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Management and Organization Behaviour

What Is Withdrawal Behaviour? Explain The Factors Influencing

With Withdrawal Behaviour?

Prepared by: Suad Ibrahim Jama

Id: 62362114025

Definition of Withdrawal Behaviour and the Factors That Influencing the

Withdrawal Behaviour
Organizations attempt to do a research how to change for better the productivity and
satisfaction of their employees, however for several times employees themselves withdrawal
from their work for many of reasons.
The most well-known type of work discharge is shown in withdrawal behaviour, which
noticeable in the working environment as work absenteeism, worker turnover, delay/lateness,
and burnout.
Engaging in non-work related conversations, neglecting job tasks, and taking longer breaks
than deserved. When employees work in teams or work groups, withdrawal behaviours can
be infectious.
Each of these forms shows an uncommon challenge to both employee and employers to give
balance to both the deputy and the supervisors. Unlike to major portions of the points
contained inside the Work of mind and Inspiration Wiki, the point of withdrawal practices is
not about looking at changes to one's workplace or motivation.
Job withdrawal refers to behaviour individuals show to avoid aspects of their specific workrole or minimize the time spent on their specific work tasks while maintaining their current
organizational and work role.
The reasons behind withdrawal behaviours may be related to job dissatisfaction, job
involvement, and organizational commitment.
Withdrawal behaviours are the actions a person takes when they become physically and/or
psychologically disengaged from the organization. Some commonly noted withdrawal
behaviours are physical such as: absenteeism, lateness/tardiness, and turnover. There are also
psychological withdrawal behaviours.
These include passive compliance, minimal effort on the job, and lack of creativity.
Psychological withdrawals often take the form of laziness or lack of intense thinking on the
job. Work withdrawal behaviours are costly to organizations.
When the group engages in high levels of withdrawal behaviours, the withdrawal behaviours
of one individual can go unnoticed. Because of the costs associated with withdrawal
behaviour and the increase in organizational use of teams and work groups, it is important for

employees to understand the potential for negative influence of the group on individual
members and ways to prevent it.

There is many factors influence withdrawal behaviour and we can classified into two types:

1. Physical Withdrawal Behaviours

2. Psychological Withdrawal Behaviours
Assessing each of these physical and psychological withdrawal behaviour is useful for both
the organization and its employee's.
Organizations advantage from the having knowledge about where they will be demonstrating
capacities that emerge from observing these practices. Organizations can execute approaches,
systems, employment structures, and work societies went for decreasing separation and
withdrawal behaviour.
Workers advantage from the individual mindfulness increased through perceiving that fairly
honest behaviours or activities, can get to be unfavourable to organization and individual
profession development.

Physical Withdrawal Behaviours

Physical withdrawal behaviour consists of actions that provide a physical escape from the
work environment such as:
1. Lateness
Lateness is defined as arriving late for work or early departure from work, it shows a lack
of motivation to arrive at work on time. Excessive tardiness can be a physical sign that an
employee has disengaged from the company. Research, though limited, does suggest that
lateness is a good predictor of the more severe types of withdrawal.
This is particularly true if the person is consistently late because it shows a lack of
motivation to get to work on time

Lateness or tardiness occurs when an employee fails to report to work at the appointed
time. It is important to distinguish between types of lateness in order to identify
withdrawal behaviours.
Identified three specific types of lateness behaviour categorized by pattern, frequency,
and duration, including increasing chronic lateness, stable periodic lateness, and
unavoidable lateness.

Types of Lateness
It is sometimes hard to tell if an employee has a legitimate reason for being late. When
employees are late due to legitimate reasons, they are likely to provide similar reasons for
their lateness as an employee who is leaning towards withdrawing from the company.
Examples of excuses could be heavy traffic, an accident, or transportation issues. Types of
lateness include the following:
Often is difficult to know if a worker has an explanation behind being late. At the point when
employees are late because of true reasons, they are typically attempt to many reason for their
delay as a worker who is inclining towards withdrawing from the organization.
For instance of reasons could be traffic jam, a mishap, or transportation issues. Types of
lateness include the following:

Unavoidable Lateness: Transportation concerns are a primary cause of unavoidable

lateness; however, personal illness and accidents also can create unavoidable lateness.
Stable Periodic Lateness: This type of lateness is due to higher leisure-income trade
off as well as work and family conflict. Employees exhibiting this type of lateness are
not unhappy with their job, they simply have other things they consider more
important than arriving on time all of the time. For example, an employee with high
job satisfaction and young children might experience work-family conflict. He or she

may prioritize his or her children's needs over arriving to work on time.
Increasing Chronic Lateness: Lower job satisfaction, lower job involvement, and
lower organizational commitment can all lead to increased chronic lateness.

