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Roman Empire- Ideas from greek, Roman concrete, First construction

handbook(Marcus Pollio) Middle Ages- Attack on rome led to them, dark ages in
Europe, middle east and N.Africa improved ancient greeks work, building and tech,
education and training major focus (specific careers ie. Stone mason) RenaissanceLiteracy improved, building, science, architecture, architect is born Industrial
Revolution- Machines making machines, started in England B4 US, Art=Archatecture
Science=Engineering Craft=Building, used cast iron Skyscraper- Steel & electricity,
glass mass produced, Otis invented elevator, conserve land by going vertical. 20th
Century- Building complexity(enviormental, energy conservation, codes, safety),
engineers replaced by CMs Now- Tehcnology effects every aspect of construction,
green, sustainable construction Residental Construction- Housing for society,
largest sector, private funded, basic materials and methods used Commercial Const.Commerce,trade,government needs, banks, institutional=schools,hospitals,prisons,
private or public funded, costs small $10mil/yr,large $250mil/year, high tech
methods Heavy Const.- Infrastructure and transportation(roads,highways) designed by
civil engineers, High $ projects, materials for roads, heavy equipment investment means
and methods (dump truck), Publicly $ Industrial Construction-Basic exterior,
important interior (plants,steel mills), materials same as commercial, high level
engineers lead means and methods Types of Contractors- Owners(Hire deisgn and
construction team, Private-Person Public-Government) Designer(Responsible for design,
ie. Architect) Contractors(GC or Prime contractor) Sub Contractors(Hired by GC,
specialty ie.plumbing, roofing) Residential Construction-Owner Building w/
permits Sub Contractors Sub-Sub-Contractors Other Construction- Owner
CM Architect w/ permits & engineers GC Sub cont. Sub-Sub-Contr.
Plans-Working drawings showing a project graphically, Types- Civil(streets,geo,
curb,gutters) Architectual(size,shape,apperience) Structural(structural,columns,beams)
Mechanical(piping,duct work,control systems) Plumbing(piping,drain/waste)
Electrical(wiring) Specs.- Project manual, define quality of work, Contract Types- Lump
Sum(Preform work for a fixed $) Unit Price(Constructor gives $ amount for small job or
item) Cost-Plus Fee(contractor recives reimbursement for labor and material + fee for
profit) Construction Specification Institute (CSI)- Universal system for identifying
various portions of a construction project. Old: 01-16 New: 00-48 Condo- form of
ownership, apartment owned & corridors,lobby ect. Jointly owned Property TypesResidential: Single or multi family 1 townhouses or apartments Non-Residentialoffice,retail,recreation,heavy construction Non-Residential Construction- Energy
costs driving up renovation, growth in hotels, post disaster rebuilding. Growing in the
West, South, SouthEast, decreasing in NorthEast and Midwest. Transport costs b/c
energy costs Determing Factors for Rent- Age, Location, Quality, Availability of
other apartments in surrounding area Leasing- Between lessor (owner) and lessee
(leaser), gives lessee rights, duties, & responsibilities More cost effective, flexable, little
expenditure rather than Buying. Anchor Tennant- Someone who owns large
apartment and attracts others to complex, often has say in who is allowed ect.
Construction Management- Planning, scheduling, evaluation, & control of
construction CM-Take plans+land cordinate materials,manpower,equipment
Occupations-Engineer (Field,Office,Project) Functions- Estimating(calculations of cost)
Project, Sheduling(Planning what needs to be done 1st, then introduces real time)
Managing(manages on-site activities) Evaluation, Monitoring(control performance with
time and cost factors, ensure quality and safety) Administiring
Contract(reports,payroll,inspection records) Liability- liable for errors, violations of specs
ect.----- CM&Owner Architect w/permits &engineers GC&CM (bids complete job)
sub contractor Design,Bid,Build- Design(specs and plans) Bid(lowest wins)
Building(Begin construction) Design,Build- Design Build, one contract, responsible
for design and construction Agency CM- Acts on owners behalf, CM no financial

responsibility and does no work At Risk CM- Consultant of owner, acts as GC during
building phase, ensures built at Guarenteed Maximum Price (GMP) Competitive
bidding- Reduces risk of fraud, favoritism, under influence, Public- Use tax $, roads &
schools, open bid, need Surety Bonds- 1. Bid: assures low bidder will do project, protects
owner from higher price, will pay next lowest bidder to execute contract 2. Performanceprotects owner from financial loss due to poor performance of bidder 3. PaymentContract will pay specific laborers, materials, suppliers ect. Private- private $, retail and
private offices, closed bid, need invite usually
Competition Criteria
Project

