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IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE Numeral: In Hindu Arabic System we use ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 called digits to represent any number. A group of digits denoting a number is called a numeral. We represent a number say 689745132 as shown below: Ten Crores Ten Lacs Lacs Ten Thousands Hundreds Tens Units 7 5 3 2 1 Crores (10 ) (Millions) (10 ) Thousands (10 ) (10 ) (10 ) (100) (108) (106) (104) 7 8 9 8 4 6 1 3 2 We read it as : Sixty-eight crores, ninety-seven lacs, forty thousand, one hundred and thirty-two. Place Value or Local Value of a Digit in a Numeral: In the above numeral: Place value of 2 is (2x1) = 2; Place value of 3 is (3x10)= 30; Place value of 1 is (1x100) = 100 and so on. Place value of 7 is 7x108 = 700000000. Face value: The face value of a digit in a numeral is the value of the digit itself at whatever place it may be. In the above numeral, the face value of 2 is 2; the face value of 3 is 3 and so on.

TYPES OF NUMBERS 1. Natural Numbers: Counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 …. are called natural numbers. 2. Whole Numbers: All counting numbers together with zero form the set of whole numbers. Thus (i) 0 is the only whole number which is not a natural number. (ii) Every natural number is a whole number. 3. Integers: All natural numbers, 0 and negatives of counting numbers i.e. {……, -3, 2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ….} together form the set of integers. (i) Positive Integers: {1, 2, 3, 4, …} is the set of all positive integers. (ii) Negative Integers: {-1, -2, -3, -4, …} is the set of all negative integers. (iii) Non-Positive and Non-Negative Integers: 0 is neither positive nor negative. So {0,1,2,3,…} represents the set of non-negative integers, while {0,-1,-2,-3,-4,….} represents the set of non- positive integers.

4. Even Numbers: A number divisible by 2 is called an even number. E.g. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 etc. 5. Odd Numbers: A number not divisible by 2 is called an odd number. E.g. 1,3,5,7,9,11 etc. Some properties of even and odd numbersi). even+even=even ii). even+odd=odd iii). odd+odd=even iv). even×odd=even v). odd×odd=odd vi). even×even=even vii). viii). ix). = even = odd = odd

6. Prime Numbers: A number greater than 1 is called a prime number, if it has exactly two factors, namely 1 and the number itself. Prime numbers upto 100 are : 2, 3 , 5 , 7, 11, 13 , 17 , 19 , 23 , 29 , 31 , 37 , 41 , 43 , 47 , 53 , 59 , 61 , 67 , 71 , 79 , 83 , 89 , 97. Prime numbers Greater than 100: Let p be a given number greater than 100. To find whether it is prime or not , we use the following method: Find a whole number nearly greater than the square root of p. Let k > √p. Test whether p is divisible by any prime number less than k. If yes, then p is not prime. Otherwise, p is prime. e.g. We have to find whether 191 is a prime number or not. Now, 14 > √191. Prime numbers less than 14 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13. 191 is not divisible by any of them. So, 191 is a prime number. 7. Composite Numbers: Numbers greater than 1 which are not prime, are known as composite numbers. E.g. 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 Note: (i) 1 is neither prime nor composite. (ii) 2 is the only even number which is prime. (iii) There are 25 prime numbers between 1 and 100. 8. Co-primes: two numbers a and b are said to be co prime if their HCF is 1 e.g. (2, 3), (4, 5), (7, 9) etc are co-primes. 9. Real Numbers : All rational and irrational numbers are called Real Numbers. 10. Imaginary Numbers : z = a + ib where a and b are real numbers. b is not equal to 0 and I = √-1 or under root of a negative number is an imaginary number.

MULTIPLICATION BY SHORT CUT METHODS 1. Multiplication By Distributive Law: (i) ax( b + c) = a x b + a x c (ii) ax(b - c) = a x b – a x c. Ex.(i) 567958 x 99999 = 567958 x ( 100000 – 1) = 567958 x 100000 – 567958 x 1 = 56795800000 – 567958 = 56795232042 (ii) 7684 x 444 + 7684x555 = 7684 x 999 = 7676316 2. Multiplication of a Number by 5n : Put n zeros to the right of the multiplicand and divide the number so formed by 2n. Ex. 6452 x 125 = 6452 x 53 =

6452000 8

= 806500

3. 4. 5. 6.

Multiplication by 5: Multiply by 10 and divide by 2. Multiplication by 6: Sometimes multiplying by 3 and then 2 is easier. Multiplication by 9: Multiply by 10 and subtract the original number. Multiplication by 11:Assume that there is one “zero” on either side of the number. Now to get the product follow the procedure : for each digit, starting from the right towards left, add the right hand digit and write the result as the corresponding figure in the product.