Causes of Lateness
Causes of lateness are different than other physical withdrawal behaviours such as
absenteeism or turnover. Other withdrawal behaviours appear to be within the person, while
tardiness is due to more of an environmental factor.
For example, absenteeism occurs when an individual is ill, while lateness may be due to a
tree that fell across the road. People cannot always control the environmental situations that
are around them and therefore if a person is late it may not have been due to their lack
of competency. Lateness can be caused by unforeseen outside factors that a person may have
no control over.
If lateness becomes more of a regular issue, this is a predictor that that person may becoming
unmotivated to come to work each morning. If a person is late multiple times it may be due to
their own faults rather than by factors outside of their control.
Significant negative relationship has been found between job satisfaction and lateness. An
employee experiencing low job satisfaction is more likely to arrive at work late. Reinforcing
the view that work is boring, or repetitive, which will cause disunion to occur and the
employee will be increasingly late to work. The employee then comes to think of their job as
a source of income alone, versus a valued career.
Employees who are never late have higher job satisfaction, stronger organizational
commitment, and higher job involvement. An employee who finds their work stimulating, or
challenging, is less likely to engage in lateness as a withdrawal behaviour.

2. Absenteeism
Absenteeism is exhibited when an employee fails to report to work, typically for an extended
period of time or for an excessive number of days that has not been excused. Examples of
excused absences may include medical appointments and pre-approved vacations.
There are many reasons an employee may be absent from work; the most common, accepted,
and excused reasons are sickness and vacation leave.

These two forms of leave from work are planned absences and are to a degree required by
law to be available to employees. However, absenteeism is when an individual misses an
extended amount of time from work, usually a day or more that is unexcused.
Absenteeism, unplanned and unexcused, generates great focus due to its perceived negative
impact upon organizations, such as the loss of production. Lack of access to modern
technologies, is another cause of wasting time in the organizations.
Absenteeism occurs when employees miss a full working day. Unscheduled absences are
more expensive than planned absences since the organization did not have sufficient time to
find extra worker to cover for his or her co-worker that was unable to come to work.

3. Turnover
Turnover occurs when an employee leaves an organization, and frequently results from both
lateness and absenteeism. Unlike absenteeism, which has been looked at in primarily a
negative light from the organizational perspective, turnover is seen as having both beneficial
and harmful effects on an organization.
Turnover can result in new employees who may be more motivated and eager to help the
company succeed versus long-term employees who may have lost interest and motivation in
the company.
An organization must know how to deal with these turnovers in a positive or negative manner
depending on the impact to the company at that time.
An employer may push the employee to leave the company for a variety of reasons from
layoffs to poor job performance.
Employee turnover can create positive phases for the organization such as creating savings
when a senior employee making top pay leaves and the company hires a less-experienced
employee for less money.
However, not all situations in employee turnover result in a positive impact for the company.
If a company has to spend a lot of money and time in training and for the development of a
new employee to maintain its critical operations, then an employee leaving can create a
negative effect.

One of the positive effects in employee turnover is the fact that it can save the company
money. The high volume of available workers in comparison to the demand of jobs allows
companies to pay low wages without rewarding employees with raises.
High turnover, however, is not an effective company tactic for highly skilled jobs requiring
long-term experience and highly skilled employees.
There are many reasons for turnover, most people select to leave at least one job within their
lifetime for reasons of improving their everyday living such as opportunities for better pay,
higher career satisfaction, mobility caused by marriage and so on. Almost everybody in the
workforce also hopes to leave ones job to retire.
There can also be negative reasons for voluntary turnover; medical issues for an employee or
a family member that needs increased care. Of course, the other aspect for employee turnover
involves the involuntary choice in leaving a job.
A company may release an employee for financial reasons, or worse, if the employee did not
perform to the expected standards of the company.
Most companies want to avoid high employee turnover in order to save money in regards to
recruiting and training, as well as, to maintain full capacity for potential sales and profit.
Therefore, it is important for a company to investigate and understand the reasons an
employee leaves voluntarily.
There are some factors that a company cannot control or reduce turnover from, such as
retirement and medical issues.
However, there are some reasons that companies need to understand with regard to high
voluntary turnover, so that the company can modify practices in reducing employee turnover.
One example comes from job dissatisfaction.

