusually large resource and strong security. With such resource and security, they resist any significant changes to be adaptable to the pluralistic world.

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As shown in the history of America, the way to maintain Christianity as the harmonious religion is the separation of religion and state. One of the continuous difficulties in the separation is the insistence of religion to be the final moral authority. Morality, especially the principles of morality, today certainly is based largely on religions. The expressions of morality, however, change with time and culture. Religion based on sacred text reflects only the expressions of morality of a specific time and culture. Religion continues to be the foundation of morality, but the legal aspect of morality should be decided by state, rather than religion. The connection between religion and state is inevitable. The fair and open cultural (traditional) instead of political connection can be acceptable. The emphasis of the harmonious religion is the harmonious person-to-person connection in a small local social group. The propagation of the harmonious religion is through mostly the example of love in small social group, like hunters and gathers in small social groups in the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society. The social life is the harmonious social life based on eager cooperation without lie. Such harmonious cooperation is not applicable in large social group, but the person-to-person connection anywhere and time can reveal illusion and impermanence of dehumanized conflicts among large social groups.

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Part 3. The Postmodern Period
Part 3 involves the Postmodern Period starting from the global mass telecommunication for the Postmodern Revolution. The social systems in the Postmodern World consist of the Divided Society, the State Unified Society, and the Partisan Unified Society. The Postmodern World is divided into the Divided Society where the three branches clash and the Unified Society where the three branches coexist peacefully. The Unified Society is divided into the State Unified Society as Russia, China, and Japan where the state represents politically both the collective and the individualistic societies and the Partisan Unified Society as USA, UK, and Germany where the political parties represent separately the collective and the individualistic societies. The harmonious religion in the Unified Society represents the harmonious society separated from the collective and the individualistic societies. In Chapter 7, by global telecommunication in the Postmodern Period, the traditional exclusive collective society is exposed to the outside influences, resulting in the Divided Society, including some developing countries. The clash among the three branches in the Divided Society has caused turbulence locally and globally. The Unified Society is divided into the State Unified Society (Chapter 8) as Russia, China, and Japan where the state represents politically both the collective and the individualistic societies or the Partisan Unified Society (Chapter 9) as USA, UK, and Germany where the political parties represent separately the collective and the individualistic societies. The harmonious religion in the Unified Society represents the harmonious society separated from the collective and individualistic societies. Chapter 10 deals with the postmodern education for learning the collective and individualistic social lives in elementary and secondary school as well as in the four-stage life. In terms of economy, the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society, which existed necessarily in small social group. After the emergence of civilization, materials have been procured by the large civilized social group rather than the small social group in the harmonious society. As a result, the materialistic society is the collective materialistic society, the individualistic materialistic society, or the combination of both societies. The harmonious society was nonmaterialistic. In the Postmodern Period, the collective and individualistic materialistic societies and the harmonious society coexist. The collective society is stable, but the long domination of the collective society turns stability into stagnation. The individualistic society is dynamic, but the long domination of the individualistic society turns dynamism into crisis. In America, the long domination of the individualistic society turned dynamism into crisis in 2008. The rebalance restores the balance between the collective society and the individualistic society, and turns financial crisis, environmental crisis, and social crisis into economic stability, sustainable environment, and social cohesion. Chapter 11 describes crisis, and Chapter 12 describes rebalance. Chapter 13 describes the postmodern harmonious society as the harmonious society of God. Chapter 14 deals with the Postmodern Unified Society as the global natural society. The State Unified Society is suitable for the non-West, while the Partisan

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Unified Society is suitable for the West. The Postmodern Unified Society is constructed through psychology, politics, education, economy, and religion.

7. The Postmodern Divided Society
Global telecommunication and widespread literacy allow people to receive different influences from all over the world. One major consequence is to convert a society with one exclusive branch of human branch to become the Divided Society from the outside influences of other branches. Inevitably, the clash of the three-branches occurs. In the present global society, the clash among the three-branches in the Divided Society has caused turbulence locally and globally, resulting in global crisis. The insiders of an exclusive society take the positive view of their exclusive society, and take the negative views of the invading societies from the outsiders. The following table lists the real view, the positive view, and the negative view.
Real view Collective wellbeing in the collective society Individualistic achievement in the individualistic society Harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society Positive view Idealism Freedom Peace Negative view Conformity Corruption Defeatism

The insiders of the exclusive collective society feel that they follow their collective wellbeing as idealism, and they fight against corruption from corrupting individualistic achievement in the individualistic society and defeatism from illusive harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society. The insiders of the exclusive individualistic society feel that they follow their individualistic achievement as freedom, and fight against conformity from conforming collective wellbeing (conformity) in the collective society and defeatism from illusive harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society. The insiders of the exclusive harmonious society feel that they follow their harmonious cooperation as the way of peace, and they fight against conformity from conforming collective wellbeing in the collective society and corruption from corrupting individualistic achievement in the individualistic society. To fight against the outside influence, the exclusive collective society strengthens idealistic collective wellbeing. It keeps insiders excessively pure to prevent corruption from individualistic achievement. It keeps insiders excessively strong in terms of military mentality to prevent defeatism from harmonious cooperation. From the view of the outsiders, the exclusive collective society becomes increasingly conforming. To fight against the outside influence, the exclusive individualistic society strengthens free individualistic achievement. It keeps insiders excessively materialistic to prevent conformity from collective wellbeing. It keeps insiders excessively strong in terms of military mentality to prevent defeatism from harmonious cooperation. From the view of the outsiders, the exclusive individualistic society becomes increasingly corrupted. To fight against the outside influence, the exclusive harmonious society strengthens peaceful harmonious cooperation, and keeps the insiders excessively ascetic to prevent corruption from individualistic achievement. It keeps insiders excessively

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even-handed to prevent conformity from collective wellbeing. To the outsiders, the exclusive harmonious society becomes increasingly defeated. In the Divided Society, when each branch keeps the positive view of itself, and the negative views of the other, the clash persists. The Divided Society includes mostly the developing countries that are in the transition from the underdeveloped stage to the developed stage. Typically, the underdeveloped countries, which are the agriculturalnomad society, are the collective society. When the underdeveloped countries start to become the developing countries, they are exposed to the outside influences, resulting in the Divided Society. Typically, the outside influences are in the forms of freedom from the outside individualistic society and peace from the outside harmonious society. The three-branches of human society clash internally and locally in the Divided Society. The clash causes local turbulence. The turbulence draws the outsiders to interfere. The insiders resent the outside influences and the outsiders’ interference, so the insiders take the clash to outside. In some cases, the clash is between the religious collective society and the secular collective society. In the present postmodern global society, the clash among the three-branches in the Divided Society has caused turbulence locally and globally. Global peace depends on the transformation of the Divided Society into the Unified Society through communication and understanding among the three branches of human society.

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8. The Postmodern State Unified Society
The goal of the Postmodern Unified Society is the three-branch unified society, which is the peaceful coexistence of the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies. There are two different methods to reach the same goal. The first method is the Postmodern State Unified Society, and the second method is the Postmodern Partisan Unified Society. In the Postmodern State Unified Society, the state represents politically both the collective and the individualistic societies, and separately, the harmonious religion represents the harmonious society. The examples are Russia, China, and Japan. In the Postmodern Partisan Unified Society, different political parties represent separately the collective society and the individualistic society, and separately, the harmonious religion represents the harmonious society. The examples are USA, UK, and Germany. The Postmodern State Unified Society and the Postmodern Partisan Unified Society have different methods and the same goal: the peaceful coexistence of the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies. 8.1. The Reasons for the Existence of the Postmodern State Unified Society In the Postmodern State Unified Society, the state represents politically both the collective and the individualistic societies, and separately, the harmonious religion represents the harmonious society. The examples are Russia, China, and Japan. The reasons for the existence of the Postmodern State Unified Society instead of the Postmodern Partisan Unified Society are the absence of the ideological partisan tradition and the size and the makeup of society. the absence of the ideological partisan tradition One of the major differences between the East and the West is the attitude toward religion. In the East, including Confucianism, Hinduism, Daoism, and Buddhism, the attitude toward different religions is tolerance and flexibility. Typically, they are polytheism. In the West, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Greek individualism, the attitude toward different religions is intolerance and rigidity. Typically, they are monotheism. In the West, the attitude toward different religions extends to the ideological partisan tradition in which ideology of a political party is fairly rigid. In the West, political parties can be categorized as collective (socialistic as the left) or individualistic (capitalistic as the right). In the East, the large political parties in the democratic countries cannot be categorized distinctively by ideology based on the collective society and the individualistic society. The political parties are personal political parties. People select a political party on the base of what they like about the leaders of a political party. Since the attitude toward ideology is flexible, leaders can easily choose any suitable ideology. The absence of the ideological partisan tradition allows the existence of the Postmodern State Unified Society where state can choose suitable ideology within the three-branch unified society as long as people like the state. The Postmodern Partisan Unified Society in the East is de facto the Postmodern State Unified Society according to the definition of political party of the West. the strong tradition of the collective society

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The strong tradition of the collective society can also prevent partisan competition from the individualistic society. The world other than the West does not have the strong tradition of the individualistic society, and feels uncomfortable about partisan competition. The State Unified Society includes the individualistic society, but it does not include partisan competition as the competition from political parties from the individualistic society. the size and the makeup of a country If the size of a country is very large and the makeup is very heterogeneous, partisan competition can easily turn the society into chaos that is devastating to all people in the country. Therefore, the Postmodern State Unified Society with good representations from all people and from all social lives is a much better choice. On the other hand, if the size of a country is very small and the makeup is very homogeneous, like Singapore, partisan politics is really unnecessary. A small and homogeneous country is like a large company where partisan politics is unnecessary as long as there are sufficient representations for all investors, managements, and employees in the board of directors. In fact, Singapore ranked number one in both 2008 and 2009 for the ease of private companies creating and conducting business, and it is dominated by one political party without viable opposition. The fear of chaos dominates most countries. A result is the reliance in stable bureaucracy which is relatively insulated from the chaotic partisan competition. Bureaucracies dominate almost all developed countries except the United States and a few less populous English-speaking countries such as Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. Typical bureaucracy exists in Japan and France. 8.2. The Formation of the Postmodern State Unified Society The goal of the Postmodern State Unified Society is the three-branch unified society where the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies coexist peacefully. The method of the Postmodern State Unified Society is the state three-branch unified society where the state represents politically both the collective and individualistic societies, and separately, the harmonious religion represents the harmonious society. The formation of the Postmodern State Unified Society is to write the goal and the method in the constitution of the society. Since the state represents politically both the collective and the individualistic societies, there is only one party, such as the “state party”, to implement the constitution. For the Postmodern Partisan Unified Society in the West, all political parties have to support the constitution. The structure of the state is the three-branched government, consisting of executive, legislative, and judiciary. The goal of people in executive branch is the cohesiveness of the administrative network. The goal of people in legislative branch is to represent diverse interests of people. The goal of people in judiciary is the maintenance of the constitution of legal system. They share political power in such way that they are each subjected to reciprocal checks, so each of them does not have a threatening structure to other branches. The structure of the state of the Postmodern State Unified Society is same as the three-branched government in the Postmodern Partisan Unified Society. Without

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competitive political parties, the election process (voting) is different. In the partisan society, election is general election involving all adults. During general election, special interest groups actively involve in general election by funding and propaganda. After general election, special interest groups form lobby groups to involve in the decisions of government. The critical question about general election in the partisan society is the usefulness of general election, if special interest groups play such important roles in government. Furthermore, general election typically is wasteful in terms of money, time, and energy. General election is a large source of lie, gross distortion, corruption, and violence. An attractive alternative is simply to abandon general elections, and to adopt special elections for the special interest groups that form the legislative branch of government. The special interest groups can be categorized as geography, ethnicity (minority), gender (under-represented gender), age (under-represented age), and professions. Each special interest group holds special election to select its representative in the legislative branch of government. The population percentage of a special interest group has to be significant enough to have representative. Specific social issues have both sides which cancel each other, so specific social issue groups do not have representatives. Since government and religion are separated, religion groups do not have representatives. Special election is democratic. For special interest group representing a geography area, the special election involves all adults in the geography area. For larger geography area, ethnicity, gender, age, and professional special interest groups are represented. Adults in each special interest group elect their representative democratically. Likely, an elected representative of a special interest has passion and knowledge for special interest group, and is capable to represent special interest group effectively in governmental process. The state party nominates and finances qualified candidates for special elections. Qualified candidates need both qualified experiences and qualified educations. Candidates include both incumbents and newcomers. The sum of all representatives from special interest groups in the legislature branch represents the general interest of people. Such special election to form the legislature branch allows broad and orderly political participation of people. Similarly, the state party also has democratic intra-party special election. There is no election for the executive branch and the judiciary branch of government. The state party nominates qualified candidates for the top positions in the executive branch and the judges in the judiciary branch. Qualified candidates need both qualified experiences and qualified educations. The top positions and judges require the approval from the legislature branch. It is similar to the approval of cabinet officials in the partisan society. The executive branch and the judiciary branch represent general interest of people. In the national level, the differences between the collective society and the individualistic society become important in the decision making. Skillful leaders of the executive branch appoint people from both the collective society and the individualistic society by their experiences and passions. In this way, the executive branch represents general interest of all people. Similarly, in the national level, the legislature branch naturally is divided into the collective perspective and the individualistic perspective dependent on whether the representatives are benefited from collective wellbeing or from

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individualistic achievement. Representatives from a poor geographic area favor collective wellbeing, while representatives from a wealthy growing area favor individualistic achievement. High income professions favor individualistic achievement, while low income professions favor collective wellbeing. Collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement are both competitive and interdependent. The consensus and compromise produce the general interest of all people. The skillful executive and legislature branch make the best policies that are suitable to the short-term and the longterm needs of nation and people. 8.3. The State Party The mission of the state party is to operate the professional state of the people, by the people, and for the people in the State Unified Society. The state party instills honor, duty, and service in the members of the party. The members of the state party consider themselves as the professional state officials to serve people, as the members of professional military organization consider themselves as professional officers to protect people, and unlike the members of the Western political party consider themselves mostly as the supporters of the party ideology. The state party recruits members starting from young age. The state party recruits the best and the brightest from all different groups, so it represents all groups. The state party nurtures potential members of the state party. When they are accepted as the members of the state party, they are ready to work in government and the state party as full-time, part-time, or reserve officials. The state party coaches and mentors the officials to support their career growth and development in government. The state party has schools to train potential officials and officials for the executive branch, the legislature branch, and the judiciary branch. The state party maintains a think-tank to maintain the doctrine of the state party, to explore alternatives for new directions, to deal with difficult issues, and to improve government and the state party. The ability for the state party to adapt intelligently is critical for its success. The state party organizes all steps in special election process for the legislature branch , including the determination of special interest groups, the organization of special interest groups, the nomination of candidates, the campaign process, election (voting), and the determination of election result. The state party nominates the top positions in the executive branch and the judges in the judiciary branch for the approval by the legislature branch. The daily operation of government remains relatively independent from the state party, because the officials in government are the experts in their areas. The state party keeps a close watch in the ethics of officials, but does not micromanage government. Like a professional corporation, the state party has the mission statement that is operate a professional state of the people, by the people, and for the people in the State Unified Society. Like a corporation, it has a clearly defined product that is the State Unified Society. Like a professional corporation, the state party has customers which are people. Profit by innovation and productivity is the goal for corporation, while serving people is the goal of the state party. The head of the state party corresponds to the chairperson of a professional corporation for long term planning and direction. The head of the executive branch corresponds to the CEO of a professional corporation. The head

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of the legislature branch corresponds to the head of customer representatives to represent people. The judges represent ethics committee to maintain the laws and settle conflicts. The profession state is not much different from a professional corporation. The professional state was in effect in China for about two thousand years under the emperors from different dynasties and even different ethnic groups until the early part of the 20th century. (It is the longest continuous political system in the world.) The unified society in China consisted of the collective society based on Confucianism and the harmonious society based on Daoism-Buddhism. Confucianism is a moral religion, and a most important mission of Confucius was to teach the state how to govern. The unified society did not include the individualistic society. For the collective society, the bureaucrats were selected by the education and examination system based on Confucianism. The bureaucracy corresponded to the professional state. The moral meritocratic Confucian bureaucracy required the approval from emperor who represented people. If an emperor could not represent people, people had the right to replace the emperor, while the Confucian system continued to exist. According to Mencius, The people are to be valued most, the altars of the grain and the land [traditional symbols of the vitality of the state] next, the ruler least. Hence winning the favor of the common people you become Emperor. (Mengzi 7B14) Under the pressure of the West, the Confucian system of the professional state collapsed due to the absence of the individualistic society that gave the West winning free market, science, and technology. Today, the professional state has been revived with the addition of the individualistic society in Russia, China, and Japan whose government is dominated by the meritocratic bureaucracy. The Japanese bureaucracy comes from the tradition of the moral educated administrative samurai class under the influence of the Confucian system. Today, the professional state exists favorably in the society with the strong tradition of the collective society and the strong rising professional middle class who prefers stability over political strife. 8.4. The Private Sector The legitimacy of the state party comes from the separated responsibility between the state party and the private sector which is run by private individuals or groups for profit, and is not controlled by the state. The state party is responsible for the professional state, and the private sector is responsible for free market. The state party exchanges the right of state owned companies for the right of the professional state. The private sector exchanges the right of partisan competition for the right of free market. The professional state results in social stability, while free market leads to prosperity. In this way, the State Unified Society has both social stability and prosperity. The Confucian system also had the separated responsibility between the state bureaucracy and the private sector. The private sector corresponded to the familycentered collective society in local community. (The Confucian system did not include the individualistic society.) The state officials were considered as parental officials as the extension of the family-centered collective society. The family-centered collective society had considerable power independent from the state, as in a popular saying, “the

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sky is high; the emperor is far away”. The Chinese term of “nation” is “state-family”. The stability of the state depended on the stability of the family-centered collective society. Under the Western influence, Japan first added the individualistic society to the Confucian system. During the Meiji period (1868-1912), the Japanese bureaucracy built the state own companies, and sold them to the family-centered privately owned companies in the private sector. The strong family-centered private sector made the fast modernization. The same strong family-centered private sector has made oversea Asians successful in commerce, particularly in small business, in the world, and also has made them relatively inactive in local politics. Without prosperity, the state party collapses, and without stability, the private sector collapses. Successful free market in the world for both the West and the East started mostly with relatively stable State Society without the multi-party competition, instead of the Partisan Society with the multi-party competition. In many countries, the Partisan Society came afterward. Free market is innovative, dynamic, and efficient, and generates sustainable longterm prosperity, but free market is creative destruction, which is prone to produce destructive toxic-capitalism without creation. Free market is an expression of individualistic achievement that is a part of human nature. The professional state, on the other hand, is responsible for social security, social stability, stable money supply, social safety net, the protection of free market, and the control of destructive toxic-capitalism, but it cannot generate sustainable long-term prosperity as well as free market. The professional state represents both individualistic achievement and collective wellbeing. The protection of free market by the professional state includes the legalization of private property that can turn into capital investment for free market and the enforcement of legal contract. The professional state also controls toxic-capitalism. Toxic-capitalism maximizes profit at any cost even by destruction without creation. Toxic-capitalism includes 1. monopoly, 2. protectionism, 3. unsafe short-term profit, 4. predatory buyout, and 5. environmental destruction. To maximize profit, monopoly destroys domestic competitors without creative innovation. To maximize profit, protectionism destroys foreign competitors without creative innovation. As a result, toxic-capitalism destroys innovation by competition. To maximize profit, toxic-capitalism exchanges safe long term profit for unsafe short term profit. The maximization of the unsafe short term profit in terms of speculative capital instead of long term investment capital and quick result instead of safe result caused the recent market meltdown and the largest oil spill. To maximize profit, investment companies take over relatively healthy companies for short term profit and large management fee, and destroy their long term heath70. To maximize profit, environment destruction disregards sustainable environment that is essential for sustainable free market. Without the control of toxic-capitalism, free market faces meltdown sooner or later. Toxic-capitalism thrives in the multi-party state that requires large campaign fund for election. Political parties need campaign contribution from toxic-capitalists. Only time that toxic-capitalism loses its power is market meltdown. After market meltdown, sooner or later, toxic-capitalism becomes strong again until the next market meltdown. In USA, the meltdowns of free market occurred in 1929 and 2008.

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Although the professional state represents both individualistic achievement and collective wellbeing, during the transition between the centrally planned economy and free market, the professional state uses state capitalism71 as the transition to free market. State capitalism where state owned companies dominate is simply a transitional phase from the state collective society to the state unified society. It is a mistake to identify state capitalism permanently with the State Unified Society such as Russia, China, and Japan. State capitalism does not generate as much long-term sustainable prosperity as free market. The end of state capitalism is free market. For China, the shift to free market is slow but steady. Actually, the separated responsibility between the professional state and the private sector helps the state party, because the state party is not blamed for all natural creative destruction in free market. 8.5. Anti-Corruption Political corruption, such as bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, patronage, graft, and embezzlement which use public office for private gain, discredits and destabilizes both the public sector and the private sector. The responsibility of anticorruption is shared by both the public sector and the private sector. The separated responsibility between the state party and the private sector eliminates some of the systematic sources of corruption. According to a study of The Heritage Foundation72, lack of economic freedom explains 71% of political corruption: the more economic restrictions, the more political corruption there is. In the separated responsibility, the responsibility of the private sector for free market with economic freedom reduces the political corruption by the lack of economic freedom. In the separated responsibility, the absence of campaign contribution by the private sector reduces the political corruption by campaign contribution. The access of special interest group by its representative in the legislature branch reduces the need of special interest group to buy the access to government. All government officials are accountable to the state party which stands on the principles of honor, duty, and service. It is paramount for the state party to weed out corruption. At the same time, the private sector has to adhere to the strict anti-corruption, such as anti-bribery in OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) Anti-Bribery Convention. To prevent corruption, regulations must be simple and non-restrictive, and have adequate controls. All government workers must have wages above the living wages to reduce the motive for petty corruption. The strong ethics agencies in both the public and the private sectors are necessary to maintain professional ethics and to investigate corruption. An independent and professional judicial system is critical to ending impunity and enforcing the impartial rule of law, and to pursue corrupt officials employees in the public and the private sectors. The postmodern society requires people to get education. The spread of education generates educated public opinion as in journalism. Ordinary people dislike corruption because of the conscience instinct and actual harm from corruption. Educated public opinion expressing such dislike of corruption forces the public and the private sectors to move away from corruption. A country that modernizes naturally outgrows its corruption as shown in the developed countries.

