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GRAMMAR AND TEXTS

Mdulo 11 Text

Mdulo 13 Text

Dear Jennifer:
I got married a short time ago and my husband and I
are now in the midst of an important discussion. Should we have
children? To be honest with each other, we both have doubts
about the stability of the family as a unit in todays society. We
both came from broken homes and, to say the least, our families
were not ideal. He and I really do want to have children, though.
Is there any guarantee that we can make it work? This is how I
feel.
Sincerely,
Afflicted.

One morning David announced he was going to leave


home and see the world. His parents became very upset and
reminded him that the money he had saved would not last very
long. But David insisted, telling his parents that they need not
worry as he was sure he would be able to manage.

Responda em Portugus
1. O que aflige a remetente?
Resposta: A dvida se ela e o marido deveriam, ou no, ter
filhos.
2. Qual a viso dela e do marido em relao famlia hoje em
dia como instituio?
Resposta: Ambos tm dvidas quanto estabilidade da
famlia como uma unidade na sociedade atual.

5. Write (T) true or (F) false:


a) Davids parents became very upset because their son was
going to spend the money they have saved . ( F )
b) Davids parents got angry because the money he had saved
was not going to last forever. ( F )
c) David told his parents they neednt worry about him because
he was sure he could take care of himself. ( T )
6. According to the text, Davids parents __________________
a) were very poor.
b) were not pleased with his decision.
c) told him he should save money.
d) sent him on a trip round the world.
e) were easily upset.
Resposta: B

Mdulo 12 Text

Mdulo 14 Grammar
Gerund and Infinitive

In order to replace the expensive fuel for cars with


something cheaper than oil, technicians have been
experimenting with all sorts of materia like batteries, sugar cane
alcohol, and even plain water. Where there is a will, there is a
way, and this is the time to prove mans ingenuity.

7. Complete com o tempo verbal correto:


having
a) He admitted _____________
felt completely lost. (to have)

3. Based on the text, translate the following words into


English.

seeing
b) I cant stand _____________
a woman cry. (to see)
see
c) Let me _____________
your new notebook. (to see)
to pay
d) He asked me _____________
all the bills. (to pay)

expensive
a) caro ________________________
fuel
b) combustvel ________________________
technicians
c) tcnicos ________________________
ingenuity
d) inventividade ________________________

8. Translate into Portuguese.


a) He stopped drinking two years ago.
b) They stopped to eat a sandwich.
Resposta:
a) Ele parou de beber dois anos atrs.
b) Eles pararam para comer um sanduiche.

4. A palavra ingenuity um falso cognato porque quer dizer


talento, inventividade.
Escreva ento um sinnimo em lngua inglesa.
Resposta: ingeniousness.

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Mdulos 15 e 16 Text
(UNICAMP)

Mobile phone users slow traffic down


By Brian Osborne
Sick of traffic congestion? Well, part of the blame needs to
go to motorists who talk on mobile phones. At least, that is the
conclusion of a study conducted by lhe University of Utah. The
study found that if you use your mobile phone while driving,
you are less likely to pass slower vehicles. If you think the study
is not talking about you, because you have a hands-free device,
then you are wrong. According to previous studies performed
by psychology Professor Dave Strayer of the University of
Utah, the ultimate distraction for drivers is the conversation not just holding the mobile phone.
(Adaptado de
www.geek.com/mobile-phone-users-slow-traffic-down/)
Responda em Portugus.
9. Por que motoristas que dirigem enquanto conversam ao
celular retardam o fluxo do trfego?
Resposta: Os motoristas que dirigem enquanto conversam
ao celular retardam o fluxo do trfego, pois menos
provvel que eles ultrapassem os veculos mais lentos.
10. A que concluso chegou o Professor Dave Strayer em suas
pesquisas?
Resposta: O professor Dave Strayer concluiu que o
principal motivo de distrao para os motoristas a
conversa e no simplesmente segurar o celular.

