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The expansion of renewable energies and the deregulations of the energy market are increasing the demand of regulating power. In absence of hydropower, thermal power is often
used for this purpose instead. This thesis focuses on the Vattenfall owned power plant Jänschwalde located in Germany. The goal is to optimize the start-up procedure, so that the start-up time is reduced without causing too much thermal stress on the important thickwalled components in the boiler. By reducing the start-up time, the plant can become more profitable, flexible and better suited to regulate the electricity market.

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plants

EVA ANDERSSON

Stockholm, Sweden June 2013

XR-EE-RT 2013:010

Abstract

The expansion of renewable energies and the deregulations of the energy market are increasing the demand of regulating power. In absence of hydropower, thermal power is often

used for this purpose instead. This thesis focuses on the Vattenfall owned power plant Jnschwalde located in Germany. The goal is to optimize the start-up procedure, so that the

start-up time is reduced without causing too much thermal stress on the important thickwalled components in the boiler. By reducing the start-up time, the plant can become more

protable, exible and better suited to regulate the electricity market.

A start-up model was built in Dymola and validated against measurement data and a simulation model of Jnschwalde, which is too complex to use for optimization purposes. The

JModelica.org platform was used for the optimization part of the project. It was possible

to nd optimal solutions for the start-up process of the Jnschwalde power plant, but the

convergence of the optimization algorithm was very dependent on the optimization options

used and the scaling of the plant model. Further work includes development of the components used in the start-up model, rening the discretization and scaling for the optimization

problem.

Contents

1

Introduction

1.1

1.2

5

5

Background

2.1

2.2

4.3

Power Plant . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.1 Overview . . . . . . .

2.1.2 The Steam Cycle . . .

2.1.3 Start-up Procedure . .

Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.1 Balance Equations . .

2.2.2 Stress Calculation . .

2.2.3 Optimization Problem

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Components . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2.1 Connector . . . . . . . .

4.2.2 Boundary conditions . .

4.2.3 Combustor . . . . . . .

4.2.4 Heat exchanger . . . . .

4.2.5 Header and Separator .

4.2.6 Turbine . . . . . . . . .

Model used for optimization . .

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Modelica . . .

Dymola . . .

Optimica . .

JModelica . .

Media Models

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7

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19

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Modelling

4.1

4.2

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

4

Aim of Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Structure of thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

19

19

19

21

23

23

26

26

26

27

29

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30

30

Validation

33

5.1

5.2

33

34

Superheater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Start-up model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Optimization

38

6.1

6.2

6.3

38

38

39

Problem specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Optimization options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Results

40

46

8.1

8.2

46

47

Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Description of components

51

List of Figures

1

2

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

water in the heat exchangers. The hot steam is used to drive a steam turbine,

which generates electricity to the power grid [Ignou,2013]. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Carnot Cycle presented in an temperature-entropy (T-S) diagram. The heat

QIN is added to the system and QLOSS is lost to a cooling medium. The heat

engine operates between TH and TL (with TH > TL ) and the total eciency is

given by (1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Rankine Cycle presented in an temperature-entropy (T-S) diagram. Heat

QIN is added to the system in several steps of the steam cycle and QLOSS is lost

when the steam is condensed. The steam is reheated to improve the eciency of

the plant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Measurement data of a hot start-up. The two upper subplots shows the temperature and pressure for live steam and reheated steam. In the middle, the generator

and ring power is presented next to the live steam mass ow rate. The two lower

subplots shows revolutions per minute (RPM) for the turbine and the opening

level of the high-pressure and low-pressure bypass valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Model of a heat exchanger, where heat is transferred from ue gas to steam

through a wall segment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A cross-sectional illustration of a header. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Life-time in terms of load cycles N of components related to stress amplitude ,

at T = 100 C and T = 550 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

An element ne in the interval [ti , ti+1 ],containing three Radau points q1 , q2 and q3 .

An overview of the complex model of Jnschwalde, owned by Vattenfall. The

complete steam cycle is included in the model. The water is heated, used to drive

the turbine, reheated and nally condensed and cooled. The total number of

equations and unknowns is 16,927. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The superheater section is one subcomponent from the model shown in Figure

9. The gure shows four superheaters (SH) and three reheaters (RH) from the

complex model of the Jnschwalde power plant. The circles represent connectors

for ue gas (green), water (blue) and coal (brown), and are used to link the

component to other submodels or boundary conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The furnace section in Figure 9, which contains the combustion process and the

evaporator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The ECO & SH1 section from Figure 9, which shows the economizer and one

superheater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The gure shows how well the process models P1, P1D, P0 and P0D, generated

in the System Identication Toolbox in

, ts the reference data. . . . .

Model used for start-up optimization. The heat exchangers modelled are the

superheaters (SH), reheaters (RH) and the evaporator (Evap). Other components

include wall and volume components to calculate stress levels in headers and

separators and components to represent boundary conditions. The model has one

input du connected to the integrator component which describes how the load

is changed du

dt . There are three outputs to the right for live steam temperature,

header stress and separator stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Temperatures of in- and outowing water, for the complex superheater and the

start-up superheater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Matlab

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Temperatures of in- and outowing ue gas, for the complex superheater and the

start-up superheater. The temperature curves for inowing ue gas are equal for

both superheaters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Comparison between reference data, complex simulation model and start-up model

at steady-state with full load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Comparison of the complex simulation model of Jnschwalde (dotted lines) and

measurement data (solid lines) from the actual plant, when the system was

ramped from 100 % load to 60 % and back again to 100 % load. . . . . . . . . . .

Simulation of the start-up model when the system was ramped from 100 % load

to 60 % and back again to 100 % load. The start-up model is not aected by

disturbances, compared to the systems shown in Figure 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Plot of coal ow u and the control signal du

dt , with blocking factors [1, 1, 2, 6]. . .

Initial optimization with blocking factors [1,1,2,6]. The weight parameters in (20)

are chosen as = 0.01, = 0.01. The steady-state value Tref is reached for the

live steam exiting the last superheater SH4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Initial optimization with blocking factors [1,1,2,6]. The weight parameters in (20)

are chosen as = 0.0004, = 0.01. The steady-state value for Tref is not reached

during 2000 seconds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Initial optimization with blocking factors [1,1,2,6]. The weight parameters in (20)

are chosen as = 0.0025, = 0.01. The nal value of the steam temperature in

SH4 is 1040 K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Optimization with uniformly distributed blocking factors [2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] and

ne = 16. The stress amplitude is approximately 135 MPa. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Optimization with a high blocking factor at the end of the interval [2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 6]

and ne = 16. The stress amplitude is approximately 210 MPa. . . . . . . . . . .

Optimization with blocking factors [1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 5] and ne = 10. The stress amplitude is approximately 200 MPa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Optimization with blocking factors [5, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1] and ne = 10. The stress amplitude is approximately 125 MPa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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List of Tables

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2

3

4

5

6

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8

Optimization options for JMUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Optimization options for the IPOPT solver . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Process models used in the System Identication Toolbox . . . . .

Steam temperatures out of each heat exchanger component at a

simulation with full load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Specication of values used for Tref and constraints. . . . . . . . .

Summary of parameter values used for dierent problem set-ups. .

Summary of blocking factors used for dierent problem set-ups. .

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steady-state

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Introduction

Recent development in the electricity market has started and will continue to change how power

plants are operated. The increase in renewable energies is increasing the demand of regulating

power needed, to balance production and consumption of electricity, so that the frequency of the

electricity grid is kept constant. In addition to this, the deregulations of the electricity markets

makes it possible for the consumers to also produce electricity. The Swedish market has access

to hydropower, which is a very good regulating power since it can be switched on and o almost

instantly. In other countries it is common the use thermal power plants instead. Besides having

a large environmental impact, thermal power plants require a longer start-up time.

This thesis will focus on the start-up procedure of the German power plant Jnschwalde, owned

by Vattenfall. The goal is to nd a model that describes the behaviour of the power plant

suciently well and can be used for optimization. By formulating the start-up procedure as

an optimization problem, one can also take into account economical and environmental factors,

for example by reducing the fuel consumption during the start-up. During start-ups there are

certain components, that can be exposed to heavy thermal stress. Too much thermal stress, will

shorten the components life-time and therefore constraints on stress levels are needed.

Several studies on start-up optimization have been done in the past, but most of them consider

Combined Cycle Power Plants, for example [Lind & Sllberg, 2012], [Casella et al.,2011] and

[Casella, Donida & kesson, 2011]. The Combined Cycle Power Plants consists of both a gas

turbine and a steam turbine, and are run with gas. The model derived in this thesis will be

dierent from previous work, mainly because Jnschwalde is run with brown coal, which introduces delays in the overall system. Another dierence is that Jnschwalde only has turbines that

are driven by steam. A very detailed model of Jnschwalde is under development at Vattenfall.

However, the high complexity of it makes it unsuitable for optimization purposes. There exists

some studies on coal-red boilers, including for example [Franke, Rode & Krger, 2003]. The

models and optimization methods from those studies are unfortunately not public.

The aim of the thesis is mainly to develop a dynamic model of Jnschwalde, that can be used

for optimization purposes. Another goal is to try out the optimization techniques within the

JModelica.org platform [JModelica.org,2013], to see if they can be applied to a dynamic model

of a coal-red power plant. The nal goal is to use dierent optimization options and try to nd

optimal solutions for the start-up problem.