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8.6. Economic Equality The promotion of economic equality is an important mission of the state. There are different ways to achieve economic equality. 1. Free compulsory education The postmodern society is knowledge based society. Education is necessary to achieve good income jobs. Free compulsory education for primary and secondary education allows all people to have equal opportunities for good income jobs. For the people who are unemployed, the education for the reemployment strategy includes upgrading existing job skills or training for a new career. 2. Job creation by the private sector in free market Unemployment depletes income, and creates inequality. Job creation by the private sector gives people income. In the developing countries, job creation by the private sector connected to foreign direct investment brings people out of poverty. 3. Limiting job destruction in free market Free market is a creative destruction process. Free market creates productive jobs and destroys unproductive jobs. Job destruction generates inequality. Most countries limit job destruction, particularly, in farm. Most countries protect farmers by tariff and farm subsidy. Some countries limit competition in retail business to protect small local retailers. Some countries make job destruction very expensive in severance package. In the private sector, some companies, such as large Japanese companies have the policy of life-time employment and essentially permanent customer-supplier relations. 4. Collective bargaining Collective bargaining between employers and employees reduces the economic inequality between employers and employees. Collective bargaining can also reduce the pay differences between highly skilled employees and less skilled employees, and the pay differences between top executives and common employees. 5. Job creation in the public sector When the private sector loses the ability to provide jobs, job creation takes place in the public sector temporally. 6. Infrastructure Infrastructure, such as transportation, reduces the inequality among different geographical locations. 7. Income redistribution Income redistribution includes unemployment compensation, the aid to poor people, the aid to old people, and the aid to health cost. It is the most important method for economic equality in the West. Different countries adopt different ways to achieve economic equality. Increasing gross economic inequality in developed countries is proportional to socialhealth-mental problems for all people, and is inversely proportional to life span73. The happiest countries, Denmark, Finland, and Norway, have low degrees of economic inequality. The cost of gross inequality in prison, police, illegal drug, mental disease, homeless shelter, and heath problems can be greater than the cost to maintain a low

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degree of economic inequality. In the extreme case, extreme economic inequality causes severe social instability. 8.7. The Natural and the Unnatural Political Systems For the West, the natural political system is the Partisan Society where multiparty election takes place. For most of the non-Western country with no strong tradition of the individualistic society for partisan competition, the multi-party election with partisan competition is unnatural. The better alternative for the non-Western countries is to follow their own natural political tradition that is non-multi-party competition. Instead of multi-party election, the election in most non-Western countries should be non-multiparty election. In some countries, such as deeply divided Iraq and Afghanistan, the election should be non-multi-party and regional. Each region follows its own tradition to elect political leaders that have the support of most people. (Repressive dictatorship without the continuous support of majority is an unnatural political system.) Each region is responsible to its own stability, regional government, and regional tax. Each region sends delegates to the central government to form the central government. Since the regions have been inside a nation for a long time, the regions have inevitable natural interdependence in terms of natural resource, transportation, commerce, national identity, and culture. The central government, therefore, is to facilitate such interdependence. The national stability is dependent on regional stability and the interdependence among the regions. The power of central government increases with increasing natural interdependence. In USA, the recent Great Recession has caused frustration in politics. The frustration aims particularly in Congress and both political parties. According to the latest NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll (8/11/2010) 74 , 72 percent disapprove of Congress’ job, just 33 percent have a positive view of the Democratic Party, and only 24 percent see the Republican Party positively — the GOP’s lowest-ever rating in the poll. Controlled by strong special interest groups, Congress and political parties no longer represent the will of majority, while administrative President shows much better favorable view (50%). Partisan competition in politics loses its popularity, but ironically the world, particularly in the West, still considers partisan competition in politics as the universal political system.

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9. The Postmodern Partisan Unified Society
The goal of the Postmodern Partisan Unified Society is the three-branch unified society where the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies coexist peaceful. The method is the partisan unified society where different political parties represent separately the collective and the individualistic societies, and separately, the harmonious religion represents the harmonious society. The Postmodern Partisan Unified Society is the dominate society for the developed societies in the West, such as USA, UK, and Germany. The three reasons for the existence of the Partisan Society in the West are the monotheism tradition with relatively rigid ideology, the strong tradition of the individualistic society that allows partisan competition, and relatively tranquil society without the aversion of social chaos. Since the world is dominated by the West, the Partisan Society appears to be the universal system, and all nations have to comply with this democratic partisan competition system. In reality, depending on specific traditions, the State Society is as valid as the Partisan Society, and both of them can work well in the Postmodern World. The State Unified Society is suitable for the non-West, while the Partisan Unified Society is suitable for the West. The state in the Partisan Society is the competitive state instead of the professional state in the State Society. The Partisan Society is like chimpanzee society with continuous internal partisan competition for leadership, while the State Society is like gorilla society with a continuous internal capable benevolent leader. 9.1 The Legalization of the Two-Party Method In most developed countries in the West, the two-party (collective and individualistic parties) method allows the participation of all adult citizens without exclusion based on race, gender, and wealth. The elected government is legitimized by the political participation of all adult citizens. The outcome of election determines the direction of a society toward more collective (yin) or more individualistic (yang). Such direction may not exactly reflect the winning of the yin party or the yang party, but the policy of government reflects the direction of yin or yang from the election. The legitimacy of government and the determination of social direction are the two basic reasons for the democratic two-party system. The legitimacy of the democratic two-party system is the adaptable social direction from the competition between the individualistic and the collective political parties without turning into social chaos. 9.2. The Establishment of the Democratic Two-Party System Any free political electron involves changes for individuals. Some people gain, and some people lose in free election. The result is social conflict between the winning people and the losing people in zero-sum competition. Free political electron, therefore, cannot be a zero-sum competition. In zero-sum competition, the political election is equivalent to the competition among well-defined religious, regional, racial, or class groups. The winning of people in one political party represents the total loss of people in the opposition party. Such political election becomes a destabilized force to split a nation. The chaos generated by

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such zero-sum political competitions among different classes and ethnic groups in democratic countries were described by Amy Chua in “World on Fire”75. Therefore, no national political party can represents exclusively or nearly exclusively a specific religious, racial, regional, or class group. There is separation between national politics and religion, race, region, or class. In mature democratic nations, no major political parties represent exclusively certain religion, race, region, or class. Almost all of them have two major parties: the two-party system for the collective party and the individualistic party. The competition between the two parties is about the direction of society toward committed group living or free group living. Typically, a society needs different direction at different stages of economic development. The determination of direction in free election actually benefits the whole society. Thus, such directional competition is non-zero-sum competition. Since all mature stable democratic governments have two-party system, it is possible to write the two-party system as a part of the constitution. The constitution excludes the formation of zero-sum party that bases on ethnicity, geographical location, class, religious group, and cultural group. In zero-sum partisan competition, one party’s gain is exactly another party’s loss, there is very little central position, and the possibility of splitting a nation is a real threat. The two-party system written in the constitution is particularly essential for the society split by the differences in class, culture, ethnicity, religion, and locality. The two-party system excludes any political party based on specific class, culture, ethnicity, religion, and locality. All about class, culture, ethnicity, religion, and location have to be generalized. For an example, the issue about locality can be generalized into the issue about the powers of central and local governments. Any special laws for a special location can be generalized into the general special laws for any special location. With the fast communication and transportation in the modern time, there is no good reason for a political party based on specific class, culture, ethnicity, religion, and locality within a nation. Some countries are divided into separate groups, which simply cannot get along with one another. Democracy can easily become zero-sum competition. In this case, democracy should be the quota democracy as the transitional democracy. Eventually, the quota democracy can turn into the two-party democracy. A typical government structure is the three-branched government, consisting of executive, legislative, and judiciary. The goal of people in executive branch is the cohesiveness of the administrative network. The goal of people in legislative branch is the dominance in the competitive hierarchy. The goal of people in judiciary is the maintenance of the constitution of legal system. They share political power in such way that they are each subjected to reciprocal checks, so each of them does not have a threatening structure to other branches. People with propensity to work with other people closely go to the executive branch. The people with propensity to compete go to legislative branch. The people with the propensity to comprehend objectively go to the judiciary branch. The two basic models for democratic government are presidentialism and parliamentarism. In presidentialism, both presidents and representatives are elected directly by people, so there are two legitimate sets of majority rule. Both presidents and representatives serve certain periods of time except in extraordinary circumstances. During their terms, severe persistent confrontation can occur between president and

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representative, resulting in instability that leads to collapse or stalemate of democratic governments. Therefore, there are few democratic governments with presidentialism model. The parliamentarism model, on the other hand, has one legitimate set of majority rule. Any political party or coalition of political parties can form the cabinet as the executive branch of government. All members of the cabinet are the representatives elected by people. When the cabinet loses the confidence from the parliament, it has to call for new election to form new cabinet. There is no severely persistent confrontation between the executive branch and the legislature branch. Because of the possible short live of the cabinet, the governmental service depends on professional governmental civil and military service that carries out the policies determined by the cabinet. Because of specific period of terms in presidentialism, presidentialism has much more political appointments in governmental service than parliamentalism. The professional governmental service allows much less corruption, incompetence, and inefficiency than the political appointment governmental service. Therefore, parliamentalism, cabinet, and professional governmental service minimize instability and inefficiency in constitutional democracy. The educational trainings of politicians and professional governmental managers and technocrats come from different disciples. The educational training of politicians is typically law, because lawyers are able to debate from one particular perspective, which is what politicians do. The educational training of professional governmental mangers is typically MBA. The educational training of professional governmental technocrats is typically science (natural science, political science, social science, and economy) and engineering. Since all people who receive such educational trainings have potential to work in government, all educational trainings must include the courses in government and ethics. 9.3. The Establishment of the Common Ground In the two-party democratic society, the individualistic party emphasizes freedom to be different, while the collective party emphasizes the equality to be same. The individualistic party does not tolerate much equality, while the collective party does not tolerate much freedom. Therefore, it is important to establish the common ground for the basic freedom to be different and the basic equality to be same for both the yin and yang parties. A society with individualistic culture accepts and needs much more freedom to be different than a society with collective culture. A society with collective culture accepts and needs much more equality to be same than an individualistic culture. Economic condition can also makes a society more individualistic or collective. In difficult time such as a defensive war, the whole society becomes more collective. In the economic growing time, the society becomes more individualistic. The establishment of the common ground varies with culture and economic condition. The basic freedom to be different and the basic equality to be same are written in the constitutions of all nations and the United Nations. Using such constitutions, culture, and economic condition as criteria, a constitution about basic freedom and basic equality can be written or rewritten to establish a common ground for the two-party system. Another important common ground is the establishment of good government. A government is like a large corporation, which requires ethical code, standard procedures,

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and transparency. Conflict of interest and corruption destroy government, and makes government ineffective. A government reflects the direction of society by political appointments, and maintains a good government by ethical codes, standard procedures, transparency, and professional governmental employees independent of politics. 9.4. The Establishment of Different Constituents The core group for the yin party consists of poor people and women, while the core group for the yang party consists of rich people and men. Poor people want equality to reach higher level, while rich people want freedom for individual pursuit. Women have social life for collective welfare, while men have social life for individual achievement. However, the overlapping among groups is significant. The middle income group can identify with either poor people or rich people. Poor people may have aspiration to be like rich people, or rich people may have aspiration to be poor people. There are significant overlapping in the social lives of women and men. Intellectuals who have broad knowledge can switch back and fro between two parties depending what they see as more adaptable direction. Economic condition also shifts the preferences of people’s choice of parties. A political party also shifts its direction. A yin party of the present may actually be considered as a yang party of the past, and vice verse. A minority group can go to either yin party or yang party depending on its urgent need. If a minority group has limited freedom to practice its culture and religion, it wants to join the yang party. If a minority group is discriminated by other groups, it wants to join the yin party. If it is deficient in both freedom and equality, it may join the yang party first to gain freedom and the yin party later to gain equality. Homogeneous society with strong social bonding among homogeneous people tends to have strong collective policy, regardless of political party. In heterogeneous society, old established group and new established group compete against each other. Typically, old established group prefers the yang party for the freedom that old established group lose in order to accommodate new established group. New established group prefers the yin group for the equality that new established group feels it does not have. Both groups can use a narrow emotional issue to rally the respective groups for the show of force in the competition. Eventually, pragmatism takes over to make such narrow emotional issue to become non-issue by making a pragmatic compromise. 9.5. Technological Development and Policy Direction The individualistic policy favors freedom and growth. The collective policy favors infrastructure and equality. Each policy has its benefit and cost. The benefit of the individualistic policy is advancement in productivity and living standard, and the cost is chaos in terms of economic bubble and gross inequality. The benefit of the collective policy is stability, and the cost is stagnation. When the cost is greater than the benefit, there will be a shift of policy. Different stages in the technological development are dominated by the individualistic policy or the collective policy. Infrastructure consists of physical infrastructure and regulation infrastructure. For an example, physical construction of a network of highway is a physical infrastructure, while regulation for different speeds and different vehicles on different highways is

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regulation infrastructure. Freedom allows individuals to be free of the restriction of both physical and regulation infrastructure. The initial stage of new technological development is dominated by the individualistic policy that favors freedom. Freedom allows drastic change from old technology to new technology. Freedom also allows an effective mean to explore vast opportunities in a new technology. The collective policy that favors infrastructure does not work in the initiation stage, because the infrastructure for old technology often does not apply to new technology. Automatic organization allows informal short-term infrastructure to form. Because of the lack of collective thinking, such short-term infrastructure inevitably collapses. For an example, the new information technology allows the establishment of an extremely extensive investment network based on extremely extensive network of future earning. Without regulation and oversight, such extensive network by the new information technology inevitably contains miscalculation, recklessness, and deception, resulting in the collapse of the system. Regulation infrastructure is required to properly control freedom in the new technology. Freedom often also ignores physical infrastructure, because freedom requires only minimum infrastructure for individualistic usage. Collective policy understands the need of infrastructure for collective usage. Gradually, as technology matures, collective policy becomes the dominant policy. When the next new technology appears, collective policy appears to be the policy for stagnation and restriction. A new cycle of policy starts again. For developing or under-developed countries, all imported technologies are new technologies. It is important to protect freedom in terms of free market economy to import such technologies. Private sector rather than public sector is suitable to initiate imported technology. The initial stage of new technological development experienced rapid economic growth because of rapid investment in new technology. Because old technology in the initial stage of new technological still exists, there is no major change for most people. New employment open for new technology is more than enough to compensate the employment loss for old technology initially. People welcome economic growth. The enthusiasm of the initial stage often causes economic bubble where the production of new technology grossly exceeds the demand. The result is temporary recession and adjustment of supply-demand. As new technology matures, growth slows down, and new job opportunities in new technology decrease. Only people with the right attitude and background are in the right place and time to explore technological revolution. Other people lose jobs or take low-paid jobs outside of jobs related to new technology. The result is gross inequality. Many people lose the financial ability for decent housing and health care. As new technology matures, equality as a part of collective policy becomes dominant to address the issue of gross inequality. Various equality policies are established to provide people’s basic living standard. When the next new technology appears, collective policy appears to be the policy for social burden. A new cycle of policy starts again.

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10. The Postmodern Education
Traditionally, common people learned collective social life and individualistic social life in large extended family. In the postmodern society, extended family is too small to be the place for learning collective social life and individualistic social life. Common people in the developed countries learn collective social life and individualistic social life in compulsory elementary and secondary school. 10.1 Elementary and Secondary Education The healthy postmodern society is the two-education society including both collective social life education and individualistic social life education in compulsory elementary and secondary school. The collective social life education is group-oriented education to learn cooperative social group. Group in the collective social life education is social group in school, not religious or political group. The individualistic social life education is individual-oriented to learn competitive social hierarchy. Individuals in the individualistic social life education include all people. Since the healthy postmodern society needs both cooperative social group and competitive social hierarchy, elementary and secondary education provides the education for learning both cooperative social group and competitive social hierarchy. Cooperative social group and competitive social hierarchy are not compatible. As a result, it is necessary to learn them at different times. Typically, in the early years of the education, the emphasis of learning is cooperative social group. The emphasis in competitive social hierarchy gradually increases with the ages of students. At the end of the education, the emphasis of learning is competitive social hierarchy. Different emphases are manifested in differences in group organization, grading system, and learning method. The social group for learning cooperative social group is more permanent and clearly organized. The grading system for learning cooperative social group is relatively undifferentiated, such as pass-fail, and the grading system for learning competitive social hierarchy is highly differentiated, such as grade point system. The learning method for learning cooperative social group is for group learning, such as memorization and repetition, while the learning method for learning competitive social hierarchy is for individual learning, such as creativity and critical thinking. Good memorization and precise repetition can carry people to the upper competitive social hierarchy, and only creativity and critical thinking can carry people to the very top of competitive social hierarchy. At the end of elementary and secondary education, students learn well both cooperative social group and competitive social hierarchy. Pre-elementary education is typically non-compulsory. It is a transition from a small social group involving mostly nuclear family to a social group outside of familiar family. It should be warm and largely informal. Teachers encourage and organize nonacademic group activities, so children get to like social group outside of family and group activities. Elementary school is the start of academic learning. The emphasis is learning cooperative social group. To foster social group, each class (25 to 40 students) has the

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same students, same teacher, and same class room for at least two years. Since young children get accustom to small social group, class groups are organized into small subgroups (4 to 8 students), which are the basic units of instruction, discipline, and other activities. Many activities are organized by class groups and subgroups. They learn cooperation, mutual assistance, adaptation of individual views and interests to group goals, and standards of behavior. Academic learning method is mostly memorization and repetition, which can be easily carried out by class groups and subgroups. Academic and behavior learning is taught by teachers, and practiced in school class groups and subgroups as well as at home with parents. If home is not available for learning, school provides volunteer mentors after school. Learning, therefore, is motivated by teachers, school social group, and parents or mentors, resulting in a good environment for learning. The early years in elementary school allows students to learn socialization and cooperation in social group and good study habit motivated by multiple sources. The grading system in the early years of elementary school is relatively undifferentiated, such as pass-need improvement. Competitive social hierarchy is not the emphasis. Education is certainly not limited to compulsory elementary and secondary education. Many parents feel that their children need more exposure to competitive social hierarchy. Many schools outside of the compulsory education provide such competitive opportunities in non-academic subjects and accelerated or remedial academic subjects. At the same time, many parents feel that their children need more exposure to cooperative social group. Many group-oriented religious, group-training, and charity organizations provide such cooperative opportunities to have high moral and cooperative social groups. The learning for competitive social hierarchy increases with the ages of students. The grading system becomes more differentiated. Students express more of their own individual creativity and critical thinking. While they continue to be motivated by teachers, school social group, and home in their studies, increasingly, they are motivated by individualistic achievement in competitive social hierarchy. The schools for older children encourage individualistic achievement by various rewards for individualistic achievement. Competitive social hierarchy is formed by highly differentiated grading system and various critical examinations, such as entrance examinations to hierarchical high schools and universities. By the end of the compulsory education, they learn well competitive social hierarchy. More importantly, they learn to adapt collective social life and individualistic social life to different social situations. In elementary and secondary schools of some developed countries such as America, the emphasis of the education is individual-oriented individualistic social life for individualistic achievement. In elementary and secondary school of some developed countries such as Japan, the emphasis of the education is group-oriented collective social life for collective wellbeing. The two educations are mirror images of each other. Educators can learn a lot from these two different education systems. It is interesting to note that American education is moving toward standardized curriculum, rote memorization, and nationalized testing, while other countries’ education is moving toward creativity76. 10.2. The Four Stages of Life

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To have a balanced society without too much emphasis in one social life is to look at the natural development of life stages. Different stages of life have the stage social lives that are the core social lives of the stages. In the modern time, the four stages for social lives are pre-adulthood, early adulthood, middle aged adulthood, and late adulthood77 as described by John Kotre and Elizabeth Hall. The four stages of life can be designed to experience all three different social lives as the stage social lives. The most suitable stage social life for each stage of growth is as follows. Four Stages of Life
Stage Pre-adulthood Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood Social Transition From family to social group outside of family small group to large group Succession large group to small group Biological Transition maturity Fertility uphill to downhill None Stage Social Life collective social life individualistic social life collective social life harmonious social life

Pre-adulthood is divided into infancy, childhood and adolescence. Family is the most important social group for infancy and childhood, while peer group becomes the most important social group for adolescence. Adolescents form their own groups, girls with girls and boys with boys. Within a group, early adolescents typically have similar attitudes toward school, music, dress, and drugs. This adolescent social group is important for the learning of social group. It is place to learn the independence from family, the formation of bonds with the people who share the similar attitudes, the observation of certain rules and rituals in a group, the sharing of responsibility and success with people in the group, and the expansion of normal social activity throng a social group. The brain becomes fully grow during adolescence. The brain is capable of think of many possibilities at the same time, abstraction independent of concrete objects, and logical reasoning. It is possible for late adolescents to form a self identity78 in terms of abstraction in a broad social context independent of a concrete social group. The self identity includes the location of ability, the type of people whom they like or dislike, and the kind of future that they want to have. Toward the end of adolescence, such social identity also includes value and religious belief. Social group identity is important for the collective social life. The stage social life for adolescence is the collective social life. In the compulsory elementary and secondary education, children in pre-adulthood learn both collective social life and individualistic social life in terms of cooperative social group and competitive social hierarchy. The core social life, however, is collective social life. Modern society has significant numbers of laws to protect children of pre-adulthood before the age of eighteen because they belong to social group, and are not able to make independent individualistic decisions. By the end of adolescence, adolescents are ready to be independent physically, sexually, emotionally, and intellectually. From a biological point of view, adulthood is the season of fertility, the time that demands a response to the newly emerged power to conceive and bear children. It has as much to do with raising children to reproductive age as it do with bringing them into the world. Biologically, adulthood means that we are at the

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height of our physical powers, ready to make the investment of energy that children will require. The stage social life for early adulthood is the individualistic social life to establish their places in society. The term, middle adulthood, referred originally to the period between the beginning of the empty nest and the onset of old age. Yet the boundaries of this stage have always been ambiguous. The end point of middle adulthood is as vague as its beginning. Today, most of us say the season ends at sixty-five, the official age of retirement. For other primates, the timing of downhill signifies the closeness of death. For example, female chimpanzees have only about potentially five years to live after menopause. For human, the transition from uphill to downhill represents a succession of power of reproduction from middle adults to early adults. The succession appears fairly early in human potential life. The succession has to be early for human, because for human, the responsibility of reproduction includes not only the birth of a child but also the care of a child for about fifteen years. It does not make sense for a middle adult to have an infant without the presence and the strength to take care the child for about fifteen years, and it makes more sense to increase the survival rate of the third generation by assisting the parenthood of one's early adult children and relatives. Because of this extensive time span of parenthood, the early succession is necessary. A long-live elder means a long-live source of benevolence. (In the highly individualistic society, people in middle adulthood becomes the time for excessive greed because of their high positions in society.) Not only do human live an inordinate number of years before reproduction begins, they are granted an absolutely outlandish stretch of time after reproduction ends. Mate fertility diminishes in the second half of life, though it does not come to a clear-cut end. Female fertility does end abruptly. When women experience menopause at about fifty, their child bearing years are over. If a female chimpanzee could live a life as woman, the chimpanzee would have menopause at the age of eighty or ninety. William Hamilton 79 noted that, "the behavior of a post-reproductive animal may be expected to be entirely altruistic." The post-reproductive elders thus tend to be more generous and compassion, especially, when elders are respected as leaders and advisers in society. The stage social life for middle adulthood is the collective social life for the current society and for the future society. The long-term contribution to benefit the coming generations called "generativity" by Erik Erikson 80. Biologically, late adulthood is like an extension of middle adulthood without a sharp biological change, as long as one is healthy. High percentage of those over sixty-five do not have limitation in their daily activities. By age eighty-five, nearly half of elders have no limitation in their daily activities. Socially, late adults move farther and farther away from the large social group activities. They can form small social group. Social network is very important for physical and mental health. Many studies indicate that social network is the most important factor for physical health. It is even more important than smoking and drinking. A high quality network can help a person to go through difficult time. In a small social group, the harmonious social life becomes the stage social life. Late adulthood is the time for social harmonious cooperation among people and personal harmonious cooperation within the mind of a person. The spirit is the harmonious spirit for the harmonious social life and the spiritual life. The harmonious spirit directs people to do the right things, and to have faith in the spiritual life.