Mdulo 17 Text
(UNICAMP)

At the markets mark


By Sonia Racy
The number of Brazilians living alone grows. IBGE Brazilian Instittite of Geography and Statistics - discovered, in
its last survey, that 5 million Brazilians live alone. Of this total,
63% are senior citizens, but 22% are people in the 20 to 29 years
old age range. lt is a market that grows 6 to 7% a year and draws
attention from different segments of the economy. After alI,
most of these consumers earn from 10 to 20 minimum wages
and have college degrees.
(Adaptado de TAM Magazine, ano 4 n.o 44
outubro de 2007, p.72.

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Responda em Portugus.
11. A que se refere o ndice de 63% mencionado no texto?
Resposta: O ndice de 63% mencionado no texto refere-se
porcentagem de idosos que vivem sozinhos no Brasil.
12. O que caracteriza a maior parte dos consumidores
brasileiros retratados no texto?
Resposta: A maior parte desses consumidores recebe entre
10 e 20 salrios mnimos e tem grau universitrio.

Mdulo 18 Grammar Modals


Anomalous Verbs
Choose the right alternative.
13. You ______________________ work hard when you were
younger.
a) have to
b) has to
c) had to
d) will have to
e) would have to
Resposta: C
14. I _________________________ taking a nap after meals.
a) used to
b) ought to
c) should
d) am used to
e) must
Resposta: D
15. Peter ______________________ be at home. Look! The
lights are on.
a) must
b) should
c) ought to
d) will must
e) would must
Resposta: A
16. Youre very sick. You _________________ to see a doctor.
a) ought
b) should
c) can
d) may
e) must
Resposta: A
17. People _____________ drive without their driver-licenses.
a) can
b) may
c) must
d) should
e) mustnt
Resposta: E
18. She _____________________ drink tea.
a) would better
b) have better
c) would rather
d) had rather
e) used
Resposta: C

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Mdulo 11 Text: Cell-Phone Abuse


Tech Dial M for Molester

PICTURE IMPERFECT: Are cell-phone pics invasive?

ell-phone abuse is getting out of hand around the world.


U.S. gyms are banning camera phones for fear that
people will take inappropriate photos of unknowing
subjects. In June a Melbourne man pleaded guilty to taking
pictures of young girls changing at a suburban pool, while eager
readers in Japanese bookstores reportedly click away at pages of
their favorite magazines to get out of buying them. Web sites in
Asia have appeared boasting of out-of-focus upskirt shots of
unaware women taken by cell phones, while one American Web
site showcases cameraphone images of womens backsides.
Saudi Arabia does not want to bother with the gadgets
implications; camera phones have been banned in the whole
country.
Bullies have gone high tech, too, using text messages and
voice mail to threaten their victims long after school is out. This
type of bullying has surged over the past two years, according
to Glenn Stutzky, a schoolviolence expert at Michigan State.
With regular bullying, kids could go home at the end of the
day and find some peace, Stutzky says. Now, theres no
escape. A 2002 British National Childrens Home study found
that one in four children in the United Kingdom were bullied by

cell phone or the Internet. From his experience in the field,


Stutzky says cell bullies are often middle or upperclass, and
the majority are female. He says that girls usually prefer more
subtle methods, so cell phones make the perfect tool.
(Newsweek)
1. You may infer from the text that
a) camera phones will soon be banned all over the world.
b) taking pictures of young girls changing at pools is considered
to be a crime in Saudi Arabia.
c) cell-phone use is totally forbidden in most Arab countries.
d) Japanese readers are making use of cell-phones to take
pictures of naked women.
e) womens bottoms are being exhibited by an American Web
site.
2. The text states that
a) cell phones are being used by certain students to menace
their schoolmates even after school hours.
b) cell phones are completely banned in American schools.
c) most cell bullies are against the idea of using cell-phones at
schools.
d) internet is the most common way to threaten children in the
United Kingdom.
e) the use of the internet and cell phones to threaten the victims
long after school is out is decreasing in European countries.

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3. Cell bullies use their cell phones to


a) advise other people.
b) follow other people.
c) hide other people.
d) help other people.
e) frighten other people.

