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Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399

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Energy
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

Analysis of exhaust waste heat recovery from a dual fuel low temperature
combustion engine using an Organic Rankine Cycle
Kalyan K. Srinivasan, Pedro J. Mago, Sundar R. Krishnan*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mail Stop 9552, 210 Carpenter Building, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 9 November 2009
Received in revised form
9 February 2010
Accepted 10 February 2010
Available online 8 April 2010

This paper examines the exhaust waste heat recovery potential of a high-efciency, low-emissions dual
fuel low temperature combustion engine using an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Potential improvements
in fuel conversion efciency (FCE) and specic emissions (NOx and CO2) with hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and ORC turbocompounding were quantied over a range of injection timings and engine
loads. With hot EGR and ORC turbocompounding, FCE improved by an average of 7 percentage points for
all injection timings and loads while NOx and CO2 emissions recorded an 18 percent (average) decrease.
From pinch-point analysis of the ORC evaporator, ORC heat exchanger effectiveness (3), percent EGR, and
exhaust manifold pressure were identied as important design parameters. Higher pinch point
temperature differences (PPTD) uniformly yielded greater exergy destruction in the ORC evaporator,
irrespective of engine operating conditions. Increasing percent EGR yielded higher FCEs and stable
engine operation but also increased exergy destruction in the ORC evaporator. It was observed that hot
EGR can prevent water condensation in the ORC evaporator, thereby reducing corrosion potential in the
exhaust piping. Higher 3 values yielded lower PPTD and higher exergy efciencies while lower 3 values
decreased post-evaporator exhaust temperatures below water condensation temperatures and reduced
exergy efciencies.
2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Waste heat recovery
Organic Rankine Cycle
Dual fuel engines
Low temperature combustion

1. Introduction
National energy security, rising energy prices, increasingly
competitive global markets, and stringent environmental
emissions regulations are primary driving forces in the search for
sustainable and economically viable technologies for efcient and
clean approaches to energy conversion and utilization. Internal
combustion engines (IC) are prime movers of choice when high
power densities and efciencies are desirable. Due to relatively
cheap fuel availability in past decades, IC engines had been
optimized for high power densities and low-emissions. However, in
recent years, with escalating fuel prices and sustainability concerns,
engine efciency has assumed greater importance.
Over the past 150 years since the invention of the IC engine
great strides have been made in improving its fuel conversion
efciency and reducing its emissions. As a testament to this fact, the
average peak brake thermal efciency of on-road spark ignition
power trains is about 30% while that of on-road compression
ignition power trains is about 41% [1]. Further improvements in fuel

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 1 662 325 1544; fax: 1 662 325 7223.
E-mail address: krishnan@me.msstate.edu (S.R. Krishnan).
0360-5442/$ e see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.energy.2010.02.018

conversion efciency require a system-level analysis of the various


losses encountered in the IC engine. This analysis can begin with
thermodynamic modeling of the IC engine. Traditional rst lawbased thermodynamic models facilitate accurate energy
accounting, i.e., they are useful in estimating the net losses associated with the combustion process. But these models do not
provide estimates of how much of the wasted energy is actually
recoverable as useful work or exergy. This requires second lawbased models that track the irreversibilities associated with
various processes that destroy fuel chemical exergy.
1.1. Selective review of exergy destruction in combustion processes
Examination of exergy destruction in internal combustion
engine processes has been actively studied by many researchers to
identify, and possibly recover some of the lost available work. Lior
and Rudy [2] performed a second law analysis of an ideal Otto cycle
and they concluded that a simple rst law analysis does not reveal
the magnitude of work-potential lost in the combustion process.
The exergy analysis results showed that the magnitude of these
losses were comparable to that of useful shaft work. They recommended the employment of bottoming cycles to recover the exergy
destroyed in the exhaust. Dunbar and Lior [3] examine the exergy

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K.K. Srinivasan et al. / Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399

Nomenclature
ALPING
LTC
BTDC
WHR
ORC
CCHP
PPTD
COV
EGR
BMEP
IC
P
T
H
DH
h
E_

h
Cp
R

Q_
_
m

Advanced Low Pilot Ignited Natural Gas


Low Temperature Combustion
Before Top Dead Center
Waste Heat Recovery
Organic Rankine Cycle
Combined Cooling heating and Power
Pinch Point Temperature Difference
Coefcient of Variation
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Brake Mean Effective Pressure
Internal Combustion
pressure (kPa)
temperature ( C or K)
enthalpy (kJ)
enthalpy change (kJ)
specic enthalpy (kJ/kg)
exergy (kJ)
efciency (%)
specic heat at constant pressure (kJ/kg-K)
specic gas constant for air (kJ/kg-K)
ratio of specic heats
rate of heat transfer (kW)
mass ow rate (kg/s)
heat exchanger effectiveness
specic heat transfer (kJ/kg)

destruction in constant pressure adiabatic combustion of hydrogen


and methane. They conclude that the most important mechanism
for exergy destruction in adiabatic combustion is internal thermal
energy exchange. They dened internal thermal energy exchange
as the internal heat transfer between products that are at a high
temperature and still unreacted reactants, which are at a lower
temperature. This temperature difference provides a nite
temperature gradient for internal heat transfer, and hence, exergy
destruction. Caton [4] presents a comprehensive review of literature that utilized second law of thermodynamics to study IC
engines. All of the literature reviewed used phenomenological
combustion models that basically consisted of mass, energy and
exergy balance equations to model the gas-exchange and
combustion processes. Some signicant conclusions from this
review are:
1. The available energy or the energy that can be used to obtain
useful work increases with increasing combustion temperature.
2. Exergy is destroyed through irreversibilities in the combustion
process, heat transfer across a nite temperature difference, and
exhaust processes. Most of the studies examined conclude
that about 20e30% of fuel chemical exergy is destroyed due to
irreversible combustion.
3. Combustion in the presence of excess air or lean combustion
resulted in greater availability destruction than stoichiometric
and rich combustion
4. Potential for utilizing exhaust waste heat to produce additional
useful power to complement shaft power.
Clearly, there emerge two pathways for better utilization of the
chemical exergy of the fuel. The rst focuses on minimizing exergy
destruction in the combustion process. The second pathway is to
tap the exhaust exergy to obtain further improvements in thermal
efciency of the prime mover. Waste heat recovery (WHR) using
Rankine bottoming cycles involves the utilization of the sensible