How to reduce the costs that occur with turnover

Retaining employees is also a way to reduce the costs that occur with turnover. The cost of
turnover is quite higher than employers realize. It may be more effective to retain productive
employees than to let them go.

If you take into consideration, the cost of the hiring process, it makes more sense to retain
employees in order to reduce spending and reaffirm organizational commitment amongst the

Psychological withdrawal behaviour

Psychological withdrawal behaviour comes in number of shapes and sizes, including
daydreaming, cyber loafing, and moonlighting. Daydreaming happens when an employee
appears to be working but has a distracted mind and poor attention control over thoughts or
Cyber loafing is the most spread form of psychological withdrawal among employees It is
used to describe the actions of employees who surf the Internet during working hours for
personal use while pretending to do work.
It is considered as a new counter-productive work behaviour. Engaging in moon lightening is
defined as specify their work time and resources to do or complete a work other than their job
duties. Another examples for Psychological withdrawal behaviour
Fatigue is another example for Psychological withdrawal behaviour, is a suffering of the
spirit, which results in damaging, or destroying, no motivation.
On any particular day, an employees enthusiasm for his/her work may increase, or decrease,
but it does not remain the same. People do not usually have an ending amount of enthusiasm
for their work. Jobs are no different and when motivation shrinking, people will burnout.
Symptoms of fatigue usually manifest as depression, dissatisfaction, anxiety, anger, and
frustration. Some people will also experience exhaustion and increased health problems such
as headaches, which require a person to leave work early.
Many people even develop a fear of going to work. Sometimes in severe cases, fatigue can
affect peoples lives outside of work as well, resulting in relationship problems and material

Fatigue is a process that does not occur overnight; it is a process that is progressive. Fatigue
begins with very thin warning signs, and if it is not addressed, will progress into a lasting and
sound sense of panic of going to work.
Fatigue occurs a few differently than some of the other withdrawal behaviours. Fatigue links
more to the overwork then develops over time. However, fatigue does not happens only to
those who are stressed or depressed.
Someone can still like their work, and develop fatigue to decrease the fatigue to the
individuals who experiencing it we can motivate them, cause motivation is the aftereffect of
prizes, flexibility, and feeling that the work is refreshing by those whom we work with most
Being a piece of a gathering or group that creates bunch cohesiveness over the long run,
spent working nearly on critical undertakings can likewise push individuals to work hard and
be motivation to do more.
Motivation can also happens by the objectives and obligations that the organization or top
managers set for a representative and the goals made by the employees.
Sometimes also the lifestyle of the individual can make the fatigue such as working
extremely, without enough time for rest and mingling with family members or friends, being
anticipated that would be an excess of things to an excess of individuals, taking on an excess
of obligations, without enough assistance from others, not sufficiently getting sleep, lack of
close, strong relationship with co-workers.

How to Struggle with Employees who suffering from Fatigue

Adapting to employment fatigue

The best approach to battle work fatigue is to stop doing what you're doing and do something
else something new, whether that implies changing the job or get vocations to take rest and
refresh yourself.
However, id this solutions doesnt work for you, there are still things you can do to enhance
your circumstance, or possibly your perspective.

Actively address issues.

To issues in your work environment, incorporate anxiety at work. You'll feel less defenceless
in the event that you declare yourself and express your needs. On the off chance that you
don't have the power solve problems the employee should talk to their supervisors to seek

Clarify your set of responsibilities.

Approach the manager for a redesigned the job description of each employee's obligations.

Ask for new obligations.

If the employee doing the same duties that he or she has been doing, request that take a stab
at something new: an alternate evaluation level, an alternate deals domain, an alternate
machine, and so on.

Take time off

On the off chance that fatigue appears to be inescapable, enjoy a complete reprieve from
work. Take some time off, utilization up your debilitated days, request a makeshift time away
anything to expel the employees from the circumstance. Utilize the time away to energize
their batteries and take point of view.

