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Plasticity Questions

Note: Each question carries 25 marks.

1. State if the following statement is true or false. Please also give a one
or two line justification in support of your statement
i. Plastic deformation is a volume preserving deformation.
ii. Crystal plasticity does not require determination of active slip
iii. A sheet of metal can be only cut by scissors.
iv. Masonry failure surface is a smooth surface.
v. In concrete the cohesion, friction angle and dilation angle are
important to predict failure.
vi. Rankine criteria are restricted only to brittle materials.
vii.Non associative flow rule is required for modeling plastic behavior
of masonry
viii. Pucks theory of anisotropic yield is better than Hashins failure
ix. In concrete damage plasticity, during hardening, upon unloading
from a subsequent yield point the slope of the unloading curve is
parallel to the initial straight line portion of the curve.
x. In crystal plasticity theories there is inherent multiplicity of slip
systems in ductile crystals, therefore selected slip systems are not
xi. Non smooth yield surface are encountered in modeling failure
behavior of steel.
xii.Classical return mapping algorithm does not require an iterative
computation of plastic multiplier
xiii. The consistency condition cannot be used to find the magnitude
of plastic multiplier
xiv. For a perfectly plastic material, during plastic process the slip
rate is equal to the total strain rate
xv., Drucker-Prager yield surface is an upper bound yield surface to
the Mohr coulomb yield surface.
xvi. Maximum plastic dissipation does not imply convexity of the
elastic range.

xvii. The normality condition gives information about the sign of the
plastic strain increment.
xviii. Kinematic hardening contradicts the bauchingers effect.
xix. During a plastic process neutral loading is a characteristic of a
perfectly plastic material.
xx. Normality condition remains the same irrespective of whether the
plasticity formulation is a strain driven or stress driven process.
xxi. For strain softening type of materials the bifurcation
encountered after peak requires regularization of strains for
satisfying stability criteria
2. a. Write the basic governing equations for one-dimensional classical
rate-independent Plasticity for a combined Isotropic/Kinematic
hardening case. (PG.32)
b. Write the Return-Mapping Algorithm for the above case PG.58
c. Derive the tangent modulus for this case. (PG.31,32)
3. Write the incremental stress-strain relations and derive the
expression for elasto-plastic constitutive matrix (ET) for a one
dimensional bar subjected to axial force at its free end.
4. A bar with two fixed ends is subjected to an axial force P at the point
with the left-end distance equal to a and the right- end distance equal
to b and a<b, as shown in the figure-1. The bar is made of an elasticperfectly plastic material with yield stress y. The axial force P is first
increased from zero until plastic flow occurs in the entire bar, and
then is unloaded to zero, followed by a reloading in the reverse
a. Determine the elastic and plastic limit loads Pe and Pp during the
b. Determine the residual stress and plastic strain in the bar when the
axial load P is unloaded to zero.
c. Determine the plastic limit load Pp during the reverse loading.
d. Sketch the P vs. u curve for the complete load-reversed load cycle
for the case b = 2a, where u is the axial displacement of the bar at
the load point.

5. Derive the expression of the scalar factor d for a general elasticperfectly plastic material using the associated flow rule, such that

Where f = f(ij) is the yield function. Assuming the elastic behavior of

the material is linear and isotropic, express the scalar factor d in
terms of the two elastic constants K and G.
6. The - response in a simple tension test for an elastic-linear
hardening plastic material is approximated by the following

= 0 +m , 0
E , < 0

where, 0 is the initial tensile yield stress. A material sample is first

stretched to a state at which the accumulated plastic strain p = p0
and is subsequently unloaded and reversely loaded to a compression
state at which the accumulated plastic strain p = 0. According to
a. Isotropic hardening rule
b. Kinematic hardening rule
c. Independent hardening rule
Determine the current tensile and compression yield strengths of the
material at this stress state.

7. List and explain analytically and pictorially the restrictions imposed by

Druckers material stability postulate and their implications for an
elastic material.
8. A metal yields at a state of plane stress with x = 80 MPa, y = 40
MPa and xy = 80 MPa. Assume isotropy, independence of hydrostatic
pressure, and equality of properties in tension and compression.
a. Find all other biaxial states of stress at yield in ( 1,2) space.
b. Plot the results in part (a) in (1,2) space and estimate the yield
In axial tension
In simple shear
c. Determine the yield stresses in (b), based on
The Von Mises criterion
The Tresca criterion
9. Write the radial return-mapping algorithm for J2 plasticity and
Isotropic/Kinematic hardening case.
The components of the stress tensor at a point under the
working load condition is given by:
11 = 25 MPa, 22 = 100 MPa, 33 = -50 MPa, 12 = 50 MPa and
13, 23 = 0
The yield stress of the material is 250 MPa. Based on (a) the Tresca
criterion and (b) the Von Mises criterion, calculate the factor of safety
of the stress state against failure under the following conditions:
(i) If all stresses are increased proportionally to reach the yield
(ii) If only the normal stress x is increased to a critical failure value at
the yield surface.