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During late adulthood, people tend to change what can be changed and accept what cannot be changed. All regretful and sad events are put in a broad perspective. The life story turns into a satisfactory story. The learning from the life experiences can be then passed to the future generation as wisdom. Every generation wants to write a satisfactory life story for the whole society. The learning from the life experiences for the whole society can be then passed to the future generation as wisdom.

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11. The Postmodern Economy: Crisis
The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society, which existed necessarily in small social group. After the emergence of civilization, materials have been procured by the large civilized social group rather than the small social group in the harmonious society. As a result, the materialistic society is the collective materialistic society, the individualistic materialistic society, or the combination of both societies. The harmonious society was nonmaterialistic. 11.1. The Social Changes Materialism of the collective materialistic society and the individualistic materialistic society regards physical well-being and worldly possessions as the greatest good and highest value in life. The collective materialistic society and the individualistic materialistic society are called the Left and the Right in terms of materialistic economy. In terms of economy, the Left maximizes materialistic collective wellbeing, and minimizes materialistic individualistic achievement, while the Right maximizes materialistic individualistic achievement, and minimizes materialistic collective wellbeing. An example for the Right is communism, and for the Left is capitalism. At the Centre, there are the Centre-Left and the Centre-Right. Both of them allow the coexistence of collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement, the Centre-Left prefers collective wellbeing, and the Centre-Right prefers individualistic achievement. In most democratic countries of the West, political parties are the Centre-Left or the Centre-Right. The collective materialistic society includes both the Left and the Centre-Left, while the individualistic materialistic society includes both the Right and the Centre-right. The factors for the social changes between the collective society and the individualistic society are war, major technological breakthrough, and rebalance. War brings a society together to face common enemy, so war generally brings about the collective society for collective wellbeing. The reconstruction after a devastating war also brings about the collective society. Peace allows individuals to pursuit individualistic achievement, forming the individualistic society. The second factor in the social change is major technological breakthrough, such as the telecommunication and information technological revolution. Major technological breakthrough improves drastically productivity and living standard. It takes a collective effort to develop a major technological breakthrough, because major technological breakthrough involves many areas of science and technology. The collective society can undergo such collective effort. Often major technology breakthroughs occur during war or the Cold War where an intensive technological and scientific competition takes place. To translate major technological breakthrough into major economic growth, on the other hand, requires the individualistic society. The demands for the new technology from a major technology breakthrough involve many individual areas beyond any centrally controlled collective effort. It takes individual technological innovation to spread new technology in individual areas, so the individualistic society provides the economic growth from major technological breakthrough. Without the collective effort in the collective society, major technological breakthrough is not possible. Without the individualistic effort in the

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individualistic society, the economic growth from major technological breakthrough is not possible. When a society needs technological breakthrough after the peak old technology, it is time for the collective society to establish new technological breakthrough collectively. When a society needs economic growth after technological breakthrough, it is time for the individualistic society to apply new technology in individual areas for economic growth. The third factor for the social changes between the collective society and the individualistic society is rebalance. A robust society under normal situation has the balance between the collective society and the individualistic society as the coexistence and equal distribution of the collective and the individualistic societies. The collective society is stable by collective wellbeing, but the domination of the collective society for long time turns stability into stagnation. The individualistic society is dynamic by individualistic achievement, but the long domination of the individualistic society turns dynamism into crisis. When stagnation or crisis occurs, it is time for the rebalance to restore the balance between the collective and individualistic societies. The rebalance adds dynamism to stagnation, or adds stability to crisis. Often, the rebalance turns into over-correction, resulting in the pendulum swing between the domination of the collective society or the individualistic society. There are a number of examples of the rebalance. An example for the rebalance to add dynamism to stagnation is the rebalance in the communist countries. For communist countries, the long-time domination of the collective society turned stability into socialeconomic stagnation. The communist countries, particularly the Soviet Union, had good major technological breakthrough in the telecommunication and information technology as shown in the sophisticate weapon and space programs, but such technology did not bring about economic growth that required individual innovations in individual areas. Communist countries had lower standards of living and higher political restriction, while the West overwhelmingly increased middle-class populations, wages, and standards of living for all citizens. The lower living standard and the lower degree of political freedom in the communist countries eventually caused the collapse of European communism starting in 1989. The rebalance to restore the balance between the collective and individualistic societies has added dynamism to stagnation, resulting in the rapid economic growth. An example for the rebalance to add stability to crisis is America after the Great Depression. In the early part of the 20th century, America was dominated by the individualistic society due to rapid economic growth by the technological applications of electricity, chemicals, and mass production. During this period, income inequality increased, and was peaked on 1928. The long-time domination of the individualistic society for about 20 years resulted in the financial crisis as the stock market crash of 1929, the environmental crisis as dust bowl of 1930’s, and the social crisis as the great deal of human suffering and dislocation in the Great Depression. The rebalance by Franklin Roosevelt added economic-environmental-social stability to crisis. World War II and the subsequent Cold War moved America further to the society dominated by the collective society (the Centre-Left). The over-correction and the longtime domination of the collective society brought about economic-environmental-social stagnation in late 1970’s. After 1980, the rebalance to add dynamism to stagnation was brought by Ronald Reagan to add dynamism to stagnation. The rebalance provided the economic boom (1982-2007) by the application of the technological breakthrough in telecommunication and information established previously.

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The over-correction and the long-time domination of the individualistic society since 1981 resulted in the financial crisis of 2008 that led to the Great Recession. The following sections will discuss financial crisis, environmental crisis, and social crisis. 11.2. Financial Crisis Financial crisis is a sudden, sharp, and broad loss of financial institutions or assets. In the individualistic materialistic society, financial crisis is caused by the combination of income inequality, unregulated financial innovation, and greed. Each of income inequality, unregulated financial innovation, and greed does not bring about financial crisis. The combination of all three factors brings about financial crisis. In the individualistic materialistic society, financial achievers are prone to have income inequality, unregulated financial innovation, and greed. 11.2.1. Income Inequality In America, the income inequality81 as expressed by the share of total Income going to the top 10% before the financial crisis of 2008 is at the same level as the economic inequality before the financial crisis of 1929.

According to economist Janet Yellen 82 "the growth in real income was heavily concentrated at the very tip of the top, that is, the top 1 percent." (The top 1% is characterized as multi-millionaires, top-level executives, celebrities, heirs; annual income of greater $500,000, Ivy league education.) Income data indicate that the middle class, including the upper middle class, have seen far slower income growth than the top 1% since 1980. Between 1979 and 2005, the mean after-tax income of the top 1% increased by an inflation adjusted 176% versus 69% for the top 20% overall. The fourth quintile saw its mean net income increase by 29%, the middle income quintile by 21%, the second quintile by 17% and the bottom quintile by 6%, respectively. The share of gross annual household income of the top 1% has increased to 23.5% in 2007, the largest share since 1928 just before the financial crisis of 1929.

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There has been three decades of increasing income inequality, and the income of the middle-low class has been shrinking continuously. In America, the two most important factors for the three decade of increasing income inequality are the shift to the individualistic (Centre-Right) society and the increasing knowledge-based technology. The shift to the individualistic society as the centre-right politics started by Margaret Thatcher (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990) and Ronald Reagan (the President of the United States from 1981 to 1989). The individualistic society favors individualistic achievement, resulting in the hierarchy of income inequality based on individualistic achievement. In the individualistic society, collective wellbeing as expressed by collective bargaining of workers and the public equalization through public education, public health care, and public physical infrastructure were stagnant or weakened. The result is the three decades of increasing income inequality. Another factor in income inequality is the increasing knowledge-based technology in the developed countries. During the globalization, the competitive advantage of the developed countries is knowledge-based technology that is lacking in under-developed countries. The high demand for the educated people in knowledgebased technology boosts the income for such educated people. In the developed countries, the insufficient public education fund to meet the demand to produce educated people in knowledge-based technology creates two separated groups of people with and without sufficient education to earn high income. In America, income inequality divides the people into the high-income people and middle-low income people. Such gross income inequality created the need of the middlelow income people to obtain loans indirectly from the high-income people to invest in housing, resulting in excessive debt that partially caused the financial crisis of 2008. 11.2.2. Unregulated Financial Innovation One of the three causes of financial crisis is unregulated financial innovation. Technology innovation invents new technological products and methods that improve productivity and living standard. Financial innovation invents new financial instruments and institutions that improve financial investment from investors to invest in businesses or properties. The telecommunication and information revolution provide the means to create new financial instruments, such asset-backed security derived from and backed by a specified pool of underlying assets and credit default swaps (CDS) to insure assetbacked security. New technology also allows the expansion of financial institutions and the interconnections among different financial instruments. Financial innovations outrun
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the regulators’ ability to regulate them. As a result, many financial instruments are not transparent, financial institutions become to big to fail, and financial instruments and institutions become too interconnected to fail. Unregulated financial innovation caused partially the financial crisis of 2008. Meanwhile, financial innovation also created giant financial institutions too big to fail and myriad financial interconnections too interconnected to fail, resulting in systemic risk where widespread failure is possible under economic stress. The business expansion with too big to fail and too interconnected to fail provided political and economic clout to encourage gigantic financial institutions to undergo excessive risk-taking with little fear of failure. "Financial engineering" that invented new financial instruments replaced "real engineering" that invented new technology to improve productivity for real economic growth. In the US, financial services’ share of total corporate profits increased from 10% in the early 1980s to 40% in 2007. The stock market value of financial services firms increased from 6% in the early 1980s to 23% in 2007. Financial services absorb many highly talented people who could have otherwise worked for real economic growth. 11.2.3. Greed Greed is one of the three causes of financial crisis. Greed is excessive or rapacious desire, especially for wealth or possessions. The sources of greed come from irrational exuberance and loose ethics. Financial irrational exuberance is the belief in infinite and eternal profitable investment opportunities. Loose ethics takes advantage of other people deliberately for the financial gain of oneself. For examples, a financial institution deliberately sells an unsustainable investment for the profit of the financial institution. The unsustainable investment has a short-term profit, and definitely is unsustainable in long term such as in Ponzi scheme. In the transition period of technology when there are a lot of confusion and irrational exuberance from economic growth, greed prevails. 11.2.4. The Crisis The combination of income inequality, unregulated financial innovation, and greed resulted in financial crisis of 2008. The catalyst of financial crisis is subprime mortgage. In the consumerism society, the middle-low income people in America went into credit card debt to keep up with the social consumption standard. There was virtually no saving for any investment. Meanwhile, the high income people had plenty of liquidity to invest. To bridge the shortage of liquidity to invest from the middle-low income people and the surplus of liquidity from the high income people, subprime mortgage and new financial instruments were invented by financial institutions. Subprime mortgage with very little initial payment and very low standard of qualification was a good way to invest in housing for the middle-low income people who were high in debt and low in asset. Financial institutions invented financial instruments to support such highly risky mortgage. Financial institutions issued mortgage-backed securities (MBS), which derived their value from mortgage payments and housing prices. Some securities contained such highly risky subprime mortgage. To protect such unsustainable securities, unsustainable credit default swaps (CDS) were issued. These innovative

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financial instruments were beyond the ability of the financial regulators to regulate. They were not transparent. The popularity of subprime mortgage created housing bubble that encouraged more subprime mortgage by the belief that the return from the rising housing price could cover the repayment of mortgage. Greed prevailed in the period of technological confusion and irrational exuberance from economic growth. Many unsustainable investments were sold without any ethical consideration as long as they were legal. The economic decline triggered by the rapid increase in oil price put stress in housing bubble. The collapse of the housing bubble led to collapse of subprime mortgage that depended on rising housing price. The collapse of subprime mortgage brought about the collapse of MBS and CDS that caused some large financial institutions to bankrupt or to be rescued by governments. The result from the combination of income inequality, unregulated financial innovation, and greed is the financial crisis in 2008. The combination of income equality, financial innovation, and greed also caused the financial crisis in 1929. The levels of income inequality are the same for the years before both financial crises. For the financial crisis in 1929, the financial innovation was the high leverage investment in the stock market for the middle-low income people, and greed was the unethical manipulation of stock market. The depressed housing market led to the loss of purchasing power of many middle-low income people, resulting in the excess of consumer goods and service. The excess brought about the close of consumer production plants and stores, resulting in high unemployment. The result is the Great Recession. 11.3. Environmental Crisis Environmental crisis is sudden and broad environmental changes that drastically disrupt human societies and lives. In the individualistic materialistic society, environmental crisis is caused by the combination of unsustainable consumerism and technology. 11.3.1. Unsustainable Consumerism Excessive individualistic consumption is consumerism that is emphasis on or preoccupation with the acquisition of consumer goods and services for individuals. In the consumerism society, if people buy a lot of some goods and or services, then private businesses organize to produce as much of that goods and services, both necessary and trivial, as they can and still make a profit. People spend their money as they see fit with little interference by governments. After World War II, the United States faced the problems of finding work for the fifteen million men and women coming home from war, the obsolete production facilities that were used to produce weapons, and the lack of export to other war-torn countries which were unable to buy. American government decided to enforce full employment and to stimulate the non-war consumption internally to solve all these problems. It employed the GI Bill, the 1946 Full Employment Act, the abolition of Blue laws, the tax deductibility of interest on installment buying, and other measures to encouraged borrowing and buying. Consequently, between 1945 and 1960, installment credit grew by a factor of 11 and household debt nearly doubled. America enjoyed unprecedented growth and prosperity for

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a quarter century after the war. Advertisement was increasingly used to stimulate the desire to consume. It was the start of consumerism. American consumption as a percent of GDP has increased from 58 percent in the 1950s to 71 percent. This compares to about 67 percent for the European Union, 60 percent for Japan, and only 40 percent for China. The causes for recent consumerism are efficient production and marketing of consumer goods and services, easy consumer credit, consumption trend and myriad consumption choices. The telecommunication and information revolution allows efficient production and marketing of consumer goods and services globally in many different locations. With telecommunication and information technology, one company can takes advantage of the competitive advantages in different locations globally. One consumer production company can do research and development in the location favorable for research and development, and do production in different location favorable for production. A consumer retail company can have different supply sources from many locations favorable for different supplies, and efficiently transport different supplies to different stores by telecommunication and information technology. Efficient production and marketing of consumer goods and services keep consumer goods and services affordable for most people. Easy credit is one factor for consumerism. Financial institutions as lending agents entrap middle-low income people to borrow with zero interest rate initially. The interest rate quickly increases afterward, and further increases upon any late payment. Various heavy financial charges are added. The payment balloons. To lower the payment, the debtor agrees to repay interest only without reducing principal. The debtor becomes slave to the debt. For home owners, many credit card debts are rolled into mortgage refinancing, increasing the chance of the foreclosure of house. When the price of house declines, the prices of houses in some cases are lower than the amounts of mortgage, making refinancing impossible. Consequently, with such abusive financial services practices and predatory lending, financial institutions and their rich investors get richer rapidly, and middle-low income people get even poorer rapidly. Many middle-low income people live from paycheck to paycheck without any saving, and are on the edge of losing purchasing and repay power completely. Popular trend is a cause in consumerism. Consumerism becomes popular only recently. Two hundred years ago, most common American basically had one dress for the week and one dress for church. They worked very hard for barely enough food and small houses. They had very little discretionary income. In the traditional society with limited resource, the popular consumption trend did not change for hundreds years, resulting in insignificant popular trend. In the consumerism society, the popular trend changes practically yearly, resulting in significant popular trend. The spread of the popular trend is fast. To be a part of society, a person must follow closely popular trend, because the life becomes difficult outside of popular trend. An item that starts as an optional consumption can become necessity when most people own it. For an example, when most people own cars, the life of a person without a car becomes difficult. The consumer goods and services are not seen as valuable in themselves, but rather as social signals that allow them to identify like-minded people through consumption and display of similar goods and services. Popular trend becomes the dominating connection to connect people in the consumerism society.

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Increasing number of items becomes necessity in an increasing consumerism society. The people who keep up with popular material consumption trend are the insiders, while the people who fail to keep up with popular material consumption trend are the outsiders. Avoiding being the outsiders, people work very hard and even go into serious personal debt to keep up with popular material consumption trend. People become indebted slave to popular material consumption trend. The competitive social behavior in consumerism is myriad choices. In the traditional society, the numbers of consumption choices are highly limited. In the consumerism society, competition actually expands myriad consumption choices, because the consumerism society can afford expanding myriad consumption choices for common people. To compete, people buy the most prestige products people can find and afford. However, with increasing myriad novel consumption choices, a person feels insecure about the choice. To compete, one has to continue to buy. People in the consumerism society are on the insecurity treadmill to myriad consumption choices without ever reaching security. In the consumerism society, indebted slave and insecurity treadmill is not only is detrimental to a person’s happiness but also a person’s economic sustainability by incurring excessive debt from excessive consumption. At the same time, consumerism is detrimental to environment by excessive material-energy consumption, resulting in material unsustainability. Most products turn into waste. A small percentage of them are recycled. Americans' total yearly waste would fill a convoy of garbage trucks long enough to wrap around the earth six times and reach halfway to the moon. It is estimated that several hundreds million tons of waste are generated by Americans in a year. With limited resource of raw material and energy, such waste and high energy consumption cause unsustainability. 11.3.2. Unsustainable Technology Unsustainable technology is one of the three factors to cause environmental crisis. Carlota Perez describes such repetitive technological cycle 83 , consisting of 1. the industrial revolution from 1771, 2. age of steam and railways from 1829, 3. age of steel, electricity, and heavy engineering from 1875, 4. age of oil, chemical products, automobile, and mass production from 1908, and 5. age of information and telecommunication from 1971. Each cycle lasts about sixty years. In each period, new technology generates a period of rapid economic growth. Technology improves living standard. At the same time, technology has undesirable side effect: pollution that is harmful to human health, other species’ heath, and environment. Excessive pollution is unsustainable. Antipollution is necessary to minimizes pollution, and protect human, other species, and environment. In the individualistic materialistic society, there is strong resistance to antipollution, because anti-pollution is costly and time-consuming, retarding economic growth. By the resistance to antipollution, pollution is the result of the excessive pursuit of economic growth by technological achievers. The resistance to anti-pollution is based on the resistance to the awareness of pollution, the acceptable cost of antipollution device, and clean alternative technology. The awareness of pollution involves extensive investigation and testing. The resistance to the awareness of pollution is the resistance to extensive investigation and test that is

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costly and time-consuming, retarding economic growth. The resistance also involves the resistance to accept the result of investigation and testing. At the early stage of industrialization when the speed of technological progress was fast, the society as a whole was not aware of the highly polluted environment. Now there is strong resistance to recognize the man-made global warming from carbon dioxide. After the awareness of pollution, there is resistance to anti-pollution device, even such cost of anti-pollution is not unacceptable high. The reason is that such antipollution device hurts economic growth. The result is long delay for antipollution device. In some case, pollution is unavoidable for specific technology, or the cost of antipollution device is formidably high for specific technology. For example, to capture carbon dioxide from coal burning electricity generator has formidably high cost. In this case, clean alternative technology is necessary. The development and establishment of clean alternative technology are costly and time-consuming. Initially, such clean alternative technology simply cannot compete with old polluted technology that has established a good profit-making base. 11.3.3. The Crisis 2010 is tie for the hottest year, and the wettest year. In the last decade, nine years out of ten years are the warmest years since weather record was kept in 1880. The extreme weather events, such as floods in Pakistan, Australia, and Sri Lanka, have become common. The environmental crisis from global warming becomes reality. Other than extreme weather events, higher ocean temperatures are killing off the coral reefs that harbor a quarter of the sea’s life at a record pace. The loss of arctic ice endangers polar bears. 7.4. Social Crisis The industrialization dramatically reshaped the structure of the family life, which went from large and multi-generational networks into the single-family home. The individualistic characteristic of the individualistic materialistic society further atomizes society. According to Robert Putnam’s book, Bowling Alone84, “the classic institutions of American civic life, both religious and secular, have been hollowed out… across a very wide range of activities, the last several decades have witnessed a striking diminution in regular contacts with our friends and neighbors… We spend less time in conversation over meals, we exchange visits less often, we engage less in leisure activities that encourage casual social interaction, we spend more time watching and less time doing. We know our neighbors less well, and we see old friends less often.” Professionally, people are divided into highly specialized fields with little communication among them. At work, the success of a person depends on the individual work performance, not strong life-long commitment to a group. Politically, parties are polarized, and many single-issue political parties appear. People live in divided neighborhoods by wealth and race. Residential structure and the mobility of individuals do not encourage neighbors to mingle. Family members engage in different personalized digital activities, which allow people to build their own worlds without physically contacting other people. Affluence allows people to live independently. The result is social

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atomization, which the result of the excessive pursuit of individualism in the individualistic materialistic society. Atomization may lead to narcissism and autism-like personality living in one’s own personal world. Narcissism is excessive preoccupation with one’s own personal importance, and with achieving one’s own chosen goals rather than bonding with others. Socially, narcissists distrust committed group living, and promote atomized liberty without the consideration of social fabric for committed group living. Autism-like personality is averse to socialize directly with other people, and preoccupies with one’s own activity. In the atomized society, people achieve individualistic happiness without collective happiness and harmonious happiness. Individualistic happiness is not a full happiness, because people were born with propensity for individualistic happiness and collective happiness as well as harmonious happiness. Some people dull the sense of unhappiness by medication, alcohol, narcotic drugs, and consumerism. In the individualistic materialistic society, the excessive pursuit of individualism results in atomization. Atomization is preventable.

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12. The Postmodern Economy: Rebalance
12.1. The Previous Rebalances A crisis provides an opportunity for change. The long-time domination of the individualistic society produced financial crisis, environmental crisis, and social crisis. The financial crisis, the environmental crisis, and the social crisis provide opportunities for the rebalance to restore the balance between the collective and individualistic societies by adding stability to crisis. Financial crisis, environmental crisis, and social crisis will be replaced by financial stability, sustainable environment, and social coherence. On the other hand, the long-time domination of the collective society results in economic-environmental-social stagnation. The stagnation provides opportunity for the rebalance to restore the balance between the collective and the individualistic society by adding dynamism to stagnation. The economic-environmental-social stagnation is replaced by the economical-environmental-social growth. In America, the previous opposite rebalances occurred during 1930’s and 1980’s. In the early part of the 20th century, America was dominated by the individualistic society due to rapid economic growth by the technological applications of electricity, chemicals, and mass production. During this period, income inequality increased, and was peaked on 1928. In 1928, the year before the stock market crash, the top 1% people had 23% of the national income The long-time domination of the individualistic society for about 20 years resulted in the financial, the environmental, and the social crises. • the financial crisis: the stock market crash of 1929. • the environmental crisis: the dust bowl of 1930’s. The Dust Bowl was severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage, and caused the migration of many farmers out of the damaged areas. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without conservation to prevent erosion. • the social crisis: as the great deal of human suffering and dislocation in the Great Depression The rebalance by Franklin Roosevelt restored the balance between the collective and the individualistic society by adding economic-environmental-social stability to crisis. The rebalance included the financial reform, the tax reform, the income reform, the environmental reform, and the social reform. • the financial reform: Under Roosevelt, various financial innovations, such as high leverage investment, were regulated. Banks became localized to prevent systemic risk. Speculative investment banks were disconnected from deposit banks. The unethical manipulations of stocks became illegal. • the income reform: To rescue people from unemployment, the governmental spending in various infrastructure projects allowed people to have jobs. Unemployment fell dramatically in Roosevelt's first term, from 25% when he took office to 14.3% in 1937. The National Labor Relations Act legalized collective bargaining. Collective bargaining allowed workers to earn enough income to become the middle class. Social security allowed elders to have decent living standard.

