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MACARTHUR MINERALS

LIMITED
SNARK PROJECT

FAUNA ASSESSMENT

Prepared for:

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Prepared by:

Keith Lindbeck and Associates


PO Box 144
BULLCREEK WA 6149
Telephone: 08 9332 0671
Facsimile: 08 9332 0672
Mobile: 0412 419 468
E-Mail: keith@keithlindbeck.com.au
ABN: 36 150 274 469

August 2011

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Macarthur Minerals Limited (Macarthur) is engaged in the exploration and development of
mineral resources in the Lake Giles Project area located within the Ularring District of the
North Coolgardie Mineral Field. The Lake Giles Project area is located approximately 450
km northeast of Perth and 100 km west of Menzies.
Within the Lake Giles Project Area, a northern section known as the Snark deposit area
is reported to have an Inferred Mineral Resource of 7.1 million tonnes of iron ore at 55.9%
Fe. The current tenements in the Snark Project Area include Mining Leases 30/243,
30/213, 30/214 and 30/215, and Exploration Licences 30/240 and 30/324 and all are
100% owned by Macarthur Iron Ore Pty Ltd.
In order to further pursue mining opportunities in the Snark Project area, Macarthur
commissioned Keith Lindbeck and Associates (KLA) to undertake a comprehensive Level
2 fauna assessment of the vegetated areas.
In accordance with the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) Statement and
Guidelines, multiple seasonal surveys are required.
This survey satisfied the
requirements for an autumn survey, taking advantage of recent, heavy rainfall events.
The scope of work for the fauna assessment was to:
generally describe the vegetation associations in the study area;
identify habitat that may be of significance to fauna indigenous to Western
Australia;
identify any habitats of particular conservation significance for fauna within the
study area;
prepare a fauna inventory (baseline information) of the area using a combined
approach of desk-top research including a review of existing literature and site
specific, seasonal fauna surveys comprising a suite of established survey
techniques;
identify fauna of conservation significance in the area,
provide a risk assessment to determine potential impacts to fauna of conservation
significance; and
provide recommendations, including the management of perceived impacts to
fauna habitats and fauna of conservation significance within the study area.

Results
Pitfall traps, aluminium box traps, funnel traps and cage traps were open collectively for a
total of 2840 trap nights.
The systematic surveys recorded 12 reptile species, five native terrestrial mammal
species and one non-native terrestrial mammal species, six species of bats and 30 bird
species, giving a total of 55 vertebrate fauna species.
The reptiles captured comprised four dragon species (Agamidae), two diplodactylid
species (Diplodactylidae), and six species of skink (Scincidae) totalling 38 individuals. No
reptile species of conservation significance were recorded.
Overall, the trap rate for the autumn survey was low (1.3%) which is not surprising given
the cooler temperatures at that time of the year. The numbers of reptile captures between
sites did not differ dramatically. However, more were captured at the southern-most site
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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

(Site 4) than at all other sites where disturbance may have been less than at the
remaining sites. While the flora survey did not extend to this area, the vegetation
association at this site was determined to be Acacia shrubland and not significantly
different generally to vegetation elsewhere in the Snark Project area.
For the terrestrial mammals, five species of native terrestrial mammals representing two
families and totalling eight individuals were captured. Within the Family Dasyuridae,
Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis Fat-tailed Pseudantechinus and Sminthopsis dolichura
Little Long-tailed Dunnart were captured and with the Family Muridae, two species of
hopping mice, Notomys alexis Spinifex Hopping Mouse and Notomys mitchellii Mitchells
Hopping Mouse were captured, in addition to Pseudomys hermannsburgensis Sandy
Inland Mouse.
The capture of eight individual mammals during this period translates into a trap rate of
0.28%, which suggests that at the time of the survey the area supported very low numbers
of mammals. However, as up to five species of native mammal were captured, diversity
of species present in relation to numbers of mammals caught was relatively high. Only
one species of non-native mammal, Mus musculus House Mouse was captured.
Anabat detectors record the presence of bats, rather than the numbers present. Bats
were recorded at all of the seven trapping grid sites with between four and six species
recorded at each site. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the diversity of bats present
extends throughout the vegetated areas of the study area.
Armstrong and Konishi (2011) highlight the difficulties in distinguishing the differences in
some calls. For example, the calls of the Long-eared bats Nyctophilus spp. are typically
difficult to identify to species, and those recorded may be attributed to the Lesser Longeared Bat Nyctophilus geoffroyi or the central Greater Long-eared Bat N. major tor which
is listed under Priority 4 of DECs Priority Fauna List
Excluding the possibilities for the un-identified Nyctophilis species, no mammals of
conservation significance were recorded during the survey.
Systematic bird surveys were conducted immediately after sunrise and again in the late
afternoons. The bird censuses yielded a total of 418 individuals of 29 species from 14
Families. One Cinclosoma castanotus Chestnut Quail-thrush was captured in a cage trap
that brings these totals collectively to 419 individual birds numbering 30 species from 15
Families.
The results of the 20 minute morning surveys indicated that passerines (n = 289)
represent a majority (93.5%) of species recorded in the area with only 20 individuals from
two Families accounting for the non-passerines (6.5%).
Within the passerines,
Acanthizids accounted for more birds (n = 101, 34.9%) than all other species. The most
ubiquitous of the Acanthizids was Smicrornis brevirostris Weebill with 57 birds recorded,
representing 56% of this group. Following the Acanthizids, the Malurids, represented by
Malurus splendens Splendid Fairy-wren and M. lamberti Variegated Fairy-wren accounted
for 26.6% of all the birds recorded, collectively totalling 77 birds. The Priority 4 listed
Oreoica gutturalis Crested Bellbird was recorded 29 times accounting for 10% of the birds
recorded. The remaining species all recorded less than 10% each of the total number of
birds recorded.
During the afternoon surveys only one non-passerine (Australian Ringneck) was recorded
resulting in 97% being passerines. Similar to the results from the morning surveys, the
Acanthizids outnumbered all other passerines. While a flock (n = ~20) of unidentified
Thornbills inflated the numbers of Acanthizids, the Weebill (n = 15) and Inland Thornbill (n

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

= 13) accounted for the majority of the remaining Acanthizids. Only the Splendid Fairywren Malurus splendens outnumbered these species with 21 being recorded.
Notwithstanding the current level of disturbance from exploration and other associated
mining activities, the total number of birds recorded during the systematic sampling
suggests that resources and/or habitat required were adequate to maintain the numbers
and diversity present.
Of the birds considered of conservation significance listed for the area, evidence of the
Malleefowl Leipoa ocellata was found and the Crested Bellbird Oreoica gutteralis was
recorded at every site and opportunistically. While five inactive Malleefowl mounds were
identified in the Snark Project area, and one in the Lake Giles Project area, unconfirmed
sightings of Malleefowls have been reported in the area.
Evidence of fauna recorded opportunistically include one amphibian (Pseudophyrne
occidentalis Western Toadlet) recorded at the granite outcrop within 15 km from the
survey area. Of the reptiles recorded opportunistically, four individuals of Caimanops
amphiboluroides, one Ctenophorus scutulatus and one Ctenotus sp. were recorded. For
the mammals, one Pseudantechinus macdonnelliensis, macropod droppings, Rabbit
Oryctolagus cuniculus droppings, diggings and warrens, and Dog Canis sp. droppings that
comprised unidentified grey fur were recorded.
Opportunistic recordings of birds accounted for 29 species. Of these, six were not
recorded during the systematic bird surveys, in addition to the sightings of (inactive)
Malleefowl mounds. Conversely, seven bird species recorded during the systematic
surveys were not seen opportunistically
The overall condition of the vegetation within the survey area is described as Excellent
(Keighery 1994). While the removal of up to 140 hectares of native vegetation will impact
on fauna, the vegetation cannot be considered to be significant habitat for fauna
indigenous to Western Australia.

Recommendations
The following general recommendations apply in the case of any major disturbance to
large areas of native vegetation as a consequence of the proposed development for the
Snark Project:
Any clearing be minimised in extent given that the abundance and diversity of
species lost will be proportional to the amount of habitat cleared;
Where possible, all infrastructure associated with the development of the mining
operation be aligned preferentially to areas of existing disturbance;
Where possible, access routes be aligned to existing tracks and other barriers or
follow the boundaries of broad-scale intact native vegetation;
A rehabilitation plan is developed that progressively rehabilitates areas as soon as
they are no longer required;
All members of the work force on site attend an environmental induction to ensure
they are familiar with the value of native vegetation to fauna indigenous to Western
Australia. This should include awareness of driving restrictions, ensuring that offroad driving is minimised, fire prevention is actively practised, and appropriate
responses are followed in the event of an accident involving fauna: and
A comprehensive Level 2 fauna survey be conducted in Spring to satisfy EPA
requirements.

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

In addition, specific recommendations are made in relation to the Malleefowl:


A targeted Malleefowl survey should be undertaken by a suitably qualified team to
determine the actual number and status of mounds within the Snark Project area
including a 100m buffer area.
Following this survey and given the evidence of Malleefowl within the zone of
impact, a referral should be submitted to the Federal Department of Sustainability,
Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPAC) for approval in
accordance with the EPBC Act 1999.
Pending the results of the targeted Malleefowl survey and outcome of the
DSEWPAC referral, a Malleefowl Management Plan should be developed.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..ii

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.0

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1
BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................. 1
SCOPE OF STUDY ........................................................................................................... 1
PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT .......................................................................................... 3
EXISTING ENVIRONMENT ................................................................................................... 4

2.1
CLIMATE............................................................................................................................ 4
2.1.1 Temperature ................................................................................................................. 4
2.1.2 Rainfall .......................................................................................................................... 9
2.2
INTERIM BIOGEOGRAPHIC REGIONALISATION OF AUSTRALIA ............................. 11
2.3
FLORA AND VEGETATION MAPPING .......................................................................... 12
2.3.1 Site selection .............................................................................................................. 14
3.0

LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................... 22

4.0

SURVEY METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................. 24

4.1
DATABASE SEARCHES ................................................................................................. 24
4.2
SURVEY TIMING ............................................................................................................. 24
4.3
FAUNA SURVEY TEAM .................................................................................................. 24
4.4
FAUNA SAMPLING ......................................................................................................... 25
4.4.1 Reconnaissance survey ............................................................................................. 25
4.4.2 Systematic censuring.................................................................................................. 25
4.4.3 Birds surveying ........................................................................................................... 30
4.4.4 Bat surveying .............................................................................................................. 31
4.4.5 Spotlighting survey ..................................................................................................... 32
4.5
SURVEY LIMITATIONS ................................................................................................... 32
5.0

VETEBRATE FAUNA INVENTORY .................................................................................... 33

5.1
OVERVIEW OF VERTEBRATE FAUNA OF THE SURVEY AREA ................................ 33
5.2
AMPHIBIANS ................................................................................................................... 35
5.2.1 The assemblage ......................................................................................................... 35
5.2.2 Discussion .................................................................................................................. 35
5.3
REPTILES ........................................................................................................................ 36
5.3.1 The assemblage ......................................................................................................... 36
5.3.2 Discussion .................................................................................................................. 38
5.4
MAMMALS ....................................................................................................................... 40
5.4.1 The assemblage ......................................................................................................... 40
5.4.2 Discussion .................................................................................................................. 43
5.5
BIRDS .............................................................................................................................. 45
5.5.1 The assemblages ....................................................................................................... 45
5.5.2 Discussion .................................................................................................................. 51
5.6
SPOTLIGHTING .............................................................................................................. 53
5.6.1 The assemblages ....................................................................................................... 53
5.6.2 Discussion .................................................................................................................. 53
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
7.0

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ............................................................................................. 53


FAUNA OF CONSERVATION SIGNIFICANCE .............................................................. 53
POTENTIAL IMPACTS .................................................................................................... 58
HABITATS OF SIGNIFICANCE TO FAUNA INDIGENOUS TO WESTERN AUSTRALIA59
RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................................................... 60
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 61

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

FIGURES
Figure 1 - Location of Lake Giles Project Area ...................................................................... 2
Figure 2 Regional Area showing Mount Manning Range Nature Reserve ......................... 5
Figure 3 Location of Snark Project Area and Mt Manning Range Nature Reserve ............ 6
Figure 4 - Trapping locations within the Snark Project area and location of Malleefowl
mounds .................................................................................................................. 7
Figure 5 - Mean maximum and minimum temperatures at Menzies Meteorological Station . 8
Figure 6 - Mean maximum and minimum temperatures at Leonora Meteorological Station . 8
Figure 7 - Rainfall data for Menzies and Leonora Meteorological Stations ......................... 10
Figure 8 - Vegetation communities identified in Snark Project area .................................... 13
Figure 9 - Schematic diagram of trapping unit configuration for Sites 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7 .... 27
Figure 10 - Schematic diagram of trapping unit configuration for Site 3 .............................. 28
Figure 11 - Number of individual terrestrial vertebrates recorded during the systematic
surveys ................................................................................................................ 33
Figure 12 - Species accumulation curve for reptiles captured during the systematic fauna
survey .................................................................................................................. 39
Figure 13 - Species accumulation curve for non-volant native and non-native mammals
captured during the systematic fauna survey ...................................................... 44
Figure 14- Species accumulation curve for birds recorded during the Autumn 2011 fauna
surveys ................................................................................................................ 52
TABLES
Table 1 - Daily temperatures for selected dates in May 2011 for Leonora ............................ 9
Table 2 - Trapping sites, number of hectares and percent representation of vegetation
communities ........................................................................................................ 15
Table 3 - Site numbers and their associated vegetation descriptions ................................. 16
Table 4 - Previous studies in the vicinity of the Lake Giles Project area ............................. 23
Table 5 - Trapping grid locations and trapping effort ........................................................... 29
Table 6 - Dates and times of systematic birds censuses commenced at each site............. 31
Table 7 - Dates bat calls were recorded at each site........................................................... 32
Table 8 - Dates and duration of spotlighting forays, including numbers of personnel involved
............................................................................................................................ 32
Table 9 - Number of individual terrestrial vertebrates recorded at each site ....................... 34
Table 10 - Reptiles species recorded (including method) during systematic fauna survey . 37
Table 11 - Mammal species recorded (including method) during the systematic fauna
survey .................................................................................................................. 42
Table 12 - Site by species matrix of bat identifications recorded during the systematic fauna
survey .................................................................................................................. 42
Table 13 - Avifauna species recorded during systematic sampling ..................................... 46
Table 14 Comparative bird recordings between opportunistic sightings and systematic
sampling .............................................................................................................. 48
Table 15 - Malleefowl Mound Locations .............................................................................. 49
Table 16 - Conservation significant terrestrial fauna potentially occurring in the study area
............................................................................................................................ 54
PLATES
Plate 1 - Site 1
Plate 2 - Site 2
Plate 3 - Site 3
Plate 4 - Site 4
Plate 5 - Site 5
Plate 6 - Site 6
Plate 7 - Site 7

Open Eucalypt woodland (W5) .................................................................. 17


Tall mixed Acacia scrub (S5) ..................................................................... 17
Open Acacia scrub (S6) ............................................................................. 18
Acacia shrubland........................................................................................ 18
Allocasuarina scrub (S4) ............................................................................ 19
Open Acacia scrub (S1) ............................................................................. 19
Open Acacia scrub (S6) ............................................................................. 20
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Plate 8 - Site 8 Banded Iron Formation surrounded by tall Allocasuarina scrub (S3) ......... 20
Plate 9 - Site 9 Banded Iron Formation surrounded by tall Allocasuarina scrub (S3) ......... 21
Plate 10 - Site 10 Banded Iron Formation surrounded by Open Acacia scrub (S6) ............ 21
Plate 11 - Site 11 Banded Iron Formation surrounded by Allocasuarina scrub (S4) ........... 22
Plate 12 Malleefowl Mound # 1......................................................................................... 49
Plate 13 - Malleefowl Mound # 2 ......................................................................................... 49
Plate 14 - Malleefowl Mound # 3 ......................................................................................... 50
Plate 15 - Malleefowl Mound # 4 ......................................................................................... 50
Plate 16 - Malleefowl Mound # 5 ......................................................................................... 50
Plate 17 - Malleefowl Mound # 6 outside of Snark Project area .......................................... 51
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A Vegetation Communities identified during Flora Survey (Mattiske 2011) .... 63
APPENDIX B Keighery, B.J. (1994) Vegetation Condition Scales ...................................... 66
APPENDIX C Categories used in the assessment of conservation status .......................... 68
APPENDIX D Species likely to occur in the area and species identified in the area ........... 71
APPENDIX E Department of Environment and Conservation Regulation 17 Permit .......... 84
APPENDIX F Annotated List Amphibians......................................................................... 88
APPENDIX G Annotated List Reptiles .............................................................................. 90
APPENDIX H Annotated List Mammals ........................................................................... 92
APPENDIX I Annotated List Birds .................................................................................... 95

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1.0
1.1

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND

Macarthur Minerals Limited (Macarthur) is engaged in the exploration and development of


mineral resources in the Lake Giles area located within the Ularring District of the North
Coolgardie Mineral Field that comprises Achaean Granite and Gneiss Complexes (Figure 1).
The Lake Giles Project area is located approximately 450 km northeast of Perth and 100 km
west of Menzies. Of the many deposits within the Lake Giles Project area, Macarthur has
concentrated drilling in a northern section, known as Snark, which is reported to have an
Inferred Mineral Resource of 7.5 million tonnes of iron ore as of September 2011. The Snark
Project Area current tenements are Mining Leases 30/243, 30/213, 30/214, 30/215 and
Exploration Licences 30/240 and 30/324. All tenements are 100% owned by Macarthur Iron
Ore Pty Ltd. The contiguous live tenements that make up the Lake Giles Project area cover
approximately 78,000 ha.
In order to further pursue mining opportunities in the Snark Project area, Macarthur
commissioned Keith Lindbeck and Associates (KLA) to assist in the government approvals
process.
1.2

SCOPE OF STUDY

KLA was commissioned in April 2011 to undertake a comprehensive Level 2 fauna


assessment of the vegetated areas encompassing the proposed mine and associated
infrastructure related to the Snark Project. The survey was planned and implemented in
accordance with Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) Position Statement No 3
Terrestrial Biological Surveys as an Element of Biodiversity Protection (EPA 2002),
Guidance Statement No. 56 Terrestrial Fauna Surveys for Environmental Impact
Assessment in Western Australia (EPA 2004) and Technical Guide Terrestrial Vertebrate
Fauna Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment (EPA and DEC 2010).
The EPA (2004) guidelines indicate that multiple, seasonal surveys are required for baseline
information. Therefore, one Level 2 survey was conducted in Autumn (May 2011) and a
second Level 2 survey will be conducted in Spring 2011.
In November 2010, Macarthur commissioned a (Level 1) desktop fauna assessment of the
Lake Giles Project area (Outback Ecology 2011). The results of that fauna assessment were
used to provide contextual data for the Level 2 survey.
The scope of work for the Level 2 fauna survey was to:
generally describe the vegetation associations in the study area;
identify habitat that may be of significance to fauna indigenous to Western Australia;
identify any habitats of particular conservation significance for fauna within the study
area;
prepare a fauna inventory (baseline information) of the area using a combined
approach of desk-top research including a review of existing literature and site
specific, seasonal fauna surveys comprising a suite of established survey
techniques;
identify fauna of conservation significance in the area,

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

provide a risk assessment to determine potential impacts to fauna of conservation


significance; and
provide recommendations, including the management of perceived impacts to fauna
habitats and fauna of conservation significance within the study area.