_
W
FCE
LHV
BSNOx
BSCO2
NOx
CO2
CO
HC
PM
EPA
ppm

power (kW)
Fuel Conversion Efciency (%)
Lower Heating Value (kJ/kg)
Brake Specic Nitrogen Oxide emissions (g/kWh)
Brake Specic Carbon Dioxide emissions (g/kWh)
oxides of nitrogen emissions
Carbon dioxide emissions
carbon monoxide emissions
hydrocarbon emissions
Particulate Matter
Environmental Protection Agency
parts per million

Subscripts:
1, 2, 20 thermodynamic states of exhaust gas
3e6
thermodynamic states of Organic Rankine Cycle uid
in
intake
exh
exhaust
TT
turbocharger turbine
s
isentropic end state
t
ORC turbine
p
ORC pump
max
maximum
orc
Organic Rankine Cycle
eng
engine
ng
natural gas
eng-orc engine-ORC turbocompounded system

enthalpy of the hot exhaust from the IC engine to heat a suitable


uid, preferably to saturated/superheated vapor, and then the
sensible enthalpy of the vapor is used to obtain useful work from
a turbine. This paper focuses on recovering exhaust waste heat
using Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC).
1.2. Selective review of WHR technologies using Rankine bottoming
cycles
Rankine bottoming cycles have been explored in the automotive
and power generation industry since the late 1970s [5e10] and
more recently by automotive companies [11e13], and others
[14e21]. The most signicant common-denominator in all the
aforementioned WHR research efforts is the unanimous demonstration of 10%e15% improvements in fuel economy from status
quo. A selective summary of various WHR literature using Rankine
bottoming cycles is presented in Table 1.
The efciency of the Rankine cycle depends on the choice of
the working uid. As shown in Fig. 1, Rankine cycle working uids
can be classied as wet, dry and isentropic, depending on the
slope of the saturated vapor line on a T-S diagram. A classical
example of a wet uid is water. Although water has been used as
a Rankine cycle uid in recent WHR efforts [12,13], some problems
associated with wet uids include the need for superheating,
formation of condensate (for example, water) in the late-stage
expansion process, and the possibility of high velocity impact on
turbine blades from the small droplets of water posing potential
damage to these blades [15]. Therefore, there is widespread
preference for dry or isentropic uids. Many researchers have
discussed the characteristics of the ideal organic solvent for WHR
from a Rankine bottoming cycle [21e26]. From these studies, it
can be gleaned that the ideal organic uid is one that results in
maximum waste heat recovery efciency for the particular ORC
application. In addition, this uid should be safe and have minimal
environmental impact if there were any leaks. Typically dry or

K.K. Srinivasan et al. / Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399

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Table 1
Selective Review of research on WHR technologies using Rankine bottoming cycles A: Analytical, S: Simulation, T: Theoretical, E: Experimental, R: Review.
Ref.

Nature
of study

Method

Salient conclusions

[6]

WHR accomplished in a six cylinder, 14.5 L Cummins NTC-400 diesel


engine rated at 298 kW at 2100 rpm by turbocompounding

Demonstrated 12.5% improvement in power for the same fuel input,


14.8% net improvement in fuel economy and 4.6% improvement in fuel
economy purely due to WHR by Rankine cycle turbocompounding

[8]

Reviewed many strategies to improve engine efciency, such as


advanced thermal cycles including multi-stage turbocompounding
using Rankine cycles.

Addressed the possibility of a multi-stage Rankine cycle, 1st stage


operating on water to recover high temperature exhaust waste heat,
followed by a 2nd stage operating on R-11 (Organic solvent) to enable
low temperature exhaust WHR.
Predicted 15% improvement in efciency through exhaust WHR.

[9]

An Organic Rankine Cycle System (ORCS) operating on triuoroethanol


designed for use with a 288-bhp, Class 8, long-haul vehicle diesel engine
was used to assess fuel economy improvements through both
laboratory and on-road testing.

Demonstrated 12.5% improvement in highway fuel economy.

[11]

A/E

Proposes maximization of exergy in automotive engines. Design


changes including cylinder head and cooling passages were made to the
base 2.0 L Honda Stream SI engine to maximize exhaust energy
recovery.

Demonstrated a net improvement in thermal efciency of 13.2%.


Notable achievements included the development of a novel compact
steam expander, which had very good transient response to load
changes.

[12]

A simulation model was developed for a (SI) hybrid electric vehicle


(HEV). This simulation analyzed the WHR potential using Rankine cycles
at a variety of speeds and loads.

Transient 10/15 mode Japanese drive cycle simulations indicate that the
WHR conguration using the novel steam expander is effective even at
low speed urban driving conditions. Predicted an average overall
improvement of 6.1% in thermal efciency over the simulated 10/15
mode drive cycles

[13]

E/A

Two basic congurations of WHR using Rankine cycles from exhaust


(conguration A), and exhaust and coolant (conguration B), are
investigated.
Dymola simulations are performed to study the effects of using various
uids for Rankine cycles.

Simulations revealed that water would be the ideal uid for WHR for
conguration A; however, an organic solvent such as ethanol would be
ideal for conguration B. Experiments revealed that 0.7e2 kW of extra
power could be produced from WHR. This corresponded to a 10%
improvement in engine power under transient conditions.

[15]

Analyze a supercritical ORC system of WHR from heavy duty diesel


engines. The organic uid also serves as the coolant for the charge air
and EGR coolers. Their analysis involved both rst and second law
perspectives of exhaust WHR.

Predict that upto 20% improvement in engine power is possible using


exhaust WHR using supercritical ORCs.

[17]

Utilizes PSAT software to review different architectures for exhaust


WHR in HEVs.

Initial simulation results indicate that fuel economy advantages of upto


30% could be realized with exhaust WHR techniques.

[19]

S/T

Presents a concept to recover waste heat from high temperature


exhaust and low temperature engine coolant. Also reviews the Rankine
cycle efciency of various wet, dry and isentropic uids.

Operating the Rankine cycles on dry or isentropic uids eliminates the


need for superheating. Simulations indicate that using ORCs for waste
heat recovery is benecial since both exhaust waste heat and engine
coolant heat can be recovered, and therefore up to 32% improvement in
fuel economy is possible.