Since the actual power plant is very complex, there are many simplications that must be done

in order to model it. The model developed within this thesis only contains the most important

components relevant for the start-up, which are located in the boiler.

In Chapter 2 a brief introduction to coal-red power plants is given. The mathematical equations

that are used for the modelling are explained and derived. It is also shown how the dynamic

optimization problem can be transferred to a non-linear programming problem, which can be

solved by the chosen optimization algorithm.

The relevant programs and how they are used are briey explained in the Chapter 3. The chapter also includes examples on how the JModelica.org platform is used for optimization.

In the beginning of Chapter 4 the complex simulation model of Jnschwalde, owned by Vattenfall, is described. The components used in the start-up model are explained and the most

important code is included. The start-up model is compared to the complex model and measurement data from the real plant in Chapter 5.

Chapter 6 includes the optimization set-ups used and the outcomes are presented in Chapter

7. Finally, the model and the optimization outcomes are evaluated in Chapter 8. Further

improvements and sources of error are also discussed.

Background

This chapter is divided into two parts. First an introduction to coal-red power plant is given,

where the steam cycle and the start-up procedure are presented. The second part describes the

mathematical theories, that are needed to understand the dynamic model and the optimization

techniques used.

The subject of study is the power plant Jnschwalde, which is owned by Vattenfall[Vattenfall,2012].

It is the largest lignite power plant in Germany, consisting of 6 blocks with 500 MW installed

capacity each [Saarinen, Boman & Funkquist, 2011]. The power plant started operating in 1981

and has an electrical eciency of 36 %.

2.1.1

Overview

A basic illustration of a simple coal-red power plant is shown in Figure 1. The coal is burnt in

the furnace to produce ue gas and ash. The heat from the ue gas is used to warm the feedwater and convert it to steam in the boiler. The feedwater goes through dierent types of heat

exchangers, including the economizer, the evaporator and several superheaters. The superheated

steam is then expanded in the steam turbine. The turbine is connected to a generator, which is

used to generate electricity to the power grid. Finally the steam is condensed and cooled down,

before it re-enters the boiler [Ignou,2013].

Since the power plant at Jnschwalde is much more complicated than this example, a more

detailed description of the steam cycle will be given in Section 2.1.2. In this thesis the main

focus will be on the boiler, because it contains the components that are exposed to the highest

levels of stress.

Figure 1: Illustration of a coal-red power plant. Coal is burnt in the furnace to heat up water in the

heat exchangers. The hot steam is used to drive a steam turbine, which generates electricity to the power

grid [Ignou,2013].

2.1.2

The eciency of the power plant can be evaluated by looking at the Rankine cycle, which is a

modication of the Carnot cycle. The Carnot cycle is an ideal process, where all processes are

reversible and no heat is lost to the surrounding environment [Alvarez, 2006]. It is a theoretical

model, which maximizes the eciency of a heat engine. The Carnot cycle consists of four

thermodynamic steps, which are shown in a temperature-entropy diagram in Figure 2. In this

example the heat engine is working in the two-phase region, meaning that the water exists in

both liquid and vaporized states at the same time.

Figure 2: The Carnot Cycle presented in an temperature-entropy (T-S) diagram. The heat QIN is added

to the system and QLOSS is lost to a cooling medium. The heat engine operates between TH and TL

(with TH > TL ) and the total eciency is given by (1).

Carnot cycle

2 3: The next step consists of an adiabatic expansion of the gas, in which no heat is lost

to the surrounding environment. The temperature decreases to TL and the entropy is constant

since no heat is added to or subtracted from the system.

3 4: The medium is compressed at the constant temperature TL and the heat QLOSS is

transferred to a cooling medium.

4 1: Finally the medium is adiabatically compressed, until the temperature TH is achieved

and the cycle is complete.

The Carnot eciency of the heat engine is given by the work done by the system W , divided

by the heat added to the system QIN :

W

QIN QLOSS

QLOSS

TL

=

=1

=1

.

QIN

QIN

QIN

TH

(1)

Equation (1) shows that it is desirable to have a large dierence between TL and TH , to get a

high Carnot eciency.

A coal-red power plant is better described by the Rankine cycle with reheat [Ignou,2013]. A

Rankine cycle that operates in the one- and two-phase region, is shown in Figure 3.

8

Figure 3: The Rankine Cycle presented in an temperature-entropy (T-S) diagram. Heat QIN is added

to the system in several steps of the steam cycle and QLOSS is lost when the steam is condensed. The

steam is reheated to improve the eciency of the plant.

2 3 The temperature of the water is further increased in the pre-heaters and the economizer,

by addition of heat QIN .

3 4 Next, the water is evaporated into steam. The evaporator operates in the two phase

region, containing both water and steam.

4 5 The steam temperature is further increased in the superheaters.

5 6 In the next step, steam is expanded in the high pressure turbine to generate electricity.

6 7 After the high pressure turbine, the steam is reheated and led to the low pressure turbine.

7 8 The steam is expanded again and electricity is generated in the low pressure turbine.

8 1 Finally the steam is condensed completely.

The eciency of the actual process can never be higher than the Carnot eciency [Alvarez, 2006].

The best ways to achieve a high eciency is to have small energy losses throughout the cycle,

and a very high dierence between the maximal and minimal water temperature in the cycle.

A dierence between Figure 2 and 3, is that the water is superheated to only exist in a vaporized

state, so that a very high maximal temperature can be reached. The life-time of the turbine

can be improved by using superheated steam which is very dry, to generate electricity. Another

dierence is the reheating step, which is another way to increase the eciency of the cycle. The

steam is only partially expanded in the high pressure turbine, reheated and then completely

expanded in the low-pressure turbine.

2.1.3

Start-up Procedure

The start-up procedure of Jnschwalde can be divided into three dierent phases.

(i) First the ignition oil burners are started up, to quickly start the combustion process in

the furnace. Then the coal mills are started up and the combustion medium is gradually

9

Start-up type

Stand-still time

Occurrences 2012

Hot

Warm

Cold

t 12 h

12 h < t < 48 h

48 h t

4

6

15

shifted from oil to coal during the start-up. Meanwhile the temperature and pressure of

the live steam are ramped up. During this stage the power plant is not producing any

electricity, since the live steam bypasses the steam turbine.

(ii) The next phase is to accelerate the steam turbine, which is started once you have reached

stable steam conditions. The turbine is accelerated until it reaches 3000 revolutions per

minute.

(iii) In the last phase, the bypass valve is gradually closed so that the live steam enters the

steam turbine. The production of electricity begins and the load is increased until the nal

output capacity is reached.

The length of the start-up is highly dependent of the stand-still time of the power plant, since

it takes a long time for the metal parts to cool down. Start-ups are therefore categorized into

hot,warm and cold start-ups according to Table 1. In Figure 4 measurement data are presented

for a hot start. The ignition oil burners are initiated in the interval t [15, 30] min and the coal

mills are started when t [40, 70] min, which is represented by the change in ring power.

Stable steam conditions for the live steam mass ow and pressure are reached for t 100 min,

but one can observe that the turbine is started at t 75 min which indicates an overlap between

phase 1 and 2. In the lower right corner, the opening of the high- and low-pressure valves are

shown. When the valves are open, the steam is bypassed the turbine. The valves are closed at

t 150 min, meaning that the steam goes through the turbine, which generates electricity. The

nal phase of the start-up includes increasing the load (ring power) and live steam ow rate,

which is done in the interval t [150, 210] min.

2.2 Theory

A thermal power plant consists of several heat exchangers, which warms up the water gradually

during the steam cycle. Therefore the theory behind a heat exchanger component will be given

in this section. Since the start-up process is limited by stress in thick-walled components, the

stress calculation will be presented as well. Finally the dynamic optimization problem is set up

and transferred to a non-linear programming problem.

2.2.1

Balance Equations

In Figure 5 a model of a heat exchanger is shown, which can be used in thermal power plants.

The component consists of two sides, containing ue gas and steam which are divided by a

wall. The ue gas is obtained from the combustion process and is assumed to have a higher

temperature than the wall.

10

Figure 4: Measurement data of a hot start-up. The two upper subplots shows the temperature and

pressure for live steam and reheated steam. In the middle, the generator and ring power is presented

next to the live steam mass ow rate. The two lower subplots shows revolutions per minute (RPM) for

the turbine and the opening level of the high-pressure and low-pressure bypass valves.

11

Hot ue gas with enthalpy hgas,in , mass ow rate qgas,in and pressure pgas,in enters the gas side

of the heat exchanger. Since the wall temperature is lower than the gas temperature, heat Qgas

will be transferred to the wall according to the second law of thermodynamics. The ue gas

then exits the heat exchanger with enthalpy hgas,out , mass ow rate qgas,out and pressure pgas,out .

The process of the steam side works in the corresponding way, except that heat Qwater is added

to the system.

Figure 5: Model of a heat exchanger, where heat is transferred from ue gas to steam through a wall

segment.

The dynamics of each side of the heat exchanger are given by the balance equations,

dMm

= qm,in qm,out ,

dt

dUm

= qm,in hm,in qm,out hm,out + Qf low,m ,

dt

2

qm,in

pm,in pm,out = fm

,

m

(2a)

(2b)

(2c)

with m {gas, steam}, mass of the matter Mm , internal energy Um , density of the medium

m and a constant fm [Krger, Franke & Rode, 2004]. fm describes the pressure drop and can

m

be found experimentally. For the balance equations heat ow rate Qf low,m = dQ

dt , is used to

describe at which rate the heat is transferred.

