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# CHAPTER 2 (6 LECTURES)

## ROOTS OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

1. Introduction
Finding one or more root of the equation
f (x) = 0
is one of the more commonly occurring problems of applied mathematics. In
most cases explicit solutions are not available and we must be satisfied with
being able to find a root to any specified degree of accuracy. The numerical
procedures for finding the roots are called iterative methods.
Definition 1.1 (Simple and multiple root). A root having multiplicity one
is called a simple root. For example, f (x) = (x 1)(x 2) has a simple root
at x = 1 and x = 2, but g(x) = (x 1)2 has a root of multiplicity 2 at x = 1,
which is therefore not a simple root.
A multiple root is a root with multiplicity m 2 is called a multiple point or
repeated root. For example, in the equation (x 1)2 = 0, x = 1 is multiple
(double) root.
If a polynomial has a multiple root, its derivative also shares that root.
Let be a root of the equation f (x) = 0, and imagine writing it in the
factored form
f (x) = (x )m (x)
with some integer m 1 and some continuous function (x) for which
() 6= 0. Then we say that is a root of f (x) of multiplicity m.
Definition 1.2 (Convergence). A sequence {xn } is said to be converge to a
point with order p if there is exist a constant c such that
|xn+1 |
n 0.
lim
p = c,
n |xn |
The constant c is known as asymptotic error constant.
Two cases are given special attention.
(i) If p = 1 (and c < 1), the sequence is linearly convergent.
(ii) If p = 2, the sequence is quadratically convergent.
Definition 1.3. Let {n } is a sequence which converges to zero and {xn } is
any sequence. If there exists a constant c > 0 and integer N > 0 such that
|xn | c|n |,

n N,

## then we say that {xn } converges to .

Now we study some iterative methods to solve the non-linear equations.
1

## 2. The Bisection Method

2.1. Method. Let f (x) be a continuous function on some given interval
[a, b] and it satisfies the condition f (a) f (b) < 0, then by Intermediate value
theorem the function f (x) must have at least one root in [a, b]. The bisection
method repeatedly bisects the interval [a, b] and then selects a subinterval in
which a root must lie for further processing. It is a very simple and robust
method, but it is also relatively slow. Usually [a, b] is chosen to contain only
root , but the following algorithm for the bisection method will always
converge to some root in [a, b] as f (a) f (b) < 0.
Algorithm: To determine a root of f (x) = 0 that is accurate within a
specified tolerance value , given values a and b such that f (a) f (b) < 0.
a+b
.
Define c =
2
If f (a) f (c) < 0, then set b = c, otherwise a = c.
End if.
Until |a b| (tolerance value).
Print root as c.
Example 1. Perform the five iterations of the bisection method to obtain
the smallest root of the equation x3 5x + 1 = 0.
Sol. We write f (x) = x3 5x + 1 = 0.
Since f (0) > 0 and f (1) < 0,
= the smallest root lies in the interval (0, 1). 1 Taking a0 = 0 and b0 = 1,
we obtain c1 = 12 (a0 + b0 ) = 0.5.
Now f (c1 ) = 1.375, f (a0 ) f (c1 ) < 0.
This implies root lies in the interval [0, 0.5].
Now we take a1 = 0 and b1 = 0.5, then c2 = 12 (a1 + b1 ) = 0.25
f (c2 ) = 0.2343, and f (a1 ) f (c2 ) < 0,
which implies root lies in interval [0, 0.25].
Similarly applying the same procedure, we can obtain the other iterations
as given in the following Table.
0.1875 + 0.21875
=
Root lies in (0.1875, 0.21875), and we take the mid point
2
0.203125 as root .
2.2. Convergence analysis. Now we analyze the convergence of the iterations.
1Choice of Initial approximations: Initial approximations to the root are often known
from the physical significance of the problem. Graphical methods are used to find the
zero of f (x) = 0 and any value in the neighborhood of root can be taken as initial
approximation.
If the given equation f (x) = 0 can be written as f1 (x) = f2 (x) = 0, then the point of the
intersection of the graphs y = f1 (x) and y = f2 (x) gives the root of the equation. Any
value in the neighborhood of this point can be taken as initial approximation.

## Table 1. Iterations in bisection method

k
1
2
3
4
5

ak1
0
0
0
0.125
0.1875

bk1
1
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25

ck
0.5
0.25
0.125
0.1875
0.21875

f (ak1 ) f (ck )
<0
<0
>0
>0
<0

Theorem 2.1. Suppose that f C[a, b] and f (a)f (b) < 0. The Bisection
method generates a sequence {ck } approximating a zero of f with linear
convergence.
Proof. Let [a0 , b0 ], [a1 , b1 ], ... denote the successive intervals produced
by the bisection algorithm. Thus
a = a0 a1 a2 b0 = b
b = b0 b1 b2 a0 = a.
This implies {an } and {bn } are monotonic and bounded and hence convergent.
Since
1
b1 a1 = (b0 a0 )
2
1
1
b2 a2 = (b1 a1 ) = 2 (b0 a0 )
2
2
........................
1
bn an = n (b0 a0 ).
2
Hence
lim (bn an ) = 0.
n

Take limit
lim an = lim bn = (say).