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the environmental reform: Under Roosevelt, governmental programs designed to conserve soil and restore the ecological balance of the nation were implemented. the social reform: The National Labor Relations Act established the federal rights of workers to organize unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes. It provided worker rights. Social security provided elder rights.

The common goal in Americans during World War II and the subsequent Cold War further moved America to the collective society. For the common goal, there was no big controversy in Eisenhower-era 90% top tax rates. Under Eisenhower, the national highway system was build, benefiting economic growth in all areas in America. Education expanded stimulated by the scientific and technological competition with the Soviet Union. The increase in public education allowed increasing number of people to receive higher education to increase their incomes. Medicare was passed to benefit older Americans. All of these public programs further decreased the income inequality. Since 1927, the income inequality decreased until late 1970’s when the top 1% people had 9% of the national income. It is a large decrease from 23% to 9%. In late 1970’s, most Americans felt and were actually prosperous. In America, it was a period of unprecedented middle class expansion, broad business growth, increased home ownership, rising consumer spending, and the shared expectation that a college education was within the reach of everyone and that the lives of their children would be better than their own. The United States federal government has enacted a series of clean air acts, starting with the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955. In 1970, under Nixon, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established to protect human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. Many progresses in social coherence were made starting from Roosevelt to 1980. The progresses in social coherence include worker rights, minority rights, elder rights, and woman rights. During the Cold War, the competition with the communist countries in science and technology motivated America to establish the world top universities and federal agencies in research and development of science and technology. They provided the infrastructure for the next technological breakthrough in the telecommunication and information technology. The long-time domination of the collective society produced stagnation in late 1970’s including economic stagnation, environmental stagnation, and social stagnation. • the economic stagnation: Economic growth slowed down. • the environmental stagnation: Economic growth was restricted by various environmental laws. • the social stagnation: Many people resented various rights from different minority groups. • fear: Fear is the opposite of greed. Fear prevents significant growth. After 1980, the rebalance to add dynamism to stagnation was brought by Ronald Reagan. The slogan is small government and low tax. The rebalance included the financial reform, the tax reform, the income reform, the environmental reform, and the social reform.

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the financial reform: Reagan and the subsequent presidents deregulated financial institutions. Banks were allowed to expand nationally and globally. Speculative investment banks were connected to deposit banks. The enforcement of the financial regulations was not strict. the tax reform: Reduce tax rate, particularly the top tax rate the income reform: Under Reagan and subsequent presidents, labor unions were weakened, resulting in weak collective bargaining and increased income inequality. There was little progress in public education, physical infrastructure, and health care to equalize income. the environmental reform: Under Reagan and subsequent presidents, many environmental regulations were reversed or were not strictly enforced. the social reform: Under Reagan and subsequent presidents, many minority rights were reversed or were not strictly enforced.

The rebalance in addition to the application of the technological breakthrough in telecommunication and information established previously started economic boom globally from 1982 to 2007. The net worth of all U.S. households and business increased from $27 trillion in today’s dollars in 1980 to $57 trillion in 2007. Adjusting for inflation, more wealth was created in America in the twenty-five year boom than in the previous two hundred years. Productivity in American also improved, and is much higher than Europe. Starting early 1980’s, the trend of the decrease in income inequality reversed. To keep up the living standard, the middle-low income people had to have two-income from both husband and wife, worked longer, and went into excessive debt. The top 1% people had again 23.5% of the national income in 2007 before the financial crisis of 2008. The following sections will discuss the rebalance to add stability to crisis. The rebalance includes economic stability, sustainable environment, and social coherence to replace financial crisis, environmental crisis, and social crisis. 12.2. Stable Economy In the intensive international economic competition, the countries with the balance have tremendous competitive advantage. The countries in continuous state of crisis fall behind. The rebalance for economic stability is generated by the short-term economic rescue plan and the long-term income equality and regulated financial innovation. The first part of economic rescue plan involves the federal purchase of troubled banks and troubled debt in order to stabilize the financial institutions and the federal purchase of any other large troubled corporations to stabilize employment. The second part of economic rescue plan involves economic stimulus to start economic recovery. Economic stimulus includes various physical infrastructure and tax reduction programs. Such economic rescue plan is a short-term program to prevent turning economic crisis into economic-social chaos. Economic rescue plan is costly in terms of budget deficit and national debt. Therefore, it is necessary to install a federal deficit reduction program, and at the same time, install a rebalance program to restore the balance between the collective and the

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individualistic societies by reversing the trend of gross income inequality and unregulated financial innovation. To carry out both programs at the same time is a difficult task. It requires the breakdowns of traditional divisions between big government and small government, high spending and low spending, high tax and low tax, and high regulation and low regulation. To carry out both programs requires flexibilities in such way that different areas require different degrees of government, spending, tax, and regulation. To carry out both programs requires walking in a narrow path of stability and growth between crisis and stagnation. To carry out both the federal deficit reduction program and the rebalance program requires specifically the financial reform, the tax reform, and the income reform. 12.2.1. The Financial Reform The purpose of the financial reform is to add financial stability to financial system without greatly affecting real economic growth. In USA, the financial reform bill was passed in 2010. For financial instruments, it involves transparency, supervision, and regulation of financial instruments. The highly risky, unnecessary, and redundant financial instruments, such as the complex financial risk swaps known as derivatives, are regulated or phased out in most financial institutions. For financial institutions, it involves the prevention of systemic risk of being too big to fail and too interconnected to fail by the reorganization and supervision of financial institutions. The business of banking is separated from proprietary trading, such as hedge funds and private equity funds. For mortgage, it involves the strict enforcement of qualification of applicants by reviewing the income and credit histories of mortgage applicants. The regulatory agency also protects borrowers against abuses in mortgage, credit card and some other types of lending. To prevent greed, the regulatory agency supervises how corporate executives are paid. 12.2.2. The Tax Reform The purposes of the tax reform are the federal deficit reduction and the rebalance. The rebalance between the collective and individualistic societies is to restore the good middle-class jobs. To do so requires the restoration of the balance between production and consumption. In the over-consumption countries, such as USA, the multi-national corporations outsource productions and jobs overseas to supply the consumption in the overconsumption countries. The restoration of the balance between production and consumption expands good middle-class production jobs, and reduces trade imbalance. The tax reform is the tax restructure that can restore the balance between production and consumption. In the over-consumption countries, the tax restructure favors production over consumption. To encourage production, corporation tax and interest tax from saving should be reduced. Decreased corporation increases competitive advantage in the tough international economic competition. As the gap of wealth between developed countries and developing countries decreases, the competition among developed countries to export highquality and high-innovative goods to developing countries increases, and the importance of production in developed countries increases. For America, it is the expansion of both hightech and mid-tech industries for high-end, high-quality, and innovative products, which

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generate good middle-class jobs. Good middle-class jobs increase with the growth in production rather than the growth in consumption. Production requires investment from saving. The tax reform phases out or reduces interest from saving. In the tax reform, the decrease in corporation tax and interest tax is compensated the increased tax in consumption. The increased tax in consumption comes from the VAT and the reduced mortgage interest tax relief. The VAT is a consumption tax that taxes the value added by businesses at each point in the production chain. About 150 countries have a VAT. It comes in different shapes and sizes, ranging from 5 percent in Japan to 25 percent in Sweden. A Vat as a part of tax favors production over consumption. Another advantage is in the international economic competition in export. All countries that employ a VAT either exempt exports from the VAT or rebate the entire VAT paid on exports. Similarly, all countries that levy a VAT also levy the VAT on their imports. As a consumption tax relief, the mortgage interest tax relief should be phased out or reduced. The tax reform also involves the simplification of tax return to close many loopholes. By closing loopholes, tax rates can be maintained at low levels. Therefore, the tax reform brings about the revitalization of production that produces middle-class jobs and the simplification of tax that can keep tax rates at low levels. 12.2.3. The Income Reform The income reform is the changes of personal incomes by federal governmental policies for the federal deficit reduction and the rebalance between the collective society and the individualistic society. The rebalance is to restore the middle-class income. The two most important areas are entitlement and education. Therefore, the income reform involves the entitlement reform and the education reform. The entitlement reform and the education reform provide the deficit reduction and the rebalance. the Entitlement Reform The largest government spending in America is in the entitlement program85. Actual deficit reduction will come from entitlement reform. The three costliest entitlements are Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid, which respectively make up 20 percent, 12 percent, and eight percent of the federal budget with all three increasing in cost annually. . While it is critical to make Social Security sustainable, the need to reform Medicaid and especially Medicare are much more important, mostly due to the unsustainable rise in per capita healthcare costs. By 2030, Medicare and Medicaid will cost the same amount as the entire federal budget today. By 2050, Medicare and Medicaid costs will take up every federal tax dollar. By 2080, Medicare itself will to take up every federal tax dollar. The facts speak for themselves: healthcare costs will bankrupt the United States government. When politician's answers do not mention raising the retirement age, changing how physicians are paid for their services, increased funding for research into the cost-effectiveness of treatments and raising the Social Security and Medicare taxes (all of which are necessary), it almost always shows a lack of will to reform entitlements. It is difficult to reform the entitlement program because the reform will change the incomes of many people. Fundamentally, the entitlement reform involves the health care reform and the social security reform. The U.S. Census Bureau reported that a record 50.7 million Americans—16.7% of the population—were uninsured in 2009 (almost all

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developed countries have universal health care insurance for all people), but more money per person is spent on health care in the USA than in any other nation in the world. The real substantial health care reform is to reduce the health care cost and to broaden the insured population. Otherwise, America will lose competitiveness in the international economic competition. The saving in the health care reform and the social security reform reduces the federal deficit. The Education Reform The education reform is to reduce federal deficit and the rebalance. The education reform can affect people’s future incomes. The goals are to increase the competitiveness in the international economic competition and the increase the number of good middle-class production jobs. The middle-class jobs are mostly the knowledge-based jobs. The education reform provides enough people for the knowledge-based jobs. The knowledge-based jobs consist of the executive jobs that carry out specific tasks and the idea jobs that carry out specific ideas. Executive jobs do not need to know extensively ideas behind tasks, and idea jobs do not need to carry out specific tasks exactly. The idea jobs require more and broader education than the executive jobs. The executive jobs include skilled technicians, physician assistants, and CEO’s, and the idea jobs include scientistsengineers, physicians, and chairmen, respectively. The right distribution between the executive jobs and the idea jobs improves efficiency and reduces cost. The education reform meets the need of the right distribution between the executive jobs and the idea jobs. The saving in the education reform reduces federal and state deficits. In some cases, the education reform increases the emphasis in the executive job (vocational) education, and decrease the emphasis in general education. General education provides the advancement to the idea job (professional) education, but the need for the idea jobs is limited. With enough people for the knowledge-based jobs and the right distribution between executive jobs and idea jobs, the developed countries can expand high-tech and mid-tech industries. Developed countries cannot compete with developing countries in low-tech industry that is labor-intensive, but developed countries are still competitive in high-tech and mid-tech industries for high-end, high-quality, and innovative products, which produce good middle-class jobs internally, and export to global market, including both developed and developing countries. 12.3. Sustainable Environment Sustainable environment is generated by the combination of sustainable living, sustainable technology instead of consumerism and unsustainable technology. 12.3.1. Sustainable Living Consumerism is like obesity. Obesity is caused by excessive food and comfort, while consumerism consists of excessive goods and services. Obesity is harmful to physical health, while consumerism is harmful to sustainable society and environment. Normal weight requires proper amount of food and active living. To replace consumerism, sustainable living requires low impact living and healthy living. Low impact living consume only essential goods and services, and leaves the impact on environment as little as

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possible. Healthy living is to replace non-essential consumption, and consists of physical fitness, community life, and spiritual life, which have low impact on environment. Sustainable living essentially is to return to the previous mode of life prior to consumerism. Not many years ago, common people consumed only essential goods and services. They were much more active physically, and their lives other than work were preoccupied primarily with community life and spiritual life instead of consumption life. Environment was much more sustainable. In the same way, normal weight is to return to the previous mode of weight prior to consumerism. Not many years ago, common people ate only essential foods. They had to active physically, and did not live a comfortable life. Illnesses caused by overweight were rare. To return to normal weight from obesity requires will. In the same way, to return to sustainable living from consumerism requires will. A new VAT as consumption tax should reduce consumerism. The elimination of easy credit such as zero payment initially makes consumers more responsible and less impulsive what they consume. The spending decrease in consumption will be replaced by the spending in healthy living such as physical fitness, community life, and spiritual life. Not many years ago, large buildings and public gathering places in cities and villages were community centers and religious centers. Today, there are much more large buildings for shopping centers than for community centers and religious centers. In the future, shops in shopping centers will be used for fitness, community life, and spiritual life. Low impact living involves not only low consumption but also selective consumption. Some goods and services have more impact on environment than others. In general, the usage of personal cars has more impact than public transportation. Meat has more impact than other foods. In terms of health, the physical activities by using public transportation and low meat consumption are good for healthy living. The return from consumerism to sustainable living has the best parts of both the old society and the new society. In sustainable living today, life is not as hard as in the old society, while sustainable living makes the new society as sustainable as the old society. 12.3.2. Sustainable Technology Sustainable technology consists of low impact technology, renewable energy technology, and recycling technology. The transition from old unsustainable technology to new sustainable technology requires costly investment, but in the long term, sustainable technology is more economical, because it has high efficiency, low waste, and limitless source of energy in addition to the minimization of costly environmental disasters caused by unsustainable technology. The additional advantage of sustainable technology is the promotion of local economy in terms of local renewable energy and local recycling. The nations with advanced sustainable technology have competitive advantage. Low Impact Technology Low impact technology reduces the impact on environment. It increases efficiency, and reduces waste and pollution. Low impact materials are non-toxic, recycled, durable, and recyclable materials. Low impact transportation is public transportation. Low impact car is electric car. Low impact buildings and equipments are energy efficient buildings and equipments. Low impact cities are the cities with minimum urban sprawl

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to minimize urban impact on land, road construction and maintenance, and transportation fuel. Renewable Energy Technology Renewable energy comes from renewable sunlight, wind, rain, tides, geothermal heat, and biomass. The consumption of renewable energy grows rapidly. For examples, wind power provides a significant share of electricity in some areas: 14 percent in the U.S. state of Iowa, 40 percent in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, and 20 percent in Denmark. Some countries get most of their power from renewable energy, including Iceland (100 percent), Brazil (85 percent), Austria (62 percent), New Zealand (65 percent), and Sweden (54 percent). Recycling Technology In the modern society, the major system for production, distribution, and consumption is the linear centralized system as follows. Linear Centralized System of Production and Distribution raw material part supplier new parts central mass producer new product general recycling center central mass distributor new product recyclable items consumer waste waste dump Raw materials are processed by part suppliers to make new parts. New parts are processed in centralized mass producers to make new products. New products are shipped to the mass centralized distributors who distribute new products to customers. In such centralized mass production and distribution, products can be made in high quantity, high quality, and low cost. It is highly efficient way to produce and distribute products. On the other hand, it is a highly wasteful system. Recycling is actually not easy in this linear centralized system where centralized production, centralized distribution, and localized consumption are separated in different places. High cost transportation and inefficient logistics for recycling make recycling impractical. Most products turn into waste. A small percentage of them are recycled. Americans' total yearly waste would fill

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a convoy of garbage trucks long enough to wrap around the earth six times and reach halfway to the moon. It is estimated that several hundreds million tons of waste are generated by Americans in a year. Recycling technology is a method of production, distribution, and consumption. It involves the cyclic production system, the decentralized production, the modular production network, and the return of recyclable parts as the following chart. Cyclic Sustainable System of Production and Distribution raw materials part supplier new parts recyclable parts

central producer new modular units recyclable modular units local producer general recycling center new product recyclable modular units

central distributor new product recyclable modular units

local retailer new product recyclable partial parts recyclable modular units

consumer

Raw materials are processed by part suppliers to make new parts. New parts are processed in centralized mass producers to make new modular units instead products. Modular units are the assembled units of the parts for as for easy assembly and repair or flexible arrangement and use. It is important to reduce the number of modular units used in a product, to make the assembling of modular units into products easier, and to make the product easier to take apart for repair and recycling at the end of its useful life. Currently, computer companies use modularity design to overcome changing customer demands and to make the manufacturing process more adaptive to change. Examples of modular systems are cars, computers, high-rise buildings, railroad signaling systems, telephone exchanges, pipe organs and electric power distribution systems. The modular units should be as durable as possible. Modular units can be assembled into products easily without specific high technical tools and techniques. Such modular units are shipped to small local producer who assembles modular units in the modular production network86. There can be many small local producers to assemble modular units in many locations. Such small local producers can be multi-

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purpose producers to assemble different products, such as assembling all electronic products such as computers, radio, and television etc in one location. In this way, production is decentralized to promote local economy and employment. Almost 1/3 of the waste generated the U.S. is packaging. It is important to use reusable standard package for new products as much as possible to minimize waste. The idea of local producer was promoted by Ratan Tata for the Nano car of Tata Motors in July, 2008 The first thing I would like to do is get a mature product in the Indian market and seed this market effectively. My aim was that I would produce a certain volume of cars and create a very low cost, very low break-even-point plant that a young entrepreneur could buy. A bunch of entrepreneurs could establish an assembly operation and Tata Motors would train their people, would oversee their quality assurance and they would become satellite assembly operations for us. So we would create entrepreneurs across the country that would produce the car. We would produce the mass items and ship it to them as kits. That is my idea of dispersing wealth. Electric car with simple components is particularly suitable for local production from modular units. The Think City electric car is built from prefabricated parts, allowing Think to place its factories near key markets. New products from local producer can be shipped to retailer directly or to central mass distributor. Central mass distributor ships new products to local retailer. Local retailer can be fairly independent and small. Distribution is decentralized to neighborhood. The store sells actual new products, and also takes orders for new products to accommodate the small space of store. It is important to make ordering new products as easy as purchasing new products. A customer can simply pick up a secured bar-coded pictured ordering card for ordering. A number of nearby retailers can form a network to sell different brands in different retailers. In this way, customers can buy and order new products in nearby neighborhood stores instead of giant stores far away. Retailers can act as the place for both selling new products and recycling used product as the source of modular units. Customers go to store with recyclable modular units, get credits for such modular units, and come back home with new products. In the same way, central distributor goes to retailer with new products, and comes back with recyclable modular units. Central distributor then goes to local producer with recyclable modular units that can be used in the assembling of modular units in new products, and comes back with new products. For local producer, the usage of modular units from the recycling modular units reduces the cost of modular units to counter any wage disadvantages that local producer has. Local producer takes some difficult recyclable modular units that require specific tool and technique for recycling to central producer, and comes back with new modular units. Central producer takes some difficult recyclable modular units that require specific tool and technique for recycling to supplier, and comes back with new parts. Supplier takes un-repairable parts to raw material supplier and comes back with raw material. Therefore, all trips are loaded round-trip to make low cost transportation and efficient logistics for recycling. General recycling

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center turns partial parts that cannot be easily recycled into useful parts into raw materials or basic parts. The unification of local production, local distribution, and local consumption is critical for such recycling. Instead of being potential waste, new products are potential parts and raw materials for future new products from cradle to cradle. The minimization of waste makes sustainability possible for both central economy and local economy. To promote local economy and employment, local people have incentive for recycling. The best people for recycling are customers as local producers. Customers as local producers buy product kit instead of finished products. Many products have long usage life part and short usage life part. A tooth brush has the handle as long usage life part, and brush itself as short usage life part. It is less wasteful to have a tooth brush kit to have a slip-on brush to a handle. Many products therefore can have slip-on, glue-on, clip-on, or zipper-on short usage life parts to long usage life parts. Customers are the best local producers because they have time, incentive, and convenience to recycling. This cyclic sustainable system can promote local economy and employment in developed countries. It can spread industrialization to developing countries and areas fast and at low cost with recycling modular units. The cyclic sustainable system slows global warming by reducing product manufacture. To encourage the cyclic sustainable system, local community can give the local retailers and the local producers that participate in the cyclic sustainable system special tax abatement. 12.4. Social Coherence The social rebalance is to restore the balance between individual freedom and social coherence for the individualistic society and the collective society. The domination of individual freedom generates atomization, while the domination of social coherence produces conformity. The industrial revolution broke down family and local community as production units as in the agricultural society. The information revolution breaks down family and local community as recreation units. Consequently, individual freedom increases, while social cohesion decreases. A happy person needs happiness from both individual freedom and social cohesion. It is necessary to restore the balance from the domination of individual freedom. To restore the balance is to nurture commitment and emotional attachment in family, neighborhood, local community, nation, and religion. Social cohesion in family is assisted by family friendly community that assists marriage, pregnancy, and child development and by family friendly workplace that provides generous maternity leave, parental leave, and workplace daycare facility. Social cohesion is neighborhood can be enhanced by neighborhood organizations and informal neighborhood social gathering places (indoor and outdoor). Social cohesion in local community is developed by social organizations for different ages and different functions, local community social gathering places, and local community festivals. Social cohesion in nation is strengthened by education system that teaches the importance of national cohesion and national holidays and festivals. Religion is a source of social cohesion and social conflict. Each major religion has its doctrine to keep social cohesion within a religion and its doctrine to distinguish it

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from other religions. However, the religious experience of social cohesion is actually much more important than the religious doctrine of social cohesion. When a person commits to a religion and experiences social cohesion in a religion, religious doctrine suddenly is transformed from being the primary concern before the commitment into the secondary concern after the commitment. The religious experience of social cohesion overcomes the doubt about the religious doctrine of social cohesion, which was formed mostly long time ago in a different society. Since religious experiences of social cohesion in all major religions are similar, one should respect and celebrate all religious experiences of social cohesion. In this way, religion is a source social cohesion without being a source of social conflict. In a cohesive society, religious holidays and festivals are celebrated together from people with different religions as the celebration of social cohesion in the sense that God brings different groups of people together in different sets of social cohesion.

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13. The Postmodern Harmonious Society as the Harmonious Society of God
13.1. The Harmonious Society of God The Postmodern Revolution with the global mass telecommunication allows the harmonious society to have a global perspective. The blessed postmodern harmonious society is the harmonious society of God. The three obvious elements in the harmonious society of God are human, God, the interaction between human and God. 13.2. Human The human social lives and society were evolved through natural selection. The two old human social lives are yin and yang, corresponding to female and male psychological characteristics of advanced sexual organisms, corresponding to collective wellbeing, and yang stands for individualistic achievement. Because of the high social barriers for the yin and the yang social lives, eager and free cooperation among individuals is not easy. Eager cooperation among human individuals is possible because the new human social life is harmony. Harmony in terms of harmonious cooperation is the unique new human social life that no other organisms have. In terms of evolution, the departure from other apes is bipedalism, which is the oldest of all hominid characteristics. With bipedalism, the walking hands turned into free hands for enhancing gestural language. Language reduced the social barriers from the old human yin-yang social lives, resulting in the hyper friendly instinct to facilitate eager cooperation, which had evolutionary competitive advantage. In terms of human evolution, the human brain grew larger rapidly to accommodate language and socialization skill. The prefrontal cortex grew even faster to control the old human social lives. The result is the harmonious social life with the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct for detecting lie associating with elaborate language, resulting in eager cooperation without lie. The society from the harmonious social life is the harmonious society as manifested in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The harmonious society follows the social behaviors in Humanist Manifesto III 87 that describe what human should be. • Life’s fulfillment emerges from individual participation in the service of humane ideals. • Humans are social by nature and find meaning in relationships. • Working to benefit society maximizes individual happiness. 13.3. The Interaction The supernatural is known only through the interaction of the supernatural and the human society. Beyond the interaction, the seeking for the understanding of the supernatural is unnecessary. Jesus said, “But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness (Matthew 6:33a).”