For this application it is more convenient to use pressure p and enthalpy h as state variables

instead of mass M and internal energy U . The pressure p and temperature T for dierent stages

of the process are measured in the real plant. It is however easier to use enthalpy h instead of

temperature T , because the right-hand side of the energy balance equation is expressed in terms

of enthalpy.

The mass of the matter Mm can be expressed in terms of volume Vm and density of the matter

m . Since the tank volume Vm is constant, the balance equations can be rewritten in the following

12

way:

dm

dMm

= Vm

dt

dt

m dhm m dpm

= Vm

= qm,in qm,out ,

+

hm p dt

pm h dt

d(m hm ) dpm

dUm

d(Vm m hm pm Vm )

=

= Vm

dt

dt

dt

dt

dm

dhm dpm

= V m hm

+ m

dt

dt

dt

m dhm

m dpm

dhm dpm

= V m hm

+

h

+

m

m

hm p dt

pm h dt

dt

dt

dhm

m

dpm

m

+

1

= Vm hm

+

h

m

m

hm

dt

pm

dt

p

(3a)

(3b)

(3c)

(3d)

(3e)

(3f)

In section 4.2.4 the mass balance

m dhm m dpm

Vm

+

= qm,in qm,out ,

hm p dt

pm h dt

(3g)

(4)

dhm

m

dpm

m

+ m

+ hm

1

= qm,in hm,in qm,out hm,out + Qf low,m , (5)

Vm hm

hm p

dt

pm h

dt

is used to model the dynamics of gas and water in the heat exchangers.

To calculate how much heat is transferred between the gas and water side, equations for the

wall segment must be included. The change in temperature of the wall, depends on the heat

capacity cp,wall , the mass Mwall and how much heat is added or subtracted.

Mwall cp,wall

X

d(Twall )

=

Qf low,m ,

dt

mgas,steam

(6)

where Qm is given by

(7)

with the heat transfer coecient wall,m and the area of exposure Awall,m between the wall and

the medium m [Alvarez, 2006].

2.2.2

Stress Calculation

During the start-up, the thick-walled components are aected by thermal stress T and mechanical stress m , due to changes in temperature and pressure [Meinke, 2012]. The thick-walled

components that are considered most critical during start-up are the separator and the headers.

A header consists of a large hollow pipe and many smaller pipes, which can be seen in Figure 6.

The steam enters or exits the header through the smaller pipes, which introduces extra stress

at the exit points. In the stress calculations the worst case scenarios are considered. The total

13

stress is given by the mechanical stress m and the stress induced by changes in temperature

for the material T

(8)

= m + T .

The thermal stress T is given by

LT ET

(Tm Ti ).

(9)

1

The elasticity module ET , the thermal expansion coecient LT and the Poisson's ratio are

given by the material properties. Ti corresponds to the inner temperature of the wall, Tm to the

mean temperature and T is a constant.

T = T

m = (m0 + fu b )p

dm

,

sb

(10)

where dm corresponds to the inner diameter of the header, sb is the thickness of the wall and

p is the pressure on the wall. m0 and b are constants. To take into account the extra stress

introduced on the exit point, a form factor fu is introduced:

fu = 1.5

1+

dm

sb

1 2 p

2 ET

( dsmb )3

U

.

100

(11)

The constants T , U, b , m0 are dependent on the material and the geometry. In the specic

header problem the parameter values T = 2.0, U = 105 , b = 2.9 and m0 = 3.2 have

been used. The same equations and parameters have been used to calculate stress levels in the

separator, since the separators geometry is similar to the headers geometry. The main dierence

is that the separator has a larger internal radius and consists of fewer small pipes.

The life-time of the components can be linked to stress levels by using a Whler digram. The

life-time is dened as the number of cycles N the material can tolerate, which depends on the

stress amplitude , given by

14

max min

,

(12)

2

are the maximal and minimal values of the total stress during the start-up.

=

In Figure 7 a Whler curve is shown, which has been developed to analyse life-times of components in thermal power plants [Meinke, 2012]. The total number of start-ups for 2012 was 25,

which can be seen in Table 1. If one assumes that a power plant is operated for 60 years and is

started up 25 times/year, the total number of start-ups becomes 1500. Figure 7 shows that the

stress amplitude must be below 700 MPa, to not wear out a header that operates around

550 C. For the separator, a slightly higher stress amplitude is tolerated, since it operates at

350 C.

Figure 7: Life-time in terms of load cycles N of components related to stress amplitude , at T = 100 C

and T = 550 C.

2.2.3

Optimization Problem

A dynamic model often consists of dierential and algebraic equations, and together they

form a Dierential Algebraic (DAE) system [Ljung & Glad, 2004]. A dierential equation

describes the relationship between a function and its derivative [Edsberg, 2008]. Two typical dierential equations are the balance equations for mass and energy, seen in (4) and (5).

The algebraic equations ensures the physical and thermodynamical relations in the model

[Biegler, Cervantes & Wchter, 2002], for example (7), which describes how heat is transferred

between media. A general dierential equation

F (x(t),

x(t), u(t), t) = 0,

15

t [t0 , tf ]

(13)

can be rewritten by introducing x(t) = (z(t), y(t))T to separate the dierential variables z , whose

derivatives appear in the DAE system, from the algebraic variables y . Equation (13) is then

transformed to:

F (z(t),

(14)

By dierentiating (14) with respect to time, an Ordinary Dierential Equation (ODE) system

can be obtained. The number of times n the system must be dierentiated, before an ODE system is achieved corresponds to the dierential index of the DAE [Ljung & Glad, 2004]. Therefore

an ODE system corresponds to a DAE system of index 0.

A general formulation of a DAE optimization problem is given by [Wchter, 2002]:

min

z(t),y(t),u(t),tf ,p

s.t

(15a)

(z(tf ), y(tf ), tf , p)

dz(t)

= F (z(t), y(t), u(t), t, p)

dt

0 = G(z(t), y(t), u(t), t, p)

z(0) = z

(15b)

(15c)

(15d)

(15e)

z L z(t) z U

y L y(t) y U

uL u(t) uU

pL

p pU

tL

f

tf tU

f

is a scalar objective function,

G

Hs

are dierential state prole vectors,

z

z

tf

In the general formulation the algebraic equations have been collected from (14) to form (15c).

Point conditions have been dened at certain xed times and all variables used are bounded by

upper and lower values. To solve the problem numerically, the dynamic optimization problem

is transferred to an non-linear programming (NLP) problem. This is done by introducing a

discretization so that the state and control proles are approximated by a family of polynomials

on nite elements (t0 < t1 < . . . < tne < tf ) [Biegler, Cervantes & Wchter, 2002]. The discretization is further rened by placing Radau collocation points ncp within each element, see

Figure 8.

16

ti

t i+1

Figure 8: An element ne in the interval [ti , ti+1 ],containing three Radau points q1 , q2 and q3 .

After the discretization, the NLP problem can be formulated in the following way:

f (x)

(16a)

s.t c(x) = 0

(16b)

min

xRn

xL x xU .

(16c)

T

where x = ( dz

dt i,q , zi , yi,q , ui,q , t, p) and q = 1, . . . , ncp and i = 1, . . . , ne [Wchter & Biegler, 2006].

n

The objective function f (x) : R R and equality constraints c(x) : Rn Rm should be twice

continuously dierentiable and m < n. The variables x have an upper xU Rn and lower bound

xL Rn and xU xL [Wchter & Biegler, 2006].

To demonstrate the interior point method, the following cost function will be used

f (x)

(17a)

s.t c(x) = 0

(17b)

min

xRn

x(i) 0 for i I.

(17c)

with I 1, ..., n is the set of indices of bounded variables [Wchter, 2002]. In (16c) the variables

had upper and lower bounds, but it is easier to demonstrate the algorithm with the new problem formulation only consisting of variables with an lower bound of zero [Wchter, 2002]. The

solution and algorithm for the problem (17) can be applied to the problem (16), for example if

the rst problem is redened with slack variables [Wchter, 2002].

17

The interior point method is also referred to as a barrier method, and is dened accordingly

minn

xR

(x) := f (x)

n

X

ln(x(i) )

(18)

i=1

(19)

s.t c(x) = 0.

A barrier function (x) is introduced where an logarithmic barrier term is added to the problem

[Wchter, 2002]. In that way the variable bounds from (17c) are included in the objective

function. If the variables approach the variable bounds in (17c), the barrier function becomes

arbitrarily large and therefore the local solution x? is in the interior of the set, meaning that it

(i)

fulls x? > 0 for all i I . When the barrier function 0 the solution x? converges to x?

which is a solution to the original optimization problem dened by (17) [Wchter, 2002].

18

The dynamic start-up model has been developed in the Modelica environment Dymola. The

JModelica.org platform was used for the optimization part, with the Modelica language extension

Optimica. The programs and how they are used are briey described in this chapter.

3.1 Modelica

Modelica is an open programming language, which is used to model and simulate complex physical systems. The language is object-oriented, allowing you to inherit properties from submodels.

Modelica is equation-based which makes it easier to combine dierent kinds of physical systems.