[20]

Perform a thermodynamic analysis to investigate WHR from stationary


IC engines.

Up to 12% improvement in thermal efciency is possible with WHR


using Rankine cycles from both exhaust and engine coolant.

isentropic uids are chosen because they do not need to be


superheated to enable superior waste heat recovery efciencies.
For the analysis presented in this paper, a dry uid, R113, was
chosen due to its excellent low temperature waste heat recovery
properties [25,26].

popular choice due to their low setup and operational costs and
relative ease of operation and maintenance [27]. Therefore,
investigation of technologies such as WHR that can signicantly
improve the overall efciency of IC engine powered CCHP systems
is of paramount interest.

1.3. Relevance of WHR technologies to combined cooling, heating


and Power (CCHP) applications

1.4. Objectives
The specic objectives of this paper are,

Due to soaring electricity costs concepts such as CCHP, which


provide on-site electricity and satisfy additional cooling and
heating requirements, have generated substantial public interest.
Micro-scale CCHP [27e31], a small-scale application of CCHP that
caters to the power requirements of residential and ofce spaces,
is a potentially viable, decentralized and cheaper alternative to
produce electricity (and heating and cooling) rather than obtaining it from the central grid. It has been reported that the fuel
utilization efciency of cogeneration with waste heat recovery is
about 70 percent [31]. Although cogeneration in these units can be
accomplished by a variety of prime movers and energy sources
such as microturbines and fuel cells, IC engines are the most

1. To analytically examine the exhaust waste heat recovery


potential from the novel low temperature, low-emissions and
high-efciency Advanced Low Pilot Ignited Natural Gas (ALPING)
combustion using a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In
particular, quantify the fuel conversion efciency and brake
specic emissions (oxides of nitrogen, NOx and carbon dioxide,
CO2) benets from ORC turbocompounding.
2. To obtain a second law-based understanding of the nature of
irreversibilities in ORC components, and to establish basic
design criteria for ORC evaporator design using pinch-point
analysis.

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K.K. Srinivasan et al. / Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of (a) isentropic, (b) wet and (c) dry uids.

2. Advanced Low Pilot Ignited Natural Gas (ALPING)


combustion
Improving engine fuel efciencies while simultaneously ensuring
very low exhaust emissions continues to be the primary challenge for
engine designers. To meet this challenge, advanced combustion
concepts such as low temperature combustion (LTC) [32] are being
explored. In contrast to conventional diesel combustion, LTC offers
signicant emissions benets, especially in oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
and particulate matter (PM), while maintaining diesel-equivalent
fuel efciencies. However, many LTC concepts have drawbacks that
are potentially difcult to surmount. Despite their NOx and PM
emissions benets, LTC strategies yield signicantly higher unburned
hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. More
importantly, loss of combustion control at high loads prohibits most
LTC concepts from achieving engine brake mean effective pressures
(BMEP) (or loads) greater than 5e6 bar. Consequently, more
advanced strategies are necessary to improve engine operating range
and exhaust emissions (HC & CO) with LTC.
In recent experimental investigations by the authors [33,34], the
ALPING LTC concept was demonstrated to yield excellent fuel
conversion efciencies (w40 percent) and extremely low NOx
emissions (<0.25 g/kWh). In ALPING combustion, very small pilot
diesel sprays are injected relatively early in the compression stroke
(w60 Before Top Dead Center [BTDC]) to ignite lean, premixed
natural gaseair mixtures and achieve partially premixed,
controlled LTC. On an energy basis, the pilot fuel (diesel) contributes only 2e5 percent of the total fuel chemical energy, with the
remaining 95e98 percent provided by natural gas. Early pilot
injection with ALPING LTC leads to long ignition delays, allowing
sufcient time for the pilot diesel sprays to mix with the
surrounding natural gaseair mixture and form an appropriately

premixed diesel-natural gaseair mixture. Later in the compression


process, when local temperatures and pressures become conducive
for ignition, diesel auto-ignites and subsequently initiates partially
premixed combustion of natural gas. Partially premixed ALPING
LTC leads to relatively low local temperatures, thus reducing NOx
formation rates signicantly. Further, locally lean conditions imply
that PM emissions will likely be negligible. Compared to other LTC
concepts such as HCCI [35], ALPING LTC affords controlled engine
operation with all benets of LTC at relatively higher engine power
outputs. On a single-cylinder engine, the efciency and emissions
benets of ALPING LTC were experimentally demonstrated at
BMEPs as high as 12 bar.
As with other LTC concepts, ALPING LTC led to high HC and CO
emissions, which were particularly severe at low engine loads. In
addition, high coefcient of variation (COV) of indicated mean
effective pressure (IMEP) indicated that engine operation was
unstable at low loads. To improve engine stability, HC, and CO
emissions, hot (un-cooled) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was
investigated at low loads [36,37]. These hot EGR experiments
yielded 70 percent HC emissions reduction, efciency improvement by 5 percentage points, and more stable engine operation
with virtually no NOx penalty at half and quarter loads. Also, the
most advanced injection timing for ALPING LTC was extended from
60 BTDC without EGR to 70 BTDC with hot EGR. In view of the
NOx and PM emissions benets of ALPING LTC, it is desirable to
investigate the WHR potential of the engine exhaust for conditions
with and without EGR.
3. Experimental setup
The experimental results used in the current investigation were
obtained on a single-cylinder research engine operating on

K.K. Srinivasan et al. / Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399


Table 2
Engine Details.
Parameter

Specication

Engine type
Bore (mm)
Stroke (mm)
Compression ratio
Combustion system
Diesel injection system
Diesel injector
Natural gas fueling
Engine speed, rev/min
Brake power, kW (engine load)
BMEP, bar (engine load)
Intake pressure, kPa (engine load)
Intake temperature,  C (engine load)

1-cylinder, 4-stroke
137
165
14.5:1
Direct injection, Mexican hat
Electronic, common-rail
Pencil-type, four-holes
Manifold fumigation
1700
21 (half), 10.5 (quarter)
6 (half), 3 (quarter)
181 (half), 151 (quarter)
75 (half), 115 (quarter)