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The interaction is through supernatural selection. In supernatural selection, the supernatural selects human as the chosen species, the harmonious social life as the chosen social life, and the harmonious society as the chosen society. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. During the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural revealed the abstract bond for bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. Without the abstract bond (symbolized by female figurines and cave paintings), human would have become extinct like Neanderthals. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society with the abstract bond is the prehistoric harmonious society of God. The harmonious social life essentially follows essentially TIT FOR TAT, the best strategy for the game of prisoner's dilemma. TIT FOR TAT works in small social group. The harmonious social life as TIT FOR TAT does not work in a large social group. The enlargement of social group by civilization from the Neolithic Revolution caused the deviation from the harmonious social life and society. The ideal human social behaviors as described in Humanist Manifesto III do not work well the large civilized social group. To prevent the activated dehumanized preypredator instinct in the civilized society, the moral religion as the transitional harmonious society of God was established in the Old Testament with the abstract morality through the supernatural miracle. Jesus Christ initiated the harmonious society of God with the abstract rebirth. 13.4. The Organism Structure of the Harmonious Society of God The basic unit of social group in the harmonious society is a small social group less than about 35 people, because the harmonious cooperation works the best in a small social group. The structure of the harmonious society is like organism consisting of single cell or multiple cells. Single cell structure is like house church that exists as one small group of people unconnected to other group. Multiple cell structure is the harmonious society consisting of many small groups as the basic units. There are connections among cell groups. There are joint activities among cell groups, but the cell group activity is the essential activity to keep harmonious cooperation as reality, because the harmonious cooperation works well in a small social group. 13.5. The Harmonist Manifesto for the Harmonious Society of God The harmonious society of God is interpreted by human evolution, human history, and psychology to describe the whole human society in the past, the present, and the future. The prehistoric harmonious society of God was the Garden of Eden, which is the prehistoric harmonious society of God. It existed as the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society. The fall of the prehistoric harmonious society of God resulted from the emergence of civilization that deviated from the harmonious society. The transitional harmonious society of God was the moral religion as Judaism where God was

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the high ruler. The moral religion maintained high morality in immoral civilization. Jesus Christ initiated the harmonious society of God through the sacrifice and the resurrection. The decline of the harmonious society of God later resulted from the rise of the state religion. The decline of the state religion resulted in the return of the harmonious society of God. The return and the future harmonious society of God is the harmonious society of God on earth in the three-branch Unified Society consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society for collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The Harmonist Manifesto is as follows. 1. the name: The harmonious society of God is the harmonious society of God on earth. Jesus Christ is the head. 2. the context The harmonious society of God is the harmonious society in the Unified Society consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society for collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The non-harmonious world consists of the collective society and the individualistic society. 3. the origin: The origin of the harmonious society of God is the interaction between God and humans. The interaction between humans and God is supernatural selection. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), God selects the harmonious society as the chosen society by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. The abstract rebirth leads to the harmonious society of God. 4. the admission: Unlike the non-harmonious world, the harmonious society of God has the minimum social barrier among God and all people. The minimum social barrier was achieved by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ for all people on the cross to break down the high social barrier of the non-harmonious world. Everyone who accepts the salvation of Jesus Christ can be admitted to the harmonious society of God through the confession of disharmony sins, the repentance from disharmony sins, and the acceptance of the salvation. Because of the unique salvation through Jesus Christ to minimize the social barrier among God and all people, the salvation of Jesus Christ is the path to establish the harmonious relationship in the harmonious society of God. 5. the missions: The first mission is to establish the harmonious relationship among God and all people. The second mission is to learn and practice the harmonious mind as sanctification from all sources. The third mission is to establish the harmonious adaptation that is to benefit without competing with the non-harmonious world and other religious traditions. 6. the structure

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The social structure is the organism structure consisting of single cell group or multiple cell groups, which are small social groups. Harmonious cooperation works well in a small social group. The simple foundation for the harmonious society of God is love as described by Paul in the Bible. If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal. If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. If I give all I possess to the poor and surrender my body to the flames, but have not love, I gain nothing. Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. 7It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away. For we know in part and we prophesy in part, 10but when perfection comes, the imperfect disappears. When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways behind me. Now we see but a poor reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known. And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love (1 Corinthians 13.) When we start to know fully, we start to know that love is greater than the differences in religious faiths and religious hopes. The New Testament of the Bible tears down the separation between the Jewish and the Gentile (non-Jewish) religious traditions, and builds the kingdom of God based on Jesus Christ. Similarly, the postmodern period tears down the separation between the Christian and the non-Christian religious traditions, and builds the harmonious society of God based on Jesus Christ.

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14. The Postmodern Unified Society as the Global Natural Society
In Dao De Jing, the Way (Dao) means the harmonious social life as in Chapter 1 of Dao De Jing. The Way means also the social life structure as the source of all societies as in Chapter 42 of Dao De Jing. The Way gives birth to one, one gives birth to two, two give birth to three, and three give birth to all things. All things carry yin on back and hug yang in front. The forces collide to become harmony. (Chapter 42 Dao De Jing) In terms of the Way as the social life structure, The social life structure started with the one-branch social life structure as the asexual social life structure, the one-branch social life structure evolved to become the two-branch social life structure as the yin (female)-yang (male) social life structure, the two-branch social structure evolved to become the three-branch social life structure as the yin-yang-harmony social life structure, and the threebranch social life structure generates all human societies. All human societies have yin and yang in opposition, and these two combine into harmony. (an interpretation of Chapter 42 Dao De Jing) Chapter 42 of Dao De Jing describes the evolution of the human social life structure. The three-branch social life structure is the natural social life structure for human societies. As in the Daoism principle of natural with non-action (自然无为), the most stable and efficient human society is the minimum natural society that is formed by the minimum action to the natural social life structure. The natural social life structure consists of the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious social lives. The minimum action to the natural social life structure includes (1) one natural society, (2) one supernatural-human interaction, (3) one collective society, (4) one individualistic society, and (5) one harmonious society. (1) one natural society One natural society is the global natural society based on the natural social life structure consisting of the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious social lives. (2) one supernatural-human interaction It is inevitable to have the supernatural-human interaction in human society. Throughout human history, people need God, and God needs people. The only concern is the supernatural-human interaction regardless of the real existence of God that is beyond human capacity to comprehend. (3) one collective society The collective society can be represented by the collective political party for collective wellbeing. (4) one individualistic society

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The individualistic society can be represented by the individualistic political party for individualistic achievement. Both parties form the two-party constitutional political system. (5) one harmonious society Increasingly in the postmodern society, the public presence of God disappears in both of the collective society and the individualistic society. In the postmodern collective society, the postmodern just social welfare system for all people gradually replaces the just system maintained by the just of God. The postmodern science and technology in the postmodern individualistic society gradually replace the public presence of the powers of God. The personal presences of God in the collective and the individualistic societies continue. The public and personal presence of God continues in the harmonious society to form the harmonious relationship between God and humans. Since the harmonious society works well only as small social group, while the collective and the individualistic societies work well as large social group, the harmonious society of God is noncompetitive to the collective and the individualistic societies. The minimum natural society is therefore the global natural society as the Postmodern Unified Society consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society of God. The Unified Society is divided into the State Unified Society as Russia, China, and Japan where the state represents politically both the collective and the individualistic societies and the Partisan Unified Society as USA, UK, and Germany where the political parties represent separately the collective and the individualistic societies. The harmonious religion in the Unified Society represents the harmonious society separated from the collective and the individualistic societies. The Unified Society consists of separation and balance of powers among the three branches: the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society for collective wellbeing, individual achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The Unified Society allows a society to adapt to all kinds of conditions. The Unified Society as the global natural society is the most stable and efficient society. The Divided Society where the three branches of society clash is the unnatural society that does not allow a society to adapt to all kinds of conditions, resulting in an unstable and inefficient society. It is the best of times, it is the worst times; it is the Unified Society, it is the Divided Society; it is the global peaceful coexistence of different societies, it is the global violent clash of different societies; it is the spring of hope, it is the winter of despair; we are all going directly to Heaven, we are all going the other way; united we stand, divided we fall. The Postmodern Unified Society is constructed through psychology, politics, education, and religion. The Harmonious Society The presence of God continues in the harmonious society to form the harmonious relationship between God and humans. Jesus Christ uniquely has brought the harmonious relationship instead of the collective relationship and the individualistic relationship between God and humans. No one else has done it explicitly. Therefore, the one harmonious society is the harmonious society of God as described before. With the harmonious society alone, civilization is impossible, but without the harmonious society, civilization is prone to become extreme. Jesus said, “What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul? Or what can a man give in

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exchange for his soul?” (Mark 8:36-37) The gain of the world is the accumulation of wealth, fame, pleasure, organization, and power in the civilized society. The soul is harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society. For the prehistoric primitive hunters and gatherers, the harmonious human relationship instead of the accumulation of wealth, fame, pleasure, organization, and power was essential for human survival. The souls of prehistoric primitive hunters and gathers were harmonious human relationship. As the descendants of the prehistoric primitive hunters and gathers, we inherit the soul. Without the soul for the social connection through the harmonious human relation, human life is empty and miserable. The harmonious society prevents the extreme accumulations of the collective society and the individualistic society in terms of totalitarianism and excessive greed, respectively. The Collective Society versus the Individualistic Society With the acceptance of the basic principles in the global natural society, different local societies behave differently in the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies. Different conditions favor the rises of different societies. Homogeneous society favors the collective society because it is easier to have collective wellbeing in homogeneous society than in heterogeneous society. Examples of homogeneous society are the Northern European countries, which favor the collective society. A typical example of heterogeneous society is America, which favors the individualistic society. Economically, the collective society is stable, but the long domination of the collective society turns stability into stagnation. The individualistic society is dynamic, but the long domination of the individualistic society turns dynamism into crisis. In America, the long domination of the individualistic society turned dynamism into crisis in 2008. The rebalance restores the balance between the collective society and the individualistic society, and turns financial crisis, environmental crisis, and social crisis into stable economy, sustainable environment, and social cohesion. Typically, in the Unified Society, the preference of social and economic policies swings between the collective society and the individualistic society to find the best direction for a particular society at a particular time. Economic equality can be reached by various methods. In the collective society, equality is reached in part through the intrinsic suppression of excessive greed, which is considered to be alienation to group spirit, so excessive difference in the incomes of the employees in the same organization is intrinsically or explicitly suppressed. In the harmonious society, equality is reached by the absence of the drive to accumulate wealth. The harmonious relationship is much more important than the accumulation of wealth. The State Society versus the Partial Society The two unified societies are the State Unified Society as Russia, China, and Japan where the state represents politically both the collective and the individualistic societies and the Partisan Unified Society as USA, UK, and Germany where the political parties represent separately the collective and the individualistic societies. The harmonious religion in the Unified Society represents the harmonious society separated from the collective and the individualistic societies. The State Unified Society exists favorably in the society with polytheism tradition, the strong tradition of the collective society, and the aversion of social chaos, while the Partisan Unified Society exists favorably in the society with monotheism tradition, the strong tradition of the individualistic society, and relatively tranquil society.

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In the State Society, the state party is responsible to operate the professional state of the people, by the people, and for the people in the State Unified Society. The legitimacy of the state party is the separated responsibility between the professional state and the private sector. The state party exchanges the right of the state owned corporations for the professional state, while the private sector exchanges the right of partisan competition for free market. In this way, the professional state provides social stability and the protection of free market, while free market provides sustainable long term prosperity. In the Partisan Society, the individualistic political party competes with the collective political party for the social direction. Both of them accept free market as the vehicle to generate sustainable long term prosperity. The legitimacy of the political parties is the adaptable social direction from the competition between the individualistic and the collective political parties without turning into social chaos. Since the world is dominated by the West, the Partisan Society appears to be the universal system, and all nations have to comply with this democratic partisan competition system. In reality, depending on specific traditions, the State Society is as valid as the Partisan Society, and both of them can work well in the Postmodern World. The State Unified Society is suitable for the non-West, while the Partisan Unified Society is suitable for the West. The chart for the summary of the history of human society is as below.

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THE PSYCHOLOGICAL HISTORY OF HUMAN SOCIETY
the harmonious prehuman hominid society the human evolution the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society the Upper Paleolithic Revolution the prehistoric religious harmonious hunter-gatherer society the Neolithic Revolution
the Early Divided Society

the individualistic society: the individualistic state + the state individualism

the collective society: the collective state + the state religion

the harmonious society the harmonious religion

the Modern Revolution the Modern Unified Society

the collective society: the collective party + the partisan socialism

the individualistic society: the individualistic party + the partisan capitalism

the harmonious society the harmonious religion

the Postmodern Revolution the Postmodern Society

the Postmodern Divided Society

the Postmodern State Unified Society (e.g. Russia and China)

the Postmodern Partisan Unified Society (e.g. USA and UK)

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Part 4: The Social-Life Psychotherapy and Health of Individuals
Part 4 deals with the social-life psychotherapy and health of individuals. For individuals, the formation of the social lives is from gene and upbringing. The social lives of some Biblical characters and American presidents will be discussed in Chapter 15. Chapter 16 deals with the social-life psychotherapy. Different people with different social lives suffer and commit sin differently. Social-life psychotherapy for social-life sufferings (alienation, unfulfillment, and loneliness) and social-life sins (injustice sin, repression sin, or disharmony sin) involves the diagnosis of and the treatment for social-life sufferings and social-life sins. In Chapter 17, harmonious cooperation corresponds to minimum conflict, resulting in minimum stress-anxiety. Social-life psychotherapy for stress-anxiety on a permanent base is the conversion to the harmonious social life. The conversion to the harmonious religions (Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity) involves the rebirth into the harmonious society and the harmonious social life In Chapter 18, social-life health requires the exercises of social-life strength, balance, and flexibility.

15. The Formation of the Social lives
15.1. The Social Lives The formation of the social lives88 for individuals comes from the gene and the upbringing. As mentioned before, the yin and the yang social lives have both the positive social lives and the negative social lives. The positive social lives are the core social lives derived by birth and by learning. The learning occurs mostly during the childhood. A child often identifies with a parent, and learns the social life from the parent. Typically, a person who strongly identifies with female caregiver, such as mother and the traditional role of mother has the yin (collective) social life. A person who strongly identifies with male caregiver, such as father and the traditional role of father has the yang (individualistic) social life. A person who equally identifies male and female caregivers and the roles of father and mother has the harmonious social life. With the proper brain structure by birth, the frequent activation of a particular instinct makes a person prone to activate that particular instinct, resulting in a particular social life. All other instincts, however, are still available to be activated. The perceived condition for the positive yin social lives is abundant resource and security. When the perceived condition changes to deficient resource and security (such as under attack), without help from other members of the social group, a person with the positive yin social life has to activate the negative yin social life or the positive yang social life whose perceived condition is deficient resource and security. The negative yin social lives are to avoid any contact with predator and to manipulate, while the positive yang social lives are discipline and strength overcome the attack. Such positive yang social life is called “the auxiliary social life” complementary to the positive (core) social life. With respect to the positive yin social life, both the negative yin social life and the auxiliary yang social life are the defensive social lives to defense the domain of the

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positive yin social life. The negative yin social life is the subhuman defensive social life, while the auxiliary yang social life is the human defensive social life. In the same way, the perceived condition for the positive yang social lives is deficient resource and security. When the perceived condition changes to abundant resource and security (such as winning), a person with the positive yang social life activates the negative yang social life or the positive yin social life whose perceived condition is abundant resource and security. The negative yang social lives are obsession and over-control toward loser (prey), while the positive yin social lives are kindness and nurturing toward loser. Such positive yin social life is the auxiliary social life complementary to the positive yang social life. With respect to the positive yin social life, both the negative yang social life and the auxiliary yin social life are the offensive social lives to expand the domain of the positive yang social life. The negative yang social life is the subhuman offensive social life, while the auxiliary yin social life is the human offensive social life. Another reason to have the auxiliary social life is the adaptation to a group of people with the complementary social life. One typical example is that a woman or man with the positive yin social life as the core social life has to acquire the auxiliary yang social life in order to work in a social group that has the men or women who have mostly the yang social life. A person with chronic stress, chronic anxiety, or severe trauma has propensity to choose the subhuman negative social life because of the confused state of mind. A person, therefore, can have the double social life with the auxiliary social life or with the negative social life, and the triple social life: the positive, the auxiliary, and the negative social lives as listed below.
Social life Single Dual (PositiveAuxiliary) Dual (PositiveNegative) Triple (PositiveAuxiliary-Negative) Idealized Self-Image loyalist, peacemaker, idealist, and hero loyalist-idealist, peacemaker-hero, idealist-loyalist, and hero-peacemaker loyalist-loner, peacemaker-strategist, idealist- specialist, and hero-master loyalist-idealist-loner, peacemakerhero-strategist, idealist-loyalistspecialist, and hero-peacemakermaster Realistic Role friend, nurturer, systemizer, and leader friend-systemizer, nurturer-leader, systemizer-friend, and leader-nurturer friend -prey, nurturer- manipulator, systemizer- addict, and leader –predator friend-systemizer-prey, nurturer-leadermanipulator, systemizer-friend- addict, and leader-nurturer-predator

A person typically has all three social lives with different degrees of occurrence. A person with the double or triple social life has different social life under different perceived condition of resource and security. The inconsistence in the behaviors of a person can be explained by the double and triple social life. The important moral and religious teachings relate to the adaptation to the change in perceived conditions and the prevention of the activation of the dehumanized prey-predator instincts involving subhuman. The harmonious social life is the result of the birth and the upbringing in a simple stable loving environment relatively free of long social memory of the past, distinct social hierarchy, and sharp yin yang (mother-father) distinction. Unstable environment with chronic stress, chronic anxiety, and trauma can easily activate the dehumanized prey154

predator instincts resulting in the negative social lives. Strict loving religious moral teaching during the upbringing can also prevent the activation of the dehumanized preypredator instincts. Long social memory of the past, distinct social hierarchy, and sharp yin yang (mother-father) distinction, which appear typically in wealthy, complicate, or formal families, result in the positive social lives. In the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in a simple stable loving environment relatively free of long social memory of the past, distinct social hierarchy, and sharp yin yang (mother-father) distinction, the harmonious social life was the most common social life. The social life of a person can also be transformed into the harmonious temperature that follows harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment) with minimum social memory, social hierarchy, and yin yang distinction. The human high propensity and capability for the harmonious social life are the major differences between human and all other animals. 15.2. Examples: The Biblical Characters and the American Presidents The examples of the social lives are given for the Biblical characters and for the recent American presidents. The American presidents from Kennedy to Clinton are matched with Biblical characters in terms of social life. Kennedy, Johnson, Reagan, and Bush are matched with Moses who has the yang active social life (driver). Nixon and Clinton are matched with Jacob who has the yin active social life (expressive). Ford and Carter are matched with Joseph who has the harmonious social life (harmonious). 15.2.1. The Biblical Characters Originally, Israelites were the liberated Canaanites from the urban centers in the Canaan City-States and Egypt at the time of Moses. The Canaan City-States were controlled by Egypt. The liberation movement of the economically oppressed Canaanites and Egyptians resulted in the mass migration of the oppressed Canaanites from the urban centers to the low population rural hilly areas, where they organized an egalitarian society free of oppression. Moses led a group composed mainly the Canaanite Levi tribe out of the religiously and economically oppressive Egypt. Believing in the monotheism in Yahweh, Moses was not allowed to worship Yahweh in a remote place away from the watchful eyes and the interferences of the nonbelievers. The religious and economic oppression forced the Levi tribe led by Moses to escape from Egypt. The escaping group was relatively small without any historical record and trace. The escapes of the Levi tribe could occur in many times. When the Moses’ group joined Israelites in Canaan, Moses became very influential in terms of the monotheism, the Mosaic laws (moral, ceremonial, and civil), and the Mosaic liberation movement in Egypt. He gave Israelites a new identity in the monotheism, the law and order in society, and the attractive heroic history. After about forty years, the Levi group firmly became the priest class for all Israelite tribes to unit effectively all tribes. The monotheism became the dominate religion, the Mosaic laws became the dominate laws, and the Mosaic liberation movement in Egypt became the dominate history for all Israelites instead of a small group of the Levi tribe. Eventually, Israelites felt so much different from the urban Canaanites that they changed the history from the liberation movement

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from the inside to the invasion from the outside, which did not happen in any significant scale. When Egypt and the Canaan City-States became weak, Israelites gained the control of whole Canaan without much effort, because Israelites and the urban Canaanites still shared a lot in common. The practices of the original Canaanite religions still existed along with the monotheism. The religion, Judaism that followed the universalized version of the strict Mosaic ideology was established only in the Babylonia exile after the fall of Jerusalem, the center of the old religious worship. The writing of the Bible reflects the egalitarian tradition of Israelites. No one is perfect. Everyone always has some character defects and or misfortunes. The character defects and misfortunes are exposed in the Bible. Therefore, it is possible to describe the Biblical characters in terms of their social lives. The sources of the Biblical characters can be the stories of real people. The purpose of the stories always is to teach. The three Biblical characters described here are Moses, Jacob, and Joseph with the social lives of the yang active social life (hero), the yin active social life (peacemaker), and the harmonious social life (harmonist), respectively. Both Moses and Jacob have the strong positive social lives, but they also character defects as the negative social lives. In the Bible, being a harmonist, Joseph represents an almost perfect person, but he has a lot of misfortunes because his righteousness. No one is perfect in character and fortune. The Bible teaches people how to be a hero, a peacemaker, and a harmonist. 15.2.1.1. Moses Moses was the leader of the liberation movement in Egypt. He came from Canaanite Levi tribe. His self-image was the hero of the Levi tribe in the liberation movement. His triple social life consists of hero, peacemaker, and predator. His first heroic act in fact was a predatory act. He saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his own people. Glancing this way and that and seeing no one, he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. The killing of the Egyptian is like the killing of a weak prey. The consequence of the activation of the predatory instinct was 40-years in exile in Midian, where he was called by God to lead the liberation movement. Accepting the role of the leader, he returned to Egypt. Activating the dominative instinct, he was courageous in the negotiation with Pharaoh to give the Levi tribe the freedom to worship in a remote place in the desert. After repetitive refusals, the Levi tribe led by Moses escaped. The chase led by Pharaoh ended in disaster. The success of the escape did not make Moses a dictator. Activating the nurturing instinct, he taught other people how to be judges to make peace among people. He delegated his authorities of judge to other people. In doing so, he incorporated his auxiliary yin active social life. Without law and order, the Levi tribe was in disarray. Activating the systemizing instinct, Moses devised the system of moral, civil, and ceremonial laws to make the life much more systematic. The moral laws as the Ten Commandments include the moral relations to God, parents, and other people. The discipline supported by the Mosaic laws made the Levi tribe a distinctive and cohesive tribe. The moral system by the Mosaic laws relies mostly on the systemizing instinct, while in the New Testament, the moral system relies mostly on the conscience instinct with relatively simple rule of harmonious