A Modelica model can be a combination of a variety of mechanical, electrical, thermodynamical

or other types of components. Another benet with using the Modelica language is that it

can handle DAEs. If the modelling is instead done in Simulink [MathWorks,2013], you need to

manually convert the DAEs to ODEs, to be able to simulate the model [Modelica.org,2013].

3.2 Dymola

Dymola is a commercial Modelica environment, which for example can be used for modelling

and simulation. In Dymola you can switch between working in graphical and code-based environment. The changes you make in the graphical environment are automatically converted into

Modelica code. In the modelling environment it is also possible to browse the open-source Modelica standard library and use those components to build models. The simulation environment

is mainly used to simulate models and plot results. Other features include 3D-animations of

results and the possibility to export models to formats that can be handled by other simulation

software, such as Simulink [Modelica.org,2013].

3.3 Optimica

Optimica is an extension of the Modelica language, which makes it possible for the user to

formulate dynamic optimization problems [kesson, 2008]. The Optimica extension includes the

class optimization with class attributes such as objective, startTime and nalTime. Optimica

can be used to express dierent types of optimization problems, for example minimize a cost

function or minimize the nal time. It is also possible to specify constraints for the optimization

problems, that must be fullled for the optimal solution.

3.4 JModelica

JModelica is an open source platform, that can be used to optimize and simulate Modelica

models. The project started at the Department of Automatic Control at Lund University and

now the development is done by Modelon AB and in academia [JModelica.org,2013]. JModelica

supports the extension Optimica, which makes it possible to formulate and solve many types of

dynamic optimization problems.

Three les are generally needed to formulate and solve a dynamic optimization problem, the

Modelica model (.mo), the Optimica specications (.mop) and a Python script le (.py). The

Modelica and Optimica code is compiled in the Optimica compiler to generate C code. The C

code is then compiled and connected to numerical solvers, to solve the optimization problem

[kesson, Gfvert & Tummescheit 2009].

19

JModelica has three dierent types of model objects FMUModel, JMUModel and CasadiModel.

These objects can be used for simulation and optimization. In this project only the rst two

object types are used and will therefore be described briey.

The main dierences between a FMUModel and an JMUModel, is that only the JMUModel can

be used for optimization, since it supports the Optimica attributes. A JMUModel can only

be created in the JModelica.org environment and used together with Modelica and Optimica

code[Modelon AB,2012]. FMUModels, on the other hand, can be created from other modelling

and simulation environments since it follows the FMI(Functional Mock-up Interface) standard.

The FMUModel is used to simulate the model and the result is later used as an initial guess

for the optimization problem, which is handled by an JMUModel. To begin with the functions

compile_fmu and load_fmu are imported in the Python script le.

from pymodelica import compile_fmu

from pyfmi import load_fmu

init_fmu = compile_fmu ( ' simModel ' ,[ ' Heatexch_opt . mo ' , ' Water_poly ' ])

init_model = load_fmu ( init_fmu )

init_res = init_model . simulate ( start_time =0 , final_time =4000)

The function compile_fmu needs the model name ('simModel')and the Modelica le ('Heatexch_opt') as input. Additional packages that contain functions or models needed for the

simulation, can be added as arguments. In the examples shown in this section, the media model

for water ('Water_poly') is added in this way. Finally the model can be simulated, by calling the

function simulate with start and nal time. Additional options for compilations and simulations

of FMUs can be found in the JModelica.org Userguide [Modelon AB,2012].

The next step is to nd an optimal solution to the problem. As previously, the functions

needed are imported and a compilation is done. The function compile_jmu needs an additional

argument, which is the Optimica le ('heatopt.mop').

from pymodelica import compile_jmu

from pyjmi import JMUModel

jmu_name = compile_jmu ( " heatopt . Opt1 " ,[ ' Heatexch_opt . mo ' , ' heatopt . mop ' , '

Water_poly ' ])

opt_result = JMUModel ( jmu_name )

res = opt_result . optimize ()

For the optimization problem in this report it was necessary to dene optimization options,

to improve the convergence of the optimization algorithm. The options are dened by using

the function optimization_options and an example in which the number of elements n_e are

changed is shown below.

opts = opt_result . optimize_options ()

opts [ ' n_e ' ]=20

res = opt_result . optimize ( options = opts )

The options used for this thesis project can be found in Table 2 and all available options can be

found in the JModelica User Guide [Modelon AB,2012].

IPOPT

The JModelica platform uses a simultaneous optimization algorithm with based orthogonal

collocation using Lagrange polynomials on Radau points [JModelica.org,2013]. The process

20

Options

Description

n_e

in. The default number of elements is 50.

Number of collocation points for each element in n_e. The

default number of collocations points is 3.

Blocking factors are used to keep the control prole constant for nearby elements. Blocking factors are not used in

the default case, but can improve the convergence of the optimization algorithm. The blocking factors [2,1,6,1] makes

u0 = u1 , u3 = u4 = u5 = u6 = u7 = u8 , while u2 and u9 is

not dependent on nearby elements. The sum of the elements

must equal the number of elements n_e.

Writes results to a text le.

An initial trajectory is used as a rst guess for the optimization. problem

n_cp

blocking_factors

result_le_name

init_traj

Options

Description

tol

is smaller than the value of tol, the optimization algorithm

will be successfully terminated. For this project 5 104 is

used and the default values is 108 .

Maximum iterations allowed for the optimization problem.

In this project 100-300 is used and the default value is 3000.

max_iter

makes it possible to transfer dierential algebraic equations (DAE) used in the dynamic model,

into a large-scale NLP problem [kesson, Gfvert & Tummescheit 2009]. The NLP problem is

solved with the IPOPT(Interior Point OPTimizer) solver [IPOPT,2013], which is an open-source

solver appropriate for large-scale problems. There are several options for the IPOPT solver that

can be changed, to suit ones optimization problem. The options are changed in the Python

script le, in the following way:

opts [ ' IPOPT_options ' ][ ' tol ' ]=5 e -4

In Table 3 descriptions of the IPOPT options used in this thesis project is presented. In this

project the IPOPT solver MA27 have been used, instead of the standard solver MUMPS. MA27

is better at handling large-scale problems and is also more robust.

In Modelica it is convenient to use media models, to describe the behaviour of the dierent media

used in the model. Media models are very useful when working with uid models, because they

can describe the non-linear behaviour of the uid in a good way. For thermodynamic systems a

typical problematic process to describe is when water is evaporated to steam, because the water

21

In the Modelica standard library you can nd media models for air, water, ideal gases, incompressible media and compressible liquids. If the medium only consists of one substance you

usually need two states, to derive the thermodynamical properties. If your medium consists of

several substances, you might need the composition of the medium to use media models. Some

of the more common gas mixtures, for example air, has a default composition that is used if the

user doesn't dene a composition.

The media models combine equations, tables and substance specic constants to dene the

medium properties. It is therefore important to verify that your model operates in a region that

is supported by the media model.

In this project it has been crucial to have a good media model for water. The standard model in

Modelica WaterIF97, is unfortunately not supported by the optimization algorithms in JModelica. Instead the media model Water_poly developed by Modelon is used, where polynomial

expansions around the phase limit is used to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Water_poly is not as extensive as WaterIF97, but sucient to describe the variables and constants

needed for a simple model of a heat exchanger.

22

Modelling

The complex model of Jnschwalde is presented in this chapter and the important components

are pointed out. Further on the components developed within this thesis project are described

and the complete start-up model is shown at the end of the chapter.

Figure 9: An overview of the complex model of Jnschwalde, owned by Vattenfall. The complete steam

cycle is included in the model. The water is heated, used to drive the turbine, reheated and nally

condensed and cooled. The total number of equations and unknowns is 16,927.

In Figure 9 a complex model of a block in the Jnschwalde power plant is shown, which was

initially developed by Modelon in a previous Research and Development project. The model

has been further developed by Vattenfall Research and Development in collaboration with the

University of Rostock. The model consists of 16,927 unknowns and therefore requires a great

amount of simulation time. The model has been validated against measurement data from

the real plant and managed to describe the process well in steady-state, especially when 100 %

load was used as input [Saarinen, Boman & Funkquist, 2011]. The model can not be used for

start-up optimization because of it's complexity, but has been used to validate components and

simulation models developed within this thesis project.

Since the goal of this thesis project was to nd a model that could be used for start-up optimization, the main focus was to develop a model with less complexity. The strategy was

to:

Only include the components that are most important for the start-up.

Reduce the complexity of the components to achieve a short simulation time.

Use simpler models to describe media.

23

The furnace section in Figure 11 includes the combustion process and the evaporator. The model

includes two combustor components, since the combustion is incomplete in the rst component.

In the evaporator water is evaporated to steam, which continues on to the superheater section.

Most components that occur in the start-up model are from the superheater section, shown

in Figure 10. The purpose of the superheater section is to gradually heat up the steam so it

can drive the turbines. The steam from the evaporator enters the component SHS, but then it

continues to the section ECO and SH1, shown in Figure 12. After SH1 the steam goes back to

the superheater section. The economizer is not included in the start-up model, because it is not

considered crucial for the start-up scenario.

Figure 10: The superheater section is one subcomponent from the model shown in Figure 9. The gure

shows four superheaters (SH) and three reheaters (RH) from the complex model of the Jnschwalde

power plant. The circles represent connectors for ue gas (green), water (blue) and coal (brown), and

are used to link the component to other submodels or boundary conditions.

24

Figure 11: The furnace section in Figure 9, which contains the combustion process and the evaporator.