Figure 1 - Location of Lake Giles Project Area

Macarthur Minerals Limited

1.3

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT

This report describes the methodology employed for one seasonal fauna survey of the area
encompassing the proposed mine and associated infrastructure relating to the Snark Project.
It documents the current knowledge of the potentially-occurring and surveyed fauna in the
broader area and provides the results of the Autumn 2011 survey conducted in the subject
area. It also provides recommendations that include minimising impacts of the proposed
project on fauna habitat and assemblages.
The report is intended as a supporting document to accompany Macarthurs mining
approvals submissions to satisfy statutory requirements.
The survey is subject to limitations and these are discussed in more detail in the appropriate
sections.

Macarthur Minerals Limited

2.0

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

EXISTING ENVIRONMENT

The Snark Project area lies immediately east of the Lake Giles playa lake system
approximately 100 km west of Menzies in the Goldfields district of Western Australia. It is
located north east of the Mount Manning Nature Reserve (36208) and the newly formed
Mining Reserve (50929) (Figures 2 and 3). The operations will be carried out on Unallocated
Crown Land (UCL) on the mining and exploration tenements M30/243, M30/213, M30/214,
M30/215, E30/240 and E30/324 (Figure 3).
The Snark Project area extends in an east-west direction approximately 9 km long and
approximately 2.5 km wide (Figure 4).

2.1

CLIMATE

The area encompassing Snark is located close to the delineation between the DesertIntermediate and Semi-Desert Mediterranean bioclimatic regions, also described as semiarid (Beard 1990). The area is dry for the majority of the year and beneficial rains fall in late
summer to early winter (Beard 1990).
The nearest official meteorological station is located at Menzies, approximately 100 km east
of the survey area. Recordings of the local climatic conditions commenced at Menzies in
1896 and ended in 2009 (Bureau of Meteorology 2011). The next closest station is Leonora,
approximately 160 km southeast of Snark which has records from 1898 and continues to
monitor climatic conditions to date (Bureau of Meteorology 2011). Data from both stations is
presented in this report.
2.1.1 Temperature
For Menzies, the mean annual minimum temperature is 12.6oC and the mean annual
maximum temperature is 26.3oC (Figure 5). The coldest month is July (mean minimum
temperature 5.3oC), the hottest is January (mean maximum temperature 35.1oC), and diurnal
temperature variations are relatively consistent throughout the year (Figure 5). Diurnal
temperature variations for Leonora mirror those of Menzies. However, Leonora recorded
overall slightly higher temperatures with the mean annual minimum being 13.9oC, mean
annual maximum 27.9oC, coldest temperature 6.1oC also in July and hottest also in January
at 37.1oC (Figure 6).

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Figure 2 Regional Area showing Mount Manning Range Nature Reserve

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Figure 3 Location of Snark Project Area and Mt Manning Range Nature Reserve

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Figure 4 - Trapping locations within the Snark Project area and location of Malleefowl mounds

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Figure 5 - Mean maximum and minimum temperatures at Menzies


Meteorological Station

Figure 6 - Mean maximum and minimum temperatures at Leonora


Meteorological Station

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Mean minimum and maximum temperatures for the survey periods were relatively consistent
with those historically for May. The mean minimum temperature for the May 2011 survey
period was 10oC, compared to 10.2oC mean minimum recorded over the last 62 years for the
area, and the mean maximum temperature for the May survey period (21.8oC) was similar to
the long-term average of 22.8oC (Bureau of Meteorology 2011). Table 1 lists the minimum
and maximum temperature recordings for the periods spanning the fauna survey (4 May
2011 to 14 May 2011).
Table 1 - Daily temperatures for selected
dates in May 2011 for Leonora
2011

Temperature

Date

Min C

Max C

4-May

9.1

21.1

5-May

9.4

24.6

6-May

11.4

25.2

7-May

12.2

23.6

8-May

10.6

23.2

9-May

7.2

22.0

10-May

8.6

22.3

11-May

10.2

20.0

12-May

8.6

19.8

13-May

9.0

18.2

14-May

13.2

20.2

2.1.2 Rainfall
The annual average rainfall at Menzies is 249.8 mm which falls on approximately 32.1 rain
days (Bureau of Meteorology 2011). Leonora is located approximately 100 km north of
Menzies and the annual average rainfall and number of rain days is marginally less with
235.5 mm falling on approximately 29.8 rain days. More rain (>20 mm per month) falls in the
first half of the year than in the second half (<20 mm per month) and this amount does not
vary greatly (Figure 7).
Rainfall in the preceding 12 months does not conform to long term averages: below-average
rainfall was recorded for May 2010 (15.0 mm), June 2010 (12.4 mm), March 2011 (3.4 mm),
April 2011 (13.8 mm) and May 2011 (12.8 mm) and above-average rainfall was recorded for
September 2010 (37.2 mm), December 2010 (32.8 mm), January 2011 (38.2 mm) with an
excessive amount recorded for February 2011 (190.7 mm) (Figure 7).
While only 12.8 mm rain was recorded for May 2011, no rain was recorded during the period
of the Snark survey and certainly no rain fell while on site.

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

200
180
160
Rainfall(mm)

140
120
2011

100

2010

80

MeanMenzies1896 2009

60

MeanLeonora18922011

40
20
0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month

Figure 7 - Rainfall data for Menzies and Leonora Meteorological Stations

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Macarthur Minerals Limited

2.2

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

INTERIM BIOGEOGRAPHIC REGIONALISATION OF AUSTRALIA

The Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia (IBRA) divides the Australian
continent into 85 bioregions and 403 subregions (Department of the Environment, Water,
Heritage and the Arts 2009). The Snark Project area is located at the southern end of the
Murchison IBRA region within the Murchison 1 (MUR1) East Murchison subregion (Cowan
2001) immediately north of the Coolgardie 2 (COO2) Southern Cross subregion within the
Coolgardie IBRA region (Cowan et al. 2001). Due to Snarks close proximity to both regions,
both have been presented below.
The East Murchison bioregion which totals over seven million hectares is characterised by
Mulga Woodlands often rich in ephemerals, hummock grasslands, saltbush shrublands and
Halosarcia shrubland (Cowan 2001). The area is characterised by:
internal drainage,
extensive areas of elevated red desert sandplains with minimal dune development,
salt lake systems that are associated with the occluded Paleodrainage system, and
broad plains of red-brown soils and breakaway complexes as well as red sandplains
(Cowan 2001).
The subregion is rich and diverse in both its flora and fauna. However, most species are
wide ranging and usually occur in at least one, and often several, adjoining subregions
(Cowan 2001). Notwithstanding this, known special values in relation to the landscape,
ecosystem, species and genetic values in the subregion include:
Rare Features such as calcrete aquifers in the northern parts that support a large
variety of Short Range Endemic (SRE) subterranean aquatic fauna,
Rare terrestrial species include Great Desert Skink Egernia kintorei, Malleefowl
Leipoa ocellata, Alexandras Parrot Polytelis alexandrae, Mulgara Dasycercus
cristicauda and Yellow-bellied Black Snake Pseudechis butleri, and
Lake Barlee which represents a most important breeding site for Banded Stilts
Cladorhynchus leucocephalus and refugia for many other water birds (Burbidge and
Fuller 1982 cited in Cowan 2001).
The Coolgardie 2 subregion is located on the Southern Cross Terrains of the Yilgarn Craton
(Cowan et al. 2001). The area is characterised by fairly flat relief with only slight undulating
uplands divided by wide valleys with bands of low greenstone hills. The valleys consist of
Quaternary duplex and gradational soils with chains of saline playa-lakes. Around the salt
lakes and on the greenstone hills and valleys, diverse Eucalyptus woodlands can be found,
while on the salt lakes dwarfed shrublands of samphire occur. Within the upper levels of the
landscape, eroded remnants of a lateritic duricrust have produced yellow sandplains, gravelly
sandplains and laterite breakaways. The vegetation associated with uplands includes
Mallees, shrub-heaths of Allocasuarina, Melaleuca and Acacia species, with many endemic
acacias and Myrtaceae.
This subregional area extends over 7,041,232 ha and known special values in relation to the
landscape, ecosystem, species and genetic values in the subregion include:
Rare Features such as arid woodlands and rare vertebrates including Chuditch,
Slender-billed Thornbill, Major Mitchells Cockatoo and Malleefowl,
Centres of endemism for Ctenotus xenopleura, Nephrurus stellatus, bandedironstone hill flora, sandplain acacias and Myrtaceae and goldfields woodlands, and
High Species and Ecosystem Diversity represented by banded ironstone ranges,
ephemeral flora communities of Tertiary sandplain scrubs and of valley floor
woodlands (Cowan et al. 2001).
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2.3

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

FLORA AND VEGETATION MAPPING

The project area is located within the Coolgardie Botanical Province of the southwest
Interzone as defined by Beard (1990). Beard (op. cit.) describes the Coolgardie Botanical
Province as gently undulating with occasional ranges of low hills, with sandplains in the
western part and some large playa lakes, with principally brown calcareous earths. The
underlying geology is derived from Proterozoic granite and gneiss of the Fraser Range Block
and Archaean granite with infolded volcanic and meta-sediments of the Yilgarn Block (Beard
1990). Ironstone outcropping and banded ironstone formation ranges are common in the
wider area (Mattiske 2011).
Mattiske (2011) conducted flora and vegetation surveys of the Snark Project area in
February, March and May 2011. A total of 64 sampling sites were surveyed in addition to
opportunistic collections of plants previously unrecorded. Survey sites consisted of 25 m x
25 m quadrats.
Fourteen plant communities were defined within the area surveyed and an additional distinct
Eucalypt woodland community was identified outside of the survey area (Mattiske 2011).
These vegetation communities were broadly classified as Shrublands (S1 to S7) and
Woodlands (W1 to W8) (Figure 8). Descriptions of each vegetation community are provided
in Appendix A.
A total of 124 vascular plant taxa from 57 plant genera and 28 plant families were recorded
within the survey area (Mattiske 2011). The majority of taxa were recorded within the
Fabaceae (17 taxa), Chenopodiaceae (15 taxa) and Myrtaceae (12 taxa) Families. No
Declared Rare Flora (DRF) species were recorded within the survey area. However, two
Priority Flora species Banksia arborea (P4) and Grevillea erectiloba (P4) were recorded in
the Snark Project area.
None of the plant communities mapped by Mattiske (2011) resemble any of the Threatened
Ecological Communities (TEC) listed under the Federal Environmental Protection and
Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act 1999 or on the Department of Environment and
Conservation (DEC) Database. However, one Priority Ecological Community (PEC) the
Lake Giles vegetation complexes (banded ironstone formations) has been recorded within
the Lake Giles Area (Outback Ecology 2010). A second PEC, the Banded Ironstone Hills
with Banksia arborea Priority 1 PEC also has the potential to occur in or around the survey
area. The locations (and implications) of these PECs cannot be confirmed as there is limited
information on these communities available from DEC.
No introduced (exotic) taxa were recorded in the survey areas.

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Figure 8 - Vegetation communities identified in Snark Project area


after Mattiske (2011)

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

2.3.1 Trapping site selection


In order to take advantage of recent rainfall events, Macarthur commissioned KLA to
conduct the comprehensive Level 2 fauna survey in May 2011. Trapping site selection
was therefore undertaken prior to the receipt of the flora survey and its delineation and
description of vegetation communities. Notwithstanding this, an attempt was made to
sample fauna in representative vegetation communities along the length of the area
proposed for disturbance, and replicate these within the major groups where possible. In
addition, selective trapping was conducted in areas of banded iron formation (BIF) where
it was not possible to install conventional pit traps. Thus, seven conventional trapping
grids (Sites 1 to 7) were established with six within the proposed Snark disturbance area
and one (Site 4) to the south of the zone of impact, and an additional four smaller sites
(Sites 8 to 11) were located in areas of BIF (Figure 4).
Analysis of the area surveyed by Mattiske (2011) (2577.4 ha) indicates that 80% of the
area comprises (Acacia and Allocasuarina) shrubland with the remaining 20% comprising
(Eucalyptus) woodland (Table 2 and Table 3). Ten (91%) of the 11 trapping sites were
located in shrubland with five in Acacia shrubland and four in Allocasuarina shrubland.
Only one trapping site was located in Eucalyptus woodland (W5). However, it is noted
that at least two of the shrubland communities also supported Eucalyptus species. This
Eucalyptus woodland (W5) was the second largest Eucalyptus woodland (120 ha)
identified in the area surveyed and represented 23.5% of all woodlands within the area.
Of those communities in which no trapping grids were installed, S2 (17.5 ha) represented
<1%, S7 (37.5 ha) represented <2% and the Eucalyptus woodlands (393 ha) represented
<16% of the total area surveyed. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that the major
vegetation communities within the Snark project area were adequately sampled. It is also
noted that one trapping site (Site 4) was not included in the flora survey.
In accordance with the Keighery (1994) vegetation condition scales (Appendix B), the
overall condition of the vegetation within the survey area can generally be described as
Excellent. Almost all disturbances within the area were directly related to recent
exploration activity and associated tracks. While every attempt was made to locate
sampling sites in areas of least disturbance, access and practicality resulted in most sites
being within close proximity to vehicular tracks or existing disturbance.
Table 3 lists the eleven sampling areas and their respective vegetation associations and
Plates 1 to 11 provide photographic representation of the trapping areas.