ALPING LTC over a wide range of injection timings. Important


engine details and operating conditions are presented in Table 2
and a schematic of the overall experimental setup is shown in
Fig. 2. The engine was coupled to a direct current (d.c.) electric
dynamometer via an inline torque meter. Intake, exhaust, coolant,
and oil temperatures were measured using Type-K thermocouples.
The engine used for the ALPING LTC experiments was coupled to
intake and exhaust surge tanks to simulate turbocharging by the
regulation of intake and exhaust manifold pressures (see Fig. 2).
Airow rate was measured with a laminar ow element (LFE) and
natural gas ow rate was measured using a thermal mass ow
meter. Emissions were sampled near the exhaust port and sent

2391

through a heated sample line to an integrated emissions bench


with Rosemount Analytical NGA 2000 analyzers. Total hydrocarbon and NOx measurements were performed on the hot,
undried exhaust sample using a heated ame ionization detector
and two chemiluminescent detectors, respectively. The two NOx
instruments provided several full-scale ranges from 0 to 10 ppm
up to 0e10,000 ppm. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were
measured using non-dispersive infrared analyzers and oxygen
using a paramagnetic analyzer. All engine instruments (thermocouples, pressure sensors, ow meters, etc.) were periodically
calibrated while the emissions analyzers were calibrated daily
following standard procedures. The error in all experimental
measurements is expected to be less than 2 percent.
An electronically-controlled common-rail diesel injection
system was used to achieve ALPING LTC. This injection system was
capable of consistently injecting a minimum diesel quantity of
4.6 mm3/stroke and a maximum diesel quantity of 20 mm3/stroke.
City natural gas containing 98.3% methane, 1.3% nitrogen, and less
than 1% of ethane and carbon dioxide was fumigated along with air
in the engine intake manifold.
4. Simulated turbocharging analysis
In the experiments, compressed air was provided in the intake
manifold from an external source. The exhaust manifold pressure
(Pex) was appropriately regulated (based on intake manifold
pressure) using a gate valve to simulate the back pressure that
would be experienced by the engine if an actual turbocharger

Fig. 2. Schematic of Experimental Setup.

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were present. To determine exhaust gas properties at the inlet of


the ORC evaporator (see Fig. 3 between the dotted line 2e20 ), it is
necessary to calculate the temperature (T20 ) and enthalpy (h20 )
downstream of the turbine of an actual turbocharger (if it were
present). For this purpose, the isentropic efciency (hTT) of the
turbocharger turbine is assumed to be 80 percent. Also, it is
reasonable to expect that the downstream pressure (P20 ) of the
turbocharger turbine is just above atmospheric pressure to enable
expulsion of exhaust gases through any exhaust aftertreatment
devices; in this work, P20 is assumed to be 1 psig. Assuming
constant specic heat (cp) across the turbocharger turbine, T20 is
determined from the following equation:



T20 T2  hTT T2  T20 s

(1)

where, T2 is the temperature upstream of the turbocharger turbine


and T20 s is the isentropic post-turbocharger turbine temperature
that is determined from the pressure ratio across the turbine:

T20 s T2

P2
P2'

!1g g
(2)

The ratio of specic heats (g) of the exhaust gas was assumed to
be 1.37 (for air at an average temperature of 400  C) for these
calculations.
5. Organic Rankine Cycle analysis
This section presents the equations used to estimate the
exhaust WHR potential using ORC turbocompounding from
actual engine data. Measured exhaust parameters such as
temperatures, pressures and ow rates, at quarter load (10.5 kW)
and half load (21 kW) from the ALPING LTC engine (see
Experimental Setup section) have been used as inputs for the

bottoming ORC model to obtain a realistic idea of the possible


benets of WHR. A schematic of the engine-ORC conguration is
shown in Fig. 3 for a typical data set for quarter load engine
operation, 50 BTDC injection timing, and 0% EGR. The ORC is
modeled as a closed thermodynamic system that uses R113 as the
working uid. The isentropic efciencies of the ORC pump and
turbine are, hp 80% and hT 82%, respectively. The effectiveness (3) of the ORC evaporator is used as a modeling parameter.
The sensible enthalpy of the engine exhaust (between state 20
and state 3) is used to heat the organic uid, R113, from state 5 to
state 6 or saturated vapor in the evaporator. It is to be noted that
the properties of the exhaust gas at state 20 were obtained
according to the procedure outlined in the simulated turbocharging section described earlier. The R113 vapor is expanded in
a turbine followed by heat transfer to the environment in
a condenser (state 7estate 4). The saturated liquid at state 4 is
then pumped to a higher pressure, state 5, and fed into the
evaporator to close the ORC circuit.
The maximum energy that can be extracted from the exhaust
can be determined as:



_ exh Cpexh T20  T5
Q_ max m

(3)

_ exh is
where Cpexh is the constant specic heat of the exhaust gases, m
the mass ow rate of the exhaust, T5 is the temperature of the
organic working uid entering the evaporator, and T20 is the
temperature of the exhaust gases leaving the engine and entering
the evaporator.
The actual energy that can be used in the evaporator as well as
the temperature of the exhaust leaving the evaporator (T3) can be
estimated using the heat exchanger effectiveness as follows:



_ exh cpexh T20  T3
Q_ actual 3Q_ max m
where, 3 is the heat exchanger effectiveness.

Fig. 3. Schematic of Engine-ORC conguration showing a typical data set for quarter load engine operation, 50 BTDC injection timing, and 0% EGR.

(4)

K.K. Srinivasan et al. / Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399

The fuel conversion efciency (FCE) of the engine and the


engine-ORC conguration can be estimated as:

Table 3
Values used to simulate the ORC.
Turbine Efciency (%)
Pump Efciency (%)
Quality of organic uid leaving evaporator
Evaporator Pressure (MPa)
Condenser Temperature (K)

82
80
1
2
303

FCEeng

_ eng
W
_
_ ng LHVng
mdiesel LHVdiesel m

FCEengorc
The mass ow rate of the organic working uid and the net
power output from the ORC can be estimated as:

_ orc
m

Q_ actual
Q_ actual

qevap
h6  h5

_ t W
_ p
_ orc W
W

(5)

(6)

_ orc is the organic uid mass ow rate, qevap is the evapowhere m


rator specic heat transfer, h5 and h6 are the specic enthalpies of
the organic uid entering and leaving the evaporator, respectively,
_ p are the ORC turbine and pump power, respectively, and
_ t and W
W
they can be determined using Eqs. (7) and (8)

_ t hW
_
_ orc h6  h7s m
_ orc h6  h7
W
t
t; ideal ht m

(7)

_
_ orc h4  h5s
_ p W p; ideal m
_ orc h4  h5
W
m

(8)

hp

hp

2393

_
_
where W
t; ideal and W p; ideal are the ideal power of the turbine and
pump, respectively, ht and hp are the isentropic efciencies of the
turbine and pump, h6 and h7s are the enthalpies of the working
uid at the inlet and outlet of the turbine for the ideal case, and h4
and h5s are the enthalpies of the working uid at the inlet and
outlet of the pump for the ideal case. The ORC parameters used in
this analysis are specied in Table 3.