Figure 12: The ECO & SH1 section from Figure 9, which shows the economizer and one superheater.

25

4.2 Components

The modelling has been done in Dymola, with the language Modelica 3.2. The majority of the

components used have been developed within this thesis project. The simulation models include

some components from Blocks in the Modelica Standard Library as well. A summary of the

components can be found Appendix A.

4.2.1

Connector

A very basic component that is needed for modelling is a connector. Connectors are used to link

dierent components together. In this project two types of connectors have been created called

owport and owport_heat. An example of owport, which is used to transport uids and gases

is shown below.

connector flowport " 1- D transfer of fluid / gas "

flow Water_poly.Units.MassFlowRate m_flow " Mass flow rate " ;

stream Water_poly.Units.SpecificEnthalpy h_outflow " Specific

Enthalpy " ;

Water_poly.Units.Pressure p " Pressure " ;

end flowport ;

The connector contains the three variables mass ow rate m_f low, specic enthalpy h_outf low

and pressure p. The package Units in Water_poly is used to describe the variables and the type

MassFlowRate is shown as an example below.

type MassFlowRate =

Modelica.SIunits.MassFlowRate ( min =-1000, max =1000, nominal =100) ;

It is advantageous to use Units because it helps the user to detect errors in equations. A warning will be given during the compilation phase if there are any dimensional errors in the model,

which could imply incorrect equations. The nominal value is used by the optimization algorithm

for scaling, and can be modied to suit ones optimization problem. For dimensionless variables

the declaration Real can be used.

Another interesting thing to observe is the usage of the type stream. In older versions of Modelica

only two types ow and potential have been used to describe interaction between components.

The old approach can still be used for many types of systems, for example electrical and mechanical systems, but is insucient when dealing with thermodynamic systems [Franke et al., 2009].

The main problem is that the ow can be bi-directional in uid models and that the enthalpy is

dependent on the ow direction. With stream variables it is possible to formulate the balance

equations, so that the result is dependent on the ow direction. Another approach could be to

introduce Boolean unknowns to represent the ow direction, but then the system would be nonlinear and singular around zero ow [Franke et al., 2009]. An example of how stream variables

are used is presented in section 4.2.4.

4.2.2

Boundary conditions

To be able to simulate the start-up model one needs to dene boundary conditions for the water

and gas side, also called sinks and sources when working in Modelica environments. Two components are used, called MassFlowBoundary and PressureBoundary.

For MassFlowBoundary, four parameters must be specied, mass ow rate, specic enthalpy,

pressure and hydraulic conductance. The component also includes Boolean parameters, which

26

gives the user a possibility to choose a nominal value or an external signal as input. The code

associated with the mass ow rate is demonstrated below as an example.

parameter Water_poly.Units.HydraulicConductance G =0 "

HydraulicConductance " ;

parameter Water_poly.Units.MassFlowRate m_flow0 =0 " Nominal mass

flowrate "

annotation ( Dialog ( enable = not use_mdot_in ) ) ;

parameter Boolean use_mdot_in = false

" If true, mass flow rate is set from input connector mdot_in else

from m_flow0 "

annotation ( Evaluate = true,HideResult = true,choices (

__Dymola_checkBox = true ) , Dialog ( group = " Options " ) ) ;

Modelica.Blocks.Interfaces.RealInput mdot_in if use_mdot_in ;

protected

Modelica.Blocks.Interfaces.RealInput m_flow ;

equation

port.m_flow = - m_flow + ( port.p - p0 ) * G ;

if not use_mdot_in then

m_flow = m_flow0 " Flow rate set by parameter " ;

end if ;

connect ( m_flow, mdot_in ) ;

In the graphical interface the Boolean variable use_mdot_in, can be changed to "True" by using

a check box. In that case the connector RealInput mdot_in will appear, which can be connected

to a another component that describes the signal. Some useful components that can be used to

evaluate the dynamic response of the system is Ramp and Step from Sources in the Modelica

Standard Library. In the equation section you can see that m_f low is equal to mdot_in, if the

Boolean variable is True. Otherwise m_f low is given by the parameter m_f low0, which can

be changed in the code or in the graphical interface.

The example includes a parameter G, that represents the hydraulic conductance. This parameter was introduced to relax the boundary conditions and makes larger models easier to initialize.

The downside is that mass ow rate that exits the component (port.m_f low) can deviate from

the value dened in the component. However, if a small value of G is used ( 0.01) the deviation

is often acceptable.

The structure of the component PressureBoundary is similar to MassFlowBoundary, but it only

has three variables, pressure p, specic enthalpy h_outf low and hydraulic resistance R. In this

case the hydraulic resistance is used to relax the boundary conditions.

4.2.3

Combustor

The combustion process in a power plant is very complex and depends on many dierent factors,

of which only some can be measured. One complication is that coal, air and ue gas consists of

several dierent substances. In the complicated model this problem was solved by introducing

transformation matrices between fuel and ue gas. The transformation matrices insure that

the chemical reactions are fullled when fuel and air are burnt. A very simple example is the

chemical reaction C + O2 > CO2 , which requires one mole coal C and one mole oxygen O2

to produce one mole carbon dioxide CO2 . If there is a lack of oxygen, only a part of the coal

can be transformed to carbon dioxide. When transformation matrices are used to describe the

27

(a) The gas temperature is used as input and gas(b) The mass ow rate of coal is used as input and

enthalpy is used as output.

mass ow rate of ue gas is used as output.

Figure 13: The gure shows how well the process models P1, P1D, P0 and P0D, generated in the System

Identication Toolbox in

, ts the reference data.

Matlab

combustion process, a very accurate description of the reality is obtained. The downside is that

the matrices introduce large systems of equation, because the combustion consists of several

chemical reactions. In the complex model seven chemical reactions are used, to give an approximate description of the real process. This is still a bit too complex for the start-up model, since

it requires much computational time.

Instead a simple model of a combustor was developed by using the System Identication Toolbox

in

with data from the complex model of the Jnschwalde power plant. Two sets of data

were used to identify the relationship between ue gas temperature and enthalpy, see Figure 13a,

and mass ow rate of coal and ue gas, see Figure 13b. The data sets were divided in estimation

and validation data and then dierent process models in Table 4 were used for identication.

Matlab

Model

Description

P0

P0D

P1

P1D

K

K exp(T d s)

K

1+T p1s

K exp(T ds)

1+T p1s

When the four dierent process models were tried out, it turned out that a constant relation

between input and output gave the best performance for both cases. The two dierent constants

obtained by the system identication were used in the combustor component together with

typical equations for a boundary component described in previous section.

28

4.2.4

Heat exchanger

The component heatexchanger was built to represent the superheaters (SH), reheaters (RH) and

the evaporator in the plant. The equations used are described by (4) to (7), in Section 2.2.1.

The component consists of four connectors water_in, water_out, gas_in and gas_out, and

each component has three variables representing mass ow rate, pressure and enthalpy.

The dynamics of the component are given by the balance equations for mass and energy. The

relevant code for the waterside and the wall component is given below.

Water_poly.Units.SpecificEnthalpy h " Enthalpy of water " ;

Water_poly.Units.Pressure p " Pressure of water " ;

Water_poly.Units.Density rho = Water_poly.Functions.density_ph ( p,h )

" Water Density " ;

Real ddhp = Water_poly.Functions.ddhp_ph ( p,h )

" Water density derivative w.r.t h at constant p " ;

Real ddph = Water_poly.Functions.ddph_ph ( p,h )

" Water density derivative w.r.t p at constant h " ;

equation

// water side

V *( ddhp * der ( h ) + ddph * der ( p ) ) = water_in.m_flow + water_out.m_flow ; //

mass balance

V *( der ( h ) *( rho + h * ddhp ) + der ( p ) *( h * ddph-1 ) ) = water_in.m_flow *

actualStream ( water_in.h_outflow ) + water_out.m_flow * actualStream (

water_out.h_outflow ) - Q_L ; // energy balance

water_in.p = water_out.p ;

// wall between gas and water side

M * c_p_wall * der ( T_wall ) = Q_L + Q_G ;

Q_L = A_wall * alpha_wall_water *( T-T_wall ) ;

initial equation

p = p0 ;

T_wall = T_wall_0 ;

h = h0 ;

This component includes initial conditions for the states pressure p, specic enthalpy h and wall

temperature T _wall. It also includes the constant parameters volume of water tank V , mass of

metal wall M , specic heat capacity of metal wall c_p_wall, area of metal wall in contact with

water A_wall and coecient of heat transfer alpha_wall_water. Functions from W ater_poly

were used to evaluate the density , and the partial derivatives of . For the ue gas side a static

mass and energy balance was used, because there were no good media models simple enough for

the optimization phase available.

In the energy balance the usage of stream variables is demonstrated. The operator actualStream

means

actualStream ( water_in.h_outflow ) ==

if water_in.m_flow > 0 then inStream ( water_in.h_outflow )

else water_in.h_outflow

according to [Franke et al., 2009]. If the inStream operator is dened in the following way

inStream ( water_in.h_outflow ) = h_water_in ;

water_in.h_outflow = h_water_out ;

29

you get an energy balance which is correct also if the ow shifts direction. The ow entering the

component is by convention dened as positive, while the ow leaving a component is dened

as negative.