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Table 2 - Trapping sites, number of hectares and percent


representation of vegetation communities

Trapping
Site

8,9
5,11
2
3,7,10

Vegetation
group

Hectares

afterMattiske(2011)

%
Shrublands

%
Total

Shrublands
S1
372.59
S2
17.52
S3
98.06
S4
1286.76
S5
3.75
S6
247.88
S7
37.54

Subtotal
2064.1

18.05
0.85
4.75
62.34
0.18
12.01
1.82

100.00

14.46
0.68
3.80
49.93
0.15
9.62
1.46

80.09

Woodlands
W1
67.48
W2
29.35
W3
32.46
W4
154.9
W5
120.36
W6
13.74
W7
35.45
W8
59.52

Subtotal
513.26
Total 2577.36

13.15
5.72
6.32
30.18
23.45
2.68
6.91
11.60

100.00

2.62
1.14
1.26
6.01
4.67
0.53
1.38
2.31

19.91
100.00

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Table 3 - Site numbers and their associated vegetation descriptions


(in accordance with Mattiske (2011))

Site

10

11

Vegetation descriptions
W5: Open woodland of Eucalyptus salubris with occasional Allocasuarina
campestris over Acacia tetragonophylla, Eremophila oldfieldii subsp. angustifolia,
Alyxia buxifolia, Santalum spicatum over Prostanthera althoferi subsp. althoferi,
Enchylaena sp., Maireana ?trichoptera and Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus on flat
to lower slopes with fine ironstone pebbles
S5: Tall mixed scrub of Acacia ramulosa var. ramulosa, Acacia tetragonophylla,
Acacia ?ayersiana, Acacia burkittii and Acacia aneura with emergent Eucalyptus
griffithsii and Eucalyptus stricklandii over Solanum lasiophyllum, Sida ectogama,
Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus and Sida spodochroma on flat to lower slopes with
red-brown clay soils
S6: Open scrub of Acacia ayersiana, Acacia cockertoniana, Acacia tetragonophylla
and Eremophila oppositifolia subsp. angustifolia over Eremophila latrobei subsp.
latrobei, Eremophila decipiens subsp. decipiens, Prostanthera althoferi subsp.
althoferi and Philotheca brucei subsp. brucei over Olearia humilis on mid- to upper
slopes
Acacia shrubland with emergent Eucalypts*
S4: Scrub of Allocasuarina campestris, Allocasuarina dielsiana, Acacia burkittii,
Acacia ramulosa var. ramulosa and Acacia aneura with occasional emergent
Eucalyptus capillosa subsp. capillosa and Eucalyptus stricklandii over Acacia
tetragonophylla, Dodonaea rigida and Scaevola spinescens over Ptilotus obovatus
var. obovatus and Sida calyxhymenia on flat to mid slopes with ironstone pebbles
S1: Open scrub of Acacia ramulosa var. ramulosa and Acacia aneura over
Philotheca brucei subsp. brucei, Dodonaea rigida, Eremophila alternifolia and
Eremophila latrobei ?subsp. latrobei over Olearia humilis on flats to low natural
relief with compact light brown clay soils
S6: Open scrub of Acacia ayersiana, Acacia cockertoniana, Acacia tetragonophylla
and Eremophila oppositifolia subsp. angustifolia over Eremophila latrobei subsp.
latrobei, Eremophila decipiens subsp. decipiens, Prostanthera althoferi subsp.
althoferi and Philotheca brucei subsp. brucei over Olearia humilis on mid- to upper
slopes
Area of Banded Iron Formation surrounded by tall scrub of Allocasuarina
acutivalvis subsp. acutivalvis, Acacia quadrimarginea, Acacia ramulosa var.
ramulosa, Acacia aneura var. aneura with emergent Brachychiton gregorii over
Philotheca brucei subsp. brucei, Eremophila latrobei subsp. latrobei, Acacia
tetragonophylla and Dodonaea rigida over Sida ectogama, Cheilanthes brownii and
Olearia muelleri on mid slopes to ridges with gravelly clays (S3)
Area of Banded Iron Formation surrounded by tall scrub of Allocasuarina
acutivalvis subsp. acutivalvis, Acacia quadrimarginea, Acacia ramulosa var.
ramulosa, Acacia aneura var. aneura with emergent Brachychiton gregorii over
Philotheca brucei subsp. brucei, Eremophila latrobei subsp. latrobei, Acacia
tetragonophylla and Dodonaea rigida over Sida ectogama, Cheilanthes brownii and
Olearia muelleri on mid slopes to ridges with gravelly clays (S3)
Area of Banded Iron Formation surrounded by open scrub of Acacia ayersiana,
Acacia cockertoniana, Acacia tetragonophylla and Eremophila oppositifolia subsp.
angustifolia over Eremophila latrobei subsp. latrobei, Eremophila decipiens subsp.
decipiens, Prostanthera althoferi subsp. althoferi and Philotheca brucei subsp.
brucei over Olearia humilis on mid- to upper slopes (S6)
Area of Banded Iron Formation surrounded by Scrub of Allocasuarina campestris,
Allocasuarina dielsiana, Acacia burkittii, Acacia ramulosa var. ramulosa and Acacia
aneura with occasional emergent Eucalyptus capillosa subsp. capillosa and
Eucalyptus stricklandii over Acacia tetragonophylla, Dodonaea rigida and Scaevola
spinescens over Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus and Sida calyxhymenia on flat to
mid slopes with ironstone pebbles (S4)

* Description from KLA as area outside of Mattiske flora survey area

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Plate 1 - Site 1 Open Eucalypt woodland (W5)

Plate 2 - Site 2 Tall mixed Acacia scrub (S5)

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Plate 3 - Site 3 Open Acacia scrub (S6)

Plate 4 - Site 4 Acacia shrubland

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Plate 5 - Site 5 Allocasuarina scrub (S4)

Plate 6 - Site 6 Open Acacia scrub (S1)

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Plate 7 - Site 7 Open Acacia scrub (S6)

Plate 8 - Site 8 Banded Iron Formation surrounded by tall


Allocasuarina scrub (S3)

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Plate 9 - Site 9 Banded Iron Formation surrounded by tall


Allocasuarina scrub (S3)

Plate 10 - Site 10 Banded Iron Formation surrounded by Open


Acacia scrub (S6)

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Plate 11 - Site 11 Banded Iron Formation surrounded by


Allocasuarina scrub (S4)

3.0

LITERATURE REVIEW

The Snark Project area is surrounded by pastoral leases to the east and west with Mount
Manning Nature Reserve to the southwest and other mining operations within close
proximity. In addition to the Level 1 desktop fauna assessment of the Lake Giles Project
area (Outback Ecology 2011), previous vertebrate surveys have been completed
regionally as part of environmental impact assessments of operational mines and
exploration projects. With reference to the Snark Project area, these include fauna
surveys conducted within:
the Barlee-Menzies study area by the Biological Surveys Committee (Burbidge et
al. 1995),
the Helena and Aurora Range (Chapman and Pronk 1997),
the Carina Prospect area in the Yilgarn (Ninox 2009) and
Deception Deposit area for Cliffs Asia Pacific Iron Ore Pty Ltd (Biota 2011).
In addition, the EPA (2007) prepared ministerial advice on areas of highest conservation
value in the proposed extensions to Mount Manning Nature Reserve.
Faunal
assemblages from this report have also been considered.
The locations of these studies and their descriptions are briefly summarised in Table 4.
Fauna recorded from these surveys is included in Appendix D and comparisons are
discussed in each section.

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Table 4 - Previous studies in the vicinity of the Lake Giles Project area
Citation

Burbidge et al. (1995)


Chapman and Pronk (1997)

EPA (2007)
Ninox (2009)
Biota (2011)

Title

The Biological Survey of the


Eastern Goldfields Part 12:
Barlee -Menzies Study Area
Vertebrate Survey in a biological
survey of the Helena and Aurora
Range
Advice on areas of the highest
conservation value in the
proposed extensions to Mount
Manning Nature Reserve:
Bulletin 1256
A Fauna Survey of the Carina
Prospect : Yilgarn Iron Ore
Project
Deception Deposit Vertebrate
Fauna Survey

Description of Study

Approximate distance from


Snark Project area

Inventory of vegetation, flora


and fauna of study area
prepared by the Biological
Surveys Committee

Mt Manning Nature Reserve


<10 km from southern border
of Snark Project area, and Mt
Elvrie: ~45km to northeast

Biological Survey with trapping


Ministerial advice in relation to:
The location of the highest
conservation values in the
proposed extensions to the Mt
Manning Nature Reserve.
Level 2 Fauna Survey
Level 2 Fauna Survey

23

Helena-Aurora Range: ~60 km


southwest

Survey Effort
Sites and Quadrats with
trapping, bird census and
opportunistic sightings over
three survey periods: Winter
1979, Spring 1980 and Late
Summer 1981.
Eleven sites in five habitats
with three transects and
quadrats in primary habitats.

Mt Manning Nature Reserve


<10 km from the southern
border of Snark Project area

Literature review.

Carina Prospect: ~65 km south


Deception Deposit: ~ 50 km
west

Six sites representing major


plant and soil associations.
Eleven sites in five major
fauna habitats.

Macarthur Minerals Limited

4.0
4.1

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

SURVEY METHODOLOGY
DATABASE SEARCHES

The online EPBC Protected Matters Search Tool was used to determine any species
listed under the EPBC Act 1999 for the area.
A search was commissioned of the Threatened and Priority Fauna Database held by the
DEC as recognised under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (WCA) 1950
and considered by the DEC as species of conservation significance.
DECs NatureMap was searched for records of fauna specimens vouchered at the
Western Australian Museum and the Birds Australia Atlas Database was searched for bird
species listed within the survey area.
Categories and descriptions of the conservation status of fauna species are provided in
Appendix C and the results of the databases searches are shown in Appendix D. As the
subject area does not enter marine systems, obligate marine animals have been excluded
from the results presented in this report.
4.2

SURVEY TIMING

EPA Guidance Statement No. 56 states that the most important seasonal activity times for
many faunal groups are related to rainfall and temperature (EPA 2004). A survey in the
season that follows the season of maximum rainfall is generally the most productive and
important survey time. Therefore, and conventionally, fauna surveys are conducted biseasonally in spring and autumn.
The climate of the Murchison/Coolgardie region is generally described as semi-arid
(Beard 1990). Rainfall is approximately 250 mm per annum and mostly falls between
January and June (Section 2.1). While rainfall in the previous 12 months does not
conform to long-term averages, with some below-average recordings and other above
average recordings, above average rainfall was recorded in December 2010, January
2011, and an amount of rain well exceeding the average was recorded in February 2011
(~190 mm). Timing of the survey was, therefore, optimal being undertaken during the
autumn months following a recent maximum rainfall event.
The fauna survey was conducted over a ten-day period from 4 May to 14 May 2011.
4.3

FAUNA SURVEY TEAM

The team assisting with the establishment of the trapping grids and conducting the
Autumn 2011 survey comprised Dr Vi Saffer, Erica MacIntyre and Hamish Burnett from
KLA. Merri Bartlett from KLA assisted with the first four days of the survey, Ryan Bowden
from Orbit Drilling assisted with the mechanical digging of the holes for the pit traps, Stuart
Miller and Brooke Willis from Macarthur assisted with the installation of the trapping
equipment (first two days of the survey) and Stuart McKinnon from Macarthur assisted
with the removal of traps (last two days of the survey).
A LICENCE TO TAKE FAUNA FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES SF008006 was issued to
Dr Vi Saffer as an instrument under Regulation 17 of the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 to
undertake this survey (Appendix E). Authorised persons associated with the licence
included Erica MacIntyre, Merri Bartlett and Hamish Burnett.
Analysis of bat recordings was completed by Dr Kyle Armstrong and Yuki Konishi of
Specialised Zoological.
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4.4

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

FAUNA SAMPLING

As per the recommendations of the EPA (2004) and EPA and DEC (2010), the
nomenclature and taxonomic order presented in this report are based on the Western
Australian Museums Checklist of the Vertebrates of Western Australia for herpetofauna
and mammals and Christidis and Boles (2008) for avifauna. The authorities used for
herprtofauna are Doughty and Maryan (2010) and for mammals How et al. (2010).
KLA acknowledges that the taxonomy of Western Australia vertebrates is continually
being revised and the taxonomy of some of the species listed in the document might have
changed since the publication of this report.
4.4.1 Reconnaissance survey
In accordance with EPA Position Statement No. 3 (EPA 2004), a reconnaissance survey
was conducted by Dr Vi Saffer following receipt of the results of the desktop study. Two
days were spent within the Snark Project area to delineate key fauna values, to determine
fauna habitat types and to determine trapping site locations.
One mammal species and 17 species of birds were identified during the reconnaissance
survey and are listed in Appendix D.
4.4.2 Systematic censuring
The extensive diversity of Australias terrestrial habitats is such that no single approach
accurately samples all species within a community (Garden et al. 2007). It is
acknowledged that surveys aimed at detecting multiple species must employ a suitable
combination of survey methods (see Garden et al. 2007).
In order to maximise the capture rate of diverse faunal species, systematic fauna
sampling was undertaken using four trapping techniques:
Pitfall traps (20 L buckets buried in the ground with the rims flush with the ground
surface),
Funnel traps,
Elliot-type aluminium box traps (8cm x 9 cm x 32 cm), and
Medium and large cage traps.
The systematic fauna sampling consisted of seven trapping grids (Sites 1 to 7) and an
additional four smaller sites (Sites 8 to 11) located across the Snark Project area (Figure
4). The additional smaller sites were located within areas of Banded Iron Formation (BIF)
where the use of conventional trapping grids was not achievable.
The design of the trapping grids was developed in consultation with Jan Henry of Ninox
Wildlife Consulting (Ninox). As Ninox had been commissioned to conduct fauna surveys
elsewhere in the Lake Giles Project area, the trapping design was developed that was
consistent with that to be used by Ninox so that comparisons can be made between sites.
Trapping grids conventionally comprised 16 pitfall traps, 12 funnel traps, 16 aluminium
box traps and four large cage traps (Figure 9). This pattern was achieved for six of the
seven trapping grid sites except Site 3 due to the presence of a drainage line and hard
ground that was resistant to digging for the pitfall traps. For Site 3, 15 pitfall traps, 10
funnel traps, 8 aluminium box traps and four large cage traps were used (Figure 10). A
6m x 30cm drift line fence was extended over all buckets at all sites to increase the
efficacy of the pitfall traps. In spite of the use of mechanical equipment, five locations at
Site 1 and three locations at Site 5 could not be excavated deep enough to accommodate
a 20 L bucket. In these instances, buckets were submerged as low as possible and the
tops were sawn off.

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

The four smaller sites (Sites 8 to 11) consisted of three pairs of traps at each site with two
pairs comprising an aluminium box trap and medium cage trap and the third pair
comprising an aluminium box trap and a large cage trap.
All traps in the trapping grids were open for eight consecutive nights, overlapping for
seven nights, and the BIF-located traps were all open for seven consecutive nights. The
overall trapping effort is shown in Table 5.

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Figure 9 - Schematic diagram of trapping unit configuration for Sites 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Figure 10 - Schematic diagram of trapping unit configuration for Site 3

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Table 5 - Trapping grid locations and trapping effort


Autumn survey (May 2011)

Site
Site 1:

Site 2:

Site 3:

Site 4:

Site 5:

Site 6:

Site 7:

Location

Trap type

Date opened

Date closed

Total
trapping
effort

2948'31.5"S

Pit

6-May

12-May

128

11954'50.8"E

Funnel

6-May

12-May

96

Aluminium box

6-May

12-May

128

Cage (large)

6-May

12-May

32

2948'48.7"S

Pit

6-May

12-May

128

11955'23.5"E

Funnel

6-May

12-May

96

Aluminium box

6-May

12-May

128

Cage (large)

6-May

12-May

32

2949'04.3"S

Pit

6-May

12-May

128

11956'17.7"E

Funnel

6-May

12-May

80

Aluminium box

6-May

12-May

96

Cage (large)

6-May

12-May

32

2950'20.3"S

Pit

6-May

12-May

128

11956'23.7"E

Funnel

6-May

12-May

96

Aluminium box

6-May

12-May

128

Cage (large)

6-May

12-May

32

2949'08.2"S

Pit

7-May

13-May

120

11957'39.0"E

Funnel

7-May

13-May

112

Aluminium box

7-May

13-May

128

Cage (large)

7-May

13-May

32

2949'16.1"S

Pit

7-May

13-May

128

11958'39.3"E

Funnel

7-May

13-May

96

Aluminium box

7-May

13-May

128

Cage (large)

7-May

13-May

32

2949'45.5"S

Pit

7-May

13-May

128

11959'49.0"E

Funnel

7-May

13-May

96

Aluminium box

7-May

13-May

128

Cage (large)

7-May

13-May

32

Sub-total

29

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Date opened

Date closed

Total
trapping
effort

Aluminium box

7-May

13-May

24

Cage (medium)

7-May

13-May

16

Cage (large)

7-May

13-May

2949'14.4"S

Aluminium box

7-May

13-May

24

11955'57.7"E

Cage (medium)

7-May

13-May

16

Cage (large)

7-May

13-May

2949'07.0"S

Aluminium box

7-May

13-May

24

11956'21.7"E

Cage (medium)

7-May

13-May

16

Cage (large)

7-May

13-May

2949'33.9"S

Aluminium box

7-May

13-May

24

11957'30.5"E

Cage (medium)

7-May

13-May

16

Cage (large)

7-May

13-May

Site

Location

Trap type

Site 8

2948'36.6"S
11955'09.2"E

Site 9

Site 10

Site 11

Sub-total
GRAND
TOTAL

192
2840

All traps were checked as soon after sunrise as possible each morning. Universal bait
was placed in all aluminium box traps and cage traps and renewed at least once during
the eight-day survey, and when required.
Opportunistic observations were carried out when inspecting traps on site, when travelling
between sites and when conducting bird surveys in the area. Hand-foraging for reptiles
was conducted opportunistically and during spot-lighting forays and included turning over
rocks and logs, peeling off bark, etc. Opportunistic observations were also made at
nearby granite outcrops, Johnson Rocks (~12 km west of Snark) and Hospital Rocks (~15
km east of Snark). Other than opportunistic observations of invertebrates and retrieval of
invertebrates in trapping equipment, no systematic searching and/or recording of
invertebrates was required or conducted.
4.4.3 Birds surveying
Surveying of birds was carried out using a combination of techniques including:
Four, 20 minute, 2 ha surveys at each of the seven trapping grid sites in
accordance with Atlas Search Methods for the Atlas of Australian Birds.
Censuses were commenced as soon after sunrise as practicable and
commencement was rotated through the sites to reduce time of day bias where
practicable (Table 6).
Two, 30 minute area surveys within 100 metres of each of the seven trapping grid
sites each evening before sunset (Table 6).
Opportunistic observations when inspecting traps on site, when travelling between
sites and in the area, and when conducting other surveys in the area.
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Table 6 - Dates and times of systematic birds censuses commenced at each site
Autumn AM 2011*
Date:

7-May

8-May

9-May

10-May

11-May

12-May

13-May
Total
(mins)

Time commenced

Site

(hrs)*

730

650

815

950

650

910

650

850

80

825

730

925

80

725

915

815

915

840

80
655

740

80

805

655

80

655

810

735

915

80

730

850

655

825

80
560

Total
* Censuses continued for 20 minutes at each site.
Autumn PM 2011**
Date:

7-May

8-May

9-May

10-May

11-May

12-May

13-May

Time commenced

Site

Total
(mins)

(hrs)*

1630

1610

60

1655

1550

1630
1600
1540

1645

1610

60
60

4
5

1640
1555

1645

60
60

1655

60
1605

Total
** Censuses continued for 30 minutes within 100 m of each site.