## Since f is continuous function, therefore

lim f (an ) = f ( lim an ) = f ().

## The bisection method ensures that

f (an )f (bn ) < 0
which implies
lim f (an )f (bn ) = f 2 () < 0

= f () = 0.
i.e. limit of {an } and {bn } is a zero of [a, b].
Let cn+1 = 21 (an + bn )
Then
1
1
|cn+1 | = | lim an (an +bn )| |bn (an +bn )|
n
2
2

(since an bn , n)

## ROOTS OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

1
1
= |bn an | = n+1 |b0 a0 |.
2
2
By definition of convergence, we can say that the bisection method converges
linearly with rate 12 .
Note: 1. From the statement of the bisection algorithm, it is clear that the
algorithm always converges, however, can be very slow.
2. Computing ck : It might happen that at a certain iteration k, computation
ak + bk
of ck =
will give overflow. It is better to compute ck as:
2
bk ak
.
ck = ak +
2
Stopping Criteria: Since this is an iterative method, we must determine
some stopping criteria that will allow the iteration to stop. Criterion |f (ck )|
very small can be misleading since it is possible to have |f (ck )| very small,
even if ck is not close to the root.
Lets now find out what is the minimum number of iterations N needed
with the bisection method to achieve a certain desired accuracy. The interval
b0 a0
. So, to obtain an accuracy of , we must
length after N iterations is
2N
b0 a0
have
. That is,
2N
2N (b0 a0 ) ,
or
log(b0 a0 ) log
.
log 2
Note the number N depends only on the initial interval [a0 , b0 ] bracketing
the root.
N

## Example 2. Find the minimum number of iterations needed by the bisection

algorithm to approximate the root in interval [2.5, 4] of x3 6x2 +11x6 = 0
with error tolerance 103 .
Sol. Number of iterations
N

## log(4 2.5) log(103 )

= 10.55.
log 2

Thus, a minimum of 11 iterations will be needed to obtain the desired accuracy using the bisection method.
3. Iteration method based on first degree equation
3.1. The Secant Method. Let f (x) = 0 be the given non-linear equation.
Let y = ax + b, be the equation of the secant line joining two points

## (x0 , f (x0 )) and (x1 , f (x1 )) on the curve y = f (x).

Let intersection point of the secant line with the x-axis is (x2 , 0).
= x2 = b/a, a 6= 0.
Here x0 and x1 are two approximations of the root and then we can determine a and b. Now for intersection points
f0 = f (x0 ) = ax0 + b.
f1 = f (x1 ) = ax1 + b.
Solving these two equations, we obtain
a=

f1 f0
x1 x0

x1 f0 x0 f1
.
x1 x0
The next approximation to the root is given by
b=

x2 =

x0 f1 x1 f0
b
=
a
f1 f0

x1 x0
f1 .
f1 f0
This is called the secant or chord method and successive iterations are given
by
xk xk1
xk+1 = xk
fk , k = 1, 2, . . .
fk fk1
x2 = x1

## Geometrically, in this method we replace the unknown function by a straight

line or chord passing through (xk1 , fk1 ) and (xk , fk ) and we take the point
of intersection of the straight line with the x-axis as the next approximation
to the root.

## ROOTS OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

Algorithm:
1. Give inputs and take two initial guesses x0 and x1 .
2. Start iterations
x1 x0
f0 .
x2 = x1
f1 f0
3. If |f (x2 )| < (error tolerance) then stop and print the root.
4. Repeat the iterations (step 2). Also check if the number of iterations has
exceeded the maximum number of iterations.
Example 3. Apply secant method to find the root of the equation
cos x x ex = 0.
Sol. Let f (x) = cos x x ex = 0.
The successive iterations of the secant method are given by
xk+1 = xk

xk xk1
fk , k = 1, 2,
fk fk1

## As f (0)f (1) < 0, we take initial guesses x0 = 0 and x1 = 1, and obtain

x2 = 0.3146653378
x3 = 0.4467281466
etc.
3.2. Convergence analysis.
Theorem 3.1. Let f C 0 [a, b]. If is a simple root of f (x) = 0, then
secant method generates a sequence {xn } converging to for any initial
approximation x0 near to .
Proof. We assume that is a simple root of f (x) = 0 then f () = 0.
Let xk = + k .
An iterative method is said to has order of convergence p if
|xk+1 | = C |xk |p .
Or equivalently
|k+1 | = C|k |p .
Successive iteration in secant method are given by
xk+1 = xk

xk xk1
fk
fk fk1

k = 1, 2, . . .