In the heatexchanger model one can also observe that the pressure is equal for the uid entering and exiting the component. The pressure drop is instead handled in the component

V alve_linear. Except for inducing a pressure drop, the component is needed when connecting

several heat exchangers together, so that all ow variables entering a heat exchanger have the

same sign.

4.2.5

To calculate stress levels in the header and separator two components are used. The rst component is called Volume and is used to describe the dynamics of the water. The component

is similar to the water side of the heatexchanger component, but has a connector called owport_heat that is connected to the Wall_component.

The Wall_component is a cylindrical component, discretized in the radial direction. The temperature T and heat ow rate Q_f low, from the connector are used as boundary conditions for

the inlet of the cylinder. The components is discretized in two elements and Fourier's equation

is used to describe the temperature distribution. The stress calculations from Section 2.2.2, is

used to calculate stress that occur because of pressure and thermal changes.

The model library developed within this project also contains a more detailed version of a

separator, inspired by the component BensonSeparator developed for a library called ThermalPower(version 1.5). Unfortunately it could not be used for optimization purposes, since it

made it hard for the problem to converge.

4.2.6

Turbine

In the turbine steam is expanded, which causes a drop in pressure for the medium. The process

can be described by the Stodola equation [Stodola, 1945], which relates the mass ow rate of

the steam m_f low_in, the steam temperature T _in, and pressure for the entering and exiting

steam p_in and p_out.

m_flow_in = Kt * Heatexch_opt.Functions.regRoot (( p_in ^2- p_out ^2) / T_in ) ;

Kt is a turbine specic constant, that can be estimated from experimental data. The function

regRoot(x) from the Modelica standard library is used instead of sqrt(x), to calculate the square

root. regRoot(x) is an approximation of sqrt(x), that makes sure that the derivative of x is

nite and smooth in x = 0.

Figure 14 shows the model that is used for start-up optimization. The components used in the

start-up model include one evaporator, ve superheaters, three reheaters, two volume components, two wall components, one coal combustor, one sink for ue gas, two sources and sinks

for water. A description of these components is given in Appendix A. The biggest dierences

between the start-up model and the actual plant are:

The separator component has been simplied. The real plant has a separator with one inlet

and two outlets for water and steam. The purpose of the separator is to split steam and

30

Figure 14: Model used for start-up optimization. The heat exchangers modelled are the superheaters

(SH), reheaters (RH) and the evaporator (Evap). Other components include wall and volume components

to calculate stress levels in headers and separators and components to represent boundary conditions.

The model has one input du connected to the integrator component which describes how the load is

changed du

dt . There are three outputs to the right for live steam temperature, header stress and separator

stress.

31

water, so that the steam continues to the rst superheater and water is recirculated back to

the evaporator. In the start-up model the separator only has one outlet for steam/water,

because it made the optimization problem easier to solve.

Thermal radiation is not modelled. In reality the high temperatures cause radiation, that

aects the lower components in the boiler, mainly the evaporator and SHS.

Spray water is not modelled, which is used to control the steam temperatures between

superheaters.

Heat losses to surroundings are not included in the model.

System Identication techniques have been used to simplify complex components, like the

combustor.

Time delays do not exist in the start-up model

There are no material models for metals, so constants are used to describe the material

properties in walls.

32

Validation

5.1 Superheater

A model of a heat exchanger from Section 4.2.4 has been compared to a superheater from the

complex model. The complex superheater consists of 1,082 equations and unknowns and the

simplied start-up superheater has 29 equations and unknowns. In Figure 15 the steam temperatures are presented and in Figure 16 gas temperatures are shown, for both components.

To compare the dynamics of the components two step tests were done, rst the ue gas temperature was increased by 200 C at T =500 s and secondly the mass ow rate of the ue gas was

increased by 20 % at T =1000 s. The same boundary conditions were applied for pressure and enthalpy for the two components. The rst dierence one can observe is a temperature dierence

of 2 C for the water entering the components. This eect probably occurs because dierent

media models are used for water, which gives slightly dierent temperatures even though same

enthalpy and pressure are used for the incoming water. A dierence in temperature can also be

seen on the gas side, because of dierences in the gas medium models.

Figure 15: Temperatures of in- and outowing water, for the complex superheater and the start-up

superheater.

When the temperature is changed at T =500 s, the systems behave similar and the temperature

of the out-owing water is increased by approximately 20 C. The complex system has a shorter

rise and settling time. At T =1000 s, when the mass ow rate of the ue gas is increased, a much

larger response is registered for the complex component. At rst glance you would think that

the start-up model is insucient for describing these kind of changes. In Section 5.2, it is shown

that when several of the simpler heat exchangers are connected together, they can describe the

33

Figure 16: Temperatures of in- and outowing ue gas, for the complex superheater and the start-up

superheater. The temperature curves for inowing ue gas are equal for both superheaters.

complex model owned by Vattenfall quite well. In the complex model the steam temperature

is reduced by using spray water. It shows that the start-up model, without spray water, is a

sucient description of the large model, including spray water.

It was possible to change parameters in the start-up model, so that a higher response was received when the mass ow rate changed, but then the start-up model could not be used to

describe the real plant. Some explanations for the deviations between models include dierent

media and material models and that the wall in the complicated model is discretized.

To validate the complete start-up model, a steady-state simulation for the full load case was

done and compared with reference data from the plant and the result is shown in Table 5. Data

from the actual plant have been used to represent the boundary conditions for pressure and mass

ow rate. Boundary conditions for enthalpy have been picked from a steady-state simulation of

the detailed model.

The overall performance of the model is considered good, since the relative errors are small,

which can be seen in Table 5. The large dierence for the component SHS, is probably because

thermal radiation is neglected.

In Figure 17, the steam temperatures from Table 5 are shown, together with the steady-state

34

Table 5: Steam temperatures out of each heat exchanger component at a steady-state simulation with

full load.

Heat exchangers

SHS

SH1

SH2

SH3

SH4

RH1

Reference C

Start-up model C

Absolute error

Relative error

373

359

-14

-3.8 %

406

413

7

1.7 %

451

452

1

0.22 %

492

496

4

0.81 %

534

536

2

0.37 %

481

483

2

0.41 %

RH2

540

544

4

0.74 %

Figure 17: Comparison between reference data, complex simulation model and start-up model at steadystate with full load.

temperatures from a full load simulation of the complex model. The conclusion is that the boiler

of the power plant can be fairly well represented by the start-up model. There exists some deviations in steam temperatures for both the complex model and the start-up model, but both models

can be used to simulate the behaviour of the real process. The start-up model consists of 457

unknowns and equations and is therefore possible to use for optimization purposes in JModelica.

In [Saarinen, Boman & Funkquist, 2011] ramp tests were done to compare the complex simulation model of Jnschwalde with measurement data from the plant, see Figure 18. The systems

were ramped from 100 % load to 60 % load during 19 minutes. The system was given time to

stabilize at 60 % load and then ramped up again to full load during 20 min. In Figure 19 the

same ramps were applied to the start-up model, to ramp up and down the coal ow. The feedwater ow rate was also ramped to replicate the real experiment.

When looking at the system responses for the complex model and the start-up model, it shows

that both systems respond immediately to load changes, when live steam temperatures are eval-

35

Figure 18: Comparison of the complex simulation model of Jnschwalde (dotted lines) and measurement

data (solid lines) from the actual plant, when the system was ramped from 100 % load to 60 % and back

again to 100 % load.

uated. The measurement data shows that the real system has a time delay of approximately

20 min when the system is ramped down. However the response is not as slow for the real system, when the load is ramped up again. If the delay is neglected all three systems have about

the same rise time. The settling time can not be evaluated for the real system, since the steam

temperatures uctuate because of disturbances in the real plant.

For all systems the steam temperatures in SH1, SH2, SH3 and SH4 decreases when the load

is ramped down. For SHS the steam temperature increases for the start-up model, while it is

approximately constant in Figure 18. When the load is ramped up, the complex model has

an overshoot that is larger compared to the start-up model and the measurement data. The

superheater component also had a very large step response compared to the start-up model,

when the mass ow rate was changed in Section 5.1. It is therefore possible that the response is

too high for the superheater components, which causes some of the overshoot seen in Figure 17.

36

Figure 19: Simulation of the start-up model when the system was ramped from 100 % load to 60 % and

back again to 100 % load. The start-up model is not aected by disturbances, compared to the systems

shown in Figure 18.

37

Optimization

The optimization problem is dened by an objective function, constraints and an optimization

interval. The objective function is dened by a quadratic cost function, which is minimized

over an optimization interval. Since should be minimized, deviations between the live steam

temperature TSH4 and the reference value Tref are penalized. Changes in the control variable

du

du

dt are also penalized, since it is desirable to reach steady-state ( dt = 0) quickly. The objective

function is dened as

2

Z tf

du

2

dt,

(20)

(TSH4 Tref ) +

=

dt

t0

with 0, 0. The constraints are given by the stress levels in the header and the separator

(21)

(22)

Calculations of header and separator are done in the Dymola model shown in Figure 14. If one

has dened minimum and maximum attributes for the variables in the Dymola model, these

attributes will also be used as constraints in the optimization in JModelica.

The objective function

tf

dt,

(23)

t0

was also considered for the optimization problem, with the constraints dened by (21) and (22).

The objective function (23) actually minimizes the nal time tf , while (20) minimizes deviations

from the steady-state values and changes in the control signal over the interval. However, it was

not possible to get the IPOPT solver to converge with the objective function in (23).