Type
----------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Design,Bid,Build
Agency
At Risk
Design,Build
Criteria

$ Only

Qualifications Only

$ & Qualifications

$&

Qualifications

Review Plans Estimate Create Bid Submit Bid


Bid Preperation- Plans
Open Bid Announce Low Bid Award Contract Give notice Begin
construction Estimator- Determine cost of project, while maintaining competitive edge
Construction Estimate- Direct Costs: Materials, Labor, Equipment, Sub Contractors
Indirect Costs: Taxes(workers premiums, health insurance, social security tax)
Overhead( telephone,office rent, computers, insurance, repairs, cars, gas) Profit(Net salesAll Costs=Profit) Types of Estimates- 1. Ball Park 2. Preliminary 3. Detailed Liquidated
Damages- Compensation for a loss, determent, or injury, predetermined sum must be
paid if party fails to preform as promised. Bid Process Review Question List Pre
Bid meeting & Site visit Bid strategy Estimate summery Add-ons Senior
level review BID
Foundation Stage-Site Survey, Leveling, Form Foundation, Underground Utilities installed,
Sewer or septic lines installed, vapor barrier installed, municipal inspection, foundation
poured Framing Stage-Frame all walls and trusses, install roof sheathing, municipal
framing inspection Roofing Stage- Install exterior sheathing, install shingles/roofing
system, install all windows, install exterior doors Pre-Sheetrock Stage- Begin
installation of exterior finish, rough-in plumbing, rough-in mechanical systems, rough-in
wiring and electrical, install HVAC and plumbing system, install water heater, municipal
inspections for mechanical, plumbing, and electrical Sheetorkc (Drywall) StageInstall wall insulation, install sheetrock, install tape and texture, apply wall and ceiling
texture, sheetrock nail/screw inspection Interior Trim Stage- Install all interior doors,
install interior moldings and trim, install staircase balusters and railings Painting,
Cabinets, Countertop Stage- Paint installation, all cabinets installed, all countertops
installed, all wall tile installed, install all mirrors and showers. Flooring Stage- Finish
electrical, plumbing, mechanical, HVAC, install all flooring, appliances installed, install flat
work(driveway) final inspections, Municipal Certificate of Occupancy issued Quality
Assurance Stage- Final municipal inspection, builders quality assurance inspection, punch
list development, exterior landscaping completed, final cleaning, final buyers walk-through
Buyer Acceptance Stage- Home buyers inspection, complete punch list items, final
buyers walk-through, Plan vs. Actual discussion, new home orientation
Typical Building Inspections- 1. Rough underground 2, Rough Indoor 3. Final

Building Construction in A Nutshell- 1. Owners Concept Stage- Home: characteristics


of lot, look and feel, number of bed, bath, other rooms, number of levels, proximity to school,
layout function Retail: Characteristics of lot, look and feel, type of business space required,

frontage requirements, handicapper accessibility 2. Design Stage- Commences with


input from owners concept, steps to design process, 1. Programming and feasibility: Clarifies
owner and/or end user needs everything in owners concept stage, roughly estimates if
budget is realistic 2. Schematic Design: Schematic design first step, consists of general
spaces and adjancencies, orientation, circulation patters, design team begins to think about
materials and product specs 3.Design Development: Detail work takes place, value
engineering may take place 4.Contract Document Preparation: Drawings are finalized into
working drawings for contractor to start building, specs also finalized, bidding takes place
when documents have been completed, Specs Codes(building, fire, electrical, mechanical,
ect) 3. Pre-Construction Stage- After winning the bid, CM is selected, they receive
plans and specs, assemble team, cost control systems are put into place 4.
Procurement Stage- Purchasing the labor, materials, and equipment needed for the project
completion. Subcontracts: contracts executed between the contractor and subcontractor,
Purchasing Orders- A contract between a vendor and customer 5. Construction
Stage- Project manager calls pre-construction meeting and invites subcontractors and
vendors, establishes ground rules(work sequencing, material storage, work hours, quality
control, sit access, ect) begins building working relationships among all parties, stuff gets
built with materials and labor obtained at the procurement stage 6. PostConstruction- Clean up, project punchout, substantial completion, final inspection,
certificate of occupancy, commissioning, final documentation, final completion 7.
Owner Occupancy- After Move-in: Warranty period(Express: in contract, Implied Warranty:
often manufatures warranty) Project Evaluation: Owner, prime contractor, subcontractors,
and vendors