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cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment). A large size social group requires the moral system for explicit rules, while individuals and small size social group need the conscience instinct for harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment). Finally, they met the other Israelite tribes in the hilly highland areas in Canaan. Other tribes adopted the monotheism, the Mosaic laws, the story of the liberation movement in Egypt as their ideology, and adopted the Levi tribe as their priest class. 15.2.1.2. Jacob Jacob is one of the patriarchs of Israelites. His twin brother, Esau, was the firstborn. According to Genesis, Esau was favored by his father, and he was a cunning hunter. Jacob was favored by his mother, and was a gentle man, dwelling in tents. Jacob had likely the yin active social life (peacemaker). His triple social lives are peacemaker as the core positive social life, leader as the auxiliary social life, and manipulator as the negative social life. In his young adulthood, Jacob was a manipulator whose perceived condition was deficient in resource and security. Since Jacob was not firstborn who could inherited his father’s properties, his perceived condition was deficient resource and security, comparing with Esau. Conspiring with his mother, he stole the title of the firstborn from his brother by a clever manipulation. The title, however, did not give him abundant resource and security, because when Esau found out, he vowed to kill Jacob as soon as their father died. Jacob had to flee to his uncle’s (Laban’s) place (Haran), and continued his life as a manipulator. Laban turned out to be also a manipulator. To marry his two daughters, Jacob was forced to work for Laban for at least 14 years without pay. After 14 years, when Jacob wanted to go home, Laban was willing to pay him by the method proposed by Jacob. Jacob again manipulated the pay method to give him a large part of their flocks of sheep. Jacob escaped from Laban. On the way home, he was about to meet Esau with the army of 400 men. The dangerous situation forced Jacob to pray to God, and sent on ahead of him an enormous present to Esau. The night before he met Esau, when he was alone, an angel appeared, and wrestled with Jacob until daybreak. The wrestling activated Jacob’s systemizing instinct and the dominative instinct that gave him discipline and strength, resulting in the auxiliary yang active social life. Jacob learned that he had the discipline and the strength even to wrestle an angle. He did not need to use the deceptive manipulation as he had done. Finally, when the angle saw he could not defeat Jacob, he touched him on the sinew of his thigh. As a result, Jacob had a limp to remind him the lesson. The angle said that from now on, Jacob would be called Israel meaning "one who has struggled with God". This turning point allowed Jacob finally became a true peacemaker to make peace with Esau. Later, Jacob and Esau buried their father together in peace. 15.2.1.3. Joseph Joseph was the eleventh son of Jacob and the elder of the two sons of Rachel was born at Haran. Joseph was born in a complicate family. Jacob had twelve sons and one daughter by his two wives and his two concubines. His mother was his father’s favorite

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wife. He was loved by both of his parents. When his mother died, his father took the role of mother to love him. In this loving environment, he acquired the harmonious social life. As a harmonist, Joseph appeared to be ignorance of the danger of conflict from social hierarchy within his family.. Jacob loved Joseph more than he loved his other sons. At the age of 17, Jacob gave Joseph a "coat of many colors." Ignoring of the sensitivity of social hierarchy, Joseph told his brothers about two of his dreams of the bowing of sheaves of wheat belonging to his brothers to his own sheaf and the bowing of the son, moon, and 11 stars to him. His brothers were very jealous of him. Later, his brothers the brothers took his coat and threw him into the pit. When they saw a caravan of traders, they sold Joseph into slavery. They lied to their father that a beast had killed his son. Joseph’s ignorance of social conflict brought him misfortune. The traders sold Joseph to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh in Egypt. With love and diligence in the harmonious social life, Joseph gained the trust of Potiphar who made Joseph in charge of the entire household. When Potiphar’s wife tried to seduce him, Joseph refused her, because of loyalty to Potiphar and to God. One day, Potiphar’s wife grabbed his coat and he ran away. She then pretended that Joseph had tried to seduce her. Potiphar was furious and sent Joseph to a jail for the king’s prisoners. Joseph’s harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment) with his master brought him the social position, but also brought him misfortune. In prison, Joseph’s love and diligence again made the chief jailor to put him in charge of all the other prisoners, including Pharaoh’s butler and baker. Joseph’s interpretations of the butler and the baker turned out to be correct. Pharaoh restored the butler to his job and killed the baker. After his release, the butler forgot about Joseph. Without despair, Joseph spent two more years in prison. Two years later, Pharaoh himself had two dreams. The butler then remembered Joseph and told Pharaoh about him. Pharaoh sent for Joseph. Joseph interpreted the Pharaoh’s dreams as seven years of plentiful crops followed by seven years of famine. He advised Pharaoh to prepare for the periods of plentiful crops and famine. Joseph’s prediction and advice made Joseph the second-in-command. When the famine came, Egypt was the only country that had food. The famine affected Jacob’s family. Jacob sent his 10 oldest sons to Egypt to get food, and kept his beloved youngest son Benjamin at home. Joseph’s brothers came and bowed to Joseph. They did not recognize Joseph. Joseph recognized them immediately but pretended they were strangers. As a harmonist without long social memory of the past, Joseph had no intention for revenge, but he needed to see his brother Benjamin, and needed to know if his brothers continued in their evil behaviors. He devised a plan to see Benjamin and to test his brothers. Finally, he saw Benjamin, and his brothers were proved to be good and kind. Joseph cried loudly, and revealed his true identity to his brothers. Joseph invited Jacob’s whole household to Egypt. Joseph was both firm and kind. Joseph represented a harmonist with love, diligence, and minimum social memory, distinctive hierarchy, and the yin yang distinction. 15.2.2. The American Presidents

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The formation of the core social life is in the childhood. The parent that a child identifies with determines the social life between yin and yang. The wealth and fame of the family that a child is in determines the social life between harmonious or nonharmonious social life. The competition among siblings sometimes forces a child to take a core or auxiliary social life different from typically elder siblings. The life experiences after the childhood determine the auxiliary social life and the negative social life. The social lives by the idealized self-image of the presidents are listed below.
President Social life As Idealized SelfImage hero (driver) hero (driver) peacemaker (expressive) harmonist harmonist Hero (driver) Hero (driver) peacemaker (expressive) the main mission is being Political Leaning Left Kennedy Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagent Bush Clinton the hero of new establishment the hero of poor people peacemaker harmonist Harmonist the hero of capitalism the hero of old establishment peacemaker √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Center Right Prefer war √ √ √ √ √ peace Moses Moses Jacob Joseph Joseph Moses Moses Jacob Biblical Character

15.2.2.1. Hero: Kennedy, Johnson, Reagan, and Bush Kennedy and Bush were born in wealthy and famous families. Jack Kennedy’s maternal grandfather was a mayor of Boston, and his paternal grandfather was a state representative and senator from Boston area. His father was a wealthy banker and one time ambassador to England. Bush’s father was a wealthy banker and senator from Connecticut. His grandfather was a wealthy industrialist. Although Johnson’s family was not wealthy, his father was a state representative. Reagent’s family was not wealthy or famous, but his father was very ambitious, seeking for better jobs.. Seeking for better jobs, his father moved four times in four years during one period of Reagan’s childhood. In their childhood, they all identified with their fathers who have the social life of driver. Therefore, all of them have the core social life of driver (the yang active social life) with the idealized self-image as hero. In very early age, Kennedy took all triple social lives: driver as the core social life, expressive as the auxiliary social life, and predator as the negative social life. His was the second son89. He and his older brother competed furiously. He was ill frequently in his childhood. He was much worse than his older brother in both athletics and academic subjects. He could not compete with his brother in the driver social life in terms of domination, so in early age he took the yin active social life as the auxiliary social life. He did not appear to be as dominant as his brother in public. He was shy. His joke often aimed at himself. It actually made him more attractive to women than his brother that

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often annoyed his brother. He also took the predator as his negative social life. In school, he acted as a spoiled rich kid to do all kinds of mischievous activities just for fun. His influential father had to rescue him from punishments. His father wanted his brother to run for president one day. However, his brother’s early death during the war forced his father to choose Jack Kennedy to run for president. He grew up fast in domination in terms of self-confidence, even though his father had some doubt about his capability to deal with public. He was a good enough politician to be elected as house representative and senator from Massachusetts. His health was poor. During his convalescence in 1956, he published Profiles in Courage that was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1957. As the president, Kennedy’s idealized self-image was the hero of new establishment, New Frontier. This image was inherited from his father who struggled to establish the new Irish Catholic establishment in the midst of the old New England Protestant establishment. He initiated a number of programs, such as space program, civil right, peace crop, immigration, anti-poverty, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In the mind of many Americans, he was a hero of new establishment, new generation. In the Viet Nam policy, he showed the negative social life in terms of over-controlling Viet Nam. When the President of South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, negotiated a neutralist coalition government which included Communists, as had occurred in Laos, the Administration assisted in the coup d'état to overthrew the Diem government. Dean Rusk, Secretary of State, remarked "This kind of neutralism…is tantamount to surrender." Without over-controlling Viet Nam, the tragedy of the worthless war would have ended many years earlier. Johnson was the firstborn90. When he was born, his grandfather foretold Johnson would be a senator. His father was a five-term state representative from Texas. He identified with his father. When he was ten-year old, he helped his father’s campaign by handing out campaign literature. He said, “I wanted to copy my father, always emulate him, and do the thing he did.” He also said. “My father was a liberal, progressive fellow that dealt in helping the poor.” Johnson served as a United States Representative from Texas from 1937–1949 and as United States Senator from 1949–1960, including eight years as Senate Democratic leader Before he left for the Representative for the first time, his father who was dangerously ill told him, “Measure each vote you cast by this standard. Is this vote in the benefit of people? What does this do for human being? How have I helped the lame and the halt and the ignorant and the diseased? See if this vote is generally for humility….” As Senate Majority Leader, Johnson was responsible for passage of the Civil Rights Act, the first civil rights legislation passed by the Senate since Reconstruction. Johnson was considered as the most effective Senate majority leader in history. He worked hard to gather information about each senator. He was famous for his "The Treatment" to persuade people to agree with him. He moved in close, his face a scant millimeter from his target, his eyes widening and narrowing, his eyebrows rising and falling. From his pockets poured clippings, memos, and statistics. Mimicry, humor, and the genius of analogy made The Treatment an almost hypnotic experience and rendered the target stunned and helpless. As the president, Johnson’s idealized self-image was the hero of poor people. He convinced Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act, which outlawed most forms of racial

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segregation. He achieved passage of a second civil rights bill, the Voting Rights Act that outlawed discrimination in voting, thus allowing millions of southern blacks to vote for the first time. The Great Society program became Johnson's agenda for Congress: aid to education, attack on disease, Medicare, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, development of depressed regions, a wide-scale fight against poverty, control and prevention of crime, and removal of obstacles to the right to vote. To protect his domestic policy of Great Society, he had to take a hard-line foreign policy in Viet Nam to please his conservative supporters. Johnson escalated the war effort continuously. His justification was the Domino Theory. He said, "If we allow Vietnam to fall, tomorrow we’ll be fighting in Hawaii, and next week in San Francisco." After the Tet offensive of January 1968, his Viet Nam policy was questioned by general public, and became increasingly unpopular. He was slow to adjust to the new reality, and held on his over-controlling attitude. Eventually, it ended his presidency. Unlike Kennedy and Johnson, Reagan was not born in a wealthy or famous family91. As a result, he did not have a high ambition originally. His father dedicated to his work, and at the same time, he always looked for a better new job. His father was a small business owner. His father disliked governmental interference and governmental welfare system. Reagan identified with his father. Throughout his career, he emulated his father’s career path in terms of hard work and ambition for a better new career. As a result, he often had to receive the on-job training in his new career. He also emulated his father’s central ideology of small government and capitalism. The lack of high ambition made him a humbler person and a much less over-controlling person than Kennedy and Johnson. From the optimistic faith of his mother his mother, Reagan had a particularly strong faith in the goodness of people and the providence. His burial site is inscribed with the words: I know in my heart that man is good, that what is right will always eventually triumph and that there is purpose and worth to each and every life. With high idea, humble manner, and strong faith, he had a great appeal to common people. As the president, Reagan’s idealized self-image was the hero of capitalism in terms of small government and strong anti-communism. For the proposal of small government, he said, "Government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem." He cut the budgets of non-military programs, including Medicaid, food stamps, federal education programs, and the environmental protection agent. Reagan implemented his supply-side economic policies, including deregulation and substantial tax cuts. The policies proposed that economic growth would occur when marginal tax rates were low enough to spur investment, and economic growth would then lead to higher employment and wages. Critics labeled this "trickle-down economics" in such way that tax policies that benefit the wealthy will create a "trickle-down" effect to the poor. During his eight years in office at an annual rate of 3.4% per year. The downside was the increased inequality between the wealthy and the poor. Reagan called the Soviet Union "an evil empire." He insisted that efforts at détente undertaken by previous administrations had favored the Soviets. His policy of "peace through strength" resulted in a record peacetime defense buildup including a 40%

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real increase in defense spending between 1981 and 1985, resulting in the huge national deficit. When a reformer, Mikhail Gorbachev, rose to power in the Soviet Union, Reagan recognized the change, and shifted to diplomacy. They met in four summit conferences around the world, resulting in the INF Treaty and the decrease of both countries' nuclear arsenals. It contributed to the end of the cold war. Without the over-controlling social life, Reagan eventually was able to making a significant contribution toward peace. Bush was born in a wealthy and well-established Protestant family92. His father was a Wall Street executive banker and industrialist, and a United States Senator from Connecticut. His paternal and maternal grandfathers were wealthy industrialist and banker. Bush wrote, “Dad taught us about duty and service, while Mom taught us about dealing with life in an old-fashioned way of bring up a family- generous, measures of both love and discipline.” His father often led his wife and children in prayer and read them Bible lesson. On Sunday mornings, the family was always at church. His father had a very high moral standard. During the 1964 election, his father denounced Rockefeller for divorcing his first wife and marrying a woman about 20 years his junior with whom Rockefeller had been having an affair while married to his first wife. Like his peers, he went to private schools. With the sense of duty and service, he joined navy right after the high school, and became the youngest navy pilot during the World War II. He attended Yale after the navy duty. His father, he, and his son, George W. Bush were all members of exclusive Skull and Bones secret society at Yale. He followed his father’s footstep to work first in the business world. He was successful in the oil business in Texas. With the sense of duty and service, he joined politics like his father. As the president, Bush’s idealized self-image was the hero of the old Protestant establishment based on duty and service to all Americans. He was the vice president to Reagan. While the Reagan-Bush program helped produce prosperity for the wealthiest Americans, the economic benefits of the 1980s were spread far less evenly among middle- and working-class Americans. When Bush launched his 1988 bid for the Republican presidential nomination, he promised to extend the benefits to all Americans what he called a “kinder and gentler America”. In doing so, he moved away from the extreme aspects by Reagan. To have a kinder and gentler America, Bush signed a number of major laws in his presidency, including the Americans with Disabilities Act; this was one of the most procivil rights bills in decades. He worked to increase federal spending for education, childcare, and advanced technology research. In dealing with the environment, Bush reauthorized the Clean Air Act, requiring cleaner burning fuels. Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait; Bush condemned the invasion immediately and began rallying allies to oppose Iraq. Iraq refused to withdraw from Kuwait. With the United Nations Security Council opposed to Iraq's invasion, Congress authorized the use of military force to return control of Kuwait to the Kuwaiti government. After initial bombing four weeks, a ground invasion was launched, and it lasted only for 100 hours achieving the goal of liberating Kuwait. Without the overcontrolling social life, Bush stopped the war. Bush's approval ratings skyrocketed after the successful offensive. Bush and Gorbachev declared a US-Russian strategic partnership, marking the end of the Cold War. US-Soviet cooperation during the Persian

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Gulf War had laid the groundwork for a partnership for resolving bilateral and world problems. 15.2.2.2. Peacemaker: Nixon and Clinton Both Nixon and Clinton identified with their mother and grandmother during the childhood. Both of them have peacemaker (nurturer) as the core social life, leader (hero) as the auxiliary social life, and manipulator (strategist) as the negative social life. They started with peacemaker, and added other two subsequently. Nixon was born to a hardworking and opinionated businessman and a devout and compassionate Quaker housewife93. His family was relatively poor. He was the second son with an older brother and three younger brothers. His father had little former education, but he learned fast and well to be able to do all kinds of work. He had a fiery temper and strong opinion in politics. He was a rare Republican populist who liked labor union and disliked welfare, big government, and big business. Nixon adored his mother, and said,” No one projected warmth and affection more than my mother did I think it could objectively be said that she loved everyone and everybody loved her.” Both parents were religious and devoted to their children. They were dedicated to make sure their children to receive the best possible education. His mother was a well-educated woman, proficient in different languages with a deep interest in European culture. His mother taught him to read. By the age of five he was an avid reader of children’s encyclopedias, history stories and adult periodicals. She taught him classic literatures and different languages. She also taught him the Quaker yearning to be a peacemaker. He was so advanced in school that his teacher promoted him from the first grade third grade. He was consistently top of his class. He and his young brother, Arthur (five years younger) had the same quiet social life, and they were close. He loved Arthur deeply. When Nixon was 12, Arthur died. Of all the moments of sadness and despair in his life, the death of Arthur hit him hardest. He said, “It was the first sad moment in an otherwise very happy childhood.” His mother believed that Arthur’s death was some mysterious manifestation of God’s will. His father became fanatically religious. Nixon’s reactions were quieter and more profound. It changed his social life. He had the yin active social life (peacemaker) like his mother, and now he wanted to be a hero to Arthur. A few months after the tragedy, he wrote in his school essay entitled ‘Autobiography’: “My plans for the future if I could carry them out are to finish Whittier High school and College and then to take post-graduate work at Columbia University, New York. “I would also like to visit Europe. I would like to study law and enter politics for an occupation so that I might be of some good to the people.” To successful carry out his plan and to be a hero to Arthur, he had to acquire the yang active social life (driver) as the auxiliary social life. He was comfortable in his core social life, and uncomfortable in his auxiliary social life. Nixon was good in all academic subjects, but he was not good in sport. He realized that to a leader in school, one had to participate in school sport. In college, he forced himself to join the football team, even thought he disliked such contact sport. He worked hard, but his skill and physical ability did not allow him to the first team for all four years of the college. However, he did accomplish his goal to be the class leader. He fully utilized the football team as the core of his political support and image in college.

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In public, he was a hero with the hardworking, strong, and tough image. During his time, it was the image of ideal leader, like John Wayne portrayed in the movie. The Republican Party is dominated by men who prefer the hero image. Nixon grew up in a strong Republican area. Being a Republican leader, Nixon had to have the hero image to survive as a leader in the party. In private with his family and close friends, he was a peacemaker with the relaxing, soft, and kind manner. The hero image helped him to advance in his political career quickly. He was a hero of anti-communism. As a hero, he worked hard and was well-prepared to face any challenge. He outmatched his political opponents by hard work and good plan. He had to do what a hero leader had to do. He was uncomfortable in the hero image. He preferred to relax with his family and close friends. As a president, Nixon’s idealized self-image was peacemaker, but he still retained his strong and tough hero image as the protective image for his political career. He had the dual image. The dual image delayed the end of Viet Nam war for more than two years, even though he knew the war was not significant. The significant war was the Cold War. He successfully made the world a more peaceful place by initiating the end of the Cold War. Nixon's greatest diplomatic achievement: the opening of the People's Republic of China to the West. Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit Communist China, marking the beginning of a new relationship between the United States and the People's Republic. Just months after the China summit, Nixon visited the Soviet Union, where he and Premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the first ever agreements on nuclear weapons control. He also made American a more peaceful society. His program was "New Federalism.” It was a movement of money and power away from the federal government and toward states and municipalities, resulting in the creation of numerous local initiatives. As president, he brought affirmative action to the work area. He formed a task force on women's rights. He authored the Clean Air Act. He attempted to reform of the welfare system which would have provided a guaranteed income for America's poor. American society, particularly American cities, became more peaceful as the end of his presidency than before his presidency. Nixon was a tragic figure despite of his great accomplishment as a peacemaker. His changeable peacemaker image was disliked by the contemporaries who liked the consistent hero image, and his harsh hero image was disliked by the baby-boomers who liked the kind peacemaker image. He had the internal conflict between the hero image and the peacemaker image. Being a peacemaker as his core social life who wanted to be liked, he was particularly hurt by people, such as news media, who disliked him. In desperation, he became a manipulator (the negative social life for peacemaker) who was paranoid and manipulative. Both groups disliked his manipulator image. Eventually, the manipulator social life ended his presidency. Clinton’s father died in an automobile accident three months before Clinton was born94 95. Following his birth, his mother traveled to New Orleans to study nursing. In the first three years of his life, he was taken cared by mainly his grandmother who was a strong and independent woman. She taught him reading. His mother returned from nursing school and shortly thereafter married Roger Clinton, who was a part-owner of an automobile dealership. His mother was a fun loving and flamboyant woman, not a traditional type woman. To be a good mother, wife and nurse and to maintain her fun

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loving and flamboyant style at the same time, she had to manipulate. His stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic regularly abused his mother and his half-brother. Most of the abuses occurred when his stepfather was intoxicated. Clinton intervened several times to protect them. Clinton had to be a strong man to protect his mother and brother. His family trouble was hidden from his neighbors and friends. Therefore, Clinton in the young age had all three social lives; the yin active social life (peacemaker) as the core social life from his grandmother and mother, the yang active social life (hero) as the auxiliary social life as the protector for his mother, brother, and family, and the manipulator as the negative social life learned from his mother and from the difficult family situation. In the kindergarten, he avoided conflict. He was a peacemaker to broker the peace for the kids who got into fights. He always wanted be liked by everyone. In school, he was a top student in all subjects except sport. His mother did not go to church, but she always sent Clinton to church service. He was a devout Christian. One time, his mother took him to a horse race track. He wanted to leave after just one race. When Clinton was 15-year old, as Boys Nation senator from Arkansas, he met and shook hand with President John F. Kennedy in the White House. The encounter inspired him to enter a life of public service. It was also a way to escape from the continuous conflict at home. After finishing the law school at Yale, he returned to Arkansas to teach and eventually became the youngest government in Arkansas. The Democrat Party is not dominated by men, so his peacemaker social life was acceptable and even preferred in the Party. Being a Democrat, he did not have to maintain the hero image, and did not have to be the hero of any ideology. As a president, his idealized self-image is peacemaker. He essentially played the "centrist" role to find solutions between two different ideologies. As a peacemaker, President Clinton has developed a style of traveling around the country to talk with citizens in person and felt their pain. Clinton was a charismatic and popular president. In the world, he successfully dispatched peace keeping forces to war-torn Bosnia and bombed Iraq when Saddam Hussein stopped United Nations inspections for evidence of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. He became a global proponent for an expanded NATO, more open international trade, and a worldwide campaign against drug trafficking. He drew huge crowds when he traveled through South America, Europe, Russia, Africa, and China, advocating U.S. style freedom. The national economy enjoyed great prosperity and growth through most of the Clinton years. Like Nixon, he also had the negative social life of manipulator manifested in his personal scandal. Unlike Nixon, Clinton left office with a high approval rating of 65%. He did not have as many internal conflicts as Nixon. Both of them were highly intelligent with exceptional memory. Both of them contributed greatly to the peace. 15.2.2.3. Harmonist: Ford and Carter The harmonious social life is the result of the birth and the upbringing in a simple stable loving environment relatively free of long social memory of the past, distinct social hierarchy, and sharp yin yang (mother-father) distinction. Unstable environment with chronic stress, chronic anxiety, and trauma can easily activate the dehumanized prey-