## Error equation is written as

k+1 = k

k k1
f ( + k ).
f ( + k ) f ( + k1 )

## By expanding f ( + k ) and f ( + k1 ) in Taylor series, we obtain the error

equation


1 2 00
0
(k k1 ) k f () + k f () + . . .
2


k+1 = k
1 2
2
00
0
(k k1 ) f () + (k k1 ) f () + . . .
2


1
1 2 f 00 ()
1
f 00 ()
= k k + k 0
+ . . . 1 + (k1 + k ) 0
+ ...
2 f ()
2
f ()




1 2 f 00 ()
1
f 00 ()
= k k + k 0
+ . . . 1 (k1 + k ) 0
+ ...
2 f ()
2
f ()
1 f 00 ()
k k1 + O(2k k1 + k 2k1 )
=
2 f 0 ()
Therefore
k+1 Ak k1
where constant A =

1 f 00 ()

.
2 f 0 ()
This relation is called the error equation. Now by the definition of the order
of convergence, we expect a relation of the following type
k+1 = Cpk .
1/p

## Making one index down, we obtain k = Cpk1 or k1 = C 1/p k .

Hence
1/p
C pk = Ak C 1/p k
1+1/p

.
= pk = AC (1+1/p) k
Comparing the powers of k on both sides, we get
p = 1 + 1/p,
which gives two values of p, one is p = 1.618 and another one is negative
(and we neglect negative value of p as order of convergence is non-negative).
Therefore, order of convergence of secant method is less than 2.
3.3. Newton Method. Let f (x) = 0 be the given non-linear equation.
Let y = ax + b, be the equation of the tangent line at point (x0 , f (x0 )) on
the curve y = f (x).
Let intersection point of the tangent line with the x-axis is (x2 , 0).
= x2 = b/a, a 6= 0.
Here x0 is the approximations of the root and then we can determine a and
b. Then
f (x0 ) = ax0 + b.
Differentiating w.r.t. x, we obtain
f 0 (x0 ) = a.

## ROOTS OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

Hence
b = f (x0 ) f 0 (x0 )x0 .
Now
x1 =

b
f (x0 ) f 0 (x0 )x0
=
a
f 0 (x0 )

f (x0 )
.
f 0 (x0 )
This is called the Newton method and successive iterations are given by
f (xk )
xk+1 = xk 0
, k = 0, 1, . . . .
f (xk )
The method can be obtained directly from the secant method by taking limit
xk1 xk . In the limiting case the chord joining the points (xk1 , fk1 )
and (xk , fk ) becomes the tangent at (xk , fk ).
In this case problem of finding the root of the equation is equivalent to
finding the point of intersection of the tangent to the curve y = f (x) at
point (xk , fk ) with the x-axis.
= x0

## Figure 2. Newton method

Algorithm: Let f : R R be a differentiable function. The following
algorithm computes an approximate solution x of the equation f (x) = 0.
1. Choose an initial guess x0
2. for k = 0, 1, 2, . . . do
if f (x) is sufficiently small
then x = x
return x

## ROOTS OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

end

f (xk )
f 0 (xk )
If |xk+1 xk | is sufficiently small
then x = xk+1
return x
end
4. end (for main loop)
3. xk+1 = xk

2.

## Sol. This number satisfies the equation f (x) = 0 where f (x) = x2 2 = 0.

Since f 0 (x) = 2x, it follows that in Newtons Method, we can obtain the
next iterate from the previous iterate xk by
xk+1 = xk

x2k 2
xk
1
=
+ .
2xk
2
xk

## Starting with x0 = 1, we obtain

x1 =
x2 =

1 1
+ = 1.5
2 1

1
1.5
+
= 1.41666667
2
1.5
x3 = 1.41421569
x4 = 1.41421356
x5 = 1.41421356.

Since the fourth and fifth iterates agree in to eight decimal places, we assume
that 1.41421356 is a correct solution to f (x) = 0, to at least eight decimal
places.
Example 5. Perform four iterations to Newtons method to obtain the approximate value of (17)1/3 start with x0 = 2.0.
Sol. Let x = 171/3 which implies x3 = 17.
Let f (x) = x3 17 = 0.
Newton approximations are given by
xk+1 = xk

x3k 17
2x3 + 17
= k 2 ,
2
3xk
3xk

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

## Start with x0 = 2.0, we obtain

x1 = 2.75, x2 = 2.582645, x3 = 2.571332, x4 = 2.571282 etc.

10

## 3.3.1. The Newton Method can go bad.

Once the Newton Method catches scent of the root, it usually hunts
it down with amazing speed. But since the method is based on local
information, namely f (xk ) and f 0 (xk ), the Newton Methods sense
of smell is deficient.
If the initial estimate is not close enough to the root, the Newton
Method may not converge, or may converge to the wrong root.
The successive estimates of the Newton Method may converge to the
root too slowly, or may not converge at all.
The following example shows that choice of initial guess is very important
for convergence.
Example 6. Using Newton Method to find a non-zero solution of x =
2 sin x.
Sol. Let f (x) = x 2 sin x.
Then f 0 (x) = 1 2 cos x, and the Newton iteration is
f (xk )
xk 2 sin xk
2(sin xk xk cos xk )
= xk
=
.
0
f (xk )
1 2 cos xk
1 2 cos xk
Let x0 = 1.1. The next six estimates, to 3 decimal places, are:
x1 = 8.453, x2 = 5.256, x3 = 203.384, x4 = 118.019, x5 = 87.471,
x6 = 203.637. Therefore iterations diverges.
Note that choosing x0 = /3 1.0472 leads to immediate disaster, since
then 12 cos x0 = 0 and therefore x1 does not exist. The trouble was caused
by the choice of x0 .
Lets see whether we can do better. Draw the curves y = x and y = 2 sin x.
A quick sketch shows that they meet a bit past /2. If we take x0 = 1.5.
Here are the next five estimates
x1 = 2.076558, x2 = 1.910507, x3 = 1.895622, x4 = 1.895494, x5 =
1.895494.
xk+1 = xk