_ eng W
_ orc
W
_
_ ng LHVng
mdiesel LHVdiesel m

(9)

(10)

where, FCEeng is the fuel conversion efciency of the engine,


FCEengorc is the fuel conversion efciency of the turbocompounded engine and ORC system, LHVdiesel is the lower heating
value of diesel and LHVng is the lower heating value of natural gas,
_ ng are the mass ow rates of diesel injected and
_ diesel and m
m
natural gas inducted, respectively.
6. Pinch point analysis and exergy efciency
Pinch point temperature difference (PPTD) and exergy efciency
are important parameters that affect combined engine-orc system
performance. Pinch point temperature difference (PPTD) is dened
as the difference between the exhaust gas temperature and the
temperature at which the organic uid, R113 in this case, rst
begins to vaporize (see Fig. 4). This is the smallest temperature
difference in the evaporator (ORC heat exchanger), and it denes
the performance limits of the ORC heat exchanger. The pinch-point
technique outlined in this section is based on the analysis in Ref.
[38]. The TeDH diagram used for the pinch-point analysis is illustrated in Fig. 4 for a typical data set for quarter load engine operation, 50 BTDC injection timing, and 0% EGR.
The pinch-point temperature can be estimated as:




T 0  T3 
DH550  DH56 T20
Tpinch b DH550  DH56 T20 2
DH56
(11)

Fig. 4. Schematic of TeDH diagram (not-to-scale) used for the pinch-point analysis in the evaporator, showing a typical data set for quarter load engine operation, 50 BTDC
injection timing, and 0% EGR; Note: DH is the product of the specic enthalpy of the ORC working uid at a given state and its mass ow rate.

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K.K. Srinivasan et al. / Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399

where b is the slope of Line 20 -3, DH56 is the enthalpy difference


between Points 6 and 5, and DH550 is the enthalpy difference
between Points 50 and 5.
The PPTD can be calculated as:

PPTD Tpinch  T50

(12)

The evaporator exergy efciency can be expressed as:

E_

E_  E_

hexergy; evap _ useful _ 6 _ 5


Eavailable
E20  E3

(13)

where E_ useful and E_ available are the actual exergy used and the
theoretically available exergy at the evaporator, E_ 5 and E_ 6 are the
exergy ow rates of the organic working uid entering and leaving
the evaporator, respectively, and E_ 2 and E_ 3 are the exergy ow rates
of the exhaust gases entering and leaving the evaporator,
respectively.
The exergy ow rate of the organic working uid at any point of
the ORC can be determined as:

_ orc hi  ho  To si  so 
E_ i m

(14)

Similarly, the exergy of the exhaust gases (assumed to be an


ideal gas) entering and leaving the ORC can be calculated as:


 
 



T
P
_ exh cpexh Tj  To  cpexh ln j  Rexh ln j
E_ j m
To
Po

(15)

In this study, the dead state is specied by To 298 K and


Po 1 atm, and the characteristic gas constant of the exhaust (Rexh )
was assumed to be approximated by the characteristic gas constant
of air (Rair ), and the specic heat of the exhaust gases at constant
pressure was calculated using

cpexh

gR
; g 1:37; Rexh zRair 0:287 kJ=kg:K
g1

(16)

7. Results and discussion


This section presents engine-ORC results obtained for ALPING
LTC at different engine operating conditions. Two different engine
loads at a constant engine speed of 1700 rev/min are considered in
this paper: half load operation at 21 kW (BMEP 6 bar) and quarter
load operation at 10.5 kW (BMEP 3 bar). Engine performance and
emissions results were obtained with and without exhaust gas
recirculation (EGR) over a wide range of pilot injection timings
between 20 BTDCe70 BTDC. The effects of ORC turbocompounding on engine fuel conversion efciency (FCE), PPTD,
exergy efciency, and brake specic emissions are discussed.
7.1. Fuel conversion efciency: effects of EGR and ORC
turbocompounding
In this section, FCE behavior is compared for conditions with and
without waste heat recovery using ORC turbocompounding. Two
aspects are compared. First, the effect of EGR on fuel conversion
efciency is examined; second, the improvement in fuel conversion
efciency with EGR and exhaust waste heat recovery using ORC is
discussed. Percent EGR or EGR ratio is dened as follows:

EGRratio

_
CO2 EGR m
z EGR
_ int
CO2 exh m

(17)

where, CO2 EGR and CO2 exh are CO2 concentrations in the intake
_ int is the total mass ow rate
and exhaust manifolds, respectively, m
_ EGR is the mass ow
(of air and EGR) in the intake manifold, and m

Fig. 5. Variation of the engine (E) and combined engine-ORC (E-ORC) fuel conversion
efciency with the injection timing for different EGR for quarter load operation
(Power 10.5 kW, ORC evaporator effectiveness, 3 0.7).