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predator instincts resulting in the negative social lives. Ford and Carter were born in such stable, loving, and relatively simple environment. Ford’s parents separated 16 days after he was born96. Her mother moved back to her parents’ place, and remarried to a paint salesman. He had a stable family life. About his mother, he said, “Despite of all the discipline, I never doubt her love. A stout, big-boned woman with an attractive face, she was the most selfless person I have ever known. Because she made other people’s problems her problems, she had thousands of friends.” About his stepfather, he said. “He drilled into me and my other half-brothers the importance of honesty. In fact, he and mother had three rules: tell the truth, work hard, and come to dinner on time.” About his parents, he said, “"My stepfather was a magnificent person and my mother equally wonderful. So I couldn't have written a better prescription for a superb family upbringing." He was good in school and football. He played football in University of Michigan. After graduation, two professional football teams offered him to play for them. He did not think the football career suited him. He wanted to go to law school. He said, “I thought my talents would be those of mediator and counselor. As Abraham Lincoln once wrote,” It is a peacemaker that the lawyer has a superior opportunity.” That appealed to me.” He picked his career because he wanted to be a good person to help people, not because he wanted to be a leader. Ford is a harmonist with the harmonious social life. A peacemaker leader wants to be popular, a hero leader wants to be powerful, and a harmonist leader wants to do the right thing derived from love and diligence. For a harmonist, doing the right thing is above popularity and power. In a large social group, an effective leader has to be popular and powerful. It is hard for a harmonist to be a leader of a large social group. The reason for a harmonist to be a leader in a large group is for the moral obligation to establish a harmonious society. A harmonist avoids being an immoral manipulator or an immoral predator. After obtaining a law degree at Yale, he returned home. Ford was a member of the House of Representatives for twenty-four years. Ford described his philosophy as "a moderate in domestic affairs, an internationalist in foreign affairs, and a conservative in fiscal policy." It was tenure largely notable for its modesty. As an editorial in The New York Times described him, Ford "saw himself as a negotiator and a reconciler, and the record shows it: he did not write a single piece of major legislation in his entire career." Republican members of the House elected Ford as its Minority Leader. During the eight years he served as Minority Leader; Ford won many friends in the House because of his fair leadership and inoffensive personality. To him, initial eager cooperation without lie rather than dominating leadership was important. When Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned, Nixon sought advice from senior Congressional leaders about a replacement. The advice was unanimous. They gave Nixon no choice but Ford. Eight months later, he was informed that new evidence would be coming out which would deal a blow to Nixon. He told his wife. Together they prayed, “God, give us strength, give us wisdom, give us guidance as the possibility of a new life confronts us. We promise to do our very best, whatever may take place. You have sustained us in the past. We have faith in your guiding hand in the difficult and challenging days ahead. In Jesus’ name we pray.” Immediately after taking the oath of office in the East Room of the White House, he spoke to the assembled audience in a

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speech broadcast live to the nation. Ford noted the peculiarity of his position: "I am acutely aware that you have not elected me as your president by your ballots, and so I ask you to confirm me as your president with your prayers." He went on to state: “I have not sought this enormous responsibility, but I will not shirk it.” The providence gave him the presidency, and he accepted it. About a year later, Ford gave Nixon a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he may have committed against the United States. It was unpopular, but as a harmonist, he did the right thing to heal the nation. In a televised broadcast to the nation, Ford said, “The Nixon family's situation is a tragedy in which we all have played a part. It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it. I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must." A harmonist has minimum social memory, and is ready to forgive. Ford reluctantly agreed to run for the presidency in 1976. The pardon of Nixon was one of the major reasons Ford lost the election. It was the right thing instead of popular thing to do. Ford's successor, Jimmy Carter, opened his inaugural address by praising the outgoing President, saying, "For myself and for our Nation, I want to thank my predecessor for all he has done to heal our land." In 2001, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation awarded the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award to Ford for his pardon of Nixon. Carter was born as the firstborn in a small town97. His father was a prominent business owner and his mother was a registered nurse. Early in his life, he learned from his parents to treat all people, rich or poor, black or white, fairly, equally, and generously. His father always diligently thought of some new ways to make money from various sources. When he was thirteen year-old, he wrote on his scrapbook six “good mental habits”: “If you think in the right way you will develop (1) the habit of accomplishing what you attempt, (2) the habit of expecting to like other people, (3) the habit of deciding quickly what you’d like to do and doing it, (4) the habit of sticking to it, (5) the habit of welcoming cheerfully all wholesome ideas and experiences, (6) a person who wants to build good mental habits should avoid the idle daydream, should give up worry and anger, hatred and envy, should neither fear nor be ashamed of anything that is honest and purposeful.” He has followed his six mental habits of diligence in his whole life. He does not seek popularity and power. He seeks doing the right things derived from love and diligence. He was a gifted student from an early age who always had a fondness for reading. He was also good in sport. From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to Christianity. Even as President, Carter prayed several times a day, and professed that Jesus Christ was the driving force in his life. He graduated from the Naval Academy. His ultimate goal was to become Chief of Naval Operations. Seven years later, Carter immediately resigned his commission because of the death of his father. He took over and expanded his family business in peanut farming. He involved in local politics, and became a state senator and governor of Georgia. Carter declared in his inaugural speech of governor that the time of racial segregation was over, and that racial discrimination had no place in the future of the state.

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Carter worked diligently both in political campaigns and political offices. He ran effective political campaigns and political offices. Outmatching his political opponents, he became the Democratic presidential candidate against Ford as the Republican presidential candidate. Carter narrowly defeated Ford. As a harmonist, Carter did not care much about the status symbol of the presidency. He walked along the inaugural parade route, ended the playing of Hail to the Chief, and carried his own luggage. Politically, he moved the Democratic Party closer to the political middle ground by deregulation and bureaucratic streamlining. His two foreign affairs achievements were the peace accord Carter brokered between Prime Minister Begin of Israel and President Sadat of Egypt at Camp David and the signing of the Panama Canal treaty. The Camp David Accords showed the strength of Carter as a harmonist who did the right things derived from love and diligence instead of popularity and power. Carter, Begin, and Sadat were in Camp David. Carter worked hard to create an atmosphere of informality to achieve harmony as a group, but Begin and Sadat kept to themselves except for the formal sessions. Their positions for a peace accord were far apart. No resolution had been reached. Carter decided to take the two of them on a trip to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania to break this deadlock. He showed the two leaders the battlefield and gave them a history lesson about one of the battles that had taken place during the U.S. Civil War. It was a reminder of the horror of war that can ensue when leaders fail to settle their differences by peaceful negotiation. It was important to do the right things even though the right things might not be popular at the time. Retuning to the Camp, they still could not reach agreement. Begin was ready to leave. Carter himself drafted a version of the framework document with the help from a Begin’s aid, a Sadat’s aid, and the Secretary of State. He himself shuttled between Begin and Sadat with the draft and the revisions. When Begin rejected the final draft, Sadat was also ready to leave. Carter prayed for divine intervention. Carter begged Sadat to stay for a while, and promised to work on the final draft without changing the essential details. The next morning, as they all were about to depart without a peace agreement, an agreement finally reached. Next year, a peace treaty was signed between Israel and Egypt in Washington, D.C. Both Begin and Sadat took a great risk in terms of popularity, power, and personal safety. Begin and Sadat later received the Nobel Peace Prize for the peace treaty. His two distinctively new policies to promote the harmonious society were the energy policy and the human rights. On the energy policy, he warned Americans that the 1979 energy crisis as the result of the way of life. "Too many of us now tend to worship self-indulgence and consumption. Human identity is no longer defined by what one does but by what one owns". Consumerism provided people with false happiness, but it also prevented Americans from confronting the profound challenge the energy crisis. To solve the energy crisis in a way that takes seriously both our limits and our greatness. He spoke the truth, but people disliked the gloomy outlook and the necessary change of the way of life. His energy policy was not popular. Carter promoted a foreign policy that put human rights at the front. It deviated from the long-held policy of containment toward the Soviet Union. In reality, the human rights policy was hard to do in the world where power and self-interest are more important than the human rights. Both energy policy and human rights remain as the guide toward a more harmonious society.

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After he left office, his extensive peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts have led him to be widely hailed as one of the most successful ex-presidents. Carter received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development through the Carter Center. For Ford and Carter, doing the right thing was above popularity and power. They saw the presidency as a vehicle for constructive change, propelled by firm and very Christian convictions about right and wrong. Their close friendship developed after Carter had left office. Until Ford's death, Carter and his wife visited the Fords' home frequently.

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16. The Social-Life Psychotherapy of Sufferings and Sins
16.1. The Social-Life Psychotherapy of Social-Life Sufferings The two different traditional ways of the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings can be seen in the Old Testament and the New Testament. The first way is based the theory of punishment. In the Old Testament and in Hinduism, suffering is defined as the punishment for social-life sin, because human society uses social and physical suffering to punish sinners. Therefore, the way to liberate from suffering is to follow the right social way of living away from social-life sin which is mainly from injustice. The social-life psychotherapy of suffering in the Old Testament relies on God, while the social-life psychotherapy of suffering in Hinduism relies on reincarnation. The second way is based on the theory of liberation. In the New Testament, Buddhism, and Daoism, suffering is defined as the absence of the right way of living. In the New Testament, the absence is indicated by the control of evil in the world, in Buddhism, the absence is indicated by the control of greed in the human mind, and in Daoism, civilization is the source of suffering. The liberations from suffering are Christian liberation from the evil power, Buddhist liberation from greed, and Daoist liberation from civilization. The end result of both traditional ways of social-life psychotherapy for sufferings is the adoption of social-life fitness. For Judaism and Hinduism, the social-life fitness is collective wellbeing, while for Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism, the social-life fitness is harmonious cooperation. The therapy of physical suffering is the adoption of physical fitness. In the same way, the social-life psychotherapy of social-life suffering is the adoption of social-life fitness. The therapy of physical suffering involves the diagnosis of suffering and the treatment for physical suffering. The treatment of physical suffering involves the reduction of physical discomfort and the adoption of physical fitness. Likewise, the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings involves the diagnosis of social-life sufferings and the treatment for social-life sufferings. The treatment of social-life sufferings involves the stress-anxiety reduction and the adoption of social fitness. 16.1.1. The Diagnosis of Social-Life Sufferings The three social-life sufferings are alienation, unfulfillment, and loneliness (disconnection). Alienation is the suffering of the separation from a recognizable social collective unit. Unfulfillment is the suffering from the lack of satisfactory individualistic achievement. Loneliness is the suffering from the lack of one-to-one harmonious relation. A collective lifer who enjoys collective wellbeing suffers strongly from alienation, and weakly from unfulfillment and loneliness. A individualistic lifer who enjoys individualistic achievement suffers strongly from unfulfillment, and weakly from alienation and loneliness. A harmonious lifer who enjoys harmonious cooperation suffers strongly from loneliness, and weakly from alienation and unfulfillment. In general,

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women suffer strongly from alienation, and men suffer strongly from unfulfillment. The collective religions, such as Judaism, suffers strongly from alienation, particularly, the alienation from God. As collective lifers, Nixon and Clinton who enjoy collective wellbeing suffer strongly from alienation. The individualistic society, such as capitalism, suffers strongly from unfulfillment as underachievement. As individualistic lifers, Kennedy, Johnson, Reagan, and Bush who enjoy individualistic achievement suffer strongly from unfulfillment. All people have the harmonious social life, so all people suffer greatly from loneliness. The harmonious religions suffer strongly from loneliness as disconnection. As harmonious lifers, Ford and Carter who enjoy harmonious cooperation suffer strongly from disconnection. Different sufferers have different causes for social-life suffering. The cause can be social-life disorder or the absence of the social-life fitness. The cause of the suffering for a social lifer is social-life disorder, while the cause of the suffering for a lost or hidden social lifer is the absence of the social-life fitness. For a social lifer, the response to social-life disorder that enhances social-life demise is social-life suffering that prompts attention to social-life disorder. A hidden social lifer has dual social lives: one hidden and one public. For a hidden social lifer, the absence of the social-life fitness in public brings about the absence of the social-life happiness, resulting in social-life suffering. Social-life suffering prompts attention to the absence of the social-life fitness. 16.1.1.1. Alienation The cause of alienation can be injustice (social-life disorder) or the absence of collective wellbeing. The collective lifer is happy about social fairness. Injustice causes suffering, because of the feeling of gross unfairness. The identifications of injustice and alienation are the major tasks of the collective society including socialism, Judaism, Hinduism, Confucianism, and Islam. The source of injustice can be from society, fate, God, or the unknown. The injustice from society can be discrimination, gross inequality, corruption, and crime. The injustice from fate can be certain disability that keeps a person out of a social group. The injustice from God can be the perceived unfairness from God. A divorced person who senses injustice of the divorcing process suffers greatly from the alienation resulted from divorce. A person who loses a close relative or friend from untimely death due to the perceived injustice from society, fate, God, or the unknown suffers strongly from the alienation resulted from the separation. A person who is expelled from a social group due to the perceived injustice from society, fate, God, or the unknown suffers strongly from the alienation resulted from the expulsion. The absence of collective wellbeing applies to a lost collective lifer who loses collective wellbeing or a hidden collective lifer with the involuntary public individualistic social life or harmonious social life. The hidden collective lifer without the public expression of collective wellbeing causes social-life suffering from alienation. One example is Richard Nixon whose hidden social life was the collective wellbeing, and involuntary public lifer was the individualistic social life. Privately, he enjoyed collective wellbeing with a small group of people, but his involuntary public individualistic social life forced him to be divisive, resulting in public alienation from many people. He suffered strongly from public alienation as an outcast. After the

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presidency, he was able to enjoy collective wellbeing in public and in private, and he did not suffer from unfulfillment. 16.1.1.2. Unfulfillment The cause of unfulfillment can be repression (social-life disorder) or the absence of individualistic achievement. The individualistic lifer is happy about individualistic achievement. Repression of individualistic achievement causes suffering. The identifications of repression and unfulfillment are the major tasks of Freud’s psychoanalysis and capitalism. The source of repression can be from society, fate, God, or the unknown. An underachieved person who perceives repression from society, fate, God, or the unknown suffers strongly from unfulfillment. The repression from society can be unreasonable regulation to keep law and order of society. The repression from fate can be certain disability that restricts a person’s achievement. The repression from God can be the perceived unreasonable restriction from God. The absence of individualistic achievement applies to a lost individualistic lifer who loses individualistic achievement or a hidden individualistic lifer with the involuntary public collective social life or harmonious social life. The hidden individualistic lifer without the public expression of individualistic achievement causes social-life suffering from unfulfillment. One example is Martin Luther. When he was an Augustinian monk, he had the hidden individualistic social life behind the involuntary public harmonious social life as a monk. Before he was a monk, he pursued the individualistic achievement in theology and philosophy. He became a monk involuntarily. He was in the middle of a thunderstorm and a lightning bolt struck near him. He was terrified of death and divine judgment. He cried out, "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!" He tried very hard to become a monk living in the life of harmonious cooperation without individuality. As a monk, he could not pursue individualistic achievement. He suffered. For a public monk, the public suffering for the harmonious lifer is disconnection. He tried very hard to deal with the public suffering of disconnection from God, but his suffering actually increased, because his real suffering was unfulfillment. 16.1.1.3. Loneliness (Disconnection) The cause of loneliness (disconnection) can be disharmony (social-life disorder) or the absence of harmonious cooperation. The harmonious lifer enjoys harmonious cooperation. Disharmony causes suffering. The identifications of disharmony and disconnection are the major tasks of the harmonious religions (Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity). The source of disharmony can be from society, fate, God, or the unknown. A lonely person who perceives disharmony from society, fate, God, or the unknown suffers strongly from loneliness. The disharmony from society can be hatred, jealousy, pride, and wrongful accusation. The disharmony from fate can be certain disability that restricts a person’s harmonious cooperation. The disharmony from God can be the perceived unkindness from God. The absence of harmonious cooperation applies to a lost harmonious lifer who loses harmonious cooperation or a hidden harmonious lifer with the involuntary public

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individualistic social life or collective social life. A hidden harmonious lifer without the public expression of harmonious cooperation causes social-life suffering from loneliness. The founders of the harmonious religions (Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity) had the hidden harmonious social life before the establishment of their harmonious religions. There was no harmonious society, so they had to establish the revived harmonious society for harmonious cooperation to cease the suffering of disconnection. Another example is Francis of Assisi. Before he was a monk, he had the hidden harmonious social life behind the involuntary public individualistic social life. His father who was a wealthy merchant wanted him to be successful in business. He was every sensitive to people’s plight in terms of disconnection. One time, when he helped his father to sell merchandise, he gave everything he had to a beggar who asked for alms. He was not happy about the individualistic social life. 16.1.2. The Treatment for Social-Life Suffering The two treatments for social-life suffering are stress-anxiety reduction and the adoption of social-life fitness. The social-life psychotherapy of social-life suffering is not easy, so it is necessary to provide stress-anxiety reduction for the duration of social-life psychotherapy. The adoption of social-life fitness allows the cessation of social-life suffering. 16.1.2.1. Stress-Anxiety Reduction According to the National Institutes of Health, stress is an instinctive response to frustration, while anxiety is an instinctive response to fear and uneasiness, usually from multiple stressors or a long-term stressor. An excessive amount of stress can compound into an anxiety disorder. For common usage, stress includes both stress and anxiety. When stress and anxiety occur, muscles tighten, blood pressure rises, the heart speeds up, and extra adrenaline rushes through the body. It is an automatic, wired-in response, once danger or demand is perceived. The purpose of the stress reaction is survival. The responses provide the extra strength needed to fight off danger or to flee from it. This is a fundamental and powerful response. Three different parts of the brain are involved in this adaptive response: the brain stem, the mid brain, and the cortex. The social-life suffering related to social survival produces chronic stress-anxiety, which is unhealthy mentally and physically. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Thus, the prefrontal cortex serves as executive function for the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections between both drives and instincts in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. Stress-anxiety reduction is to strengthen the neural connection between the prefrontal cortex and drive, instinct, emotion, and cognition in the brain. The stress-anxiety

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reduction mind consists of the calm mind and the clear mind for mainly stress and anxiety, respectively. The Stress-Anxiety Reduction Mind The Stress-Anxiety Reduction Mind Calm mind
Christianity Buddhism Neuroscience Purposes Faith right concentration Clear mind

Wisdom right mindfulness prefrontal cortex stress reduction anxiety reduction relaxation and integrity emotional stability and objectivity

the calm mind: stress reduction The calm mind is mainly for stress reduction. The calm mind is through the prefrontal cortex that concentrates non-judgmentally at one point or task. Distractive emotion is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the calm mind trains the mind to focus calmly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the calm mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to stress. The calm mind is equivalent to faith from Christianity and right concentration Buddhism. The calm mind is strengthened by meditation and prayer. The meditation for the calm mind is the concentrative meditation. In terms of meditation, the non-verbal method includes concentrating on the breath, movement (walking, Sufi dancing, yoga, Qi Gong, and Tai Chi), and mantra. The verbal method involves prayer. In prayer, the close relation with God as a close friend establishes the personal harmonious cooperation within the mind of the person who prays. The personal harmonious cooperation within the mind establishes the calm mind. The calm mind is for stress reduction in terms of both relaxation and integrity through the prefrontal cortex. A typical example for calm mind meditation is Herbert Benson’s Relaxation Response, which makes the basic steps of meditation easy to understand and apply as below98. 1. Sit quietly in a comfortable position. 2. Close your eyes. 3. Deeply relax all your muscles, beginning at your feet and progressing up to your face. Keep them relaxed. 4. Breathe through your nose. Become aware of your breathing. As you breathe out, say the word, "one"*, silently to yourself. For example, breathe in ... out, "one",in .. out, "one", etc. Breathe easily and naturally. 5. Continue for 10 to 20 minutes. You may open your eyes to check the time, but do not use an alarm. When you finish, sit quietly for several minutes, at first with your eyes closed and later with your eyes opened. Do not stand up for a few minutes. 6. Do not worry about whether you are successful in achieving a deep level of relaxation. Maintain a passive attitude and permit relaxation to occur at its own pace. When distracting thoughts occur, try to ignore them by not dwelling upon them and return to repeating "one." With practice, the response should come with little effort. Practice the technique once or twice daily, but not within two hours
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after any meal, since the digestive processes seem to interfere with the elicitation of the Relaxation Response. Another popular relaxation technique is the 4-7-8 breathing exercise 99 as below. 1. Sit up straight 2. Keep the tip of your tongue up against the back of your front teeth during the entire process. 3. Breathe in silently through your nose as you count to four 4. Hold your breath for seven counts 5. Exhale through your mouth for eight counts while making the “woosh” sound out loud. 6. This is one full breath. Repeat steps 1-5 for a total of four rounds. the clear mind: anxiety reduction The clear mind is mainly for anxiety reduction. The clear mind is through the prefrontal cortex that is aware clearly and non-judgmentally of specific sense, feeling, or thought. Distractive awareness is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the clear mind trains the mind to aware clearly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the clear mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to anxiety. The clear mind is right mindfulness from the Buddhism and wisdom from Christianity. The meditation for the clear mind is called mindfulness or insight meditation. The meditators pay close attention to sensations and thoughts as they come and go each passing moment but refraining from judging or acting on those objects, thoughts and feelings. The basic principle is labeling information. When the scan of self becomes difficult, it is necessary to return to the calm mind step. The prayer for labeling emotion is the mindfulness prayer to talk to God freely. Guided by the spontaneous spirit, the prayer is a free association private talk with God. The scan of self is through confession, thanksgiving, and supplication for thoughts and feelings of guilt, happiness, and stress-anxiety, respectively. Basically, it is a free association private talk to God about self. A person experienced in the clear mind meditation or prayer can experience all things objectively, particularly during meditation or prayer, because the perception of all things involves the prefrontal cortex. The clear mind is for anxiety reduction in terms of both emotional stability and objectivity through the prefrontal cortex. 16.1.2.2. The Adoption of Social-Life Fitness There are two different paths for the adoption of social-life fitness: the replacement of social-life disorder with the social-life fitness and the conversion to another social lifer. the replacement of social-life disorder with the social-life fitness The path is to replace injustice, repression, and disharmony with collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. An abused person who suffers from alienation under injustice finds a just environment for

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collective wellbeing. An unfulfilled person under repression finds a free environment for individualistic achievement. A lonely person under disharmony finds a harmonious environment for harmonious cooperation. One can also change the perception about social-life disorder. A perceived injustice can be a mistaken perception. Time is a most important factor to replace the old social-life disorder. the conversion to another social lifer A person who has the hidden social life suffers from the absence of the social-life fitness in public. When the person no long hides the social life in public, social-life suffering ceases. For an example, after Martin Luther had given up being a monk, his social-life suffering ceased. After Francis of Assisi had become a monk, his social-life suffering discontinued. When it is not likely to replace social-life disorder with the social-life fitness, the conversion to another social lifer can cease social-life suffering, because another social life does not have the same social-life suffering. For an example, a woman with the collective social life suffers from alienation, because of injustice. If she cannot find collective wellbeing to replace injustice, she can adopt the individualistic social life that does not suffer strongly from alienation, because the fundamental social unit for the individualistic social life is individual. She can find the social-life happiness from individualistic achievement to overcome social-life suffering of alienation. She can also adopt the harmonious social life that does not suffer strongly from alienation, because the fundamental social unit is one-to-one harmonious relation instead of a large recognizable social unit. She can find the social-life happiness from harmonious cooperation to overcome social-life suffering of alienation. In the same way, when an unfulfilled man cannot find individualistic achievement to replace repression, he can adopt the collective social life or the harmonious social life. People who suffer strongly from alienation or unfulfillment often convert to the harmonious lifer as seen in the conversion to Daoism, Christianity, and Buddhism from many suffering people. Both Freud’s psychotherapy and Buddhism deal mainly the suffering of unfulfillment (dissatisfaction). For Freud’s psychotherapy the cause of unfulfillment is repression, so the treatment involves the removal of repression, and the adoption of individualistic achievement to achieve social-life happiness. Buddhism proclaims that the social-happiness of individualistic achievement is impermanent. The treatment involves the end of individualistic achievement as social-life happiness, and the conversion to harmonious cooperation as social-life happiness. Both communism and Christianity deal mainly alienation. For communism, alienation is expressed as the alienation of workers in the capitalistic society. For Jesus, alienation is expressed as in the parables of lost sheep and lost prodigal son. For communism, the cause of alienation is injustice, so the treatment involves the removal of injustice, and the adoption of collective wellbeing to achieve social-life happiness. Christianity proclaims collective wellbeing as a political entity is impermanent. The treatment involves the end of collective wellbeing as social-life happiness, and the conversion to harmonious cooperation as social-life happiness. The conversions to different social lives are in Chapters 5 and 6. The social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings is summarized as below.