## Example 7. Find, correct to 5 decimal places, the x-coordinate of the point

on the curve y = ln x which is closest to the origin. Use the Newton Method.
Sol. Let (x, ln x) be a general point on the curve, and let S(x) be the square
of the distance from (x, ln x) to the origin. Then
S(x) = x2 + ln2 x.
We want to minimize the distance. This is equivalent to minimizing the
square of the distance. Now the minimization process takes the usual route.
Note that S(x) is only defined when x > 0. We have
2
ln x
= (2x2 + ln x).
S 0 (x) = 2x + 2
x
x
Our problem thus comes down to solving the equation S 0 (x) = 0. We can use
the Newton Method directly on S 0 (x), but calculations are more pleasant if
we observe that S 0 (x) = 0 is equivalent to x2 + ln x = 0.

11

## Let f (x) = x2 + ln x. Then f 0 (x) = 2x + 1/x and we get the recurrence

relation
x2 + ln xk
xk+1 = xk k
2xk + 1/xk
We need to find a suitable starting point x0 . Experimentation with a calculator suggests that we take x0 = 0.65.
Then x1 = 0.6529181, and x2 = 0.65291864.
Since x1 agrees with x2 to 5 decimal places, we can perhaps decide that, to
5 places, the minimum distance occurs at x = 0.65292.
3.4. Convergence Analysis.
Theorem 3.2. Let f C 2 [a, b]. If is a simple root of f (x) = 0 and
f 0 () 6= 0, then Newtons method generates a sequence {xn } converging to
for any initial approximation x0 near to .
Proof. We assume that is a simple root of f (x) = 0 then f () = 0.
Let xk = + k .
Successive iteration in Newton method are given by
xk+1 = xk

f ( + k )
f 0 ( + k )

k = 1, 2, . . .

## By expanding f ( + k ) and f 0 ( + k ) in Taylor series, we obtain the error

equation


1 2 00
0
k f () + k f () + . . .
2
k+1 = k
0
f () + k f 00 () + . . .


k f 00 ()
k f 0 () 1 +
+
.
.
.
2 f 0 ()


= k
f 00 ()
0
f () 1 + k 0
+ ...
f ()

 
1
1 f 00 ()
f 00 ()
= k k 1 +
+ ...
1+ 0
k
2 f 0 ()
f ()

 

f 00 ()
1 f 00 ()
= k k 1 +
+ ...
1 0
k + ...
2 f 0 ()
f ()
1 f 00 () 2
=
+ O(3k )
2 f 0 () k
= C2k ,
f 00 ()
.
f 0 ()
This error analysis shows that Newton method has second-order convergence.
where C =

12

## Theorem 3.3. Let f(x) be twice continuously differentiable on the closed

finite interval [a, b] and let the following conditions be satisfied:
(i) f (a) f (b) < 0.
(ii) f 0 (x) 6= 0, x [a, b].
(iii) Either f 00 (x) 0 or f 00 (x) 0, x [a, b].
(iv) At the end points a, b,
|f (a)|
< b a,
|f 0 (a)|

|f (b)|
< b a.
|f 0 (b)|

## Then the Newtons method converges to the unique solution of f (x) = 0

in [a, b] for any choice of x0 [a, b].
Some comments about these conditions: Conditions (i) and (ii) guarantee that there is one and only one solution in [a, b]. Condition (iii) states
that the graph of f (x) is either concave from above or concave from below,
and furthermore together with condition (ii) implies that f 0 (x) is monotone
on [a, b]. Added to these, condition (iv) states that the tangent to the curve
at either endpoint intersects the xaxis within the interval [a, b]. Proof of
the Theorem is left as an exercise for interested readers.
Example 8. Find an interval containing the smallest positive zero of f (x) =
ex sin x and which satisfies the conditions of previous Theorem for convergence of Newtons method.
Sol. f (x) = ex sin x, we have f 0 (x) = ex cos x, f 00 (x) = ex sin x.
We choose [a, b] = [0, 1]. Then since f (0) = 1, f (1) = 0.47, we have
f (a)f (b) < 0, so that condition (i) is satisfied.
Since f 0 (x) < 0, x [0, 1], condition (ii) is satisfied, and since f 00 (x) >
0, x [0, 1], condition (iii) is satisfied.
Finally since f (0) = 1, f 0 (0) = 2,
|f (0)|
= 1/2 < b a = 1, and since f (1) = 0.47 and f 0 (1) = 0.90,
|f 0 (0)|
|f (1)|
= 0.52 < 1. This verify condition (iv).
|f 0 (1)|
Newtons iteration will therefore converge for any choice of x0 in [0, 1].
Example 9. Find all the roots of cos x x2 x = 0 to five decimal places.
Sol. f (x) = cos x x2 x = 0 has two roots in the interval (2, 1) and
(0, 1). Applying Newton method,
cos xn x2n xn
.
sin xn 2xn 1
Take x0 = 1.5 for the root in the interval (2, 1), we obtain
xn+1 = xn

## x1 = 1.27338985, x2 = 1.25137907, x3 = 1.25115186, x4 = 1.25114184.

Starting with x0 = 0.5, we can obtain the root in (0, 1) and iterations are
given by
x1 = 0.55145650, x2 = 0.55001049, x3 = 0.55000935.