60
420

4.4.4 Bat surveying


Bat echolocation calls were recorded using Anabat SD1 detectors, which detect and
record ultrasonic echolocation calls emitted during bat flight. Two Anabat detectors were
used and were positioned on the ground in each trapping grid site before sunset and
retrieved the following morning. Table 7 lists the dates that bat recordings were taken at
each site.
The calls were stored on a compact flash card, downloaded and sequences were
examined using AnalookW software.

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Table 7 - Dates bat calls were recorded at


each site

Site
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Autumn2011
Unit1
Unit2
10May 8May
4May
6May
8May
9May
11May 4May
9May 11May
6May
7May
7May 10May

4.4.5 Spotlighting survey


Spotlighting was conducted on four evenings during the survey. A total of 23 hours and
30 minutes was spent spotlighting (Table 8).
Spotlighting was conducted from a slow-moving vehicle (less than 10 km/hr) using highpowered hand-held spotlights and vehicle-mounted spotlights, and commenced at least
one hour after sunset. In addition, spotlighting forays with head-torches were conducted
twice on foot for approximately 15 minutes each during all spotlighting evenings.
Spotlighting was conducted immediately adjacent to and within 10 km of all sites.
Table 8 - Dates and duration of spotlighting forays, including
numbers of personnel involved

Date

Time
commenced
(hrs)

Duration

4-May

2000

1 hr 30 min

Number of
observers,
including
driver
4

6-May

2005

1 hr 45 min

7 hr

8-May

1950

1 hr 55 min

5 hr 45 min

10-May

2010

1 hr 35 min

4 hr 45 min

TOTAL

4.5

Total (hrs)
6 hr

23 hr 30 min

SURVEY LIMITATIONS

Not all areas of the Snark area were ground-truthed or sampled equally for fauna.
Vehicular access, road conditions and rocky terrain prevented sampling in the centre of all
associations, and regular checking of fauna traps in these areas would, therefore, not
have been possible. In addition, information in relation to vegetation communities was not
available at the time of trapping grid selection with the result that not all communities were
surveyed (Section 2.3.1). Notwithstanding this, seven trapping grids were located along
the length of the Snark Project area in addition to four sites that were located on the BIF
ridges.
As indicated above (Section 4.2.2), not all sites could accommodate the same trapping
grid pattern. Where buckets could not be installed, other grid patterns and trapping
techniques (funnels and medium-sized cages) were used so that the overall trapping effort
was not compromised.
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5.0
5.1

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

VETEBRATE FAUNA INVENTORY


OVERVIEW OF VERTEBRATE FAUNA OF THE SURVEY AREA

Overall, 71 individuals from 18 non-volant terrestrial species were captured during the
systematic sampling, in addition to one bird species that was captured in a cage trap at
Site 1. Of the bird species, 419 individuals representing 15 Families were recorded during
the systematic sampling.
Figure 11 provides a visual representation of the number of fauna recorded from each
major vertebrate group and Table 9 provides a summary of the number of species
recorded for each of the seven trapping grid sites and four additional sites. A summary of
all species known and likely to be present in the survey areas is provided in Appendix D.
This includes a summary of all the results of the data searches, all species recorded
during regional surveys, all species recorded during the reconnaissance survey and all
species recorded during the systematic sampling, opportunistic sightings and evidence,
and spotlighting.
Annotated lists of amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds appear in Appendices F, G, H
and I respectively.

450

Numberofspecies

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Amphibians

Reptiles

Native
Mammals

Nonnative
Mammals

Birds

FaunalGroup

Figure 11 - Number of individual terrestrial vertebrates recorded during the


systematic surveys

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Table 9 - Number of individual terrestrial vertebrates recorded at each site


Faunal group

Site 1

Site 2

Site 3

Site 4

Site 5

Site 6

Site 7

Site 8

Site 9

Site 10

Site 11

Reptiles

10

38

Native mammals

Non-native mammals

24

Birds

Caged

AM

34

47

38

44

66

41

39

309

PM

41

14

12

18

13

109

84

73

49

68

89

64

60

489

Total

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5.2

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

AMPHIBIANS

5.2.1 The assemblage


No frog species were captured or heard during the systematic survey period. However,
one species, Pseudophyrne occidentalis Western Toadlet (Family: Myobatrachidae) was
recorded at Hospital Rocks within 15 km from the survey area. Up to five males were
heard calling from beneath moss beds adjacent to standing water within the granite
outcrops. Multiple egg burrows were sighted within the two locations at Hospital Rocks.
This species is reported in the annotated list presented in Appendix F.
5.2.2 Discussion
No amphibian species of conservation significance are listed for the area using the EPBC
Protected Matters Search Tool or listed on the DEC Threatened and Priority Fauna
Database.
One species of frog has been vouchered at the Western Australian Museum for this area,
namely Pseudophyrne occidentalis that was heard at the granite outcrop at Hospital
Rocks. Western Toadlet males call from small tunnels they dig in the soil following
autumn and early winter rains. Lured by the males, the females lay eggs in capsules
within burrows out of the water which the males then fertilise. This genus takes
advantage of drier conditions by completing early larval development within the capsule
and waiting for flooding of the burrows to wash the eggs into a larger body of water to
complete tadpole development (Tyler and Doughty 2009).
Amphibians generally are extremely under-represented in field surveys. The results of
regional surveys are consistent with this statement inasmuch as only two species were
captured during the extensive Barlee-Menzies study (Burbidge et al. 1995), only two were
recorded in the Deception Deposit area (Biota 2011) and only one was recorded during
the Helena and Aurora Range survey (Chapman and Pronk 1997). Ninox (2009) did not
record any amphibians in the Carina Prospect area. Of the species identified during these
surveys, Pseudophyrne occidentalis was recorded opportunistically during the BarleeMenzies study and was one of two species recorded in the Deception Deposit area. The
remaining species included Neobatrachus wilsmorei Plonking Frog in the Barlee-Menzies
area, Heleioporus albopunctatus Western Spotted Frog in the Deception Deposit area and
one Neobatrachus kunapalari Kunapalari Frog in the Helena and Aurora Range area.
Interestingly, Neobatrachus kunapalari, Neobatrachus wilsmorei and one of the
Pseudophyrne occidentalis were recorded during spring surveys: the remaining frogs
were captured during an autumn survey (Biota 2011).
The Snark Project area has no granite outcrops or natural water source. Any water on the
ground is the result of episodic rainfall and does not remain in situ for very long. Most of
the surrounding area of Snark is salt lake systems or playas which do not provide suitable
habitat or conditions for amphibians. Notwithstanding this, a Spring survey may result in
the capture of other amphibians species that may utilise the habitat in the Snark Project
area.

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5.3

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

REPTILES

5.3.1 The assemblage


Twelve species of reptiles were captured from all sites totalling 38 individuals from three
Families (Table 10 and Appendix D). The reptiles captured comprised four dragon
species (Agamidae), two diplodactylid species (Diplodactylidae), and six species of skink
(Scincidae).
More Agamids (n = 24, 63%) were captured than the remaining two Families collectively.
While ten Scincidae (26%) were captured, only two species of Diplodactylidae were
captured (11%). Of the latter, only one Lucasium stenodactylum was captured (at Site 2)
and one Diplodactylus pulcher was captured at each of three sites (Site 1, Site 4 and Site
5).
Of the Agamids, more Ctenophorus reticulatus (n = 11) were captured that all other
reptiles, followed by Caimanops amphiboluroides (n = 6) and Ctenophorus scutulatus (n =
5), with the remaining species, Pogona minor, netting only two individuals.
While six species of skink were captured, only three of one species (Ctenotus mimetes)
was captured. Two Cryptoblepharus plagiocephalus and two Ctenotus schomburgkii were
captured, with only one of each of the remaining species captured.
The largest number of reptiles was captured at Site 4 (n = 10) with five species
represented. However six species were captured at Site 2 (n = 7) and Site 5 (n = 8). Of
the trapping grid sites, the least number was captured at Site 6 (n = 1) and no reptiles
were captured at any of the smaller additional sites.
Pitfall traps with drift line fencing proved to be the most effective trapping apparatus with
all but two individuals (n = 36) caught using this technique. The outstanding two
individuals were captured in funnel traps. No reptiles were captured in either aluminium
box traps or cage traps.
Of the opportunistic recordings, four individuals of Caimanops amphiboluroides, one
Ctenophorus scutulatus and one Ctenotus sp. were recorded (Appendix D).
Each species is discussed individually in the annotated list presented in Appendix G.

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Table 10 - Reptiles species recorded (including method) during systematic fauna survey
Site 1

Site 2

Site 3

Site 4

Site 5

Site 6

Site 7

Site 8

Site 9

Site 10

Site 11

Ctenophorus scutulatus

Caimanops amphiboluroides

Pogona minor

Diplodactylus pulcher

Lucasium stenodactylum

Cryptoblepharus plagiocephalus

Ctenotus grandis

Ctenotus leonhardii

Ctenotus mimetes

Ctenotus schomburgkii

Menetia greyii

Pitfall

Aluminium box

Funnel

Cage

Total

10

Cumulative total

11

14

24

32

33

38

38

38

38

38

Family

Species

Agamidae

Ctenophorus reticulatus

Diplodactylidae
Scincidae

Common Name
Western Netted
Dragon

Trapping method

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5.3.2 Discussion
A total of 38 individual reptiles were captured during the systematic survey. Given the
different trapping techniques and that the traps were open for a total of 2840 trap nights,
the trap rate of 1.3% was particularly low. Being ectotherms, reptiles are most active
during higher temperatures between September and April (EPA and DEC 2010).
However, it is recognised that this survey was particularly aimed at being an Autumn
survey and that more reptile species are likely to be more active during the warmer
months. Notwithstanding this, up to twelve species were captured with skink species (n =
6) outnumbering the agamids (n = 4), and only two species of diplodactilydids captured.
The numbers of reptile captures between sites did not differ dramatically. However, more
were captured at Site 4 than at all other sites. This site was located immediately south of
the main disturbance area which has and continues to be subject to drilling and
associated vehicular movement. The flora survey did not include this area (Mattiske
2011). However, the vegetation association at Site 4 was determined to be Acacia
shrubland and not significantly different generally to vegetation elsewhere in the Snark
Project area.
While the EPA and DEC (2010) Technical Guide suggests that pitfall trapping is not
particularly effective during cooler times of the year, all but two individual reptiles were
captured using this trapping technique. The remaining two reptiles were captured in
funnels traps. Not surprisingly, no reptiles were captured in aluminium box traps or cage
traps.
No reptile species of conservation are listed for the area using the EPBC Protected
Matters Search Tool or listed on the DEC Threatened and Priority Fauna Database. None
of the species captured or seen opportunistically were identified as species of
conservation significance.
Forty species of reptiles have been vouchered at the Western Australian Museum for this
area and include nine species of Agamidae, six of Diplodactylidae, one of
Carphodactylidae, three of Gekkonidae, two of Pygopodidae, sixteen of Scincidae, one of
Varanidae and two of Elapidae (Appendix D). Of these species, 32 were not captured or
sighted during the survey and, conversely, of the species captured, three have not been
vouchered with the Western Australian Museum for this area (Lucasium stenodactylum,
Ctenotus grandis and Ctenotus mimetes).
Overall, it is not surprising that more reptiles have been vouchered at the Western
Australian Museum for this area than have been collected over many years and in all
seasons, rather than the species captured during this eight day survey. Notwithstanding
this, species accumulation curves for reptiles captured during this limited-day survey
indicate that 75% of species were captured by the second night of trapping and 92% were
captured by the fourth night of trapping with only one more species captured on the
seventh night of trapping (Figure 12). These results suggest that a trapping period of
eight consecutive nights is sufficient and likely to record a reasonable representation of
the majority of the reptiles in the local area at the time. Seasonal trapping, conducted
over many years, would be required to determine the full complement of reptiles that
utilise this habitat.
The many variables associated with other studies in the area in relation to timing and
duration of surveys and to trapping techniques, make comparisons difficult. In addition,
as, for example, the Biological Surveys Committee study (Burbidge et al. 1995) was
conducted in 1979, taxonomic name changes make particular species difficult to trace.
Notwithstanding this, other surveys also conducted during the cooler months of autumn
have captured as few as 3 reptiles (Ninox 2009) and as many as 41 individuals (Biota
2011). Of the species captured during the present survey, only one species Lucasium
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stenodactylum has not been recorded for this area on the Western Australian Museum
database or during all other regional surveys in the area (Burbidge et al. 1995, Biota 2011,
Chapman and Pronk 1997 or Ninox 2009). The distribution of this species extends
throughout South Australia and patchily through the Northern Territory and in the north of
Western Australia, with this occurrence at Snark towards the southern extent of its range
in this State.

14

Numberofspecies

12
10
8
6
4
2
1

Numberofdays

Figure 12 - Species accumulation curve for reptiles captured during the


systematic fauna survey

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5.4

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

MAMMALS

5.4.1 The assemblage


Five species of native terrestrial mammals representing two families and totalling eight
individuals were captured during the survey period (Table 11). Within the Family
Dasyuridae, Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis Fat-tailed Pseudantechinus and
Sminthopsis dolichura Little Long-tailed Dunnart were captured and with the Family
Muridae, two species of hopping mouse, Notomys alexis Spinifex Hopping Mouse and
Notomys mitchellii Mitchells Hopping Mouse were captured, in addition to Pseudomys
hermannsburgensis Sandy Inland Mouse.
While the number of mammals captured was low, more Dasyurids (n = 5) were captured
than Murids (n = 3). Of the Dasyurids, two Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis and three
Sminthopsis dolichura were captured whereas only one of each of the native Murid
species was captured.
Only one species of non-native mammal, Mus musculus House Mouse was captured
during the systematic surveying. A total of 24 individuals were captured, far outnumbering
(75%) the number of native mammals captured (25%).
No mammals of conservation significance potentially occur in the area and none were
captured during the survey.
For the native mammals, equal numbers were captured in pitfall traps and in aluminium
box traps (n = 4 in each trap type) and none were captured in funnel traps or cages.
Interestingly, all three Sminthopsis dolichura were captured in pitfall traps and both
Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis were captured in aluminium box traps. Both species
of hopping mice were captured in aluminium box traps and the Pseudomys
hermannsburgensis was captured in a pitfall trap.
Up to 18 Mus musculus were captured in aluminium box traps (75%) and only six (25%)
were captured in pitfall traps. No Mus musculus were captured in funnel traps or cage
traps.
The native mammals were captured at only four of the trapping grid sites (Sites 2, 3, 4 and
7) with three at Site 2 and one at each of the other trapping sites. Both Pseudantechinus
macdonnellensis were captured at Site 9, one of the smaller trapping sites. Up to seven
Mus musculus were captured at Site 4, four were captured at Site 1 and at Site 6, three at
Site 5 and two at each of the remaining productive sites for this species. No mammals
were captured at the other smaller sites (Sites 8, 10 or 11).
Kyle Armstrong and Yuki Konishi of Specialised Zoological analysed the bat calls
recorded on the Anabats (Armstrong and Konishi 2011). The presence of six species of
bats were identified with four recording unambiguous identification, two needing
confirmation and one being either one or another of the bats identified (Table 12).
Bats were recorded at all of the seven trapping grid sites with between four and six
species recorded at each site. However, of all the species identified, only Chalinolobus
morio and Tadarida australis were positively identified at all sites. For the remaining
species, C. gouldii was positively identified at only four sites (Sites 1, 3, 5 and 6) and
Mormopterus sp. 3 was positively identified at only two sites (Sites 3 and 6). Vespadelus
baverstocki was positively identified only at Site 2 with confirmation required at the
remaining sites (Sites 1, 3, 5 and 7) and the calls of Nyctophilus sp. at Sites 4, 6 and 7
require confirmation.

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Armstrong and Konishi (2011) highlight the difficulties in distinguishing the differences in
some calls. For example, calls of Gould's Wattled Bat Chalinolobus gouldii are similar to
those of the inland Freetail-bat Mormopterus sp. 3. Notwithstanding this, positive
identifications of both species were made from other high quality diagnostic call
sequences. The calls of the Long-eared bats Nyctophilus spp. are typically difficult to
identify to species, and those recorded may be attributed to the Lesser Long-eared Bat
Nyctophilus geoffroyi or the central Greater Long-eared Bat N. major tor which is listed
under Priority 4 of DECs Priority Fauna List.
Evidence of mammals seen opportunistically during the survey was limited to one
Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis which was seen in an area of BIF close to the current
camp. In addition, macropod droppings, Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus droppings,
diggings and warrens, and Dog Canis sp. droppings that contained unidentified grey fur
were recorded. All sightings are included in Appendix D.
.

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Table 11 - Mammal species recorded (including method) during the systematic fauna survey
Family

Species

Common Name

Site 1

Site 2

Site 3

Site 4

Site 5

Site 6

Site 7

Site 8

Site 9

Site 10

Site 11

Dasyuridae

Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis

Notomys mitchellii

House Mouse
Spinifex Hopping
Mouse
Mitchell's Hopping
Mouse

Pseudomys hermannsburgensis

Sandy Inland Mouse

Pitfall

Aluminium box

Funnel

Cage

Total

Cumulative total

12

20

23

27

30

30

32

32

32

Sminthopsis dolichura
Muridae

Mus musculus*
Notomys alexis

Fat-tailed
Pseudantechinus
Little Long-tailed
Dunnart

Trapping method

* introduced species

Table 12 - Site by species matrix of bat identifications recorded during the systematic fauna survey
Family

Species

Common Name

Site 1
Anabat

Vespertilionidae

Site 2

Site 3

Site 4

Site 5

Site 6

Site 7

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 1

Unit 2

Chalinolobus gouldii

Gould's Wattled Bat

Chalinolobus morio

Chocolate Wattled Bat

Nyctophilus sp.