REMEMBER : Whenever we get the sum as greater than 10 then write the unit’s digit in the corresponding figure in the product and carry 1 to the next digit in the figure of the product. E.g.- 23456 X 11= ? Now, on assuming ‘0’ on both sides we get0234560

So the product is

7. Multiplication by 12: Multiply by 10 and add twice the original number. 8. Multiplication by 13: There is no easy trick method. Multiply by 3 and add 10 times original number. 9. Multiplication by 14: Multiply by 7 and then multiply by 2 (or vice versa, whichever seems easier). 10. Multiplication by 15: Multiply by 10 and add 5 times the original number, as above. 11. Multiplication by 16: You can double four times, if you want to. Or you can multiply by 8 and then by 2. 12. Multiplication by 17: There is no easy trick method. Multiply by 7 and add 10 times original number. 13. Multiplication by 18: Multiply by 20 and subtract twice the original number. 14. Multiplication by 19: Multiply by 20 and subtract the original number. 15. Multiplication by 24: Multiply by 8 and then multiply by 3. A similar method works for other numbers that can be factored, like 32, 45 and many others. 16. Multiplication by 25: Multiply by 4 and divide by 100. 17. Multiplication by 27: Multiply by 30 and subtract 3 times the original number. 18. Multiplication by 45: Multiply by 50 and subtract 5 times the original number. 19. Multiplication by 50: Multiply by 2 and divide by 100. 20. Multiplication by 90: Multiply by 9 and put a zero on the right. 21. Multiplication by 98: Multiply by 100 and subtract twice the original number. 22. Multiplication by 99: Multiply by 100 and subtract the original number.

MULTIPLICATION BY SHORT CUT METHODS 1. Division by 111 - Reduce 10% 2. Division by 125 - Multiply by 8 3. Division by 133 - Reduce 1/4 4. Division by 150 - Reduce 1/3 5. Division by 166 - Multiply by 6 6. Division by 182 - Add 10% 7. Division by 222 - Reduce 10% 8. Division by 273 - Add 10% 9. Division by 333 - Reduce 10% 10. Division by 455 - Add 10% 11. Division by 555 - Reduce 10% 12. Division by 666 - Add Half 13. Division by 750 - Add 1/3 14. Division by 833 - Add 20% 15. Division by 875 - Add 1/7

16. Division by 910 - Add 9% 17. Division by 950 - Add 5%

Divisibility Rules DIVISIBILITY BY 2,4,8,16,…. A number is divisible by 2,4,8,16,….,2n when the number formed by the last one, two, three, four, …., n digits is divisible by 2,4,8,16,….,2n respectively. DIVISIBILITY BY 3 A number is divisible by three if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. DIVISIBILITY BY 5 A number is divisible by 5 if the digit at unit’s place is 0 or 5. DIVISIBILITY TEST OF 7 Whenever we have to check whether a number is divisible by 7 or not follow the below procedure: 1).Double the last digit (digit at the rightmost place) and subtract it from the number left (excluding the last digit). If this number is divisible with 7 then the original number is divisible by 7. This procedure can be followed as many times as required (until the number is reduced to 2 digit number). Then the number so obtained can be checked whether it is divisible by 7 or not. If the number so obtained is divisible by 7 then the original number is divisible by 7 and if not then original number is not divisible by 7. E.g.Consider the number 1057. Now the last digit is 7. On doubling it we get 14. On subtracting it from 105 we get 91. Now it can be seen that 91 is divisible by 7 so the original number is divisible by 7.

(It can further be simplified by doubling 1 and subtracting it from 9 and thus we get 7 which is divisible by7.)

DIVISIBILITY TEST OF 8 To check whether a number is divisible by 8 or not we consider the last three digits of the number. If the last three digits are divisible by 8 then the whole number is divisible by 8 otherwise not. E.g.-7645892 Now consider the last three digits 892. Now check whether the three digits are divisible by 8. On checking we get that the number is not divisible by 8 so the original number is not divisible by 8. DIVISIBILITY BY 9 A number is divisible by three if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9. DIVISIBILITY TEST OF 10 If last digit of a number is 0 then the given number is divisible by 10 otherwise not. E.g.- 9860 is divisible by 10 as the last digit is 0. DIVISIBILITY TEST FOR 11 If the difference between sum of digits in the odd places and the sum of the digits in the even places is either 0 or is divisible by 11, then the number is divisible by 11. DIVISIBILITY TEST OF 13 To check whether a number is divisible by 13 we follow the procedure as follows: 1). Multiply the last digit with 4 and add it to the number left (after removing the last digit). 2). Follow this method again and again and reduce the number to 2-digit number form. 3). Now check whether the number is divisible by 13 or not.

If the 2-digit number so obtained is divisible by 13 then the original number is divisible by 13 otherwise not. E.g.Let us consider the number 195. Now the last digit is 5 and on multiplying it with 4 we get 20. Now on adding this with the remaining number (i.e. 19) we get 39. Now as 39 is divisible by 13 therefore the original number id divisible by 13.

DIVISIBILITY TEST OF 17 To check whether a number is divisible by 17 we follow the procedure as follows: 1). Multiply the last digit with 5 and subtract it from the number left (after removing the last digit). 2). Follow this method again and again and reduce the number to 2-digit number form. 3). Now check whether the number is divisible by 17 or not. If the 2-digit number so obtained is divisible by 17 then the original number is divisible by 17 otherwise not. E.g.Let us consider the number 221. Now the last digit is 1 and on multiplying it with 5 we get 5. Now on subtracting 5 from the remaining number (i.e. 22) we get 17. Now as 17 is divisible by 17 therefore the original number id divisible by 17. DIVISIBILITY TEST OF 19 To check whether a number is divisible by 19 we follow the procedure as follows: 1). Multiply the last digit with 2 and add it to the number left (after removing the last digit). 2). Follow this method again and again and reduce the number to 2-digit number form. 3). Now check whether the number is divisible by 19 or not.