Role of Managers

Managers can improve employees job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job
involvement by communicating frequently with employees about their perceptions and needs,
involving them in decision making, and by fostering a challenging and supportive work
environment. These attempts s will also help prevent fatigue.

Organization Rules

Organizations and their human resources departments have programs composed to remedy
absenteeism, lateness, and fatigue. Lot of organizations display paid time off, ill time,
personal leave, and leaves.
In issues of extended illness or family situations, organizations also use the Family Medical
Leave Act, paid medical leave, excused leave of absences, etc. In the case that an employee is
hard delayed or absent, many organizations use reviews, warning letters, and other forms of
Many organizations put policies related to lateness and absenteeism. In order to effectively
battle delay and absenteeism, a company policy should be clear, easy to understand, and
compulsory to all employees and fair.
To securing organization rules on lateness, non-attendance, and fatigue, a few organizations
might likewise send managers to attend a programs to help them prevent, recognize, and
battle these negative practices.
For instance, some institute provide a courses where there is a preparation program for
overseeing non-attendance and lateness, and how to deal with employees who suffering with
The preparation program concentrates on overseeing participation, understanding worker
laws, compelling approach and techniques, keeping away from ill-use, and different issues
encompassing overseeing participation.

How to Reduce of Bad Influence of Workers Withdrawal Behaviour

Because of the high expenses connected with delay, non-appearance, turnover, and burnout
organization must to keep on looking for approaches to minimize withdrawal practices.
Compelling methods for diminishing withdrawal practices can be executed through
organization approach and by growing clear and successful occupation structures inside a
strong workplace.
Work withdrawal behaviours are costly to organizations. When employees work in teams or
work groups, withdrawal behaviours can be infection.
Use of teams and work groups, it is important for employees to understand the potential for
negative influence of the group on individual members and ways to stop it.

Group power

Usually an employee will feel secure interesting in withdrawal behaviours when the work
groups level of such behaviours is high and not scold. The employee is, in essence, given the
opportunity to engage in withdrawal behaviour without being detected or punished.
An employee may also face the groups criticism for not conforming to the norm of engaging
in withdrawal behaviours.
Although the individual is liable to the influence of the group and may gather benefits for
conforming to the group, some individuals are able to protest engaging in the formed
withdrawal behaviours.
This is likely due to the individuals perceived organizational support and feeling of
commitment to return the appropriate dealing received from the organization.

Returning the Useful

Perceived organizational support is when an employee believes he or she is receiving proper

treatment from the organization.
Often times when an employee is high in perceived organizational support, he or she will feel
obligated to return this suitable treatment to the organization. This relationship is referred to
as a positive exchange relationship. Engaging in this relationship do in three functions for the

Employee protects a positive self-image.


Employee hides offend the established norm of exchange with the organization.


Employee stick to the benefit from the positive treatment of the organization.

When an employee has a positive exchange relationship with the organization, these
functions will overtop the benefits of suitable to the standards of the work group engaging in
high levels of withdrawal behaviours. Enhance Perceived Organizational Support.

Useful Theories in Reducing Withdrawal Behaviours

There are a few theories related to withdrawal behaviours experienced in a work setting.
When withdrawal behaviours are looked at within a theoretical framework, many logical
explanations, as well as practical solutions may be drawn.
It would be helpful for companies to utilize and apply the aspects of some
Industrial/Organizational theories to aid in success and satisfaction of their employees. Three
related theories are Job Design Theory, Reinforcement Theory and Self-Efficacy theory.
Job Design Theory touches base with the element of high turnover rates within a company
that are associated with employee withdrawal behaviours. According to Job Design Theory,
people are motivated to perform their jobs if they feel that their job is a good fit (PSU WC
L.10, 2014, p.3).
Thus, if a job is not a good fit with an employee, then chances are that the employee will find
a new, better fitting job. This theory emphasizes the importance of job content, or providing
workers with meaningful, challenging, and interesting work (PSU WC L.10, 2014, p.3).
Companies may benefit from increasing the skills variety in the jobs their employees work,
where workers are able to use a variety of skills, preventing dissatisfaction, burnout and other
withdrawal behaviours.
Increasing skills variety can also decrease the demands placed upon employees and
turns perceived demands into shared aspects of the job, giving each employee rotation and
Reinforcement Theory can be used to predict such withdrawal behaviours as lateness and
absenteeism. This theory predicts that employees behaviour in the workplace is reinforced,
positively or negatively, by that employees desired rewards.
Schechter (2009) suggest that reward systems should be financial and nonfinancial. Rewards
must meet employees' needs, reinforce metrics, and align the company's goals with the work
people are doing.
If a company wishes to decrease absenteeism and lateness behaviours exhibited by
its employees, then according to Reinforcement Theory, the company should reinforce the
desired behaviours. That is, set rewards for being present and on-time or punishments for not
doing so. Doing so will motivate employees to behave accordingly.