Long-eared Bat

NC

NC

NC

NC

Vespadelus baverstocki

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

C. gouldii / Mormopterus sp. 3

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

Molossidae

Mormopterus sp. 3

Tadarida australis

White-striped Freetail-bat

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5.4.2 Discussion
Four different trap types were open for a total of 2840 trap nights during the eight-day
survey. The capture of eight individual mammals during this period translates into a trap
rate of 0.28%, which suggests that at the time of the survey the area supported very low
numbers of mammals. However, as up to five species of native mammal were captured,
diversity of species present in relation to numbers of mammals caught was relatively high.
Given the low numbers of mammals captured, it is difficult to comment on any significance
of spatial differences. However, more mammals were captured to the west of the Snark
area than to the east. Interestingly, there appeared to be more disturbance in the western
part of the Project area during the time of the survey with more tracks and exploration
drilling sites than in the east. Based on the vegetation communities mapped by Mattiske
(2011), there does not appear to be any correlation between the distribution of mammals
captured and different vegetation groups across the length of the area surveyed.
For this and many fauna surveys, pitfall traps and aluminium box traps are the most
effective in capturing small mammals (EPA and DEC 2011). However, some species have
a penchant for particular traps. In this study, for example, all three Sminthopsis dolichura
were captured only in pitfall traps, and both species of hopping mouse and both
Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis were captured only in aluminium box traps. No
mammals were captured in funnel or cage traps.
In addition to the conventional trapping grid sites, four smaller sites were located within
areas of BIF. It is interesting to note that the two individual P. macdonnellensis were
captured in one of the BIF sites (Site 9) and a third P. macdonnellensis was seen
opportunistically in a BIF range. With reference to distributional maps, the Snark area
appears to be at the western extent of the range of this species (van Dyck and Strahan
2008). van Dyck and Strahan (2008) also report that P. macdonnellensis occurs in red
sandplains. While this species does not appear on any list of Threatened fauna for either
the State or Federally, it could be argued that the impact on this species may be greater
than on other local species that do not favour only BIF but occupy possibly BIF but also
other habitat types. However, as P. macdonnellensis does not appear on any Threatened
fauna list and that not all BIF in the area will be removed, the conservation status of this
species is not likely to be affected by the proposed mining activity in the Snark area.
Indeed, using the EPBC Protected Matters Search Tool and interrogating the DEC
Threatened and Priority Fauna Database, no mammal species of conservation are listed for
the area. None of the other species captured or seen opportunistically were identified as
species of conservation significance.
Only one species of non-native mammal was captured. Mus musculus populations are
known to fluctuate enormously according to climate and food availability. While they do
breed opportunistically, many are born from October to April (Menkhorst and Knight 2004).
This is consistent with the large number of M. musculus captured during the survey. While
the majority (75%) of M. musculus were captured in aluminium box traps, none were
captured in the aluminium box traps located within the BIF areas.
Unconfirmed, anecdotal reports suggest that cats, dogs and foxes occur in the vicinity of the
Snark area. While dog droppings were recorded in the area, no individuals or evidence of
any of the other feral species were seen during the survey. Notwithstanding this, the low
number of mammals in the area may be attributable to a degree of predation.
Given the low numbers of mammals captured, it is not surprising that a species
accumulation curve did not reach its asymptote during the eight day survey (Figure 13). Up
to 50% of species were captured after the first night and no more were captured until the
fifth night of trapping: one new species was captured on each of the following nights. While
it can be assumed that not many more species were present, many more trapping
43

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

programs spanning many more seasons would provide a more complete representation of
the mammal assemblage in the Snark area.

Numberofspecies

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1

4
5
Numberofdays

Figure 13 - Species accumulation curve for non-volant native and non-native


mammals captured during the systematic fauna survey

Anabat detectors record the presence of bats, rather than the numbers present. Bats were
recorded at all seven sites, with two of the six species heard positively at all seven sites.
While some calls were positively identified, others require confirmation and some could be
one of two species. Notwithstanding this, it is reasonable to assume that the diversity of
bats present extends throughout the Snark area.
Eighteen species of mammals have been vouchered at the Western Australian Museum for
the area with ten being non-volant mammals and eight representing bats (Appendix D). Of
the non-volant mammals, only one dasyurid and three murid captured during this survey
have been vouchered at the Museum from the area, with Pseudantechinus
macdonnellensis and Notomys mitchellii not on the Museum list. For the bats, only
Chalinolobus gouldii, Vespadelus baverstocki and Tadarida australis have been vouchered
at the Museum.
As noted for the reptiles, comparisons with other studies are limited due to differences in
timing, trapping programs and taxonomic changes. Notwithstanding this, and reflected in
the Museum recordings, four of the six non-volant mammals have been captured elsewhere
during other regional surveys, but not P. macdonnellensis or N. mitchellii.

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5.5

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

BIRDS

5.5.1 The assemblages


A total of 418 individual birds representing 29 species from 14 Families were recorded
during the systematic sampling immediately after sunrise (AM) and before sunset (PM)
(Table 13). The total species tally recorded during the four, 20 minute morning surveys at
each site comprised 309 individuals with 29 species representing 14 Families. During the
two, 30 minute afternoon surveys at each site, 109 individuals representing 20 species from
14 Families were recorded. One Cinclosoma castanotus Chestnut Quail-thrush was
captured in a cage trap at Site 1 that brings these totals collectively to 419 individual birds
numbering 30 species from 15 Families. This C. castanotus was the only bird species to be
captured during the survey period and the only fauna species captured in a cage trap.
The results of the 20 minute morning surveys indicated that passerines (n = 289) represent
a majority (93.5%) of species recorded in the area with only 20 individuals from two
Families accounting for the non-passerines (6.5%) (Table 13). Of the non- passerines, 15
Barnardius zonarius Australian Ringneck outnumbered the other two parrot species with
only two Platycercus varius Mulga Parrot and two Neophema elegans Elegant Parrot
recorded. Only one Cuculus pallidus Pallid Cuckoo was recorded.
Within the passerines, Acanthizids accounted for more birds (n = 101, 34.9%) than all other
species (Table 13). The most ubiquitous of the Acanthizids was Smicrornis brevirostris
Weebill with 57 birds recorded, representing 56% of this group. Following the Acanthizids,
the Malurids, represented by Malurus splendens Splendid Fairy-wren and M. lamberti
Variegated Fairy-wren accounted for 26.6% of all the birds recorded, collectively totalling 77
birds. Oreoica gutturalis Crested Bellbird which is listed as a Priority 4 species on the DEC
Threatened and Priority Fauna Database was recorded 29 times accounting for 10% of the
birds recorded. The remaining species all recorded less than 10% each of the total number
of birds recorded.
More birds were recorded at Site 5 (n = 66) than at the other sites. Between 40 and 50
birds were recorded at Site 2, Site 4 and Site 6 and the remaining sites each recorded
between 30 and 40 birds. Site 4 accounted for the most number of species (n = 16) with a
similar number of species (n = 14) at Sites 2, 5 and 6. The least number of species (n = 9)
was recorded at Site 1.
While the time spent surveying birds was longer in the mornings at each site (80 minutes)
than in the afternoons (60 minutes), proportionately far fewer birds were recorded during
the afternoon sessions (n = 109) than during the morning surveys (n = 309), and far fewer
species (n = 20 versus n = 29). No additional species were recorded during the afternoon
sessions that were not recorded during the morning surveys.
During the afternoon surveys only one non-passerine (Australian Ringneck) was recorded
resulting in 97% being passerines. Similar to the results from the morning surveys, the
Acanthizids outnumbered all other passerines. While a flock (n = ~20) of unidentified
Thornbills inflated the numbers of Acanthizids, the Weebill (n = 15) and Inland Thornbill (n =
13) accounted for the majority of the remaining Acanthizids. Only the Splendid Fairy-wren
Malurus splendens outnumbered these species with 21 being recorded.

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Table 13 - Avifauna species recorded during systematic sampling


Family

Psittacidae

Species

Common Name

Site 1

Site 2

Site 3

Site 4

Site 5

Site 6

Site 7

Am
2

Pm

Am

Pm

Am

Pm

Am
2

Pm

Am
7

Pm
1

Am
2

Pm
2

Am
2

Pm

Platycercus zonarius

Australian Ringneck

Platycercus varius

Mulga Parrot

Neophema elegans

Elegant Parrot

Cuculidae

Cuculus pallidus

Pallid Cuckoo

Climacteridae

Climacteris affinis

White-browed Treecreeper

Maluridae

Malurus splendens

Splendid Fairy-wren

15

10

Malurus lamberti

Variegated Fairy-wren

10

Pyrrholaemus brunneus

Redthroat

Smicrornis brevirostris

Weebill

11

10

Gerygone fusca

Western Gerygone

Acanthiza uropygialis

Chestnut-rumped Thornbill

Acanthiza apicalis

Inland Thornbill

Acanthiza spp.

Thornbills

20

Aphelocephala leucopsis

Southern Whiteface

Pardalotidae

Pardalotus striatus

Striated Pardalote

Meliphagidae

Lichenostomus virescens

Singing Honeyeater

Lichenostomus leucotis

White-eared Honeyeater

Acanthagenys rufogularis

Spiny-cheeked Honeyeater

Lichmera indistincta

Brown Honeyeater

Acanthizidae

Pomatostomidae

Pomatostomus superciliosus

White-browed Babbler

Campephagidae

Coracina novaehollandiae

Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike

Pachycephalidae

Pachycephala rufiventris

Rufous Whistler

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Family

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Species

Common Name

Site 1

Site 2

Site 3

Site 4

Site 5

Site 6

Site 7

Am

Pm

Am
1

Pm

Am

Pm

Am
2

Pm

Am

Pm
1

Am
1

Pm

Am

Pm
1

Colluricincla harmonica

Grey Shrike-thrush

Oreoica gutturalis

Crested Bellbird

Cracticus nigrogularis

Pied Butcherbird

Strepera versicolor

Grey Currawong

Dicruridae

Rhipidura fuliginosa

Grey Fantail

Corvidae

Corvus bennetti

Little Crow

Petroicidae

Petroica goodenovii

Red-capped Robin

Hooded Robin

Melanodryas cucullata

Cracticidae

Am Subtotal

34

47

38

44

66

41

39

Am Cumulative total

34

81

119

163

229

270

309

Pm Subtotal

41

14

12

18

13

Pm Cumulative total

41

55

60

66

78

96

109

Grand Total

75

47

136

179

229

307

366

418

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All remaining species recorded during the afternoon surveys numbered five or less with only
one of four species recorded.
Given the flock of unidentified Thornbills, Site 1 recorded more birds than at all other sites
during the afternoon surveys. Excluding these Thornbills, Site 1 supported marginally more
birds (n = 21) than the other sites (18). The least number of birds was recorded at Site 3
(n = 5). More species were also recorded at Site 1 (n = 9), with the least number of species
(n = 2) recorded at Site 4. Interestingly, four species of birds were recorded at Site 3 where
the least number of birds was recorded.
Opportunistic recordings accounted for 29 bird species identified during the survey period
(Appendix D). Of these, six were not recorded during the systematic bird surveys (Table
14). In addition, evidence of Malleefowl was also seen opportunistically. Conversely,
seven bird species recorded during the systematic surveys were not seen opportunistically
(Table 14). The Chestnut Quail-thrush, while not recorded during the timed bird surveys,
was captured in one of the cage traps during the terrestrial trapping component of the
survey, and was recorded opportunistically.
Table 14 Comparative bird recordings between opportunistic sightings
and systematic sampling

Birdsspeciesrecordedopportunisticallybutnotduringsystematicsampling
Family

Scientific Name

Common Name

Climacteridae

Climacteris rufa

Rufous Treecreeper

Acanthizidae

Acanthiza chrysorrhoa

Yellow-rumped Thornbill

Neosittidae

Daphoenositta chrysoptera

Varied Sittella

Campephagidae

Lalage sueurii

White-winged Triller

Pachycephalidae

Pachycephala inornata

Gilbert's Whistler

Estrildidae

Taeniopygia guttata

Zebra Finch

Bird species recorded during systematic sampling but not opportunistically


Family

Scientific Name

Common Name

Psittacidae

Neophema elegans

Elegant Parrot

Cuculidae

Cuculus pallidus

Pallid Cuckoo

Climacteridae

Climacteris affinis

White-browed Treecreeper

Acanthizidae

Aphelocephala leucopsis

Southern Whiteface

Meliphagidae

Lichenostomus virescens

Singing Honeyeater

Lichmera indistincta

Brown Honeyeater

Petroica multicolor

Scarlet Robin

Petroicidae

The most ubiquitous species recorded opportunistically was the Splendid Fairy Wren
Malurus splendens. Similar to systematic sampling results, far fewer non-passerines (two
Families) were recorded than passerine Families (n = 27) (Appendix D).
Of the birds considered of conservation significance listed for the area, evidence of the
Malleefowl Leipoa ocellata was found and the Crested Bellbird Oreoica gutteralis was
recorded at every site and opportunistically. The Crested Bellbird is listed as a Priority Four
species on the DEC Threatened and Priority Fauna Database.
Malleefowls are listed as a Threatened species under the EPBC Act 1999 and DEC
Threatened and Priority fauna Database. Unconfirmed sightings of Malleefowls have been
reported in the area (Cathy Galli pers comm.). During the survey period, five inactive, old
Malleefowl mounds were identified within the Snark Project area (Figure 4) and a further
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mound (No. 6) was identified outside of the Snark Project area but within the Lake Giles
Project area (Plates 9 to 14). Table 15 provides the coordinates of all six Malleefowl
mounds.

Table 15 - Malleefowl Mound Locations


Malleefowl Mound Locations
No. 1

50 J 784209 6698733

No. 2

50 J 784217 6695488

No. 3

50 J 783705 6695638

No. 4

50 J 787597 6697703

No. 5

50 J 787478 6697090

No. 6

51 J 211805 6676802

Plate 12 Malleefowl Mound # 1

Plate 13 - Malleefowl Mound # 2

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Plate 14 - Malleefowl Mound # 3

Plate 15 - Malleefowl Mound # 4

Plate 16 - Malleefowl Mound # 5

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Plate 17 - Malleefowl Mound # 6 outside of Snark Project area

Interrogation of the Birds Australia Atlas database listed 43 species for the area (Appendix
D). Of those birds recorded collectively during the survey, 20 species were listed as having
been seen/heard in the area with an additional species seen opportunistically. Nine species
were seen during systematic surveys that were not on the Birds Australia list for the area
and a further six species not on the list were seen opportunistically (Appendix D).
5.5.2 Discussion
Season and rainfall were taken into account when planning the optimal time for conducting
this survey. Above average rainfall was recorded for December 2010 and January 2011
with an excessive amount recorded for February 2011. Conventionally, surveys are
undertaken in autumn and spring. Given the recent rainfall, this survey was planned in the
autumn months to take advantage of the average and rainfalls well above average of the
previous months. While the flowering of any particular floral species was not specifically
considered, the overall vegetative response to the rainfall was certainly evident within the
Snark area.
The bird censuses yielded a total of 419 individuals of 30 species from 15 Families. The
majority of birds were passerines (>90%) and this trend was consistent for both the morning
observations, at each site and observations undertaken before sunset. Within the
passerines, collectively, 35% were represented by Acanthizids with the Weebill accounting
for 56% of this group, followed by the two species of Fairy-wren that accounted for 26.6% of
all birds recorded. Acanthizids are primarily insectivores and food resources particularly
following the vegetative response to the recent, above average rainfall were evidently
sufficient to support numbers of these species.
The distribution of birds throughout the Snark area was not remarkably different between
sites but did appear somewhat patchy with numbers recorded as low as 34 (Site 1) and up
to 66 (Site 5) for the morning surveys. Excluding a flock of unidentified Thornbills, the
evening results showed a similar patchy distribution across the Snark Project area with the
lowest number recorded being 5 at Site 3 and the highest number of 21 at Site 1. These
results suggest that there is no significant correlation between distribution of birds across
the length of the area surveyed and the vegetation communities as identified by Mattiske
(2011). The results of the morning and evening surveys did indicate that late afternoon was
not an effective time for sampling bird populations and sampling as soon after sunrise as
possible produced the best results.
Of the species of conservation significance, evidence of Malleefowl was recorded, and the
characteristic call of the Crested Bellbird was heard throughout the survey area. No other
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species of conservation significance or evidence of their presence was recorded during the
survey. These species and other species of conservation significance listed to potentially
occur in the area will be discussed in Section 6.1.
A species accumulation curve for birds recorded during the Autumn 2011 Survey (Figure
14) indicates that 66% of species were recorded after the first day of observations and up to
90% recorded on the second day. The third and fourth mornings had one and two
additional species respectively that were recorded. As mentioned previously, no species
were recorded during the afternoon sessions that had not been recorded during the
morning surveys and that sampling at this time did not provide any additional results.
Based on these results and the time of year, it is likely that a reasonable representation of
the majority of the birds were sighted that were in the survey area over the time period
surveyed. It is likely that different species may be present at different times of the year,
including migratory species. The undertaking of an additional comprehensive survey during
the spring months will provide further baseline information that will satisfy EPA
requirements.
Only one bird species Gerygone fusca Western Gerygone has been vouchered at the
Western Australian Museum for the area and this species was recorded during the
systematic sampling and was recorded opportunistically (Appendix D).
Sixteen bird species were recorded during the reconnaissance survey conducted by KLA in
May 2011 and all these species were seen and heard during the surveys.
As noted elsewhere, a comparison with other surveys is limited given the seasonal,
temporal and habitat differences. Notwithstanding this and excluding species associated
with water bodies, other regional surveys have listed a total of 58 additional species
collectively that were not recorded during this autumn survey (Appendix D). Interestingly,
only one species (Polytelis anthopeplus Elegant Parrot) was recorded during the survey
that has not been recorded during previous regional surveys, but does appear on the Birds
Australia list for the area.