rate of EGR in the intake manifold. Since it is not convenient to


measure EGR mass ow rates without considerable modications
to the EGR loop in the engine, the EGR ratio in this study was
determined from the CO2 concentrations measured in the intake
and exhaust manifolds using the integrated emissions bench.
Fig. 5 shows the variation of FCE with pilot injection timing at
quarter load operation for various EGR concentrations. The baseline
for comparison across various EGR ratios is the case with no EGR or
0% EGR. For this baseline (0% EGR), stable engine operation could be
maintained between 20 BTDC and 60 BTDC injection timings. The
FCE is observed to increase with increasing percent EGR across all
injection timings investigated. For instance, baseline FCE at 20
BTDC is 19 percent; whereas with the addition of 22% EGR, it
increases to 22 percent. Similarly at 60 BTDC, the baseline FCE is
approximately 20 percent, and with 22% EGR this value is
approximately 28 percent. This trend can be explained from the fact
that the EGR used in this study was un-cooled or hot, and a primary
effect of using hot EGR is a net increase in the intake charge
temperature. This increase in intake charge temperature translates
to higher charge temperatures at the start of combustion, which
leads to faster combustion rates and higher FCEs [36]. Furthermore,
the addition of EGR extends the range of injection timings for stable
operation from 20 BTDC e 60 BTDC to 20 BTDC e 70 BTDC. For
all injection timings with or without EGR, exhaust waste heat
recovery using ORC turbocompounding clearly results in increased
FCEs. This is due to the fact that the exhaust gas enthalpy, which is
otherwise unutilized, is used to heat the pressurized organic uid
(R113) from compressed liquid to saturated vapor, which is then
expanded in the ORC turbine (see Fig. 3). This expansion generates
additional useful power without the expenditure of excess fuel,
thereby contributing to a net increase in FCE of the engine-ORC (EORC) conguration. For example, at 20 BTDC the FCE for baseline
operation (0% EGR) is approximately 19 percent. With waste heat
recovery using ORC turbocompounding, the FCE increases to
approximately 22 percent, and nally with ORC and EGR addition
(22% EGR ORC), the FCE increases to approximately 26 percent.
Again, similar observations can be made for 60 BTDC, where the
baseline FCE of 20 percent is observed to increase to 28 percent
with 22% EGR addition, and a further increase in FCE to 32 percent
is observed with ORC turbocompounding and EGR addition (22%
EGR ORC).

K.K. Srinivasan et al. / Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399

2395

7.2. Pinch Point temperature difference (PPTD) and exergy


efciency: effects of EGR and ORC turbocompounding

Fig. 6. Variation of the engine and combine engine-ORC fuel conversion efciency
with the injection timing for different EGR for half load operation (Power 21 kW,
ORC evaporator effectiveness, 3 0.7).

As shown in Fig. 6, for half load operation (21 kW) the maximum
amount of EGR was limited to 8%. Higher amounts of EGR led to
engine knock and unstable engine operation. At the representative
injection timings of 20 BTDC and 60 BTDC, addition of EGR (8%
EGR) results in FCE increasing from baseline values of 26 percent
and 30 percent, respectively, to 27 percent and 35 percent,
respectively. Moreover, with the addition of EGR, as observed for
the quarter load case, the range of injection timings for stable
engine operation was extended from 20 BTDC e 60 BTDC to 20
BTDC e 75 BTDC. Exhaust waste heat recovery using ORC turbocompounding led to further improvements in FCE values: from 26
percent to 32 percent at 20 BTDC and from 30 percent to 40
percent at 60 BTDC. Overall, the results show that exhaust waste
heat recovery using ORC turbocompounding seems to be more
benecial for quarter load operation in comparison to half load
operation. This is attributable to the lower exhaust gas temperatures in the quarter load case, which led to higher exergy efciencies in the ORC evaporator.

Fig. 7. Variation of the PPTD with the injection timing for different EGR for quarter
load and half load operation (3 0.7).

Fig. 7 below discusses pinch-point temperature differences


(PPTD) for quarter and half load operation with exhaust waste heat
recovery using ORC turbocompounding at various EGR substitutions and for injection timings between 20 BTDC and 75 BTDC.
Since the quarter load and half load trends are similar, only quarter
load trends are discussed for brevity. For quarter load operation at
all injection timings, as the EGR substitution is increased from 0% to
22%, the PPTD is observed to increase. This suggests that with
increasing EGR substitution the potential to achieve higher heat
transfer rates between the exhaust gases and the organic uid
(R113) increases; however, the heat transfer now has to occur
across a greater temperature difference. This presents an interesting cost-efciency tradeoff in heat exchanger design. Pinch point
temperature difference is dened as the difference between the
exhaust gas temperature within the ORC evaporator and the
temperature at which the organic uid rst begins to vaporize (see
Fig. 4). This is the smallest temperature difference in the evaporator
(ORC heat exchanger) and it denes the performance limits of the
ORC heat exchanger. The heat transfer rate across the ORC heat
exchanger is proportional to the PPTD. As PPTD increases, the mass
ow rate of the organic uid decreases, which results in poor
utilization of the exhaust energy. On the other hand, to accomplish
heat transfer across smaller PPTD values, larger heat exchanger
areas are required. This leads to larger and more expensive heat
exchangers. But, as mentioned above, the exergy efciency of heat
transfer across a smaller temperature difference is much higher
(i.e., this leads to lower exergy destruction). This fact is clearly
illustrated in Fig. 8, which shows the exergy efciency versus PPTD
for all injection timings at quarter and half load operation across
various EGR substitutions. This gure indicates that the exergy
efciency decreases (almost linearly) with increasing PPTD and
EGR ratios across the entire injection timing range for both half and
quarter load operation. It is particularly interesting to observe that
despite the wide range of injection timings, exhaust gas substitutions, and loads, all curves seem to collapse into one unifying trend
signifying that the exergy efciency is only a function of PPTD
across the evaporator. Despite the greater exergy destruction with
increasing EGR substitution, addition of EGR has been demonstrated to improve combustion stability, improve fuel conversion

Fig. 8. Variation of the evaporator exergy efciency with the PPTD for different
injection timings and EGR for quarter load operation and half load operation (3 0.7).

2396

K.K. Srinivasan et al. / Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399

Fig. 9. Variation of the exhaust gases temperature after the evaporator with the
injection timing for different EGR for quarter load operation and half load operation
(3 0.7).

efciency and reduce emissions in a previous study conducted by


the authors [37]. Moreover, addition of hot EGR also helps in
resolving a major practical issue e condensation of water in the
evaporator tubing, which is discussed below.
Fig. 9 shows the post-evaporator exhaust temperature versus
injection timing at a constant evaporator effectiveness of 3 0.7. It
is to be noted that the condensation line, the temperature below
which condensation of water would occur in the evaporator tubing,
is at approximately 380 K. This temperature corresponds to the dew
point temperature for water at 124 kPa, which is the minimum
exhaust manifold pressure corresponding to the quarter load
engine operation with 0% EGR. Therefore, this pressure was set as
the minimum operating pressure of the ORC evaporator. It is
important to prevent water condensation in the exhaust to reduce
the potential for corrosion in the exhaust manifold. From Fig. 9, it is
evident that the evaporator temperatures are above the condensation temperature for all injection timings. Also, at both quarter
and half load operation, as EGR increases so does the postevaporator temperature. This indicates that despite the lower
exergy efciencies with increasing EGR substitutions, it is benecial
to operate the engine with modest amounts of EGR to prevent
water condensation in the evaporator tubing, and achieve higher
FCEs while maintaining lower emissions.