Self-Efficacy Theory could be of use to employees who receive poor feedback and who
doubt their ability to perform a job. Self Efficacy Theory refers to beliefs about the likelihood
of successfully completing a task or goal (PSU WC L.7, 2014, p.4).
Self-efficacy relies on confidence in performance abilities, and if a company lacks positive
feedback or performance evaluations for its employees, they will exhibit withdrawal
behaviour related to their perceived job efficacy.
Research has shown that verbal persuasion can lead to increased self-efficacy and increased
performance (Eden and Zuk, 1995). Companies would benefit by utilizing these findings to
increase employee






them to



problems concerning withdrawal behaviours.

Useful Organizational Models for Reducing Withdrawal Behaviours

Work Life balance

Organizations can play an important part in how employees can deal with work related
stress, including work-life balance programs.
Research by Kenexa Research Institute in 2007 shows employees having a greater job
satisfaction because of their organization's efforts to support work-life balancing programs
(Herman, 2007).
There are several different actions and plans that have confirmed effective:

Flexible Scheduling

A change working schedule that let employees the flexibility to select when they work. This
strategy usually come around a core or compulsory hours.

Performance-Based Salary Strategies

A sets of specific strategies prepared to motivate employees through employee ownership

within the program. These incentives include; competency pay, variable performance-based
compensation, gain sharing, and team-based incentives.


A work management where employees do not move to a central location for work. A
telecommute or Telework uses mobile communications technology to work from remote
locations; including home.

Job Sharing

An arrangement where two people are retained to perform a job normally filled by one
person. This strategy is more difficult toward the organization due to the "handoff" or
"handover" between the employees must be completely thorough
Withdrawal behaviours can affect one or more employees in an organization. Negative
behaviour can become contagious and organizations need to find ways in which to keep
employees positive and not engage in this negative conduct.
Incorporating a positive exchange relationship at the workplace can great increase employee
satisfaction to reduce the negative influence of work groups high in withdrawal behaviours
one should not only reprimand negative behaviours to prevent their contagion but work to
enhance employees perceived organizational support by:

Admitting positive organizational actions (e.g., giving a gif, certificate or

formal recognition to an employee who stayed late to help a co-worker complete a


Conduct rules and treat all employees fairly.

Display care for employees comfort at the workplace.

Providing suitable rewards to employees.

Improving job terms and conditions.

Due to the high costs associated with lateness, absenteeism, turnover, and burnout
organizations should continue to seek ways to minimize withdrawal behaviours.

Effective techniques for reducing withdrawal behaviours can be implemented through

company policy and by developing clear and effective job structures within a supportive
work environment.

Low job satisfaction is a major reason of employee withdrawal behaviours. Employees
withdraw from work in phases. First, employees arrive late.
They move back then by not showing up for work such as calling the human resource and
said they are sick. The last stage of employee withdrawal is turnover. Employees withdraw
because they cant stand either their managers or co-workers, the job itself boring, the wages
are poor and the chance for promotion even worse.
Employee withdrawal swipes both the top line and the bottom line of the organization.
Employees who always are late or absent from their work cause large discomfort to the
production and customer service which lead to loss the loyalty of the customers to the
Lateness and absenteeism causes severe stress for employees and managers that have to
struggle to fill the holes. New employees moving up the learning curve are much less likely
to meet the customers expectations than an experienced employee.
Recruiting, interviewing, orienting, and training new employees is expensive. Loss of
profitability to industry as a result of withdrawal behaviour.
If the employees are showing up late for work and your turnover rate is high, this calling
withdrawal behaviour which lead to low job satisfaction which is one of the main reasons.

Dissatisfied employees are less committed, they are poor organizing, and they are often
unavailable to perform. The managers should know about the importance of job satisfactions,
so they can avoid withdrawal behaviour.