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Society of Catholic Social Scientists
100 Franciscan Way, Steubenville, Ohio 43952 (740) 24!5377"F#$% (740) 23!&401"catholicsocialscientists'ail*co
_____________________________________________________________________________
From:
 +* rian Scarnecchia, Society o- .atholic Social Scientists /reasurer an O eresntative
To:
  6uan ihts .oittee
Date:
 October 29, 2015
Re: NGO Response to Draft General Comment on Human Rights Council Resolution 2922 on !"rotection of the Family#
  
$ntro%uction
/he 8nternational Soliarity an 6uan ihts 8nstitute (the 8nstitute:) is coitte to establishinsoliarity aon eole ;orl;ie by rootin authentic huan rihts base on atural <a; rinciles, as set -orth in such ocuents as the
 Declaration of Independence, the Universal  Declaration of Human Rights
, an the
Charter of the Rights of the Family
* /he 8nstitute=s ission isin-ore an otivate by resect -or the inherent inity an e>uality o- all huan beins as eno;e by o an as unerstoo by the universal /eachin O--ice o- the .atholic .hurch*/he 8nstitute=s ;or? involves eucation an research, ublic interest litiation, eiation, an ;or?s o- ercy so as to eliinate huan rihts violations* /he 8nstitute, actin alone or in con@unction ;ith other li?e!ine institutions, in-ors the ublic, stuents, overnent o--icials, international oraniAationeleates, an -inancial, eucational an cultural leaers an assists the to roote soliarity anhuan rihts* /he 8nstitute=s ission is rincially irecte to;ars overnents, national ansuranational institutions, oraniAations an tribunals*
Family & Foun%ation of authentic Human 'cology
/he huan secies, no less than any other secies, thrives in its natural ecosyste*
1
 #s illennia o- huan history roves, the -ounational eleent o- the huan ecosyste is the natural rerouctivehuan -aily base on arriae, a coleentary artnershi -or li-e, bet;een one an an one;oan o- arriaeable ae, constitute ;ith -ull an -ree consent, ublically eBresse, to ;hich theission o- transittin li-e is naturally an eBclusively entruste*:
2
1
 See Coe Francis,
 Laudato Si’ 
 (2015) D5 authentic huan ecoloy,: D& the boo? o- nature is one an inivisible: citin Coe Eohn Caul 88,
Centisimus nnus
D3, D12 our coon hoe*:
2
 
 !odel Declaration on the Rights of the Family
, #rticle 2,
1
 
"rinciples of 'n0ironmental -a+ & There 1pplication to Human 'cology
Coe Francis arees ;ith the eneral thrust o- the
 !illennium Development "oals,
oal   +evelo alobal Cartnershi -or +eveloent  an
Sustaina#le Developments "oals,
oal 17  evitaliAin thelobal Cartnershi -or Sustainable +eveloent  in so -ar as ;hat is neeeG is an areeent onsystes o- overnance -or the ;hole rane o- so!calle H
 glo#al commons
*=:
3
 /he lobal coons iscoose o- ulti!layere ecosystes, each interal in its o;n riht an intereenent ;ith eachother* oo ste;arshi o- the lanet re>uires a resect-ul balancin o- the rinciles o- -lourishinintrinsic to each ecosyste* +eveloents in environental la; have ae lain that certain basic rinciles ust be eloye in orer to ensure interal an sustainable huan eveloent* /he ost-unaental o- these rational rinciles is
trust
, eBresse in the
 $us cogens
 nor that roises areeant to be ?et: -eatures o- ;hich have been reconiAe in international treaties outla;in criesaainst huanity an enocie*
4
 8n articular, the reetory nor o- trust -ins articulation in the
"ulic Trust Doctrine
, the slate uon ;hich all olitical constitutions are ;ritten an the +# -ro;hich leitiate o;er is createG:
5
 /he Cublic /rust +octrine rihtly unerstoo, there-ore, o--ers roise -or the sounovernance o- the ;hole lobal coons incluin the interal eveloent o- the huan -aily*
The "ulic Trust Doctrine & $ts 3asic Features an% Scope
/he C/+ is a creature o- trust la;* 8t rovies -or the ;ise ste;arshi o- coon roerty hel in trust-or the bene-it o- all eole* 8t eans that ublic authorities eBercise their -iuciary uty to bothconserve an rovie ublic access to the trust resources* Oriinally the C/+ ;as boun to lans sub@ectto tial ;aters uner Inlish an #erican coon la;* #t coon la;, the title an oinion inlans -lo;e by the tie ;ater ;ere in the Jin -or the bene-it o- the nationG*on the #ericanevolution, these rihtsG;ere veste in the oriinal StatesG:
&
 /oay the scoe o- the C/+ has beeneBane an it has been aote by any nations, esecially in the +eveloin Worl, to rotect allnatural resources*
7
 Koreover, the C/+ has been recoene as erhas the ost e--ective ;ay torealiAe the oals o- io L 20 since the C/+ converts ste;arshi rinciles to substantive ste;arshi
3
 Laudato Si’ 
, D174*
4
 See ** +oc* #".OF*39"27 (19&9), rerinte in &3 #*E*8nt=l <* 75 (19&9)M Karc ossuyt en Ean Wouters (2005)%
"rondli$nen van international recht 
, 8ntersentia, #nt;eren enA*, * 92M Crosecutor v* FurunAi@a, 8nternational .riinal /ribunal -or Forer Nuoslavia, 2002, 121
 International La% Reports
 213 (2002)*
5
 See eral /orres an athan elliner, /he Cublic /rust +octrine% /he <a;=s +#,: 4 W#JI FOIS/ E*<* CO<=N, 24, 21, 2 (2014)*
6
 