False Friends
magazine = revista
expert = especialista
Ateno:

Vocabulary

No se esquea dos seguintes false friends

to plead guilty = alegar culpa

large = grande

eager = ansioso

library = biblioteca

to boast = gabar-se

mayor = prefeito

to bother = aborrecer-se
bullies = valentes
to surge = aumentar
subtle = sutil

Mdulo 12 Text: An Unhealthy Cookbook


Food The Quickest Way to Your Heart

Youd think that in a country where 60 percent of people are considered overweight and diets are all the rage, a cookbook of
artery-clogging recipeswouldnt find many buyers. Think again. In 1999, sick of the medias unhealthy fixation on dieting,
Benjamin Lewis and Rodrigo Velloso cooked up Eat Dangerously, a cardiac arrest of a cookbook stuffed with recipes like the 22pound, whiskey-filled Turkey From Hell. Americans gobbled up 3,000 copies. (Not bad for a book available mostly online.) With
more than 750,000 unique hits on their Web site (eatdangerously.com), the pair decided to offer dangerous menus for every occasion.
The boys newest release is aimed straight at your heart: Valentines Dangerously, which serves up lamb chops stuffed with gorgonzola
and comes with a recommendation to wash it down with a cigarette so you can feel it clogging your arteries. (Dont worry

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though, youve got tons of arteries, write the duo.) In response


to the charge that fat may be unromantic, the authors argue that
a hearty candlelit meal that forgoes dietary niceties will release
untapped chemicals in the brain, which are bound to be
mistaken for love. Americans might want to consider that this
medical advice comes from two cooks who regard data linking
healthy diets to longevity highly questionable. But they do
cook a damn fine meal.
(Newsweek)

d) are not very much concerned about recipes that clog your
arteries.
e) wrote the book especially to be sold on Valentines Day.

Vocabulary
to be overweight = estar acima do peso
to be all the rage = ser muito popular, estar na moda
artery-clogging recipes = receitas que entopem as artrias
stuffed with = recheado de, cheio de

1.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

According to the passage,


Americans are not interested in buying cookbooks.
Americans dont care very much about diets.
most Americans are too fat.
the cookbook mentioned didnt find many buyers.
such an American fixation on diets cant be healthy.

to gobble up = devorar

2.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

The book mentioned in the passage


details a new kind of diet aimed at heart patients.
can be bought at any library.
brings recipes that wont damage your arteries.
analyzes more than 750,000 recipes.
may not be considered healthy.

to be bound to = estar destinado a

3.
a)
b)
c)

The authors mentioned in the passage


are very famous restaurateurs in the United States.
strongly believe that healthy diets improve longevity.
state that it is less dangerous to your heart to eat fatty foods
than to smoke.

to aim at = dirigir a
charge = acusao
to forgo = abrir mo de
niceties = guloseimas

False Friends
available = disponvel
tons = toneladas
data = dados
Ateno: outros exemplos de false friends
notice = aviso
petrol = gasolina

Mdulo 13 Text: HRT


MEDICINE

More Bad News

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ts been more than a year since a study linked hormonereplacement therapy to a higher risk of cardiovascular
disease and sent millions of women into a panic.
Since then, the treatment has been implicated in breast

cancer and stroke, too. But it still appeals to women desperate

False Friends
journal = peridico, revista cientfica
data = dados
Ateno: outros importantes false friends

to escape menopausal symptoms. For them, we have one piece


of advice: pick up copies of last weeks Lancet and New
England Journal of Medicine. Both journals add to the ever-

physician = mdico
prejudice = preconceito

mounting evidence that HRT has more risks than rewards.


The NEJM study, based on the same data as last years
report, suggests that the risk of a heart attack rises 81 percent in
the first year of use and thats for all hormone users, not just
women predisposed to cardiovascular disease. And The Lancets
study shows that progestin-estrogen therapy (like Prempro)
tracks with an increased risk of breast cancer compared with the
risk for women taking estrogen only. Estrogen therapy (like

Mdulo 14 Grammar
Gerund and Infinitive
1. Avoid ................................... her the truth. She wont
understand it.
a) tell
b) telling
c) to tell
d) to telling
e) saying

Premarin), by the way, is linked to uterine cancer.