The optimized solution is highly dependent on the discretization, which is decided by the number of nite elements ne and collocation points ncp used. A more rened discretization generally

improves the accuracy of the solution, but also lengthens the computation time. As mentioned

in section 3.4, blocking factors can be used to help the IPOPT solver converge to a solution. In

this project blocking factors are used to keep the control signal du

dt constant for several elements.

An example is shown in Figure 20, with the blocking factors [1,1,2,6]. The strategy for this

project was to use ne = 10 and lock the control signal for several elements for the rst rounds

of the optimization. The number of elements ne was increased gradually and the control signal

was allowed to change more freely as the optimization continued.

The optimization result also depends on the parameters and in the cost function described

by (20). In Chapter 7 some dierent set-ups of the parameters are tried out. The values used

for the reference value Tref and the constraints in (21) and (22) are presented in Table 6. With

the constraint boundaries used, the materials should be able to handle at least 105 start-ups

according to Figure 7, since =300 MPa according to (12).

38

du

dt

Parameter

Value

Tref

min,header

max,header

min,separator

max,separator

806 K

-200 MPa

400 MPa

800 MPa

1400 MPa

6.3 Initialization

It was very hard for the IPOPT solver to converge to a solution, without using an initial trajectory as a start-guess. To solve this problem, a simulation of the model was done with constant

load. It is important that the initial guess is within the constraints dened by the optimization

problem, so that is why a steady-state simulation was used. The nal values of the state-variables

were used as initial values for the optimization problem. In this way, some of the large transients

that occur during the initialization phase can be avoided.

The input trajectory from the simulation problem was used as a starting guess. It is easier for

the optimization algorithm to converge to a solution, if the starting guess is close to the optimal

solution. That is why numerical optimization techniques often consist of an iterative process.

Generally it is easier to start with a very rough discretization. If an optimal solution is found,

it can be used to initiate the same optimization problem, with a rened discretization.

39

Results

The rst step was to investigate how dierent values of and in the objective function (20)

aected the outcome of the optimization. The blocking factors were set to [1,1,2,6] and then

the parameters and were varied for the dierent problem set-ups. For the 6 experiments,

the same optimization and IPOPT options were used: ne = 10, ncp = 3, max_iter = 300 and

tol = 5e 4.

Experiment

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

102

102

102

1.6 103

2.5 103

4 104

104

101

4 102

102

102

102

102

102

Number of iterations

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

N/A

39

41

40

34

40

36

When the parameter settings for Experiment 1 was used from Table 7, the maximum number

of iterations was reached by the IPOPT solver, so the optimization algorithm was terminated

unsuccessfully. The IPOPT solver managed to converge to a solution for the other experiment

set-ups and the number of iterations needed was between 36 and 41. The total computation

time for those cases was between 84 and 98 seconds.

The result for Experiment 3 is shown in Figure 21. The steady-state value for the steam temperature in SH4 (Tref ) was reached at T 800 s. The stress amplitude for the header was

150 MPa, while the stress amplitude was very small for the separator. The maximum coal ow

was very high, 43 % over the steady-state value at T =200 s.

In Figure 22 the optimization result is shown for Experiment 6 in Table 7. The steady-state

value Tref for the temperature is not reached during the optimization interval of 2000 s. The

stress amplitudes are smaller, since the steam temperature increases at a smaller pace.

An interesting result was obtained for Experiment 5. The IPOPT solver converged to a solution, with very high temperature levels, which are shown in Figure 23. The nal temperature

of the steam exiting superheater SH4, is 234 K over the reference temperature Tref . The stress

amplitude for the header is 170 MPa for this case.

40

Figure 21: Initial optimization with blocking factors [1,1,2,6]. The weight parameters in (20) are chosen as

= 0.01, = 0.01. The steady-state value Tref is reached for the live steam exiting the last superheater

SH4.

Figure 22: Initial optimization with blocking factors [1,1,2,6]. The weight parameters in (20) are chosen

as = 0.0004, = 0.01. The steady-state value for Tref is not reached during 2000 seconds.

41

Figure 23: Initial optimization with blocking factors [1,1,2,6]. The weight parameters in (20) are chosen

as = 0.0025, = 0.01. The nal value of the steam temperature in SH4 is 1040 K.

The next step was to try dierent blocking factors to see how the optimization outcome was

aected. The parameter settings = 102 , = 4 102 ,ncp = 3, max_iter = 100 and

tol = 5e 4 were used for all experiment set-ups in Table 8. First an initial optimization was

done with blocking factors [1, 1, 2, 6], then dierent blocking factors were tried out according to

Table 8.

Dierent tactics were used to design the blocking factors. If the blocking factors were uniformly

distributed, the optimization algorithm generally converged. An example can be seen in Figure

24 with blocking factors [2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] and ne = 16. The stress amplitude reaches 135 MPa.

There are some oscillations in the system, so therefore another approach was tried where the

control signal was locked for several elements at the end of the interval. In Figure 25, the optimization outcome is shown when the blocking factors [2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 6] were used. The control

signal is slightly positive for the last six elements, which results in an inclining coal ow. The

stress amplitude is approximately 210 MPa, which is higher compared to when the blocking factors [2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] were used.

The stress level is highly dependent on the blocking factors used and to illustrate this, two

cases are compared. In Figure 26 the result of the optimization is shown for blocking factors

[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 5] and ne = 10. The system stabilize fast, but the stress amplitude is high

200 MPa. For the result in Figure 27, the blocking factors [5, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1] and ne = 10 are used.

The system is slow, but the stress amplitude is much lower 125 MPa.

42

Experiment

Blocking factors

ne

Iterations

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

[1, 1, 1, 1, 1]

[2, 2, 2, 2, 2]

[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 5]

[5, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]

[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]

[2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2]

[1, 1, 2, 2, 6]

[2, 2, 2, 2, 6]

[2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2]

[1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 6]

[2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2]

[2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 6]

[1, 2, 2, 2, 9]

[1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4]

[2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2]

[2, 4, 4, 4]

5

10

10

10

10

12

12

14

14

14

16

16

16

16

18

18

29

19

11

58

N/A

15

11

74

13

N/A

9

9

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Figure 24: Optimization with uniformly distributed blocking factors [2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] and ne = 16. The

stress amplitude is approximately 135 MPa.

43

Figure 25: Optimization with a high blocking factor at the end of the interval [2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 6] and

ne = 16. The stress amplitude is approximately 210 MPa.

Figure 26: Optimization with blocking factors [1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 5] and ne = 10. The stress amplitude is

approximately 200 MPa.

44

Figure 27: Optimization with blocking factors [5, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1] and ne = 10. The stress amplitude is

approximately 125 MPa.

45

8.1 Modelling

Sources of error and further developments

The start-up model developed in this project is sucient for describing some start-up scenarios

at the Jnschwalde power plant, but of course many improvements can be made. To better

describe the real process, the model should include time delays so that a change in coal ow,

does not aect the steam temperatures in the whole system immediately. Introducing delays

will probably cause problems in the optimization phase, so it is important to carefully consider

how delays should be implemented in a good way.

A more detailed model of the separator, where some of the feedwater is recirculated back to

the evaporator was developed. The separator could be used for some steady-state simulations,

but problems often occurred when boundary conditions were varied. To include the detailed

separator, one has to use level control to stabilize the ratio between vaporized and liquid water

in the separator. To recirculate the water back to the evaporator, one needs to introduce a pump

to get an accurate pressure level. Otherwise the circulated water has a lower pressure then the

water within the evaporator, which makes the water ow in the wrong direction.

Another improvement would be to develop media models for coal and ue gas, so the user can

vary the composition of substances in each medium. Media models can also be used to describe

the non-linear relationship between temperature and ue gas more accurately. It would be good

to develop a material model for the metal components in the walls, which would make it possible

to have material properties that depend on the metal temperature.

For the model of the heat exchanger, the next step would be to include an option that allows

thermal radiation. In that way the steam temperature of the heat exchanger SHS can be

increased, since these components are exposed to a large fraction of the thermal radiation. It is

also possible to discretize the heat exchanger component to more accurately describe the process

of heat transfer. However, it is not recommended to use a discretized model for the optimization

phase since it requires much more computational time.

Limitations

The largest limitation in the start-up model is that it contains many boundary conditions. If one

wants to consider another start-up scenario, there are many parameters that must be changed

manually. It is also troublesome to simulate the complete start-up scenario, since it requires

changes in the boundary conditions, for example that the enthalpy and pressure of the incoming

feedwater is increased. An attempt was done to replace the boundary components between the

last superheater and the rst reaheater in the steam cycle with a turbine model, in Figure 14.

However, it was hard to get accurate steady-state values for the steam pressure since the steam

pressure in and out of the component were allowed to vary freely.

It has not been possible to validate the model for the rst phase of the start-up. Start-up data

from the plant was requested, but heavily delayed. However, old measurement data could be

used to validate the model in the steady-state region. The old data was ordered to validate

the complex model of Jnschwalde, so that is why only steady-state reference data has been of

interest previously.

46

8.2 Optimization

Optimization Result

The results from the optimization part of the project, showed how much the optimization outcome depended on the variable settings used. It was not surprising how the optimized solution

changed when the weight parameters and were varied. If a very small value of was used,

the problem did not reach the steady-state

R t temperatures for full load. The best case scenario

would have been if the objective function t0f dt could have been used instead. It actually minimizes the nal time, instead of the deviations from the full load steady-state case over time, so

one does not need to consider weight parameters.