Numberofspecies

29
27
25
23
21
19
17
1

Numberofdays

Figure 14- Species accumulation curve for birds recorded during the
Autumn 2011 fauna surveys

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5.6

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

SPOTLIGHTING

5.6.1 The assemblages


A total of six hours and forty-five minutes over four evenings totalling 23.5 spotlighting hours
were spent traversing the survey areas. Established tracks were followed within and
adjacent to the survey area; the trapping grid areas were not entered so that mammals in
the immediate areas of the traps would not be disturbed.
Collectively, during spotlighting and head-torch searches, one Australian Kestrel Falco
cenchroides and one Pallid Cuckoo Cuculus pallidus were recorded and numerous
unidentified bats were seen flying overhead (Appendix D).
5.6.2 Discussion
Given the low number of mammal and reptile species captured, it was not surprising that
none were seen during the spotlighting forays. However, it was anticipated that at least a
few species would have been seen. The lack of any mammals or reptiles may also be
attributed to the time of year with less animals being sighted during the colder months.

6.0

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

6.1
Fauna of Conservation Significance
Native fauna species that are rare, threatened with extinction, or have high conservation
value are protected by law under the Federal EPBC Act 1999, in addition to the Western
Australia WCA 1950.
The EPBC Act 1999 lists two terrestrial bird species and four migratory bird species of
national importance likely to occur within the area of the proposed mining activity, and the
DEC Threatened and Priority Fauna Database lists three threatened bird species (Table
16). A short description of each of the species follows, with the potential impact on their
conservation status:

Malleefowl Leipoa ocellata


Family: Megapodidae
Conservation Status:

Vulnerable under EPBC Act 1999


Schedule 1: Rare and likely to become extinct under the
Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950

Distribution: The Malleefowl was once broadly distributed across the southern half of the
Australian continent, but has undergone significant range reduction and now occupy
semi-arid regions of southern Australia where mallee eucalypts form the dominant
vegetation (Birds Australia 2011).
Ecology: The Malleefowl is a large, ground-dwelling bird that roosts in trees but rarely
flies. The species is omnivorous and typically has a large home range in woodlands or
shrublands that have a deep layer of leaf litter which is used in building nesting mounds.
Mounds are up to one metre in height and 3m to 5 m in diameter. Breeding occurs from
September to April and chicks emerge independently, approximately seven weeks after
hatching.
Clearing of habitat, fox predation and the degradation of habitat by fire and overgrazing
by feral livestock has reduced Malleefowl numbers considerably.

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Table 16 - Conservation significant terrestrial fauna potentially occurring in the study area

SPECIES

CONSERVATION
SIGNIFICANCE

COMMON NAME

PREVIOUS RECORD

EPBC

WCA

DEC

Vulnerable/
Migratory

S1

2007 Ularring

S4

2001 Hunt Range


1980 Mt Manning

AVIFAUNA
Leipoa ocellata

Malleefowl

Apus pacificus

Fork-tailed Swift

Migratory

Ardea alba modesta

Great Egret

Migratory

Ardea ibis

Cattle Egret

Migratory

Falco peregrinus

Peregrine Falcon

Merops ornatus

Rainbow Bee-eater

Acanthiza iredalei iredalei

Slender-billed Thornbill

Oreoica gutturalis subsp. gutturalis

Crested Bellbird

Migratory
Vulnerable
P4

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1980 Mt Manning

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Likelihood of occurrence: The most recent record of Malleefowl on the DEC Threatened
and Priority Fauna Database lists a day sighting on the side of the road at Ularring in
2007. Ularring is approximately 50 km southeast of Snark. More recent (2010)
unconfirmed sightings of Malleefowl have been reported in the area (Cathy Galli pers
comm.) Five old and inactive mounds were recorded within the Snark project area and
a further old, abandoned mound was identified south of the project area (Section 5.5).
The possible presence of this species is addressed in the recommendations.
Potential Impacts: The potential impacts of the proposed mining activity on this species
will be more accurately determined following actions taken as suggested in the
recommendations. However, if Malleefowl were to be present in the area, it is unlikely
that the overall conservation status of this species will be altered by the proposed
mining activity.

Apus pacificus Fork-tailed Swift


Family: Apodidae
Conservation Status: Migratory Marine under EPBC Act 1999
This species is also listed in the CAMBA, JAMBA and ROKAMBA agreements.
Distribution: The Fork-tailed Swift breeds in northeast and mid-east Asia and winters in
south New Guinea and Australia (Johnstone and Storr 1998). It is a visitor to most
parts of Western Australia beginning to arrive in the Kimberley in late September, the
Pilbara and Eucla in November and in the southwest in mid-December. It leaves in late
April. While it is common in the Kimberley, it is uncommon near the northwest, west
and southeast coasts and rare or scare elsewhere.
Ecology: The Fork-tailed Swift does not breed in Australia. It is almost exclusively
aerial, flying from less than 1 m to at least 300 m above ground and probably much
higher. They probably roost aerially, but are occasionally observed to land (Higgins
1999). The species food items within Australia are not well known, however, the
species is known to be insectivorous. Studies have recorded the Swift eating small
bees, wasps, termites and moths.
Likelihood of occurrence: Given the ecology of this species, the swift may include the
area within its aerial forays and migratory path.
Potential Impacts: There are no significant threats to the Fork-tailed Swift in Australia.
Potential threats include habitat destruction and predation by feral animals (Birdlife
International 2009). Due to the wide range of this species, the conservation status is
unlikely to be altered by the disturbance associated with the proposed mining activity.

Great Egret Ardea alba modesta


Family: Ardeidae
Conservation Status: Migratory Species under the EPBC Act 1999
Distribution: The Great Egret has been recorded across much of Western Australia but
avoids the driest regions of the western and central deserts (McKilligan 2005).
Ecology: The Great Egret, also known as the White Egret is common to very common
in well-watered Kimberley flatlands and scarce to moderately common elsewhere.
Preferred habitat includes shallow freshwaters and shallow saltwaters, and rarely dry
pastures.
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Likelihood of occurrence: Given the preferred habitat of this species, it is not likely to
occur within the survey area.
Potential Impacts: The conservation status of this species is not likely to be altered by
the proposed mining activity in the survey area.

Cattle Egret Ardea ibis


Family: Ardeidae
Conservation Status: Migratory Species under the EPBC Act 1999
Distribution: The Cattle Egret is widespread and common according to migration
movements and breeding locality surveys. It occurs throughout Western Australia
except for the drier interior of the State.
Ecology: The Cattle Egret, identified by its shorter and thicker bill and neck than other
Egrets, inhabits short grass, especially damp pastures, and wetlands. It is usually seen
in the company of cattle, and occasionally in the company of other livestock (Johnstone
and Storr 1998).
Likelihood of occurrence: Given the absence of preferred habitat and livestock, the
Cattle Egret is not likely to occur in the survey area.
Potential Impacts: The conservation status of this species is not likely to be altered by
the proposed mining activity in the survey area.

Falco peregrinus Peregrine Falcon


Family: Falconidae
Conservation Status: Schedule 4: Fauna that is in need of special protection under the
Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950
Distribution: The Peregrine Falcon is uncommon but widespread in distribution.
Moderately common within the higher aspects of the Stirling Ranges but tends to be
uncommon in the hilly northwest Kimberley (Johnstone and Storr 1998).
Ecology: This species inhabits cliff faces such as those along the coast, near rivers and
ranges. The Peregrine Falcon can also be seen around wooded watercourses and
lakes. It nests on ledges in cliffs as well as granite outcrops and quarries and also
makes use of mine pits. This Falcon feeds almost entirely on birds including sea birds
and some parrot species (Johnstone and Storr 1998).
Likelihood of occurrence: Two dated sightings of this species were recorded in 1980
and 2001 within 40 km of the Snark Project area. While it is not unreasonable for this
species to be seen in flight in this area, the preferred habitat of this Falcon indicates
that it is not likely to utilise the habitat within the area proposed for disturbance.
Potential Impacts: The conservation status of this species is not likely to be altered by
the proposed mining activity in the survey area.

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Rainbow Bee-eater Merops ornatus


Family: Meropidae
Conservation Status: Migratory under EPBC Act 1999
Distribution: The Rainbow Bee-eater is distributed across much of mainland Australia,
and is a common summer migrant to southern Australia. They range from scarce to
common across their range depending on suitable habitat and breeding grounds.
Ecology: Rainbow Bee-eaters are very social birds and when not breeding roost
together in large groups in dense understorey or large trees. They generally migrate
south at the beginning of spring and breed from November to January. They require
open areas with loamy soft soils soft enough for nest tunneling yet firm enough to
support the tunnel.
Likelihood of occurrence: The Rainbow Bee-eater usually migrates south in late
September early October and north from February to April (Johnstone and Storr 1998).
It is therefore not unreasonable that the Bee-eater was neither seen nor heard during
the survey conducted in May. However, it would not be unexpected for the Rainbow
Bee-eater to use this area within its migratory path. Given the migratory pattern of the
species, it is likely that a survey conducted during the spring months will record this
species in the area.
Potential Impacts: Given the migratory status of the Rainbow Beeeater and its ability to
travel vast distances, the conservation status of this species is not likely to be altered
by the proposed mining activity in the area.

Acanthiza iredalei iredalei Slender-billed Thornbill


Family: Acanthizidae
Conservation Status: Vulnerable under EPBC Act 1999
Distribution: The Slender-billed Thornbill is sparsely distributed in disjunct populations
across the southern arid and semi-arid portion of Western Australia and western South
Australia.
Ecology: The preferred habitat for this species includes chenopod shrublands, treeless
or sparsely wooded flatlands and saline flats associated with salt lakes. The Thornbill
forages mainly on the ground and in low vegetation, increasing its vulnerability to
predation by cats and foxes.
Likelihood of occurrence: Given the absence of preferred habitat for this species, it is
not likely to be present in the area proposed for disturbance. None were identified
during the comprehensive survey.
Potential Impacts: The conservation status of this species is not likely to be altered by
the proposed mining activity in the survey area.

Oreoica gutturalis gutturalis Crested Bellbird (southern)


Family: Pachycephalidae
Conservation Status: Priority Four on DEC Threatened and Priority Fauna Database
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Distribution: Greater part of the State but not the wetter regions (north and west
Kimberley, Darling Range and deep South-West).
Ecology: This sedentary and solitary species inhabits the drier mallee woodlands and
heaths of the southern parts of Western Australia. It forages mainly on the ground,
primarily for insects, and breeds from March through to December across the State.
Likelihood of occurrence: The Crested Bellbird was seen and heard during the Level 2
survey at all survey sites.
Potential Impacts: The Crested Bellbird (southern) is listed as a Priority 4 species on
the DEC Threatened and Priority Fauna database for the Goldfields, Midwest,
Wheatbelt and South Coast. While the Snark areas falls within the Goldfields region,
the conservation classification refers principally to areas where the preferred habitat of
the Crested Bellbird has been disturbed, particularly by clearing of native vegetation
and resultant fragmentation.
The area proposed to be impacted is relatively
undisturbed and large tracts of undisturbed native vegetation are present and will
remain intact adjacent to the mining operations. The large home range and mobility of
the Crested Bellbird strongly suggests that its conservation classification will not be
compromised by the proposed mining activities at Snark.
The Protected Matters Search Tool for the EPBC Act 1999 also lists the Goat Capra hircus,
Cat Felis catus, Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and Fox Vulpes vulpes as invasive species
for the area. While unconfirmed anecdotal reports suggest that cats, dogs and foxes have
been seen in the area, none were seen and no evidence of their presence was identified
during the survey. Notwithstanding this, a program to control feral animals may be
considered by Macarthur, particularly when mining activities are underway and at least the
Cat and Fox may be attracted to the (camp) area by human activity and waste.

6.2

Potential Impacts

The EPA objective for terrestrial fauna is to maintain the abundance, species diversity and
geographical distribution of terrestrial fauna and protect specially protected (Threatened)
fauna consistent with the provision of the WCA 1950.
As part of the development of mining operations for the Snark Project, the clearing and
removal of approximately 140 ha of native vegetation is anticipated. It is inevitable that
there will be some localised loss of fauna due to direct mortality arising from clearing of the
vegetation and construction activities for the mining operations. However, for those
vertebrate taxa that cannot move away from any disturbances, and in relation to potential
impacts implied in Section 6.1, it is unlikely that the loss of individuals associated with the
direct mortalities and compromise of proximal habitat values would be sufficient to affect the
overall conservation status of any of the species recorded from the survey area.
Similarly, the ongoing impacts from mining activities including vehicular movements, noise
and associated dust generation and machinery noise are not likely to alter the conservation
status of any species that may persist in adjacent areas. Any invasion and dispersal of
weed species may cause deterioration of the condition of the remaining vegetation and the
invasion and/or spread of non-native mammals pose a threat to indigenous species in terms
of predation and resource limitation.

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6.3

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Habitats of Significance to Fauna Indigenous to Western Australia

Development of mining operations and associated infrastructure will result in the loss of
native vegetation, removal of faunal habitat, fragmentation of currently contiguous habitat
and loss of areas for dispersal of native fauna.
The overall condition of the vegetation within the survey area can generally be described as
Excellent with most disturbances within the area related directly to recent exploration
activity and associated tracks.
None of the vegetation groups identified have been recognised as TECs as defined in the
EPBC Act 1999, nor are any recognised as TECs endorsed by the Western Australian
Minister of Environment. Only one PEC, the Lake Giles vegetation complexes (banded
ironstone formations) located within the Lake Giles Project Area is listed on the DEC
database. A second PEC, the Banded Ironstone Hills with Banksia arborea Priority 1 PEC
also has the potential to occur in or around the survey area. However, the locations (and
implications) of these PECs cannot be confirmed as there is limited information on these
communities available from the DEC (Mattiske 2011). No DRF were identified in the survey
area and only two Priority 4 species were recorded. The vegetation communities are
generally described as shrubland and woodland and are extensive locally. Cowan (2001)
reports that most species within at least the East Murchison bioregion are wide ranging and
usually occur in at least one, and often several, adjoining subregions. Thus, there appear
to be no unique, restricted or fauna-specific habitat types within the Snark or local area.
Thus, while the removal of up to 140 ha of this native vegetation in overall Excellent
condition will impact on indigenous fauna, the vegetation cannot be considered to be
significant habitat in a regional context.
Additionally, as discussed elsewhere in this report, fauna of conservation significance that
may use this habitat are unlikely to be compromised by the removal of the vegetation for the
proposed mining activities.
It is also recognised that within a regional context, the Mount Manning Nature Reserve
(~198,000 ha) and, for example, the Helena-Aurora Conservation Park (~92,000 ha) (Figure
2) are managed by DEC and, as such, provide similar habitat for local fauna in secure
tenure.

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

Recommendations

The following general recommendations apply in the case of any major disturbance to large
areas of native vegetation, as a consequence of the proposed development for the Snark
Project:
Any clearing be minimised in extent given that the abundance and diversity of
species lost will be proportional to the amount of habitat cleared;
Where possible, all infrastructure associated with the development of the mining
operation be aligned preferentially to areas of existing disturbance;
Where possible, access routes be aligned to existing tracks and other barriers or
follow the boundaries of broad-scale intact native vegetation;
A rehabilitation plan is developed that progressively rehabilitates areas as soon as
they are no longer required;
All members of the work force on site attend an environmental induction to ensure
they are familiar with the value of native vegetation to fauna indigenous to Western
Australia. This should include awareness of driving restrictions, ensuring that offroad driving is minimised, fire prevention is actively practised, and appropriate
responses are followed in the event of an accident involving fauna: and
A comprehensive Level 2 fauna survey be conducted in spring to satisfy EPA
requirements.
In addition, specific recommendations are made in relation to the Malleefowl:
A targeted Malleefowl survey should be undertaken by a suitably qualified team to
determine the actual number and status of mounds within the Snark Project area
including a 100m buffer area.
Following this survey and given the evidence of Malleefowl within the zone of
impact, a referral should be submitted to the Federal Department of Sustainability,
Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPAC) for approval in
accordance with the EPBC Act 1999.
Pending the results of the targeted Malleefowl survey and outcome of the
DSEWPAC referral, a Malleefowl Management Plan be developed and
implemented.

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

REFERENCES

Armstrong, K. and Konishi, Y. (2011). Bat call identification from near Menzies, WA.
Unpublished Report, June 2011. Specialised Zoological, South Australia.
Beard, J.S. (1990). Plant life of Western Australia. Kangaroo Press, NSW.
Biota (2011). Deception Deposit Vertebrate Fauna Survey. Unpublished Report. Biota
Environmental Sciences, March 2011.
Birds Australia (2011). Available online at
http://www.birdsaustralia.com.au/our-projects/atlas-birdata.html,
BirdLife International (2009). Apus pacificus In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Version 2009.2. Apus pacificus. IUCN Red List.
Burbidge, A.A., Fuller, P.J. and McKenzie, N.L. (1995). Vertebrate Fauna. In: The
Biological Survey of the Eastern Goldfields of Western Australia. Part 12. BarleeMenzies Study Area. Eds. A.A. Burbidge, N.J. Hall, G.J. Keighery and N.L. Mckenzie.
Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement Number 49.
Bureau of Meteorology (2011).
Climatic Averages Webpage. Available online at:
http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_012052.shtml
http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/dwo/IDCJDW6075.latest.shtml
Chapman, A. and Pronk, G. (1997). Part 3 Vertebrate Fauna In: Lyons, M.N. & Chapman,
A. (eds.) (1997). A Biological Survey of the Helena and Aurora Range, Eastern
Goldfields Western Australia. Unpublished Report for Environment Australia, Canberra
Christidis, L and Boles, W.E. (2008).
Birds.CSIRO Publishing, Victoria.

Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian

Cowan, M. (2001). Murchison 1 (Mur1 East Murchison subregion). In; A Biodiversity


Audit of Western Australia. Eds McKenzie, N.L., May, J.E. and McKenna, S.
Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.
Cowan, M., Graham, G. and McKenzie, N. (2001). Coolgardie 2 (COO2 Southern Cross
subregion). In; The Biodiversity Audit of Western Australia. Eds McKenzie, N.L., May,
J.E. and McKenna, S. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2009). Available online at:
http://www.environment.gov.au/parks/nrs/science/bioregion-framework/ibra/index.html
Doughty, P. and Maryan, B. (2010). Checklist of the Mammals of Western Australia.
Unpublished list available from Western Australian Museum.
Environmental Protection Authority (2002). Terrestrial Biological Surveys as an Element of
Biodiversity Protection: Positions Statement No. 3. Environmental Protection Authority,
Perth, WA.
Environmental Protection Authority (2004). Guidance for the Assessment of Environmental
Factors. Terrestrial Fauna Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment in Western
Australia No. 56. Environmental Protection Authority, Perth, WA.

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Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

EPA (2007). Advice on areas of the highest conservation value in the proposed extensions
to Mount Manning Nature Reserve. Bulletin 1256, Perth, WA
Environmental Protection Authority and Department of Environment and Conservation
(2010) Technical Guide - Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna Surveys for Environmental
Impact Assessment (eds B.M. Hyder, J. Dell and M.A Cowan). Perth, Western Australia.
Garden, J.G., McAlpine, C.A. and Possingham, H.P. (2007). Using multiple survey
methods to detect terrestrial reptiles and mammals: what are the most successful and
cost-efficient combinations? Wildlife Research 34: 218-227.
How, R.A., Cooper, N.K. and Bannister, J.L. (2008). Checklist of the Mammals of Western
Australia. Unpublished list available from Western Australian Museum.
Johnstone, R.E and Storr, G.M (1998). Handbook of Western Australian Birds, Volume 1,
Non-passerines (Emu to Dollarbird). Western Australian Museum, Perth.
Keighery, B.J. (1994). Bushland Plant Survey; A guide to plant community survey for the
Community. Wildflower Society of Western Australia (Inc.) Nedlands.
Mace, G.M. and Stuart. S.N. (1994) Draft IUCN Red List Categories, Version 2.2. Species
21-22:13-24.
Mattiske (2011). Flora and Vegetation Mapping of the Snark Deposit and New Campsite,
Lake Giles Survey Area. Unpublished Report, July 2011. Mattiske Consulting Pty, Ltd,
Perth.
McKilligan, N. (2005). Herons, Egrets and Bitterns. Their Biology and Conservation in
Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria.
Menkhorst, P. and Knight, F. (2004). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Australia.Oxford
University Press, Victoria.
Ninox (2009). A Fauna Survey of the Carina Prospect Yilgarn Iron Ore Project.
Unpublished report for Polaris Metals, July 2009. Ninox Wildlife Consulting, Perth.
Outback Ecology (2010). Lake Giles Terrestrial Fauna (including Short Range Endemics)
Desktop Study. Unpublished report for Macarthur Minerals Limited, November 2010.
Outback Ecology, Jolimont, WA.
Tyler, M.J. and Doughty, P. (2009). Field Guide to Frogs of Western Australia. Western
Australian Museum, Welshpool, WA.
Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (2008). The Mammals of Australia. Third Edition. Reed New
Holland, Sydney, Australia.

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APPENDIX A
Vegetation Communities identified during Flora Survey
(Mattiske 2011)

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APPENDIX B
Keighery, B.J. (1994) Vegetation Condition Scales

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Pristine (1). Pristine or nearly so, no obvious signs of disturbance.


Excellent (2). Vegetation structure intact, disturbance affecting individual species and
weeds are non-aggressive species.
Very Good (3). Vegetation structure altered, obvious signs of disturbance.
For example, disturbance to vegetation structure caused by repeating fires, the presence of
some more aggressive weeds, dieback, logging and grazing.
Good (4). Vegetation structure significantly altered by very obvious signs of multiple
disturbance.
Retains basic vegetation structure or ability to regenerate it.
For example, disturbance to vegetation structure caused by frequent fires, the presence of
some very aggressive weeds at high density, partial clearing, dieback and grazing.
Degraded (5). Basic vegetation structure severely impacted by disturbance.
Scope for regeneration but not to a state approaching good condition without intensive
management.
For example, disturbance to vegetation structure caused by very frequent fires, the
presence of very aggressive weeds, partial clearing, dieback and grazing.
Completely Degraded (6). The structure of the vegetation is no longer intact and the area
is completely or almost completely without native species.
These areas are often described as parkland cleared with the flora compromising weed or
crop species with isolated trees or shrubs.

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APPENDIX C
Categories used in the assessment of conservation status

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IUCN categories (based on review by Mace and Stuart 1994) as used for the
Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act 1999 and the
WA Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.
Extinct. Taxa not definitely located in the wild during the past 50 years.
Extinct in the Wild. Taxa known to survive only in captivity.
Critically Endangered. Taxa facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the
immediate future.
Endangered. Taxa facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future.
Vulnerable. Taxa facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future.
Near Threatened. Taxa that risk becoming Vulnerable in the wild.
Conservation Dependent.

Taxa whose survival depends upon ongoing conservation

measures. Without these measures, a conservation dependent taxon would be classed as


Vulnerable or more severely threatened.
Data Deficient (Insufficiently known).

Taxa suspected of being Rare, Vulnerable or

Endangered, but whose true status cannot be determined without more information.
Least Concern. Taxa that are not Threatened.

Schedules used in the WA Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.


Schedule 1. Rare and Likely to become Extinct.
Schedule 2. Extinct.
Schedule 3. Migratory species listed under international treaties.
Schedule 4. Other Specially Protected Fauna.

Department of Environment and Conservation Priority Species


(species not listed under the Conservation Act, but for which there is some concern)
Priority 1. Taxa with few, poorly known population on threatened lands.
Priority 2. Taxa with few, poorly known populations on threatened lands, or taxa with
several, poorly known populations not on conservation lands.
Priority 3. Taxa with several, poorly known populations, some on conservation lands.
Priority 4.

Taxa in need of monitoring.

Taxa which are considered to have been

adequately surveyed, or for which sufficient knowledge is available, and which are
considered not currently threatened or in need of special protection, but could be if present
circumstances change.
Priority 5. Taxa in need of monitoring. Taxa which are not considered threatened but are
subject to a specific conservation program, the cessation of which would result in the
species becoming threatened within five years (IUCN Conservation Dependent).

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JAMBA The agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of
Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Danger of Extinction and their Environment.
Australian Treaty Series 1981 No 6.
CAMBA The agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the
People's Republic of China for the Protection of Migratory Birds and their Environment.
Australian Treaty Series 1988 No 22.
ROKAMBA The agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of
the Republic of Korea on the Protection of Migratory Birds and their Environment.
Australian Treaty Series 2007 ATS 24.

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APPENDIX D
Species likely to occur in the area and species identified in the area

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EPBC
Search

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

AMPHIBIANS
LIMNODYNASTIDAE
Heleioporus albopunctatus

Western Spotted Frog

Neobatrachus sp.

Neobatrachus kunapalari

Kunapalari Frog

Neobatrachus sutor

Shoemaker Frog

Neobatrachus wilsmorei

Plonking Frog

MYOBATRACHIDAE
Pseudophryne occidentalis

Western Toadlet

REPTILES
AGAMIDAE
Caimanops amphiboluroides
Ctenophorus cristatus

Bicycle Dragon

Ctenophorus fordi

Mallee Sand Dragon

Ctenophorus isolepis

Crested Dragon

Ctenophorus isolepis subsp. gularis

Central Military Dragon

Ctenophorus ornatus

Ctenophorus reticulatus

Ornate Cervice Dragon


Western Netted
Dragon

Ctenophorus salinarum

Salt Pain Dragon

Pogona minor

Pogona minor subsp. minor

Pebble Dragon

Clawless Gecko

Diplodactylus granariensis

Diplodactylus granariensis subsp. granariensis

Diplodactylus pulcher

Lucasium maini

Lucasium stenodactylum

Oedura reticulata

Ctenophorus scutulatus
Moloch horridus

Tympanocryptis cephalus

Thorny Devil

DIPLODACTYLIDAE
Crenadactylus ocellatus subsp. ocellatus

Rhynchoedura ornata

Beaked Gecko

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EPBC
Search

Goldfields Spiny-tailed
Gecko

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

Strophurus elderi

Strophurus intermedius

Gehyra purpurascens

Gehyra variegata

Delma australis

Delma butleri

Cryptoblepharus buchananii

Cryptoblepharus plagiocephalus

Ctenotus atlas

Ctenotus grandis

Ctenotus leonhardii

Ctenotus mimetes

Ctenotus schomburgkii

Ctenotus uber

Ctenotus uber supsp. uber

Ctenotus xenopleura

Cyclodomorphus branchialis

Strophurus assimilis

CARPHODACTYLIDAE
Nephrurus milii

Barking Gecko

Nephrurus vertebralis

GEKKONIDAE

Heteronotia binoei

Bynoe's Gecko

PYGOPODIDAE

Lialis burtonis
Pygopus lepidopodus

Common Scaly Foot

Pygopus nigriceps

SCINCIDAE

Cyclodomorphus melanops subsp. elongatus


Egernia depressa
Egernia formosa

Pygmy Spiny-tailed
Skink

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EPBC
Search

Broad-banded Sand
Swimmer

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

Hemiergis initialis subsp. initialis

Hemiergis millewae

Lerista kingi

Lerista macropisthopus

Lerista macropisthopus subsp. macropisthopus

Lerista muelleri

Lerista timida

Liopholis inornata

Menetia greyii

Morethia butleri

Morethia obscura

Ramphotyphlops australis

Ramphotyphlops bicolor

Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus

Ramphotyphlops hamatus

Demansia psammophis subsp. reticulata

Demansia psammophis subsp. psammophis

Eremiascincus richardsonii

VARANIDAE
Varanus caudolineatus
Varanus giganteus
Varanus gouldii

Perentie
Bungarra or Sand
Monitor

Varanus panoptes subsp. panoptes


Varanus tristis subsp. tristis

Racehorse Monitor

TYPHLOPIDAE

BOIDAE
Antaresia stimsoni

Stimson's Python

ELAPIDAE
Brachyurophis semifasciatus
Demansia psammophis

Neelaps bimaculatus

Yellow-faced
Whipsnake

Black Naped Snake

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Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

EPBC
Search

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

Parasuta gouldii

Parsuta monachus

Paroplocephalus atriceps

Lake Cronin Snake

Pseudonaja modesta

Pseudonaja nuchalis

Ringed Brown Snake


Gwardar; Northern
Brown Snake

Simoselaps bertholdi

Jan's Banded Snake

Suta fasciata

Rosen's Snake

Echidna

Dasyurus geoffroii

Western Quoll,
Chuditch

Ningaui ridei

Wongai Ningaui

Ningaui yvonneae

Southern Ningaui
Fat-tailed
Pseudantechinus

Sminthopsis dolichura

Fat-tailed Dunnart
Little long-tailed
Dunnart

Sminthopsis hirtipes

Hairy-footed Dunnart

Sminthopsis longicaudata

Long-tailed Dunnart

Sminthopsis macroura

Stripe-faced Dunnart

Macropus fuliginosus

Western Grey
Kangaroo

Macropus robustus erubescens

Euro

Macropus rufus

Red Kangaroo

MAMMALS
TACHYGLOSSIDAE
Tachyglossus aculeatus

DASYURIDAE

Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis
Sminthopsis crassicaudata

MACROPODIDAE

PHALANGERIDAE
Trichosurus vulpecula

BURRAMYIDAE
Cercartetus concinnus

Western Pygmypossum

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Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

EPBC
Search

CHIROPTERA

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

VESPERTILIONIDAE

Previous Studies in and around study area

Chalinolobus gouldii

Gould's Wattle Bat

Chalinolobus morio

Chocolate Wattled Bat

Nyctophilus geoffroyi

Lesser Long-eared Bat


Greater Long-eared
Bat

Nyctophilus timoriensis subsp. timoriensis


Nyctophilus sp.
Vespadelus baverstocki

Inland Forest Bat

Vespadelus regulus

Southern Forest Bat


Inland Broad-nosed
Bat

Southern Freetail-bat

Scotorepens balstoni

MOLOSSIDAE
Mormopterus planiceps
Mormopterus sp. 3
Mormopterus sp. 4

White-striped
Freetailed-bat

Leporillus apicalis

Lesser Stick-nest Rat

Mus musculus*

Notomys mitchellii

House Mouse
Spinifex Hoppingmouse
Mitchell's Hoppingmouse

Pseudomys albocinereus

Ash-grey Mouse

Pseudomys bolami

Bolam's Mouse

Pseudomys hermannsburgensis

Sandy Inland Mouse

Rabbit

Canis lupis dingo

Dingo

Canis lupis familiaris*

Dog

Vulpes vulpes*

Red Fox

Tadarida australis

MURIDAE

Notomys alexis

LEPORIDAE
Oryctolagus cuniculus*

CANIDAE

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Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

EPBC
Search

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

FELIDAE
Cat

Bos taurus*

European Cattle

Capra hircus*

Goat

Ovis aries

Sheep

One-humped Camel

Emu

Malleefowl

Cygnus atratus

Black Swan

Tadorna tadornoides

Australian Shelduck

Chenonetta jubata

Australian Wood Duck

Malacorhynchus membranaceus

Pink-eared Duck

Anas gracilis

Grey Teal

Anas superciliosa

Pacific Black Duck

Aythya australis

Hardhead

Hoary-headed Grebe

Phaps chalcoptera

Common Bronzewing

Ocyphaps lophotes

Crested Pigeon

Tawny Frogmouth

Felis catus*

BOVIDAE

CAMELIDAE
Camelus dromedarius*

AVIFAUNA
CASUARIIDAE
Dromaius novaehollandiae

MEGAPODIIDAE
Leipoa ocellata

ANATIDAE

PODICIPEDIDAE
Poliocephalus poliocephalus

COLUMBIDAE

PODARGIDAE
Podargus strigoides

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Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

EPBC
Search

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

EUROSTOPODIDAE
Spotted Nightjar

Australian Owletnightjar

Fork-tailed Swift

Ardea pacifica

White-necked Heron

Ardea modesta

Eastern Great Egret

Ardea ibis

Cattle Egret

Egretta novaehollandiae

White-faced Heron

Hamirostra melanosternon

Square-tailed Kite
Black-breasted
Buzzard

Haliastur sphenurus

Whistling Kite

Accipiter fasciatus

Brown Goshawk

Accipiter cirrocephalus

Collared Sparrowhawk

Aquila morphnoides

Little Eagle

Aquila audax

Wedge-tailed Eagle

Circus assimilis

Spotted Harrier

Falco cenchroides

Australian Kestrel

Falco berigora

Brown Falcon

Falco longipennis

Australian Hobby

Falco peregrinus

Peregrine Falcon

Eurasian Coot

Eurostopodus argus

AEGOTHELIDAE
Aegotheles cristatus

APODIDAE
Apus pacificus

ARDEIDAE

ACCIPITRIDAE
Lophoictinia isura

FALCONIDAE

RALLIDAE
Fulica atra

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Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

EPBC
Search

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

OTIDIDAE
Australian Bustard

Himantopus himantopus

Black-winged Stilt

Recurvirostra novaehollandiae

Red-necked Avocet

Cladorhynchus leucocephalus

Banded Stilt

Charadrius ruficapillus

Red-capped Plover

Elseyornis melanops

Black-fronted Dotterel

Thinornis rubricollis

Hooded Plover

Erythrogonys cinctus

Red-kneed Dotterel

Vanellus tricolor

Banded Lapwing

Little Button-quail

Silver Gull

Ardeotis australis

RECURVIROSTRIDAE

CHARADRIIDAE

TURNICIDAE
Turnix velox

LARIDAE
Larus novaehollandiae

CACATUIDAE

Lophochroa leadbeateri

Red-tailed Black
Cockatoo
Major Mitchell's
Cockatoo

Eolophus roseicapillus

Galah

Nymphicus hollandicus

Cockatiel

Glossopsitta porphyrocephala

Purple-crowned
Lorikeet

Polytelis anthopeplus

Regent Parrot

Platycercus icterotis

Western Rosella

Barnardius zonarius

Australian Ringneck

Psephotus varius

Mulga Parrot

Melopsittacus undulatus

Budgerigar

Neopsephotus bourkii

Bourke's Parrot

Calyptorhynchus banksii

PSITTACIFORMES

79

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

EPBC
Search

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

Polytelis anthopeplus

Elegant Parrot

Neophema splendida

Scarlet-chested Parrot

Chalcites basalis

Horsfield's Bronze
Cuckoo

Chalcites osculans

Black-eared Cuckoo

Cacomantis pallidus

Pallid Cuckoo

Southern Boobook Owl

Red-backed Kingfisher

Rainbow Bee-eater

Climacteris affinis

White-browed
Treecreeper

rufa affinis

Rufous Treecreeper

Western Bowerbird

Malurus leucopterus

Splendid Fairy-wren
White-winged Fairywren

Malurus lamberti

Variegated Fairy-wren

Hylacola cauta

Shy Heathwren

Calamanthus campestris

Rufous Fieldwren

Pyrrholaemus brunneus

Redthroat

Smicrornis brevirostris

Weebill

Gerygone fusca

Western Gerygone

CULCULIDAE

STRIGIDAE
Ninox novaeseelandiae

HALCYONIDAE
Todiramphus pyrrhopygius

MEROPIDAE
Merops ornatus

CLIMACTERIDAE

PTILONORHYNCHIDAE
Ptilonorhynchus guttatus

MALURIDAE
Malurus splendens

ACANTHIZIDAE

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EPBC
Search

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

Acanthiza uropygialis

Slaty-backed Thornbill
Yellow-rumped
Thornbill
Chestnut-rumped
Thornbill

Acanthiza iredalei

Slender-billed Thornbill

Acanthiza apicalis

Inland Thornbill

Aphelocephala leucopsis

Southern Whiteface

Pardalotus punctatus

Spotted Pardalote

Pardalotus striatus

Striated Pardalote

Certhionyx variegatus

Pied Honeyeater

Lichenostomus virescens

Singing Honeyeater
White-eared
Honeyeater
Yellow-plumed
Honeyeater
Grey-fronted
Honeyeater
White-fronted
Honeyeater