The conclusion: theres no way to get around the risks.
(Newsweek)

2. He pretended ......................... her as she passed him in the


street.
a) not to see
b) not see
c) dont see
d) not seeing
e) to not see

Responda em portugus:
1. O que levou milhes de mulheres a entrarem em pnico no
ano passado?

2. O que sugeriu o estudo publicado no New England Journal


of Medicine? E o estudo publicado no Lancet?

3. A que concluso chegaram os dois estudos mencionados


no texto?

Vocabulary
to link = relacionar

3. Would you mind ........................... me ...................... this


letter?
a) help translate
b) helping translating
c) help to translate
d) helping translate
e) to help to translate

4. I think she had a good reason for ............................ to


school yesterday.
a) to go
b) not to go
c) not going
d) didnt go
e) not go
5. Could you please stop ........................... so much noise? I
cant concentrate on my studies.
a) make
b) to do
c) making
d) doing
e) to make

stroke = derrame
advice = conselho
rewards = recompensas
to track with = acompanhar

6. ....................................... English is much easier than


........................ it.
a) Reading speaking
b) Reading to speak
c) To read to speak
d) Read speak
e) Read speaking

by the way = a propsito


to get around = conseguir evitar

490

7. The children walked in the rain without .........................


umbrellas.
a) carry
b) not to carry
c) to carry
d) carrying
e) not carrying

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8. The movie was so sad that she couldnt help


........................... .
a) cry
b) crying
c) to cry
d) to crying
e) not crying

12. Shes used ........................... on the left because shes lived


in London a long time.
a) to drive
b) driving
c) drive
d) to driving
e) for driving

9. My nephew has managed ......................... the drivers test.


a) pass
b) passing
c) to pass
d) to passing
e) to not pass

13. What ............................................................................... .


a) do you want that I do?
b) do you want I to do?
c) do you want that I did?
d) do you want me do?
e) do you want me to do?

10. Did Steve agree to go ........................... with us?


a) ski
b) skiing
c) to skiing
d) to ski
e) to not ski

11. Its no use ........................... about it. Theres nothing you


can do.
a) worrying
b) worry
c) to worry
d) to worrying
e) not worry

14. The doctor told him he should give up ............................ so


much.
a) drink
b) drinking
c) to drink
d) for drinking
e) to drinking

15. Theres no hope of ....................... survivors.


a) find
b) to find
c) found
d) finding
e) founded

Text 1: Environment
LOSING GROUND

Deforestation threatens birds like the Jambu fruit dove

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By the end of this century, 42 percent of animal species in


Southeast Asia could become extinct, says a new study
published in Nature. Worse still, at least half of those species
could disappear worldwide. Using Singapore as a microcosm
for examining a regionwide tropical biodiversity crisis, Navjot
Sodhi of the National University of Singapore and his

3. In: The future looks bleak, says Sodhi, the underlined


word could be translated as
a) previsvel.
b) favorvel.
c) surpreendente.
d) sustentvel.
e) sombrio.

colleagues compiled population data from the past two centuries

Vocabulary

to prove that as Singapore's forests have been sacrificed for


agriculture and urban development animals that call the forest

deforestation = desmatamento

home have suffered enormously. In the past 80 years, two thirds

overwhelming = dominante

of the 91 known forest-dependent species of birds in Singapore

staggering = assombrosa

have become extinct.

to predict = prever

As deforestation has been the overwhelming contributor to


species demise in Singapore, Sodhi and his team used the
current deforestation rate a staggering 74 percent loss over the
past two centuries for the entire region of Southeast Asia, to
predict that somewhere between 13 percent and 42 percent of

to be doomed = estar condenado


logging = extrao de madeira
poaching = caa
to bid adieu = dar adeus

species regionwide may be doomed. The future looks bleak,


says Sodhi. What's needed are strong measures against illegal
logging and poaching, or economic incentives to establish
nature reserves. Unless those more rigorous efforts are
undertaken, Asia may ultimately bid the likes of the banded leaf
monkey and the leopard cat adieu.