13

## Hence roots correct to five decimals are 1.25115 and 0.55001.

3.5. Newton method for multiple roots. Let be a root of f (x) = 0
with multiplicity m. In this case we can write
f (x) = (x )m (x).
In this case
f () = f 0 () = ... = f (m1) () = 0, f (m) () 6= 0.
Now
f (xk ) = f ( + k ) =

m+1
m
k
k
f (m) () +
f (m+1) () + . . .
m!
(m + 1)!

f 0 (xk ) = f 0 ( + k ) =

m1
m
k
f (m) () + k f (m+1) () + . . .
(m 1)!
m!

Therefore
k+1 = k

f ( + k )
f 0 ( + k )

"
#
(m+1) ()
m

f
k
k (m)
f () 1 +
+ ...
m!
(m + 1) f (m) ()
#
"
= k
(m+1) ()
m1

f
k
k
+ ...
f (m) () 1 +
(m 1)!
m f (m) ()
# "
#1
"
k f (m+1) ()
k
k
f (m+1) ()
1+
= k
+ ...
+ ...
1+
m
(m + 1) f (m) ()
m f (m) ()
!
k
k f (m+1) ()
= k
+ ...
1
m
m f (m) ()
1
) + O(2k ).
m
This implies method has linear rate of convergence for multiple roots.
However when the multiplicity of the root is known in advance, we can
modify the method to increase the order of convergence.
We consider
f (xk )
xk+1 = xk e 0
f (xk )
where e is an arbitrary constant to be determined.
If is a multiple root with multiplicity m then error equation
= k (1

## k+1 = k (1 e/m) + O(2k ).

If method is to have quadratic rate of convergence then 1 e/m = 0.
This implies e = m. Therefore, for multiple roots Newton method with

14

xk+1 = xk m

f (xk )
.
f 0 (xk )

## Example 10. Let f (x) = ex x 1. Show that f has a zero of multiplicity

2 at x = 0. Show that Newtons method with x0 = 1 converges to this zero
but not quadratically.
Sol. We have f (x) = ex x 1, f 0 (x) = ex 1 and f 00 (x) = ex .
Now f (0) = 1 0 1 = 0, f 0 (0) = 1 1 = 0 and f 00 (0) = 1. Therefore f
has a zero of multiplicity 2 at x = 0.
f (xk )
x1 =
Starting with x0 = 1, iterations are given by xk+1 = xk 0
f (xk )
0.58198, x2 = 0.31906, x3 = 0.16800
x4 = 0.08635, x5 = 0.04380, x6 = 0.02206.
Example 11. The equation f (x) = x3 7x2 + 16x 12 = 0 has a double
root at x = 2.0. Starting with x0 = 1, find the root correct to three decimals.
Sol. Firstly we apply simple Newton method and successive iterations are
given by
xk+1 = xk

## x3k 7x2k + 16xk 12

, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
3x2k 14xk + 16

## Start with x0 = 1.0, we obtain

x1 = 1.4, x2 = 1.652632, x3 = 1.806484, x4 = 1.89586
x5 = 1.945653, x6 = 1.972144, x7 = 1.985886, x8 = 1.992894
x9 = 1.996435, x10 = 1.998214, x11 = 1.999106, x12 = 1.999553.
The root correct to 3 decimal places is x12 = 2.000.
If we apply modified Newtons Method then
xk+1 = xk 2

## x3k 7x2k + 16xk 12

, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
3x2k 14xk + 16

## Start with x0 = 1.0, we obtain

x1 = 1.8, x2 = 1.984615, x3 = 1.999884.
The root correct to 3 decimal places is 2.000 and in this case we need less
iterations to get desired accuracy.
Example 12. Apply the Newton method with x0 = 0.8 to the equation
f (x) = x3 x2 x + 1 = 0, and verify the first-order of convergence.
Then apply the modified Newton method with m = 2 and verify the order of
convergence.