If the 2-digit number so obtained is divisible by 19 then the original number is divisible by 19 otherwise not. E.g.Let us consider the number 209. Now the last digit is 9 and on multiplying it with 2 we get 18. Now on adding th18 with the remaining number(i.e. 20) we get 38. Now as 38 is divisible by 19 therefore the original number id divisible by 19.

DIVISIBILITY BY 7, 11, 13 Consider any number abcdefghij. Starting from the right towards left, we make groups of 3 digit numbers successively and continue till the end. It is not necessary that the leftmost group has three digits. Now we have a bcd efg hij Now we number these groups starting from the left. So, we have Group 1= hij Group 2= efg Group 3= bcd Group 4= a And if the number is bigger this number can be continued. Now, we add the alternate groups i.e. 1,3,5,… and 2,4,6,… So we get two sums Sum1= group(1+3+5+….) And Sum2=group(2+4+6+….)

Now we find the difference between the two sums obtained i.e. sum1 and sum2. Let the difference be D. D= sum1 - sum2 Now if D isi). divisible by 7, then the original number is divisible by 7. ii). divisible by 11, then the original number is divisible by 11. iii). divisible by 13, then the original number is divisible by 13. COROLLARY: Any 6-digit or 12-digit ,or any such number with number of digits equal to multiple of 6,is divisible by each of 7,11 and 13 if all of its digits are same. E.g. 666666, 888888888888 etc. are divisible by 7,11 and 13. DIVISIBILITY RULES FOR COMPOSITE NUMBERS LIKE 6,12,14,18,…. Whenever we have to check the divisibility of a number N by a composite number C, then the number N should be divisible by all the prime factors (the highest power of every prime factor) present in c. Now the divisibility rules for various composite numbers will be1). DIVISIBILITY BY 6 The given number should be divisible by both 2 and 3. 2). DIVISIBILITY BY 12 The given number should be divisible by both 4 and 3. 3).DIVISIBILITY BY 14 The given number should be divisible by both 2 and 7. 4). DIVISIBILITY BY 15 The given number should be divisible by both 3 and 5.

**5). DIVISIBILITY BY 18 The given number should be divisible by both 2 and 9.
**

Basic Formulae 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. (a + b) (a − b) = a2 − b2 (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 (a − b)2 = a2 − 2ab + b2 (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca (a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 (a − b)3 = a3 − 3a2b + 3ab2 − b3 a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 − ab + b2) a3 − b3 = (a − b)(a2 + ab + b2) (a3 + b3 + c3 – 3abc) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca) If a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc

RESULTS ON DIVISION An Important Result : If we divide a given number by another number, then :Dividend = (Divisor × Quotient) + Remainder. Divisor = (Dividend – Remainder) Quotient

SIMPLIFICATION In simplifying an expression, first of all bar must be removed. After removing the bar, the brackets must be removed, strictly in the order ( ), { } and [ ]. After removing the brackets, we must use the following operations strictly in the order: (i) of (ii) Division

(iii) Multiplication (iv) Addition (v) Subtraction.

Remark: Remember the word, 'BODMAS' where B, O, D, M, A and S, stand for bracket, of division, multiplication, addition and subtraction respectively.

SQUARE ROOTS & CUBE ROOTS Square Roots : If x2 = y, we say that square root of y is x and we write √y = x. Square Roots By Factorization : Suppose we have to find the square root of a number which is a perfect square. Express this number as the product of prime factors. Now, take the product of these prime factors choosing one out of every pair of the same primes. Cube Root : The cube root of a given number x is the number whose cube is x. we denote the cube root of x by 3√x. Resolve the given number as product of prime factors and take the product of prime factors, choosing one out of three of the same prime factors.

?

4856 ? Laws of Indices :

What will be the last digit of 2456 x 233335 x 65 x 236 x 3254 x 325 x

INDICES AND SURDS

(i) (ii)

am x bn = a(m+n) am = a(m – n) an (am)n = am×n (ab)n = anbn a n = an b bn a0 = 1

(iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

Laws of Surds :

We write √𝑎𝑎 = a1/n and it is called a surd of order n. 𝑛𝑛

(i)

(ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

( √𝑎𝑎)n = (a1/n × n) = a
𝑛𝑛

𝑛𝑛

( √𝑎𝑎)m = n√am 𝑛𝑛 𝑛𝑛

√𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 = √𝑎𝑎× √𝑎𝑎 �𝑎𝑎 = 𝑛𝑛 𝑎𝑎 𝑛𝑛 𝑚𝑚

� 𝑛𝑛 𝑎𝑎 = 𝑚𝑚𝑛𝑛√𝑎𝑎 √

√𝑎𝑎 √𝑎𝑎 𝑛𝑛 𝑛𝑛

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