False Friends
data = dados
ultimately = em ltima anlise, no fim
Ateno: no se esquea
presently = logo, em breve
to pretend = fingir

(Newsweek)
1. According to the text,
a) deforestation and worldwide economic crisis are destroying
large areas of tropical rain forests.
b) many plants and animals are threatened with extinction in
Singapore.
c) the Singaporean government is taking drastic measures to
save its forests.
d) at least 50% of birds living in the Singaporean forests have
already disappeared.
e) the future seems rosy for forest-dependent species of birds in
Singapore.

2. In: "As deforestation has been the overwhelming


contributor to species demise in Singapore,...", the underlined
word is closest in meaning to
a) survival.
b) death.
c) increase.
d) improvement.
e) growth.

Text 2: Are You Optimist?

Good News
PANGLOSS POWER Here's something to really smile about.
A 30-year study shows that folks with a positive perspective

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live 19% longer than pessimists. How this might work is not clear, but it may be that an optimistic attitude somehow strengthens the
immune system or simply inspires people to take better care of themselves. In the study, the optimists were happy to credit themselves
when things went right, and they tended to view crisis as fleeting. Pessimists, on the other hand, were chronic self-blamers. Most of
us are, no doubt, a bit of both.

(Time)
1.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

2.
as
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

According to the passage,


optimists are always smiling.
pessimists blame everybody for their mistakes.
pessimists never smile.
optimists are generally weaker than pessimists.
pessimists blame themselves when things go wrong.

You may infer from the passage that optimists view crises
transitory.
permanent.
avoidable.
pleasant.
strong.

4.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

The majority of the people, according to the passage, are


pessimist.
optimist.
happy.
both pessimist and optimist.
neither pessimist nor optimist.

5.

In
"... an optimistic attitude somehow strengthens the immune
system...", the underlined word may be translated as
a) prejudica.
b) fortalece.
c) imobiliza.
d) afeta.
e) no compromete.

Ateno
3.

In
"... inspires people to take better care of themselves.", the
phrasal verb take care of is similar in meaning to
a) look for.
b) look like.
c) look after.
d) look through.
e) look into.

A palavra NEWS significa notcia(s), em portugus. um


substantivo singular, concordando, portanto, com o verbo no
singular. formada a partir dos quatro pontos cardeais:
North, East, West e South.

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Mdulos 15 e 16 - Text: Health News Blues


(UNIFESP) INSTRUO: As questes de nmeros 1 a 4 referem-se ao texto seguinte.
Before you panic after hearing about the latest health epidemic on the local news, consider getting an expert opinion. In this
fastmoving information world, where just about anything can be found with a simple click of a mouse or by flipping through cable
channels, its hard to know whom to trust, especially when it comes to health and medical issues. That is why doctors advise the public
to be skeptical about news of a health epidemic or crisis, especially when it comes from the local television news.
Its not that the information on the news isnt accurate, says Dr. David B. Baron, a family physician and chief of staff at the
Santa Monica-UCLA Medical Center in Malibu, Calif. But the media tend to go for the medical news thats most exciting or most
interesting, and too often most alarming.
In a survey of local television coverage of medical news, published in the March issue of The American Journal of Managed Care,
three doctors examined the content of full-length news broadcasts in the top 50 U.S. media markets and found that of the 2,795
broadcasts they reviewed, 64% featured health stories. In fact, at times health coverage is inaccurate and is squeezed into such short
bites of time that it may not provide helpful information. The average amount of airtime for each story was a mere 33 seconds, and
the two most common topics were breast cancer and West Nile Virus. The survey concluded that few of the newscasts actually
provided useful information, while some of the stories were factually incorrect-worrying considering that local television news
broadcasts reach an average of 165 million Americans.
I think its alarming that they fail to talk about prevention or what to do in case, says Dr. James M. Pribble, lead author on the
survey and elector in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Michigan. For instance, West Nile Virus was a
common story, but no one told you what to do to avoid getting bit by mosquitoes.
Baron opines that reports on the obesity epidemic or Avian Flu are valid stories but often dont include information that will
help viewers live healthier lifestyles. There needs to be information about nutrition, weight management, smoking cessation, exercise,
lowering blood pressure and cholesterol, and preventing and screening cancer and heart disease, he says.
Luckily, there are plenty of trusted sources for medical news and information that can be just as convenient as the 10 p.m.
newscast. Two Web sites to check out are that of the American Academy of Family Physicians at www.familydoctor.org, and WebMD.
But he stresses that all medical conditions should be properly assessed by an actual doctor.
More than anything, I believe that people need to have a good relationship with a primary care physician whom they trust, who
takes the time to answer questions, and who cares enough to stay informed, he says.
By Susan Yara, 07.27.06.
(www.forbes.com/2006/07/26/questionable-healthnews_
cx_sy_0727htow_print.html)