15

xk+1 = xk

x3k x2k xk + 1
.
3x2k 2xk 1

## Starting with x0 = 0.8, we obtain

x1 = 0.905882, x2 = 0.954132, x3 = 0.977338, x4 = 0.988734.
Since the exact toot is = 1, we have the error in approximations
0 = | x0 | = 0.2 = 0.2 100
1 = | x1 | = 0.094118 = 0.94 101
2 = | x2 | = 0.045868 = 0.46 101
3 = | x3 | = 0.022662 = 0.22 101
4 = | x4 | = 0.011266 = 0.11 101
which shows the linear convergence (error is almost half in the consecutive
steps).
Iterations in modified Newtons method are given by
xk+1 = xk 2

x3k x2k xk + 1
.
3x2k 2xk 1

## Starting with x0 = 0.8, we obtain

x1 = 1.011765, x2 = 1.0000034, x3 = 1.000000.
Now we have the error in approximations
0 = | x0 | = 0.2 = 0.2 100
1 = | x1 | = 0.011765 = 0.12 101
2 = | x2 | = 0.000034 = 0.34 104
which verifies the second-order convergence.
4. General theory for one-point iteration methods
We now consider solving an equation x = g(x) for a root by the iteration
xn+1 = g(xn ),

n 0,

## with x0 as an initial guess to .

For example, the Newton method fits in this pattern with
f (x)
g(x) = x 0
f (x)
& xn+1 = g(xn ).
Each solution of x = g(x) is called a fixed point of g.
For example, consider the solving x2 a = 0, a > 0.
We can write 1. x = x2 + x a or x = x2 + c(x a), c 6= 0.
2. x = a/x.
3. x = 12 (x + a/x).
Let a = 3, x0 = 2.

16

## Table 2. Table for iterations in three cases

n
1
0 2.0
1 3.0
2 9.0
3 87.0

2
3
2.0
2.0
1.5
1.75
2.0 1.732147
1.5 1.73205

Now 3 = 1.73205 and it is clear that third choice is correct but why
other two are not working? Therefore which of the approximation is correct
or not, we will answer after the convergence result (which requires |g 0 () < 1|
in the neighborhood of ) for convergence.
Lemma 4.1. Let g(x) be a continuous function on [a, b] and assume that
a g(x) b, x [a, b] i.e. g([a, b]) [a, b] then x = g(x) has at least one
solution in [a, b].
Proof. Let g be a continuous function on [a, b].
Let assume that a g(x) b, x [a, b].
Now consider (x) = g(x) x.
If g(a) = a or g(b) = b then proof is trivial. Hence we assume that a 6= g(a)
and b 6= g(b).
Now since a g(x) b
= g(a) > a and g(b) < b.
Now
(a) = g(a) a > 0
and
(b) = g(b) b < 0.
Now is continuous and (a)(b) < 0, therefore by Intermediate Value
Theorem has at least one zero in [a, b], i.e. there exists some s.t.
g() = , [a, b].
Graphically, the roots are the intersection points of y = x & y = g(x) as
shown in the Figure.
Theorem 4.2 (Contraction Mapping Theorem). Let g & g 0 are continuous
functions on [a, b] and assume that g satisfy a g(x) b, x [a, b].
Furthermore, assume that there is a constant 0 < < 1 s.t.
= max g 0 (x).
axb

Then
1. x = g(x) has a unique solution of x = g(x) in the interval [a, b].
2. The iterates xn+1 = g(xn ), n 1 will converge to for any choice of
x0 [a, b].

17

3. | xn |
4.

n
|x1 x0 |, n 0.
1
| xn+1 |
= |g 0 ()|.
n | xn |
lim

## Thus for xn close to , xn+1 g 0 ()( x0 ).

Proof. Let g and g 0 are continuous functions on [a, b] and assume that
a g(x) b, x [a, b]. By previous Lemma, there exists at least one
solution to x = g(x).
By Mean-Value Theorem, c s.t.
g(x) g(y) = g 0 (c)(x y).
|g(x) g(y)| |x y|, 0 < < 1, x [a, b].
1. Let x = g(x) has two solutions, say and in [a, b] then = g(),
and = g().
Now | | = |g() g()| | |
= (1 )| | 0
Since 0 < < 1, = = .
= x = g(x) has a unique solution in [a, b] which is (say).
2. To check the convergence of iterates {xn }, we observe that they all
remain in [a, b] as xn [a, b], xn+1 = g(xn ) [a, b].
Now
| xn+1 | = |g() g(xn )| = g 0 (cn )| xn |

18

## for some cn between and xn .

= | xn+1 | | xn | 2 | xn1 |
................
n | x0 |
As n , n 0 which = xn .
3. To find the bound:
Since
| x0 | = | x1 + x1 x0 |
| x1 | + |x1 x0 |
| x0 | + |x1 x0 |
= (1 )| x0 | |x1 x0 |
= | x0 |

1
|x1 x0 |
1

= n | x0 |
Therefore
| xn |

n
|x1 x0 |
1

n
|x1 x0 |
1

4. Now
lim

| xn+1 |
= = lim |g 0 (cn )|
n
| xn |

## for some cn between and xn .

Now xn = cn .
Hence
| xn+1 |
= |g 0 ()|.
lim
n | xn |
Remark 4.1. If |g 0 ()| < 1, the formula
| xn+1 |
= |g 0 ()|
n | xn |
lim

## shows that iterates are linearly convergent. If in addition g 0 () 6= 0, then

formula proves that convergence is exactly linear, with no higher order of
convergence being possible. In this case, the value of g 0 () is the linear rate
of convergence.
In practice, we dont use the above result in the Theorem. The main reason
is that it is difficult to find an interval [a, b] for which a g(x) b condition
is satisfied. Therefore, we use the Theorem in the following practical way.