Fig. 10. Variation of the evaporator exergy efciency with the PPTD for 22% EGR for
quarter load operation for different evaporator effectiveness (3).

At this juncture, it is instructive to discuss the practical


consideration of evaporator effectiveness and its impact on exergy
efciency and PPTD. Fig. 10 shows the variation of exergy efciency
and PPTD versus injection timing at the highest EGR substitution of
22% for quarter load. In general, PPTD decreases and then increases
slightly, whereas exergy efciency is observed to increase and then
decrease slightly when the injection timing is advanced from 20
BTDC to 70 BTDC. In particular, at any injection timing, the lowest
PPTD and highest exergy efciency are obtained for the highest
evaporator effectiveness of 80%. These trends favor higher evaporator effectiveness that will allow for exergetically efcient heat
transfer across a given temperature difference. However, another
important feature is that for the injection timing range between 40
and 65 BTDC, the PPTD exhibits little variation.
To further examine the effects of evaporator effectiveness on
PPTD and exergy efciency, Fig. 11 shows the exergy efciency
versus PPTD for various evaporator effectiveness values at the
highest EGR substitution of 22% at quarter load operation. For all
injection timings, it is clear that as the evaporator effectiveness
increases the PPTD decreases. These trends also indicate that
higher exergy efciencies are possible by choosing higher evaporator effectiveness values. However, as discussed before, this
entails higher cost due to the fact that larger evaporators are
needed to facilitate heat transfer across smaller temperature
differences. On the other hand, favoring lower evaporator effectiveness presents a practical problem of water condensation in the
evaporator tubing. For instance, as discussed previously in Fig. 9,
the post-evaporator exhaust temperatures are just above the
condensation temperature of 380 K at 124 kPa at an effectiveness
of 0.7; but these evaporator temperatures were observed to fall
below the condensation line for an evaporator effectiveness of 0.6.
Therefore, evaporator effectiveness is an important design
parameter that needs to be selected carefully to achieve good
exergy efciencies while simultaneously preventing water
condensation in the evaporator tubing.
From the aforementioned discussion it is clear that the exhaust
back pressure, percentage EGR substitution, and ORC evaporator
effectiveness are important design parameters to achieve a practical and thermodynamically efcient engine-ORC design to recover
exhaust waste heat from an ALPING combustion engine operating
at constant speed and different loads.

Fig. 11. Variation of the evaporator exergy efciency with the PPTD for 22% EGR for
quarter load operation for different evaporator effectiveness (3).

K.K. Srinivasan et al. / Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399


Table 4
Quarter Load e Specic Emissions.
Injection
Timing

Engine (E)

Engine-ORC (E-ORC)

W
(kW)

NOx
(g/kWh)

CO2
(g/kWh)

W
(kW)

NOx
(g/kWh)

CO2
(g/kWh)

EGR 0%
20
30
40
50
55

10.47
10.64
10.68
10.59
10.53

0.65
2.13
1.59
0.21
0.08

568.10
536.77
531.63
536.63
554.61

12.73
12.72
12.69
12.60
12.64

0.53
1.75
1.31
0.18
0.07

467.59
441.80
437.57
441.69
456.49

EGR 11%
20
30
40
50
55
60
65
70

10.78
10.71
10.49
10.61
10.68
10.74
10.64
10.70

0.33
1.53
2.50
1.09
0.30
0.08
0.07
0.05

642.52
576.74
575.51
576.55
581.63
588.65
601.80
622.22

13.12
12.73
12.42
12.52
12.59
12.74
12.70
12.86

0.27
1.26
2.06
0.90
0.25
0.06
0.05
0.04

528.85
474.70
473.69
474.55
478.73
484.51
495.33
512.14

EGR 21%
20
30
40
50
55
60
65
70

10.55
10.64
10.46
10.46
10.58
10.63
10.54
10.73

0.18
0.81
1.87
0.88
0.41
0.09
0.05
0.04

646.40
581.12
593.70
589.86
585.39
588.27
595.03
598.48

12.56
12.34
12.06
12.06
12.19
12.28
12.23
12.48

0.15
0.67
1.54
0.72
0.34
0.08
0.04
0.03

532.04
478.31
488.66
485.51
481.83
484.20
489.76
492.60

2397

quarter load are equally valid for half load operation; therefore,
only quarter load trends will be discussed. With the addition of
EGR, both specic NOx and CO2 emissions were observed to
increase. Addition of hot EGR led to higher intake temperatures,
and consequently, the combustion temperatures were higher,
resulting in increased NOx emissions. However, higher CO2 emissions with increasing EGR reect better fuel conversion efciencies.
In other words, EGR addition favors faster combustion rates,
thereby burning the fuel (in this case natural gas and very small
diesel quantities) more completely and leading to higher CO2
emissions. In general, total engine power output registered an
average increase of 20 percent with ORC turbocompounding (EORC). Similarly, both specic NOx and specic CO2 emissions were
observed to decrease by 18 percent on an average with E-ORC. It is
important to note that without any expensive aftertreatment
technologies, it is possible to achieve a signicant reduction in
engine-out brake specic emissions by employing exhaust waste
heat recovery techniques such as ORC turbocompounding. This is
a consequence of accounting for total (engine plus ORC) power
output in the calculation of brake specic emissions as explained
below.