1. Segundo o texto,
a) no se deve confiar incondicionalmente em notcias sobre
sade veiculadas em meios de comunicao.
b) notcias alarmantes sobre epidemias e crises so transmitidas para provocar pnico e causar sensacionalismo.
c) a mdia inventa histrias como epidemias da obesidade, da
gripe aviria e da febre do Nilo, que so doenas facilmente
evitveis.
d) os mdicos devem se informar sobre as notcias veiculadas
na imprensa para tratar adequadamente os novos surtos e
epidemias.
e) a maioria das notcias sobre sade na TV e na Internet
fornecem informaes incorretas e muitas so inteis.

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2. David B. Baron
a) works at the Santa Monica-UCLA Medical Center in
California that is associated with the American Academy of
Family Physicians.
b) contributed to the survey conducted by the American
Journal of Managed Care in March.
c) thinks that health information in the media should be
presented in an exciting and interesting way.
d) does not agree with Dr. James Pribble, who stresses the
need to inform the population about the West Nile Virus.
e) believes that TV should provide useful information to help
people to adopt a healthy lifestyle.

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3. A pesquisa publicada no peridico American Journal of


Managed Care
a) constatou que a maioria dos 2795 noticirios de TV
apresenta matrias de 33 segundos.
b) indicou que 64% das matrias televisivas sobre sade so
condensadas em 33 segundos.
c) afirma que 165 milhes de telespectadores americanos so
atingidos por notcias incorretas e sensacionalistas todos os dias.
d) concluiu que a maioria das notcias televisivas no fornece
informaes teis ao telespectador.
e) recomenda que seja necessrio ensinar a populao a se
proteger contra a gripe aviria e outras epidemias em telejornais
de grande audincia.

4. O trecho do sexto pargrafo do texto But he stresses that


all medical conditions should be properly assessed by an actual
doctor. significa, em portugus:
a) Mas ele diz que as condies mdicas do estresse devem
ser apropriadamente acessadas por um mdico atualizado.
b) Mas ele enfatiza que todas as doenas devem ser
adequadamente avaliadas por um mdico em pessoa.
c) Mas ele est estressado devido s condies mdicas mal
avaliadas pelos mdicos desatualizados.
d) Mas ele afirma que o estresse est entre as doenas
inadequadamente avaliadas por mdicos desatualizados.
e) Mas ele enfatiza que todos os mdicos devem se atualizar
sobre as doenas para posterior avaliao.