The blocking factors had a large impact on the solution and the ideal case would be if the NLP

problem could converge without using blocking factors. It was easier to nd blocking factors that

made the optimization problem converge, when smaller values of ne was used. For ne = 18, the

optimization problem could not be initialized because of problem with memory. The number

of iterations varied for the dierent experiments. It can not be concluded that a ner discretization requires more iterations. There are no general methods for choosing blocking factors.

It can be a very time demanding trial and error process, which is unique for each problem set-up.

The maximum value of the stress amplitude obtained from the experiments was = 210 MPa

for the header. It corresponds to over 106 load cycles, according to Figure 7. The variable

bounds used for header and separator stress, was not reached during any of the optimization

outcomes presented in Chapter 7. However, experiments were done with much harder constraints

on stress levels. The constraints made it very hard for the optimization algorithm to converge to

a solution. In [Krger, Franke & Rode, 2004], stress constraints were used, but the optimization

problem was solved with

. In [Lind & Sllberg, 2012] the JModelica.org platform was

used to solve the optimization problem, but with temperature constraints instead. It should be

possible to solve the optimization problem with stress constraints, but it might be easier if one

used temperature constraints instead. The stress level for the separator varied very little, for the

dierent problem set-ups in Chapter 7. This is mainly because a constant boundary condition

was used for the enthalpy of the incoming feedwater. The separator is close to the water source,

so it was not subject to high temperature changes. Since the future goal of the start-up model

is to include the complete start-up procedure, the separator was kept, even though it didn't

impose any constraints on the current optimization problem.

Matlab

Further work

This thesis project has shown that it is possible to optimize the start-up procedure of a coal-red

power plant, but more work is needed before the result can be applied to the real plant. One

needs to include the whole start-up scenario, so that correct stress levels from the Whler diagram in Figure 7 can be used. Secondly, one needs to investigate conditions from the real plant

that impose constraints on variables, for example how fast the coal ow can change. The largest

problem during the optimization phase of this project, was to nd settings where the optimization algorithm converged to a solution. Other important factors that aect the outcome are

the model set-up, start-values, scaling of variables, the optimization interval and constraints, to

mention a few. Further work includes trimming the nominal values in the media model package

Water_poly, since they aect the scaling of the optimization problem. About 15 dierent units

are used in the start-up model, so there are many dierent set-ups that can be explored in order

to improve the scaling.

47

The discretization is another area that can be further developed. The main focus would be to

try many dierent sets of blocking factors and compare the result. In this project a Python

function was developed, that iterated through dierent blocking factors. Unfortunately, the

function was unexpectedly interrupted several times because of errors during the compilation

phase or problems with memory for the IPOPT solver. Since the JModelica.org platform is under

development, these bugs will hopefully be xed in the near future. The optimization could also

be tried on a computer suited to handle large numerical calculations. Since it would require less

computational time, one could also try to increase the maximum number of iterations used.

Experience with JModelica

The JModelica.org platform is a powerful tool, especially when you want to optimize dynamic

models. The programs are however not very user-friendly at the moment, especially for users

with little experience of programming in Python. It would be good if a future version of the

JModelica.org platform contained a graphical interface. It is also a bit tedious that you need

three dierent le types (.mo, .mop, .py ) to run optimization problems. It would be easier if the

environments for modelling, optimization and execution of algorithm could be better integrated.

Another suggestion is to develop a Modelica library, with models, functions and media models

that can be used in the JModelica.org environment. In this project, the trial and error method

have been used to see if some components can be used for optimization. The problems that have

occurred, have often been during the compilation phase. It has been hard to decode many of

the error messages, so a better documentation of the algorithms would be good as well.

Conclusions

The most important lesson learned is to not make models more complicated then they have to

be, especially when you want to use them for dynamic optimization. When new add-ons are

introduced, it is good to evaluate how the model accuracy and the simulation time are aected.

The system performance must be evaluated regularly and not only at the end of the project.

The optimization phase of the project was tricky and very time-demanding. More time must

be spent on the model and the optimization parameters, before the results can be applied to

the real plant. If all the suggested improvements are implemented on the start-up model, it will

most likely be very hard to optimize in the JModelica.org environment. A recommendation is

to use two models, one for optimization and another for simulation. The optimization model

should be kept very simple, but include the whole start-up scenario. The optimization result

could then be used together with a more complicated simulation model, to get a more accurate

description of the start-up scenario.

48

References

[Alvarez, 2006] Alvarez H. (2006).

[Biegler, Cervantes & Wchter, 2002] Biegler, L., Cervantes, A. and Wchter, A. (2002). Advances in simultaneous strategies for dynamic process optimization Chemical Engineering

Science Volume 57, Issue 4, February 2002, pp. 575593.

ObjectOriented Modeling and Optimal Control: A Case Study in Power Plant Start-Up In: 18th

[Casella, Donida & kesson, 2011] Casella, F., Donida, F. and kesson, J. (2011).

IFAC World Congress, pp. 7043-7048. Milano, Italy, 2011.

[Casella et al.,2011] Casella, F., Farina, M., Righetti, F., Scattolini, R., Faille, D., Davelaar, F.,

Tica, A., Gueguen, H. and Dumur, D. (2011). An optimization procedure of the start-up of

Combined Cycle Power Plants In: 18th IFAC World Congress, pp. 7043-7048. Milano, Italy,

2011.

[Edsberg, 2008] Edsberg L. (2008). An Introduction to Computation and

ential Equations John Wiley and Sons, Inc, Hobokem, New Jersey.

[Franke, Rode & Krger, 2003] Franke, R., Rode, M. and Krger, K. (2003). On-line Optimization of Drum Boiler Startup In: 3rd International Modelica Conference, pp. 287-296.

Linkping, Sweden, 2003.

[Franke et al., 2009] Franke, R., Casella, F., Otter, M., Sielemann, M., Elmqvist, H., Mattson,

S and Olsson, H. (2009). Stream Connectors - An Extenstion of Modelica for Device-Oriented

Modeling of Convective Transport Phenomena In: Proceedings 7th International Modelica

Conference, pp. 108-121. Como, Italy, 2009.

[IPOPT,2013] IPOPT (2013). IPOPT Documentation - Computational Infrastructure for Operations Research <http://www.coin-or.org/Ipopt/documentation>[Accessed 2013-05-22].

[Krger, Franke & Rode, 2004] Krger, K., Franke, R. and Rode, M. (2004). Optimization of

boiler start-up using a nonlinear boiler model and hard constraints Energy, 29:22392251.

[Ignou,2013] Study Material, IGNOU School of Engineering & Technology (2013). Introduction

to Power Plants <http://www.ignou.ac.in/upload/Unit-1-58.pdf>, [Accessed 2013-05-15].

[JModelica.org,2013] JModelica.org (2013).

2013-05-02].

JModelica.org. <http://jmodelica.org>[Accessed

[Lind & Sllberg, 2012] Lind, A. and Sllberg, E. (2012). Optimization of the Start-up Procedure

of a Combined Cycle Power Plant Department of Automatic Control, Lund University.

[Ljung & Glad, 2004] Ljung, L. and Glad, T. (2004).

atur AB, Lund.

<http://www.mathworks.se/products/simulink> [Accessed 2013-05-22].

Design.

steigender Dynamikanforderungen aufgrund zunehmender Windenergie- und Photovoltaikeinspeisung. Lehrstuhl fr Technische Thermodynamik, Universitt Rostock.

49

[Modelica.org,2013]

Modelica.org (2013). Modelica

<https://www.modelica.org>[Accessed 2013-05-13].

[Modelon AB,2012]

Modelon AB (2012). JModelica.org User Guide, Version 1.8.

<http://www.jmodelica.org/api-docs/usersguide/JModelicaUsersGuide-1.8.1.pdf>

[Accessed 2013-05-15].

[Saarinen, Boman & Funkquist, 2011] Saarinen, L., Boman, K. and Funkquist J. (2011). Dynamic Model of a Boiler at the Jnschwalde plant Vattenfall Research and Development,

2011. U 11:77.

[Stodola, 1945] Stodola, A. (1945).

<http://powerplants.vattenfall.com/node/288> [Accessed 2013-02-13].

Power

Plants.

[Wchter, 2002] Wchter, A. (2002). An Interior Point Algorithm for Large-Scale Nonlinear Optimization with Applications in Process Engineering PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon University,

Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

On the implementation of an

interior-point lter line-search algorithm for large-scale nonlinear programming Mathemati-

cal Programming, Ser. A 106, 2557.

Optimization In 6th International Modelica Conference 2008. Modelica Association, March

2008.

[kesson, Gfvert & Tummescheit 2009] kesson, J. (2009). JModelica - an Open Source Platform for Optimization of Modelica Models In 6th Vienna International Conference on Mathematical Modelling. Vienna, Austria, 2009.

50

Description of components

Component name

Comment

Figure

Combustor

gas

Integrator

MassFlowBoundary_gas

Gas source

MassFlowBoundary_steam

Steam source

PressureBoundary_steam

Steam sink

PressureBoundary_gas

Gas sink

RealInput

RealOutput

Reheater

Superheater

Turbine

Turbine model

Volume

Wall component

Valve_Linear

water

Wall

Volume component

WallBoundary

to the surroundings

51

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