## ROOTS OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

19

Corollary 4.3. Let g & g 0 are continuous on some interval c < x < d with
the fixed point contained in this interval. Moreover assume that
|g 0 ()| < 1.
Thus there is an interval [a, b] around for which the hypothesis and hence
conclusions of Theorem are true.
On the contrary if |g 0 ()| > 1, then the iteration method xn+1 = g(xn ) will
not converge to .
When |g 0 ()| = 1, no conclusion can be drawn and even if convergence occur,
the method would be far too slow for the iteration method to be practical.
Remark 4.2. The possible behavior of fixed-point iterates {xn } is shown in
Figure for various values of g 0 (). To see the convergence, consider the case
case of x1 = g(x0 ), the height of y = g(x) at x0 . We bring the number x1
back to the x-axis by using the line y = x and the height y = x1 . We continue
this with each iterate, obtaining a stair-step behavior when g 0 () > 0. When
g 0 () < 0, the iterates oscillates around the fixed point , as can be seen in
the Figure. In first figure (on top) iterations are monotonic convergence, in
second oscillatory convergent, in third figure iterations are divergent and in
the last figure iterations are oscillatory divergent.
Theorem 4.4. Let is a root of x = g(x), and g(x) is p times continuously
differentiable function for all x near to , for some p 2. Furthermore
assume
g 0 () = = g (p1) () = 0.
(4.1)
Then if the initial guess x0 is sufficiently close to , then iteration
xn+1 = g(xn ),

n0

(p)
xn+1
p1 g ()
.
p = (1)
n ( xn )
p!

lim

## Proof. Let g(x) is p times continuously differentiable function for all x

near to and satisfying the conditions in equation (4.1) stated above.
Now expand g(xn ) about .
xn+1 = g(xn ) = g( + xn )
(xn )p1 (p1)
(xn )p (p)
g
() +
g (n )
(p 1)!
p!
for some n between xn and . Using equation (4.1) and g() = , we
obtain
(xn )p (p)
g (n ).
xn+1 =
p!
= g() + (xn )g 0 () + +

xn+1
g (p) (n )
p =
(xn )
p!

20

## ROOTS OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

Figure 4. Convergent
xn+1 = g(xn )
=

and

non-convergent

sequences

(p)
xn+1
p1 g (n )
=
(1)
( xn )p
p!

## which proves the result.

Remark: The Newton method can be analyzed by this result.
g(x) = x

f (x)
,
f 0 (x)

g 0 (x) =

f (x) f 00 (x)
[f 0 (x)]2

f 00 ()
6= 0,
f 0 ()
as f 0 () 6= 0 and f 00 () is either positive or negative.
g 0 () = 0,

g 00 () =

## Example 13. Use a fixed-point method to determine a solution to within

104 for x = tan x, for x in [4, 5].

## ROOTS OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

21

Sol. Using g(x) = tan x and x0 = 4 gives x1 = g(x0 ) = tan 4 = 1.158, which
is not in the interval [4, 5]. So we need a different fixed-point function.
If we note that x = tan x implies that
1
1
=
x
tan x
1
1
= x = x +
.
x tan x
1
1
Starting with x0 and taking g(x) = x +
,
x tan x
we obtain x1 = 4.61369, x2 = 4.49596, x3 = 4.49341, x4 = 4.49341.
As x3 and x4 agree to five decimals, it is reasonable to assume that these
values are sufficiently accurate.
Example 14. Consider the equation x3 7x + 2 = 0 in [0, 1]. Write a
fixed-point iteration which will converge to the solution.
1
Sol. We rewrite the equation in the form x = (x3 + 2) and define the the
7
1 3
fixed-point iteration xn+1 = (xn + 2).
7
1 3
Now g(x) = (x + 2)
7
then g : [0, 1] [0, 1] and |g 0 (x)| < 3/7 < 1, x [0, 1].
Hence by the Contraction Mapping Theorem the sequence {xn } defined
above will converge to the unique solution of given equation. Starting with
x0 = 0.5, we can compute the solution as following.
x1 = 0.303571429
x2 = 0.28971083
x3 = 0.289188016.
Therefore root correct to three decimals is 0.289.
Example 15. The iterates xn+1 = 2(1+c)xn +cx3n will converge to = 1
for some values of constant c (provided that x0 is sufficiently close to ).
Find the values of c for which convergence occurs? For what values of c, if
any, convergence is quadratic?
Sol. Fixed-point iteration
xn+1 = g(xn )
with
g(x) = 2 (1 + c)x + cx3 .
If = 1 is a fixed point then for convergence |g 0 ()| < 1
= | (1 + c) + 3c2 | < 1
= 0 < c < 1/2.