Mdulo 17 - Text: Temper Tracking: Angry Outbursts May Take a Toll on the Lungs
(UNIFESP) INSTRUO: As questes de nmeros 1 a 5 referem-se ao texto seguinte.
Men who are chronically hostile and angry may face a future of sharply diminishing lung function, new research suggests. In
1986, scientists administered a questionnaire to 670 men ages 21 to 80 to assess their hostility. Each then received a pulmonary
exam within one year of completing the questionnaire. The men were tracked for an average of 8.2 years, with comprehensive
physical examinations every 3 to 5 years, including an average of three pulmonary function tests.
After controlling for age, weight, height, smoking status and other variables, the scientists found a consistent association between
high hostility and lower levels of lung function. Among more hostile men, pulmonary function was worse at every exam over a 10year period when compared with less hostile subjects. The study appears online in Thorax.
Since levels of lung function were in the normal range at the start of the study, the researchers say, the possibility that poor lung
function led to hostility rather than the other way around is unlikely. They acknowledge, however, that an unknown factor could cause
both hostility and poor lung function.
Still, Dr. Rosalind J. Wright, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard and the senior author of the study, said there was no
doubt that emotions could cause physical changes, some of which could be detrimental. When you experience physical symptoms
around negative emotions, your heart rate goes up, you start sweating, and so on, Dr. Wright said. Changes in bodily functions
nervous system, immune function need to occur for you to feel these things. It is possible that similar processes are going on more
locally, say in the lungs, which over many years may cause inflammation that affects lung function.
By Nicholas Bakalar, September 19, 2006
(www.nytimes.com/2006/09/19/health/19host.html)
1. The research suggests that
a) 670 hostile men had a lower lung function.
b) age, weight, height and smoking habits may have altered
the research results.
c) pulmonary function was affected after a 10 year period.
d) women were not affected by hostility and anger.
e) there is a relation between high hostility and lower levels
of lung function.

2.
a)
b)
c)

The study
started in 1986 and lasted for about 8 years.
discovered an unknown factor that could cause hostility.
replaced some men every 3 to 5 years.

d) tracked 670 men with normal lung function at the start.


e) conducted a pulmonary function test at the beginning and
another after 10 years.

3. No trecho do terceiro pargrafo ...the possibility that


poor lung function led to hostility rather than the other way
around is unlikely. a expresso rather than significa, em
portugus,
a) pelo contrrio.
b) ao invs de.
c) a menos que.
d) mais que.
e) devido a.

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C2_3o_Ingles_Tar_Conv_Lu 28/08/12 11:44 Pgina 496

4. Em relao concluso da pesquisa, o trecho do terceiro


pargrafo do texto They acknowledge, however, that an
unknown factor could cause both hostility and poor lung
function. apresenta
a) uma ressalva.
b) uma reformulao.
c) uma avaliao.
d) um pressuposto.
e) uma certeza.

5.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Dr. Rosalind Wright says that


emotions cause detrimental physical changes.
angry people sweat a lot.
emotions might cause physical alterations.
hostile men have an unbalanced nervous system.
when heart rate goes up, the lungs are affected.

Mdulo 18 - Grammar
Modals Anomalous Verbs
1. Listen, if you really want to get over your sickness you
................. not sleep late.
a) better
b) would better
c) had rather
d) had better
e) are better

2. At most public pools people ........................ take a shower


before entering the pool.
a) should to
b) ought
c) have to
d) will must
e) has to

3. May I speak to Mr. Johnson? Sorry, you .......................


the wrong number. Theres no one here by that name.
a) ought to have dialed
b) must have dialed
c) could have dialed
d) should have dialed
e) had to have dialed

4. The film .......................... sad. Many people leaving the


theater seem to have been crying.
a) must be
b) can be
c) should be
d) ought to be
e) have to be

496

5. Theres a law that says that you ........................ throw trash


on the streets.
a) dont have to
b) mustnt
c) dont need to
d) shouldnt to
e) may not

6. Teenagers ........................ stay up late at night than go to


bed early.
a) must
b) had better
c) would rather
d) should
e) are used to
7. His car has been towed away. He ........................ there.
a) may not have parked
b) shouldnt have parked
c) can not have parked
d) doesnt have to park
e) mustnt have parked

8.

Do you play tennis very often? Not now, but I

........................
a) used to
d) use to

b) am used to
e) would rather

c) ought

9. I ........................ my new car now, but I found it very


strange at first.
a) used to drive
b) am used to drive
c) ought to drive
d) am used to driving
e) had better drive

10. You ........................ introduce me to your father. Weve


already met.
a) dont have to
b) mustnt
c) shouldnt to
d) cant
e) may not

11. If you dont want to put on weight, you ........................ eat


low-calorie food.
a) would rather
b) cant
c) had better
d) mustnt
e) would better

12. I left a piece of pie in the fridge, but now its gone.
Someone ........................ it.
a) must eat
b) should have eaten
c) must have eaten
d) had to eat
e) may eat