Shively v& 'o%l#y
, 152 *S* 1, 14!15 (194)*
7
See lu  uthrie
 , (
8nternationaliAin the Cublic /rust +octrine% atural <a; an .onstitutional an Statutory #roaches to Ful-illin the SaBion Pision,:
 
45 *.* +
#P8S
 <  
IP
* 741, 7&000 notin that in 8nia, Ca?istan, Chiliines, ana, Jenya, ieria, South #-rica, raAil an Icuaor all natural resources are hel in  ublic trust)*
2
 
re>uireents*:
 /he C/+ is analoous to the .oon 6eritae o- 6uanity (.66) rovisions alreayinclue in both har an so-t international la;*
9
"ulic Trust Doctrine & the "recautionary an% Natural 4se "rinciples
/rustees have an a--irative -iuciary uty uner the C/+ to be roactive an rotect trust assets be-oreit is too late* /he la; shoul an ust enable the to challene e--ectively threats to ublic trust assets*Kany environental con-licts result in eraation because there is not ae>uate scienti-ic evience tosuort reulation*:
 /he recautionary rincile essentially shi-ts the buren o- roo- to those ;ho roose activity that enuinely threatens har to an ecosyste* ote that the recautionary aroachisantles the eneral aruent o- inustry that it shoul not be reulate until the aency has rovenhar -ro the inustry ractice*:
 Coe Francis enorse the recautionary rincile%
 
/his recautionary rincile a?es it ossible to rotect those ;ho are ost vulnerable an ;hose ability toe-en their interests an to asseble incontrovertible evience is liite* 8- ob@ective in-orationsuests that serious an irreversible aae ay result, a ro@ect shoul be halte or oi-ie, even inthe absence o- inisutable roo-* 6ere the buren o- roo- is e--ectively reverseG:
 /he aturalse Crincile: stiulates that there is no riht to evelo lan so as to chane its natural character: tonon!inienous roerty uses: because a lano;ner is only entitle to reasonable eBectations o- ;hatcan be one to the lan iven the natural character o- the roerty an nature=s la;s*:
 Conclusions an% Recommen%ations
/he riht o- -uture enerations to en@oy ecoloical ublic trust assets ust not be iaire by thoselivin toay* Coe Francis ;arns, Noun eole ean chane* /hey ;oner ho; anyone can claito be builin a better -uture ;ithout thin?in o- the environental crisis an the su--erins o- theeBclue*: /he 6uan ihts .oittee ust as? ;hether a huan ecosyste crisis, a eorahic;inter ;ith luetin oulation ecline, has alreay been set in otion that threatens the
8
 See Kary /urnisee, et al*, /he Cublic /rust +octrine an io L 20: (2012) turnisee'nceas*useas*ucsb*eu*
9
 See
 
<oretta Feris, /he Cublic /rust +octrine an <iability -or 6istoric Water Collution in South #-rica,: "1
 La%, )nvironment and Development *ournal 
 (2012) ;;;*lea!@ournal*or"content"2001*-  (last accesse 9"3"2015) notin that .66 ters are inclue in several ultilateral treaties incluin the
Convention Concerning the +rotection of the orld Cultural and -atural Heritage
, Caris, 1& ov* 1972, 1037 /S 151, the
 greement "overning the ctivities of States on the !oon and .ther Celestial 'odies
, e; Nor?, 5 +ec* 1979, 13&3 /S 3, art 5,7, 11, the
 ntarctic /reaty
, Washinton, 1 +ec* 1959, 402 /S 71, reable, the
 +rotocol on )nvironmental +rotections to the rtic /reaty
, Kari, 4 Oct* 1991, 308<K 1455 (1991), an the
U- La% of the Sea Convention
, Konteo ay, 10 +ec 192, 133 /S 3)*
10
 Kichael .* lu an Kary .* Woo,
/eacher’s !anual, /he +u#lic /rust Doctrine0 In )nvironmental and  -atural Resource La%
(2014), &)*
11
 8 at 70*
12
 
 Laudato Si
 D1&*
13
 lu an Woo,
/eacher’s !anual 
, 55, 50*
3
576648e32a3d8b82ca71961b7a986505