BSNOx eng-orc

_ NOx
m
_ eng
W

(18)

BSCO2 eng-orc

_ CO2
m
_ eng
W

(19)

7.3. Brake specic emissions: effects of EGR and ORC


turbocompounding

With ORC turbocompounding, brake specic emissions are


calculated as follows:

Tables 4 and 5 are summary comparisons of engine performance


and specic NOx and CO2 emissions with and without ORC turbocompounding at quarter and half load operation for all injection
timings and EGR substitutions investigated. The observations for

BSNOx eng-orc

_ NOx
m
_
_ orc
W eng W

(20)

BSCO2 eng-orc

_ CO2
m
_ eng W
_ orc
W

(21)

Table 5
Half Load e Specic Emissions.
Injection
Timing

Engine (E)

Engine-ORC (E-ORC)

W
(kW)

NOx
(g/kWh)

CO2
(g/kWh)

W
(kW)

NOx
(g/kWh)

CO2
(g/kWh)

EGR 0%
20
30
40
50
55
60
65

21.13
21.02
21.07
21.03
21.07
21.09
21.01

0.65
1.61
1.75
0.36
0.10
0.04
0.03

461.90
437.77
441.05
442.24
443.24
444.45
453.23

24.97
24.49
24.42
24.33
24.38
24.50
24.54

0.53
1.32
1.44
0.29
0.08
0.03
0.02

380.19
360.32
363.02
364.00
364.83
365.82
373.05

EGR 5%
20
30
40
50
55
60
65
70

20.84
20.82
20.73
20.77
21.08
21.00
20.96
20.70

0.53
1.68
1.94
0.56
0.22
0.05
0.03
0.03

495.93
466.94
472.68
467.98
467.27
464.74
475.20
483.70

24.70
24.29
24.05
24.07
24.39
24.31
24.39
24.30

0.43
1.39
1.59
0.46
0.18
0.04
0.02
0.02

408.19
384.33
389.05
385.19
384.60
382.52
391.13
398.12

EGR 8%
20
30
40
50
55
60
65
70
75

21.20
21.17
21.00
20.74
20.96
20.89
20.95
20.82
20.96

0.29
1.08
1.89
0.98
0.35
0.17
0.05
0.03
0.03

536.10
478.02
479.13
480.40
475.47
478.26
480.26
484.08
491.00

25.35
24.61
24.17
23.83
24.08
24.00
24.09
23.99
23.99

0.23
0.89
1.56
0.81
0.28
0.09
0.04
0.02
0.02

441.26
393.45
394.36
395.41
391.35
393.65
395.29
398.44
404.14

As seen in Eqs. (20) and (21), the total brake power, which is
the denominator of Eqs. (18) and (19) increases with ORC
turbocompounding, whereas the numerator remains the same.
Therefore, the brake specic emissions are reduced without any
FCE penalty or other changes in the combustion process. Further, it
is to be noted that the lowest specic NOx emissions at quarter load
operation of 0.03 g/kWh and 0.02 g/kWh at half load operation are
well below the US EPA NOx emissions standards for off-highway
heavy duty diesel engines. Clearly, exhaust waste heat recovery in
addition to the novel ALPING LTC strategy discussed in this study
help achieve very low NOx emissions while maintaining high
thermal efciencies. Moreover, the reduction in specic CO2
emissions with exhaust waste heat recovery using ORC turbocompounding indicates its potential for reducing greenhouse gas
emissions.
8. Conclusions
In this paper, the exhaust waste heat recovery potential from
the novel low temperature, low-emissions and high-efciency
Advanced Low Pilot Ignited Natural Gas (ALPING) low temperature combustion (LTC) using a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle
(ORC) was examined. The potential improvements in fuel
conversion efciency (FCE) and brake specic emissions (NOx
and CO2) with hot EGR addition and waste heat recovery (WHR)
using ORC turbocompounding were quantied. In addition, the
nature of irreversibilities in the ORC bottoming cycle was
analyzed from a second law perspective and the basic design

2398

K.K. Srinivasan et al. / Energy 35 (2010) 2387e2399

criteria for the ORC evaporator were established using a pinchpoint analysis. The following conclusions can be drawn from
the analyses:
1. With hot EGR addition, FCE improved for all injection timings at
half and quarter loads, and ORC turbocompounding along with
hot EGR led to even higher efciencies. For example, at 60 BTDC
injection timing and quarter load, FCE increased from the baseline (0% EGR) value of 20 percent to 28 percent with 22% EGR
alone, and eventually to 32 percent with 22% EGR and ORC
turbocompounding. Half load FCE improvements at 60 BTDC
injection timing were more modest (from 30 percent at 0% EGR
to 40 percent at 8% EGR and ORC turbocompounding) and
therefore exhaust WHR with ORC turbocompounding appears
more benecial at quarter load.
2. Engine-out specic emissions of NOx and CO2 can be decreased
substantially by adopting ORC turbocompounding without any
FCE penalty, combustion modications, or the need for expensive aftertreatment devices. With ORC turbocompounding, both
NOx and CO2 emissions were reduced by about 18 percent (on an
average).
3. For all injection timings, the pinch-point temperature difference
(PPTD) between exhaust gas in the ORC evaporator and the
saturation temperature of the organic uid (R113) increased
with increasing EGR, indicating a greater potential for heat
transfer. However, irrespective of engine load, injection timing,
or percent EGR, higher PPTD values uniformly led to lower
exergy efciencies of the ORC evaporator, signifying greater
exergy destruction.
4. With increasing hot EGR, exergy destruction in the ORC
evaporator increased. However, EGR facilitated more stable
engine operation, higher FCEs, and lower emissions. Further,
the addition of hot EGR ensured that post-evaporator exhaust
temperatures were above the condensation line, i.e., hot EGR
will prevent water condensation in the ORC evaporator tubing,
thus reducing the potential for corrosion in the exhaust
manifold.
5. The heat exchanger effectiveness (3) of the ORC evaporator was
identied as an important design parameter. In general, higher 3
values (3 0.8) yielded the lowest PPTD and highest exergy
efciencies while lower 3 values (3 0.6) decreased postevaporator exhaust temperatures below water condensation
temperatures (at a given exhaust manifold pressure) and
reduced exergy efciencies. However, resorting to higher 3
values may increase heat exchanger costs. Consequently, the
ORC heat exchanger effectiveness, exhaust manifold pressures,
and percent EGR must be chosen carefully to ensure the best
tradeoffs between exergy efciency of the ORC, incremental
system cost, system reliability, exhaust emissions, and overall
fuel conversion efciencies.
Acknowledgments
The authors gratefully acknowledge the nancial support
provided by the Micro-CHP and Biofuel Center and the Sustainable
Energy Research Center (SERC) of Mississippi State University.
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