Acanthagenys rufogularis

Yellow-throated Miner
Spiny-cheeked
Honeyeater

Anthochaera carunculata

Red Wattlebird

Epthianura tricolor

Crimson Chat

Epthianura albifrons

White-fronted Chat

Sugomel niger

Black Honeyeater

Lichmera indistincta

Brown Honeyeater
Brown-headed
Honeyeater

White-browed Babbler

Chestnut Quail-thrush
Chestnut-breasted
Quail-thrush

Acanthiza robustirostris
Acanthiza chrysorrhoa

PARDALOTIDAE

MELIPHAGIDAE

Lichenostomus leucotis
Lichenostomus ornatus
Lichenostomus plumulus
Purnella albifrons
Manorina flavigula

Melithreptus brevirostris

POMATOSTOMIDAE
Pomatostomus superciliosus

PSOPHODIDAE
Cinclosoma castanotus
Cinclosoma castaneothorax

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Macarthur Minerals Limited

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EPBC
Search

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

NEOSITTIDAE
Varied Sittella

Coracina novaehollandiae

Ground Cuckoo-shrike
Black-faced Cuckooshrike

Lalage sueurii

White-winged Triller

Pachycephala inornata

Gilbert's Whistler

Pachycephala rufiventris

Rufous Whistler

Colluricincla harmonica

Grey Shrike-thrush

Oreoica gutturalis

Crested Bellbird

Artamus cinereus

Masked Woodswallow
Black-faced
Woodswallow

Artamus cyanopterus

Dusky Woodswallow

Artamus minor

Little Woodswallow

Cracticus torquatus

Grey Butcherbird

Cracticus nigrogularis

Pied Butcherbird

Cracticus tibicen

Australian Magpie

Strepera versicolor

Grey Currawong

Rhipidura albiscapa

Grey Fantail

Rhipidura leucophrys

Willie Wagtail

Corvus coronoides

Australian Raven

Corvus bennetti

Little Crow

Corvus orru

Torresian Crow

Magpie-lark

Daphoenositta chrysoptera

CAMPEPHAGIDAE
Coracina maxima

PACHYCEPHALIDAE

ARTAMIDAE
Artamus personatus

RHIPIDURIDAE

CORVIDAE

MONARCHIDAE
Grallina cyanoleuca

82

Macarthur Minerals Limited

Lake Giles Project Snark Level 2 Fauna Survey May 2011

EPBC
Search

DEC
data
search

WAM
data
search

Birds
Australia
data
search

Autumn Survey 2011

KLA
reconnaissance
survey 2011

Systematic
Sampling

Opportunistic
sightings and
evidence

Previous Studies in and around study area

Spotlighting

Ninox
2009

EPA
2007

Biota
2011

Chapman
and
Pronk
1997

Burbidge
et al.
1995

PETROICIDAE
Microeca fascinans

Jacky Winter

Petroica boodang

Scarlet Robin

Petroica goodenovii

Red-capped Robin

Melanodryas cucullata

Hooded Robin

Eopsaltria griseogularis

Western Yellow Robin

Hirundo neoxena

Welcome Swallow

Petrochelidon ariel

Fairy Martin

Petrochelidon nigricans

Tree Martin

Cincloramphus mathewsi

Rufous Songlark

Cincloramphus cruralis

Brown Songlark

Mistletoebird

Zebra Finch

Australian Pipit

HIRUNDINIDAE

MEGALURIDAE

NECTARINIIDAE
Dicaeum hirundinaceum

ESTRILDIDAE
Taeniopygia guttata

MOTACILLIDAE
Anthus novaseelandiae

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APPENDIX E
Department of Environment and Conservation Regulation 17 Permit

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APPENDIX F
Annotated List Amphibians

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MYOBATRACHIDAE
Pseudophyrne occidentalis Western Toadlet
The characteristic call of this species was heard during a vist to Hospital Rocks,
approximately 10 km from the survey area. Up to five males were heard calling from
beneath moss beds adjacent to standing water within the granite outcrops at two
separate locations. Multiple egg burrows were sighted within the two locations.

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APPENDIX G
Annotated List Reptiles

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AGAMIDAE
Ctenophorus reticulatus Western Netted Dragon
While C. reticulates was the most ubiquitous of reptiles captured, as few as one and no
more than three of this species were captured at Sites I to 6 with no individuals captured
at the remaining sites (Sites 7 11). At least two were also sighted opportunistically.
Ten of the eleven C. reticulatus were captured in pitfall traps with the remaining
individual captured in a funnel trap.
Ctenophorus scutulatus
All five C. scutulatus were captured in pitfall traps with two captured at Site 2, two at Site
7 and one at Site 5. C. scutulatus were also recorded opportunistically.
Caimanops amphiboluroides
One C. amphiboluroides was captured at Site 2 and one at Site 5 with four captured at
Site 4.
All were captured in pitfall traps.
This species was also recorded
opportunistically,
Pogona minor
One P. minor was captured at Site 2 and one at Site 5. Both were captured in pitfall
traps.

DIPLODACTYLIDAE
Diplodactylus pulcher
Three individual D. pulcher were captured with one at Site 1, one at Site 4 and one at
Site 5. All three were captured in pitfall traps
Lucasium stenodactylum
Only one L. stenodactylum was captured at Site 2 and in a pitfall trap. This species is
also known as the Sand-plain Gecko.
SCINCIDAE
Cryptoblepharus plagiocephalus
This arboreal skink is also known as Perons snake-eyed skink. Two individuals were
captured in pitfall traps at Site 3.
Ctenotus grandis
Within the genus Ctenotus, C. grandis is a reasonably large species with the typical
comb-like projections at the ear opening highly noticeable. One individual was captured
in a pitfall trap following the seventh night of trapping at Site 7.
Ctenotus leonhardii
Only one C. leonardii was captured in a pitfall trap and at Site 1. This species is also
known as Leonhards ctenotus.
Ctenotus mimetes
Three C. Mimetes were captured. Two were captured in pitfall traps with one at Site 2
and one at Site 5 and one was captured in a funnel trap at Site 4.
Ctenotus schomburgkii
Two C. schomburgkii were captured and both at Site 7. However, one was captured in a
pitfall trap and the other, a small juvenile, in a funnel trap.
Menetia greyii
Only one of this small species of skink was captured and that in a pitfall trap at Site 4

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APPENDIX H
Annotated List Mammals

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DASYURIDAE
Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis Fat-tailed Pseudantechinus
Two individual P. macdonnellensis were captured at Site 9 and one was recorded
opportunalistically in an area of BIF close to the current camp. The two individuals were
both captured in aluminium box traps. Interestingly when one of these two was released,
it ran under a rock which, where turned over, exposed the Pseudantechinus in a hole on
the undersurface of the rock (Plate X). Given the circumstances it was determined that
the animal must have been extremely familiar with the terrain and certainly that there
was a hole under the rock for refuge.
Sminthopsis dolichura Little Long-tailed Dunnart
All three individuals of this Dasyurid species were captured in the western portion of the
Snark area. Two were captured at Site 2 and one at Site 3, and all were captured in
pitfall traps.
MURIDAE
Mus musculus House Mouse
Mus musculus was the only non-native mammal captured and was the most ubiquitous
of the Murids all all the mammal species captured. Twenty-four individuals were
captured right across the Snake Project area with as few as two (Sites 2, 3 and 7) and
up to seven (Site 4) captured at any one site. Not surprisingly, none were captured in
funnel or cage traps and a majority (75%) were captured in aluminium box traps with the
remainder (25%) captured in pitfall traps.
Notomys alexis Spinifex Hopping Mouse
Only one Spinifex Hopping Mouse was captured in an aluminium box trap and Site 4.
Similar to other Murids, the population of the Spinifex Hopping Mouse can fluctuate
considerably. Following rain and an increase in food resources, populations can
increase exponentially.
Notomys mitchellii Mitchell's Hopping Mouse
Only one Mitchells Hopping Mouse was captured and that on the last night of trapping at
Site 7. This small murid was captured in an aluminium box trap.
Pseudomys hermannsburgensis Sandy Inland Mouse
Only one of this species was captured in a pitfall trap following the first nght of trapping
at Site 2.
MACROPODIDAE
Macropod droppings were scattered sparsely throughout the Snark Project area. Only
one Macropus robustus erubescens Euro was seen during the reconnaissance survey.
CHIROPTERA
The calls of six species of bats were recorded on two Anabats during the survey. Of
those calls positively identified:
Chalinolobus gouldii Gould's Wattled Bat
Gould's Wattled Bat was heard at four of the seven sites, namely Sites 1, 3, 5 and 6,
suggesting that this species utilises the extent of the Snark area and is not restricted to
any one area.
Chalinolobus morio Chocolate Wattled Bat
The Chocolate Wattled Bat was one of two species (Tadarida australis White-striped
Freetail-bat) that was recorded at all seven sites. Calls of this species were recorded on
all occasions (two different Anabats for one night at each site) except for one night at
Site 2.

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Nyctophilus sp. Long-eared Bat


Unidentified Nyctophilus species was recorded by only one unit (one nights recordings)
at Sites 4 and 6 and during both nights recordings at Site 7.
Vespadelus baverstocki
The call of the Forest Bat Vespadelus baverstocki was unambiguous and positively
identified at Site 2, and while it was also recorded at four additional sites (Sites1, 3, 5
and 7) these calls require confirmation.
Mormopterus sp. 3
The calls of this free-tailed bat were identified at only Site 3 and Site 6 on only one night
at each site.
Tadarida australis White-striped Freetail-bat
The call of this Molossid species, together with that of the Chocolate Wattled Bat was
heard at all Sites by both Anabat recorders on both nighs at all sites suggesting that this
species is prolific throughout the Snark area.

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APPENDIX I
Annotated List Birds

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MEGAPODIDAE
Leipoa ocellata Malleefowl
While no Malleefowl were seen and no evidence of their recent presence was identified,
unconfirmed sightings of Malleefowls have been reported in the area (Cathy Galli pers
comm.). Five five inactive, old Malleefowl mounds were identified within the Snark
Project area and a further mound was identified outside of the Snark Project area but
within the Lake Giles Project area.
FALCONIDAE
Falco cenchroides Australian Kestrel
While this raptor was not recorded during any of the systematic sampling sessions, one
individual was recorded roosting during a spotlighting foray on one evening.
PSITTACIDAE
Barnardius zonarius Australian Ringneck
The Austalian Ringneck was seen and heard during the systematic sampling at all Sites
except Sites 2 and 3. It was also recorded opportunistically. Interestlingly, not many
birds were seen with usually only singletons and pairs recorded.
Platycercus varius Mulga Parrot
Two Mulga Parrots were seen at Site 7 and two were recorded opportunistically.
Neophema elegans Elegant Parrot
As recorded for the Mulga Parrots, two Elegant Parrots were seen at Site 7 and more
were recorded opportunistically. Both parrot species appeared to be passing through the
area rather than favouring the area for foraging and/or roosting.
CUCULIDAE
Cacomantis pallidus Pallid Cuckoo
One call of a Pallid Cuckoo was positively heard at Site 3 during the 20 minute morning
surveys and one bird was seen roosting during a spotlighting foray.
CLIMACTERIDAE
Climacteris affinis White-browed Treecreeper
One White-browed Treecreeper was seen during the morning surveys at Site 4 and one
during the afternoon surveys at Site 7.
Climacteris rufa Rufous Treecreeper
The Rufous Treecreeper was not recorded during the systematic surveys but an idividual
was seen opportunistically.
MALURIDAE
Malurus splendens Splendid Fairy-wren
The Splendid Wren was far more ubiquitous than the Variegated Wren and was recorded
at all sites and opportunistically.
Malurus lamberti Variegated Fairy-wren
The Variegated Wren was recorded only at Sites 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 and was also recorded
opportunistically.
ACANTHIZIDAE
Pyrrholaemus brunneus Redthroat
The Redthroat was recorded only throughout the central area of the Snark survey area at
Sites 3, 4, 5 and 6, and was recorded opportunistically.

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Smicrornis brevirostris Weebill


This ubiquitous wee bird was recorded at all sites throught the survey area and
opportinustically.
Gerygone fusca Western Gerygone
The Western Gerygone was recorded at Sites 2, 4 and 6 and was also recorded
opportunistically.
Acanthiza chrysorrhoa Yellow-rumped Thornbill
The Yellow-rumped Thornbill was neither seen or heard during the systematic surveys
was was recorded opportunistically.
Acanthiza uropygialis Chestnut-rumped Thornbill
The Chestnut-rumped Thornbill was recorded only within the easten portion of the survey
area at Sites 5, 6 and 7, and opportunistically.
Acanthiza apicalis Inland Thornbill
The Inland Thornbill was recorded at all sites throught the survey area and
opportinustically.
Aphelocephala leucopsis Southern Whiteface
Only two individuals were seen at Site 5 during a morning survey.
PARDALOTIDAE
Pardalotus striatus Striated Pardalote
Striated Pardalotes were recorded only at western survey sites (Sites 1 and 2) but were
also recorded opportunistically elsewhere.
MELIPHAGIDAE
Lichenostomus virescens Singing Honeyeater
Singing Honeyeaters were recorded at all sites except Site 6, but was not recorded
opportunistically.
Lichenostomus leucotis White-eared Honeyeater
White-eared Honeyeaters were recorded only at Sites 1, 2 and 3 in the western portion
of the survey area, and elsewhere opportunistically.
Acanthagenys rufogularis Spiny-cheeked Honeyeater
Spiny-cheeked Honeyeaters were only recorded at Site 2 and opportunistically.
Lichmera indistinct Brown Honeyeater
Few Brown Honeyeaters were recorded with only five individuals recorded at Sites 2 and
5 and none opportunistically.
POMATOSTOMIDAE
Pomatostomus superciliosus White-browed Babbler
White-browed Babblers were recorded thoughout the survey area at Sites 2, 4, 5 and 7
and were heard and seen opportunistically.
PSOPHODIDA
Cinclosoma castanotus Chestnut Quail-thrush
The Chestnut Quail-thrush was not recorded during the systematic bird surveys but an
individual was captured in one of the cage traps at Site 1. It was also recorded
opportunistically.

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NEOSITTIDAE
Daphoenositta chrysoptera Varied Sittella
The Varied Sittella was not recorded during the systematic surveys but was recorded
opportunistically.
CAMPEPHAGIDAE
Coracina novaehollandiae Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike
Up to eight Black-faced Cuckoo-shrikes were recorded at Sites 4 and 7 and more were
seen opportunistically including a flock of about 12 birds.
PACHYCEPHALIDAE
Pachycephala rufiventris Rufous Whistler
The Rufous Whistler was recorded thoughout the survey area at Sites 2, 3, 5 and 7 and
was recorded opportunistically
Colluricincla harmonica Grey Shrike-thrush
The Grey Shrike-thrush was recorded both during the systematic surveys, except at
Sites 1 and 3, and opportunistically.
Oreoica gutturalis Crested Bellbird
The characteristic call of the Crested Bellbird was heard throughout the survey area at all
sites and opportunistically.
ARTAMIDAE
Cracticus nigrogularis Pied Butcherbird
The Pied Butcherbird was recorded only at Site 2 during the systematic surveys and only
at Site 5 opportunistically.
Strepera versicolour Grey Currawong
Few Grey Currawongs were recorded but these were seen and heard at all survey sites
and opportunistically.
RHIPIDURIDAE
Rhipidura fuliginosa Grey Fantail
This inquisitive bird was recorded at all sites, except Site 7, and was also recorded
opportunistically.
CORVIDAE
Corvus bennetti Little Crow
The Little Crow was recorded only at Sites 1 and 2 but was heard elsewhere
opportunistically.
PETROICIDAE
Petroica multicolour Scarlet Robin
Only two Scarlet Robins were seen during the systematic surveys at Site 6. Noe were
recorded opportunistically.
Petroica goodenovii Red-capped Robin
Red-capped Robins were recorded at Sites 4, 6 and 7 and were also recorded
opportunistically.
ESTRILDIDAE
Taeniopygia guttata Zebra Finch
Many Zebra Finch were seen and heard but only at Hospital Rocks within 10 km of the
Snark Survey area.

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