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The social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings
Social-life suffering Alienation Typical Sufferer Collective lifer lost or hidden collective lifer Individualistic lifer lost or hidden individualistic lifer Harmonious lifer lost or hidden harmonious lifer Cause injustice absence of collective wellbeing Repression absence of individualistic achievement Disharmony absence of harmonious cooperation Path A Replacement Collective wellbeing individualistic achievement Path B Conversion individualistic or harmonious lifer collective lifer collective or harmonious lifer individualistic lifer collective or individualistic lifer harmonious lifer

Unfulfillment

Loneliness

harmonious cooperation

16.1.3. Sudden Social-Life Suffering Social-life suffering sometimes happens suddenly. The process for the sudden social-life suffering is similar to the popular stages of sudden grief as the table below. The 7-Stage of Sudden Social-life suffering
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7-Stage Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Upward Turn Working through End of Suffering A easy way out of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness the emotional recognition of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness another easy way out of the disorder or the absence of social-life fitness the emotional recognition of no easy way out of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness the decision to deal with social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness Construction of the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings Adopt the proper social-life fitness to end the social-life suffering

The instinctive response to social-life disorder that enhances social-life demise is social-life suffering to prompt attention to social-life disorder, so individuals can deal with social-life disorder urgently. 1. Denial The first stage is denial that is an easy way out social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. At first, individuals tend to deny social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness has taken place, and may withdraw from our usual social contacts that may remind individuals of such social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. It is a defense mechanism that buffers the immediate shock. Individuals may use drugs and alcohol to isolate themselves. 2. Anger When reality forces individuals to recognize that denial as an easy way out, individuals become angry as the emotional recognition of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. In the second stage as anger, the suffering person may be
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furious at the person who inflicted the hurt, or at the world, for letting it happen. He may be angry with himself for letting the event take place, even if, realistically, nothing could have stopped it. The suffering person feels of wanting to fight back or get even. 3. Bargaining The third stage is bargaining that is another easy way out of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. In the bargaining stage, common thoughts include "I wish we could have….", "Maybe if I do this….", or "If I change my behavior, will you come back?" Such bargaining is typically unrealistic. 4. Depression The fourth stage is depression that is the emotional recognition of no easy way out of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. Depression is the feeling of helpless and hopeless to stop social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. It may include crying, withdrawal, or any other way that expresses sadness. 5. Upward turn When the suffering person decides to deal with social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness, depression lessens. It is the upward turn. 6. Working Through Working through involves the construction of the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings as described in the diagnosis of social-life sufferings and the treatment for social-life sufferings. 7. End of Social-life suffering The end of suffering occurs, when the suffering person adopts the proper sociallife fitness to end the social-life suffering. 16.2. Social-Life Psychotherapy of Social-life sins The social-life psychotherapy of social-life sin involves the diagnosis of sociallife sin and the treatment for social-life sin. 16.2.1. The Diagnosis of Social-Life Sins The three social-life sins are injustice sin, repression sin, and disharmony sin for causing alienation, unfulfillment, and loneliness (disconnection), respectively. Typical injustice sins are in the Ten Commandments from Exodus 20, 1. You shall have no other gods before me. 2. You shall not make for yourself an idol. 3. You shall not make wrongful use of the name of your God. 4. Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy. 5. Honor your father and mother. 6. You shall not murder. 7. You shall not commit adultery. 8. You shall not steal. 9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. 10. You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbor.

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Repression sins are the opposites of the freedoms as listed in the US Constitution. The freedoms include the freedoms of religion, speech, petition clauses, the press, association, movement, and assembly etc, so repression sins include repressions of religion, speech, petition clauses, the press, association, movement, and assembly etc. Disharmony sin is listed by Paul in Romans 1:29-32. They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed and depravity. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips, slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing evil; they disobey their parents; they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless. Although they know God's righteous decree that those who do such things deserve death, they not only continue to do these very things but also approve of those who practice them. (Romans 1:29-32) Different social lifers have different degrees of sensitivity toward different sociallife sins, resulting in different degrees of guilt about committing different social-life sins. Collective lifer who enjoys collective wellbeing is very sensitive and feels very guilty about committing injustice sin, and is not very sensitive and does not feel very guilty about committing repression sin and disharmony sin. For an example, a socialist who enjoys collective wellbeing feels strongly guilty about injustice sin, but can be repressive toward individualistic achievement and destructive toward harmonious cooperation without much guilty feeling. Individualistic lifer who enjoys individualistic achievement is very sensitive and feels very guilty about committing repression sin, and is not very sensitive and does not feel very guilty about committing injustice sin and disharmony sin. For an example, a capitalist who enjoys individualistic achievement feels strongly guilty about repression sin, but can be injustice toward equality and destructive toward harmonious cooperation without much guilty feeling. Harmonious lifer who enjoys harmonious cooperation is very sensitive and feels very guilty about committing disharmony sin, and is not very sensitive and does not feel very guilty about committing injustice sin and repression sin. For an example, a harmonist such as a monk who enjoys harmonious cooperation feels strongly guilty about disharmony sin, but can completely disregard the justice system that punishes guilty people severely, and discourages individualistic achievement without much guilty feeling. Such specific sensitivity deters committing specific social-life sin, and accelerates the cessation of specific social-life sin. At the same time, such specific sensitivity tolerates committing another specific social-life sin, and hinders the cessation of another specific social-life sin. 16.2.2. The Treatment for Social-Life Sins The treatment for social-life sin consists of the stress-anxiety reduction and the adoption of social-life fitness. The social-life psychotherapy of social-life sin is not easy, so it is necessary to prescribe stress-anxiety reduction for the duration of social-life psychotherapy. The adoption of social-life fitness allows the cessation of social-life sin. Stress-anxiety reduction is described before.

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For the adoption of social-life fitness, there are two different paths: the voluntary replacement of social-life sin with the social-life fitness and the conversion to another social lifer. the voluntary replacement of social-life sin with the social-life fitness The path is to replace voluntarily injustice sin, repression sin, and disharmony sin with collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The voluntary replacement path involves the confession of sin, the repentance from sin, and choosing social-life fitness. the conversion to another social lifer The voluntary replacement is possible, only if the sinner is truly sensitive to committing social-life sin. For an example, a harmonious lifer is sensitive to disharmony sin, so the voluntary replacement of disharmony sin with harmonious cooperation is possible. On the other hand, an individualistic lifer is not sensitive to disharmony sin, so the voluntary replacement of disharmony sin with harmonious cooperation is not possible. It is possible to cease social-life sin involuntarily by laws and social coercion. The only way for an individualistic lifer to be truly sensitive to disharmony sin is the conversion to harmonious lifer. The conversion allows the individualistic lifer as the sinner to be sensitive to disharmony sin. The full conversion from the individualistic lifer to the harmonious lifer provides harmonious cooperation as the social-life fitness. Another conversion is to leave social-life sin behind. When a sinner is permanently branded as a sinner by society, the replacement of social-life sin with sociallife fitness is impossible. The only way to cease the guilty feeling of social-life sin is the conversion into another social lifer that does not consider such social-life sin as sociallife sin. For an example, a man who commits injustice sin that causes alienation confesses, repents, and chooses collective wellbeing voluntarily. His society, however, permanently, brands him as a sinner of injustice sin. The only way for him to cease the guilty feeling from injustice sin is to convert into an individualistic lifer or a harmonious lifer that does not consider injustice sin as social-life sin. People who commit injustice sin or repression sin without any closure often convert to the harmonious lifer as seen in the conversion to Daoism, Christianity, and Buddhism from many sinners. The conversions to different social lives are discussed in Chapters 5 and 6. Social-life psychotherapy of social-life sins is summarized as below.
Social-life sin Injustice Sin Sinner

The social-life psychotherapy of social-life sins Path B Sensitivity To Path A Voluntary
Social-life sin Sensitive Insensitive Sensitive Insensitive Sensitive insensitive Harmonious cooperation Individualistic achievement Replacement collective wellbeing Conversion individualistic or harmonious lifer collective lifer collective or harmonious lifer individualistic lifer collective or individualistic lifer harmonious lifer

collective lifer individualistic or harmonious lifer individualistic lifer collective or harmonious lifer harmonious lifer collective or individualistic lifer

Repression Sin

Disharmony Sin

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16.2.3. Sudden Social-Life Sin The process for the sudden realization of social-life sin is similar to the popular stages of sudden grief as the table below. The 7-Stage of Sudden Social-life sin
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7-Stage Denial Anger and Guilt Bargaining Depression Upward Turn Working through End of Social-life sin A easy way out of social-life sin the emotional recognition of social-life sin Another easy way out of social-life sin the emotional recognition of no easy way out of social-life sin the decision to deal with social-life sin Construction of the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sins Adopting the proper social-life fitness to end the social-life sin

1. Denial The first stage is denial that is an easy way out social-life sin. At first, individuals tend to deny social-life sin has taken place, and may withdraw from our usual social contacts that may remind individuals of such social-life sin. It is a defense mechanism that buffers the immediate shock. Individuals may use drugs and alcohol to isolate themselves. 2. Anger and Guilt When a sinner recognizes the inescapable grave consequence of social-life sin, the sinner feels guilty and angry as the emotional recognition of social-life sin, including injustice sin, repression sin, and disharmony sin. 3. Bargaining The third stage is bargaining that is another easy way out of social-life sin. In the bargaining stage, common thoughts include "I wish we could have….", "Maybe if I do this….", or "If I change my behavior, will you come back?" Such bargaining is typically unrealistic. 4. Depression The fourth stage is depression that is the emotional recognition of no easy way out of social-life sin. Depression is the feeling of helpless and hopeless to clear social-life sin. It may include crying, withdrawal, or any other way that expresses sadness. 5. Upward Turn When the sinner person decides to deal with social-life sin, depression lessens. It is the upward turn. 6. Working Through Working through involves the construction of the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sins as described in the diagnosis of social-life sin and the treatment for sociallife sin. 7. End of Social-Life sin The end of social-life sin occurs, when the sinner adopts the proper social-life fitness to end the social-life sin.

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17. The Practice of Social-Life Health
Physical health, mental health, and social-life health are important to human life. Physical health relates to human body, mental health relates to the human brain, and social-life health relates to the social life and social interaction. Health is the condition of being sound in body, mind, or spirit; especially, freedom from disease or pain. It is important to keep all three aspects of human life healthy. 17.1. The Social-Life Health Exercise Weakness, imbalance, and rigidity are major reasons for physical disorder, mental disorder, and social life disorder, especially in a changing environment. In the current changing world, strength, balance, and flexibility are important for physical health, mental health, and social-life health. The exercises for social-life health are the theoretical, the observational, and the participation exercises. 17.1.1. The Theoretical Exercise The theoretical exercise for social-life health is the exercise is the theoretical understanding of social life to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. For the collective social life, the books to read are the Old Testament for classical collective society and Capital and The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx for modern collective society. For the individualistic social life, the books to read are Greek mythology and Greek philosophy of science for ancient individualistic society and The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith for modern individualistic society. For the harmonious social life, the books to read are the New Testament and Dao De Jing. The collective life promotes social group identity and justice among people within the social group, puts down individualistic achievement, and ignores harmonious cooperation. In the Old Testament, the social group identity is Israel as the chosen nation of God who provides the laws for the justice and the identity of Israel. There are clear reward and punishment to enforce the social group identity and the laws. There is no glorification of individuals in the Old Testament. The faults of individuals were explicitly revealed. In Karl Marx’s Capital and Communist Manifesto, the social group identity is the proletariat which provides justice for all people. Marx put down capitalism that was a manifestation of individualism, and believed that capitalism would be selfdestructive from its own internal tensions. He wrote about the alienation of workers by losing control of their lives. In the collective society, “orthodox doctrine” is very important for social group identity. The individualistic life promotes individuals and achievements, puts down collective wellbeing, and ignores harmonious cooperation. Greek mythology glorifies individuals as heroes and their heroic achievements. Greek mythology does not care about social group identity and justice among people. There is no “orthodox Greek mythology” for social group identity. Greek philosophy of science is an individual pursuit of truth in nature that does not relate to society at all. There is no “orthodox science” for social group identity. In Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, invisible

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hand that control economy is essentially derived from self-interested individuals without explicitly social group identity and social responsibility as described below100. It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own self-interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantages The harmonious life promotes harmony and cooperation, and puts down collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement. In the New Testament, Jesus loves people from all different social identities and classes. Harmonious cooperation is exemplified by Jesus as a friend to his followers. Jesus said, I no longer call you servants, because a servant does not know his master's business. Instead, I have called you friends, for everything that I learned from my Father I have made known to you. (John 15: 15) Such harmonious cooperation is expressed by a popular Christian hymn, What a Friend We Have in Jesus written by Joseph M. Scriven. What a friend we have in Jesus, all our sins and griefs to bear! What a privilege to carry everything to God in prayer! O what peace we often forfeit, O what needless pain we bear, all because we do not carry everything to God in prayer. Have we trials and temptations? Is there trouble anywhere? We should never be discouraged; take it to the Lord in prayer. Can we find a friend so faithful who will all our sorrows share? Jesus knows our every weakness; take it to the Lord in prayer. Are we weak and heavy laden, cumbered with a load of care? Precious Savior, still our refuge; take it to the Lord in prayer. Do thy friends despise, forsake thee? Take it to the Lord in prayer! In his arms he'll take and shield thee; thou wilt find a solace there.

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The Christian church is the sanctuary for suffering people and sinners. Harmonious cooperation is expressed as love among people. The New Testament believes that individualistic achievement is the gift from God rather than the individual honor. Harmonious cooperation is expressed as water in Dao De Jing. The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with them. It flows to the lowest level that people disdain. In this it comes near to the Way. In their dwellings, they love the earth. In their hearts, they love what is profound. In their friendship, they love humanity. In their words, they love sincerity. In government, they love peace. In business, they love ability. In their actions, they love timeliness. It is because they do not compete that there is no resentment. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8) In human society and within the human mind, there are cores of the collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives. Each core in the human mind needs to be strengthened by the theoretical understanding. The theoretical understanding of all cores allows balance and flexibility among the cores. 17.1.2. The Observational Exercise One of the best ways for the observational exercise is to observe the emotions involved in social life, such as social-life happiness and social-life suffering. In sport event, the social-life happiness of collective wellbeing is observed in the emotion of sport fans in the winning of a home team, while the social-life suffering of collective wellbeing is observed in the emotion of sport fans in the lost of a home team. Such emotion does not make sense in terms of money and fame. The social-life happiness or suffering of individualistic social life is observed in the happiness of achievement or lost by individuals in money and fame. The happiness of the harmonious social life can be observed from the happiness in charity work and meditation. The social-life suffering of harmonious social life can be seen in loneliness. Another area for the observational exercise is the behaviors of apes. Gorillas have the patriarch collective society for collective wellbeing with strong loyalty to the dominatingly large male leader. In social group, a silverback is the strong, dominant troop leader. He typically leads a troop and is in the center of the troop's attention, making all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the others to feeding sites and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop. All members of a social group are loyal to the dominatingly large silverback. The society of gorillas is similar to human patriarch collective society with strong centralized leader and doctrine. Chimpanzees have the patriarch individualistic society with the competitive

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hierarchy. The male chimpanzees fight to be the number one. A leader is under constant challenge. A leader is deposed after the other male chimpanzees have formed alliance and ganged up against the leader. The society of chimpanzees is similar to the human patriarch individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy. Social-life happiness can be addictive as seen in the fanatics for collective wellbeing in religion and country, individualistic achievement in money and fame, or harmonious cooperation in meditation. The addiction satisfies short-term social-life happiness at the expense of overall long-term social-life happiness. The addictive sociallife happiness also causes social-life sin. For an example, recently, the addictive and intoxicated social-life happiness of individualistic achievement by the investment bankers destroyed the long-term collective wellbeing of the financial network101. Through the observation exercise, the existence of social life can be proved, and the need for social-life strength, balance, and flexibility is recognized. 17.1.3. The Participation Exercise Most people participate in all three social lives regularly, and are gifted in the adaptation of one favorite social life. Typically, crisis forces people to actively participate in other social lives outside the favorite social life. To maintain social-life health, it is necessary to participate in other social lives to obtain overall social-life strength, balance and flexibility. The participation in social life allows a person actually to feel the social-life happiness and the social-life suffering. It is easy to participate in the individualistic social life in the modern society that is highly individualistic. The individualistic social life includes individualistic competition, self-expression, and competitive hierarchy at work. The participation allows a person to feel the social-life happiness of individualistic achievement, which permits the person to further participate in the individualistic social life. Family is the most natural unit of the collective social life. Strong family life allows a person to enjoy the social-life happiness of collective wellbeing. The extension of family as the unit of the collective social life to the society in general, particularly in Judaism and Confucianism, allows a person to enjoy the social-life happiness of collective wellbeing in society. In the modern society, many social groups, such as professional social group, ethnic social group, and art and music social group provide the collective social life. A small social group with close intimate friends is the most natural unit of the harmonious social life that provides the social-life happiness of harmonious cooperation. The harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) and charity organizations can also provide the harmonious social life in terms of the social harmony or the personal harmony. The participation in a social life allows a person to feel the social-life happiness or suffering in the presence or the absence of the social-life fitness, resulting in the empathy to other people’s social-life happiness and suffering. The empathy allows the empowerment to the needy people. The healthy social life allows a person to have empathy and empowerment with people from all different social lives. The healthy social life also avoids gross social-life sins by the intoxication and addiction of specific sociallife happiness.

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17.2. Versatile Social Life The healthy physical life with adequate exercise in strength, balance, and flexibility allows a person to be versatile in physical activities. Likewise, the healthy social life can lead to the versatile social life to play different social lives in different situations. In a new and relatively unorganized situation, a person plays the individualistic social life to establish self. In a relatively organized and mature situation, a person plays the collective social life to connect with people. In an informal small social group situation, a person plays the harmonious social life to enjoy friendship. The best friends are always in the relation of harmonious cooperation. In a stressful situation, a person finds opportunity outside of the stressful environment to play the harmonious social life to release stress. Eventually, the three different social lives within the mind of a person communicate among one another to choose appropriate social lives in different situations.

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18. Summary and Conclusion
Social-life science deals with social interactions involving neuroscience, psychology, evolution, and social sciences. Social-life science is based on the social-life structural theory, dividing the human social life into the three social lives, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives, which are derived from the feminine, the masculine, and the neutral social lives, respectively. Sociallife science explains the principal differences among different human societies, constructs the healthy society, provides psychotherapy for sufferings, sins, and stress-anxiety, and maintains the social-life health of individuals. The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The unique human evolution produces the harmonious social life that transcends the collective and the individualistic social life, and represents harmonious cooperation. The social lives are derived from the neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The social-life structural theory is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory. The theory starts with the personality system based on the brain structure and neurotransmitters. Human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts. The human social lives come from social-life biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. Social-life science explains the social-life cultural evolution consisting of the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, and the Modern Period. The prehistoric huntergatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the collective society included Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism, and the individualistic society included Greek individualism (Greek mythology and science). Later, the harmonious society was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism). In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches (collective, individualistic, harmonious) of human society, resulting in the Modern Unified Society, such as America. The healthy society in terms of social life is the Postmodern Unified Three-branch Society where the different social lives work together constructively rather than destructively. The Postmodern Unified Society is constructed through psychology, politics, education, economy, and religion. The social lives of some Biblical characters and American presidents will be discussed. The social-life psychotherapy for social-life sufferings and sins involves the diagnosis of and the treatment for social-life sufferings and sins. The treatment involves stress-anxiety reduction and the adoption of social-life fitness. Harmonious cooperation corresponds to minimum conflict, resulting in minimum stress-anxiety. Social-life psychotherapy for stress-anxiety on a permanent base is the conversion to the harmonious social life. The conversion to the harmonious religions involves the rebirth into the harmonious society and the harmonious social life. Social-life health requires the exercises of social-life strength, balance, and flexibility.

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Before advanced science based on rationalism and empiricism, humans had many prejudices and wild speculations about natural phenomena. Advanced science allows people to deal with natural phenomena effectively and rationally without prejudices and wild speculations. Social-life science based on the social-life structural theory can allow people to deal with social interactions effectively and rationally without prejudices and wild speculations. Based on social-life science, people have to respect and understand all three social lives (collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives), and allow checks and balances among them. Science cannot explain all about religion, but the social interaction part of religion can be explained by social-life science. As a result, social-life science improves the understanding among religions. Social-life science validates rather trivializes religions. In the same way, the social interaction part of political ideologies can be explained by social-life science to improve the understanding among political ideologies. A healthy society in terms of social-life can be built on the base of such understandings from social-life science. Before advanced physical health and mental health science, the lack of the understanding resulted in prejudices and wild speculations about physical and mental disorders, diagnosis, and treatment. Many physical and mental disorders were misdiagnosed and mistreated. Advanced physical health and mental health sciences reduce prejudices and wild speculations, and improve physical health and mental health. In the same way, advanced social-life health science based on the social-life structural theory can reduce prejudices and wild speculations, and can improve social-life health in terms of minimizing social-life disorders, sufferings, sins, and stress-anxiety and maintaining social-life health for individuals.

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19. Reference
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