22

## For this value of c, g 00 () 6= 0.

For quadratic convergence
g 0 () = 0 & g 00 () 6= 0.
This gives c = 1/2.
Example 16. How should the constant a be chosen to ensure the fastest
possible convergence with the iteration from
xn+1 =

axn + x2
n +1
.
a+1

Sol. Let
lim xn = lim xn+1 = .

a + 2 + 1
=
a+1
= 3 2 1 = 0.
Therefore, the above formula is used to find the roots of the equation f (x) =
x3 x2 1 = 0.
Now substitute xn = + n , and xn+1 = + n+1 , we get
1
(a + 1)( + n+1 ) = a( + n ) + 2 (1 + /)2 + 1

which implies
(a + 1)n+1 = (a 2/3 )n + O(2n ).
Therefore, for fastest convergence, we have a = 2/3 . Here is the root of
the equation x3 x2 1 = 0 and can be computed by the Newton method.
Example 17. To compute the root of the equation
ex = 3 loge x,
using the formula
3 loge xn exp(xn )
,
p
show that p = 3 gives rapid convergence.
xn+1 = xn

## Sol. Substitute xn = + n , and xn+1 = + n+1 , in the given equation

3 loge ( + n ) exp( n )
n+1 = n
p
1
= n [3 loge + 3 loge (1 + n /) exp() exp(n )]
p


1
= n 3 loge + 3 n / 2n /22 + O(3n ) exp() 1 n + 2n /2 . . .
p
Since is exact root, exp() 3 loge = 0, therefore error equation will
be


1
n+1 = 1 (3/ + e ) n + O(2n ).
p

23

p=

3
+ e

## where is the root of ex = 3 loge x = 0. The root lies in (1, 2) and by

applying Newtons method with x0 = 1.5, we get
x1 = 1.053213, x2 = 1.113665, x3 = 1.115447, x4 = 1.115448.
Taking = 1.11545, we obtain p = 2.9835. Hence p = 3.
Exercises
(1) Given the following equations: (i) x4 x 10 = 0, (ii) x ex = 0.
Find the initial approximations for finding the smallest positive root.
Use these to find the root correct three decimals with Secant and
Newton method.
(2) Find all solutions of e2x = x + 6, correct to 4 decimal places using
the Newton Method.
(3) Use the bisection method to find the indicated root of the following
equations. Use an error tolerance of = 0.0001.
(a) The real root of x3 x2 x 1 = 0.
(b) The smallest positive root of cos x = 1/2 + sin x.
(c) The real roots of x3 2x 1 = 0.
(4) Suppose that

2
e1/x , x 6= 0
f (x) =
0, x = 0
The function f is continuous everywhere, in fact differentiable arbitrarily often everywhere, and 0 is the only solution of f (x) = 0.
Show that if x0 = 0.0001, it takes more than one hundred million
iterations of the Newton Method to get below 0.00005.
(5) A calculator is defective: it can only add, subtract, and multiply.
Use the equation 1/x = 1.37, the Newton Method, and the defective
calculator to find 1/1.37 correct to 8 decimal places.
(6) Use the Newton Method to find the smallest and the second smallest
positive roots of the equation tan x = 4x, correct to 4 decimal places.
(7) What is the order of convergence of the iteration
xn (x2n + 3a)
3x2n + a

## (8) What are the solutions, if any, of the equation x = 1 + x ? Does

the iteration xn+1 = 1 + xn , converge to any of these solutions
(assuming x0 is chosen sufficiently close to ) ?
xn+1 =

24

## (9) (a) Apply Newtons method to the function


x, x 0

f (x) =
x, x < 0
with the root = 0. What is the behavior of the iterates? Do they
converge, and if so, at what rate?
(b) Do the same as in (a), but with
 3
x2 , x 0

f (x) =
3
x2 , x < 0.
(10) Find all positive roots of the equation
Z x
2
ex dt = 1
10
0

## with six correct decimals with Newton method.

2
Hint: f (x) = 10 x ex 1 = 0. This equation has two positive roots
in the intervals (0, 1) and (1, 2).
(11) Show that
xn (x2n + 3a)
xn+1 =
, n0
3x2n + a

## is a third-order method for computing a. Calculate

( a xn+1 )
lim
n ( a xn )3
assuming x0 has been chosen sufficiently close to the root.
(12) Show that the following two sequences
have convergence of the sec
ond order with the same limit a.




1
1
a
x2n
(i) xn+1 = xn 1 + 2
(ii) xn+1 = xn 3
.
2
xn
2
a

## If xn is a suitably close to approximation to a, show that the error

in the first formula for xn+1 is about one-third of that in the second
formula, and deduce that the formula


1
3a x2n
xn+1 = xn 6 + 2
8
xn
a
gives a sequence with third-order convergence.
(13) Suppose is a zero of multiplicity m of f , where f (m) is continuous
on an open interval containing . Show that the fixed-point method
x = g(x) with the following g has second-order convergence:
g(x) = x m

f (x)
.
f 0 (x)

25

Bibliography
[Gerald]

## Curtis F. Gerald and Patrick O. Wheatley Applied Numerical

Analysis, 7th edition, Pearson, 2003.
[Atkinson] K. Atkinson and W. Han. Elementary Numerical Analysis,
3rd edition, John Willey and Sons, 2004.
[Jain] M. K. Jain, S. R. K. Iyengar, and R. K. Jain. Numerical Methods for Scientific and Engineering Computation, 6th edition,
New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 2012.