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ENGINEERING I

Lesson 1

Drilling Systems

Drilling Rigs

Drilling a Well

METU - NCC

Rotary Drilling

Drilling Team

Drilling Rigs

Hoisting System

Circulating System . . .

METU - NCC

Well-Monitoring System

Examples

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Drilling Team

Drilling Engineering Group

Geologist / Geophysicst

Drilling Engineer

Reservoir Engineer

Legal Group

Drilling Contractor

Rig and Crew Provider (Toolpusher, driller, derrickman, roughnecks,etc)

Service Companies

Specialized Services (Directional drilling, wireline, bits, testing, production

systems)

Special Consultants

Sidetracking, coring, etc

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

Drilling Rigs

Fig. 1.4

The rotary drilling process

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Fig. 1.5

Classification of

rotary drilling rigs

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Drilling Rigs

Source: Maersk

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Land Rigs

Conventional

Jack Knife Rg

Workover Rig

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Noble

Drillings

Scott Marks

A Jack-Up

Rig

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Blue Marlin

A Semi

Submersible

Rig

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Transoceans

Deepwater

Champion

A Drillship

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PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Shells

Auger

Tension

Leg

Platform

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Shells Bullwinkle

Worlds tallest

offshore structure

1,353 water

depth

Production began

in 1989

45,000 b/d

80MM scf/d

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

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To TENSIONERS

SLIP JOINT

MARINE

RISER

GUIDE LINES

BOP STACK

GUIDE BASE

MUDLINE

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Drilling a Well

Duties of Drilling Engineer

Making a Connection

Making a Trip

Rig Selection Criteria

Derrick Loading

METU - NCC

1. Complete or obtain seismic, log, scouting information or

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

other data.

Lease the land or obtain concession.

Calculate reserves or estimate from best data available.

If reserve estimates show payout, proceed with well.

Obtain permits from conservation/ national authority.

Prepare drilling and completion program.

Ask for bids on footage, day work, or combination from

selected drilling contractors based on drilling program.

If necessary, modify program to fit selected contractor

equipment.

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9. Construct road, location/platforms and other marine

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

Gather all personnel concerned for meeting prior to

commencing drilling (pre-spud meeting)

If necessary, further modify program.

Drill well.

Move off contractor if workover unit is to complete the well.

Complete well.

Install surface facilities.

Analysis of operations with concerned personnel.

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Drilling Operations

Field Engineers, Drilling Foremen

Well planning prior to SPUD

B. Monitor drilling operations

C. After drilling, review drilling results and recommend

future improvements - prepare report.

D. General duties.

A.

- Objectives, safety, cost

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

Power system

Hoisting system

Fluid circulating system

Rotary system

Well control system

Well monitoring system

METU - NCC

Power system

Necessary for hoisting and fluid circulating system

Power requirement of a rig: 1000-3000 hp

Internal-combustion diesel engines

Diesel-electric type

Direct-drive type (low cost)

Performance characteristics (output horsepower, torque, and

METU - NCC

Fig. 1.13

Engine power

output

P=F.V

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FUELS

Fuel

Type

Density

(lbm/gal)

Diesel

gasoline

butane

methane

7.2

6.6

4.7

---

Heating Value

(Btu/lbm)

19,000

20,000

21,000

24,000

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

of 1,740 ft-lbf at an engine speed of 1,200 rpm. If the

fuel consumption rate was 31.5 gal/hr, what is the

output power and overall efficiency of the engine?

Solution:

The power output can be computed using Eq.1.1

P T

397 .5 hp

33,000 ft - lbf/min /hp

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

lbm/gal and the heating value H is 19,000 Btu/lbm

(Table 1.1). Thus, the fuel consumption rate w f is:

wf

1 hour

31.5 gal/hr (7.2 lbm/gal)

60 minutes

wf = 3.78 lbm/min.

The total heat energy consumed by the engine is

given by Eq. 1.2:

METU - NCC

Qi = w f H

3.78 lbm/min 19,000Btu/ lbm 779 ft - lbf/Btu

Qi

33,000 ft - lbf/min/hp

Thus, the overall efficiency of the engine at 1,200

rpm given by Eq. 1.3 is

P

397.5

Et

0.234 or 23.4%

Qi 1695.4

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

Hoisting system

Provides lowering or raising strings (drillpipe, drill collar,

Main components

Derrick and substructure

Block and tackle

Drawworks

Routine operations

Making a connection

Making a trip

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Making

a

Connection

Making

a

Trip

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PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Moving Kelly

to Single in

Mousehole

Stabbing

the Pipe

Single

Added.

Ready to

Drill

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Making a trip

Why

trip?

Put Kelly in

Rathole

Use

Elevators

for

tripping

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Tripping

one stand

at a time

60-90 ft

Making

a

trip

contd

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Derrick

Drawworks

Mud Pumps

Drillstring

Mud System

Blowout Preventer

Power Plant

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W

T

W W

2W

FIG 1-1 Simple Pulley System

T=W

LD = 2W

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

n = number

of lines

W = weight

(hook load)

LD = load on

derrick

Assuming no friction

W=4T

T = W/4

LD = 6 T = 6 W/4

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

n2

LD

W

n

METU - NCC

Example 1.1

(no friction)

The total weight of 9,000 ft of 9 5/8-inch casing for a deep well

is determined to be 400,000 lbs. Since this will be the heaviest

casing string run, the maximum mast load must be calculated.

Assuming that 10 lines run between the crown and the

traveling blocks and neglecting buoyancy effects, calculate the

maximum load.

METU - NCC

Solution:

The tension, T, will be distributed equally between the 10 lines.

Therefore,

T = 400,000/10 = 40,000 lbf

The tension in the fast line and dead line will also be 40,000

lbf, so the total load is

40,000 X 12 = 480,000 lbf

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Solution, cont.

Example 1.1 demonstrates two additional points.

1. The marginal decrease in mast load decreases with

additional lines.

2. The total mast load is always greater than the load

being lifted.

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A Rotary Rig

Hoisting System

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Projection of

Drilling Lines on

Rig Floor

TOTAL

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

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Load on Derrick

(considering friction in sheaves)

Derrick Load = Hook Load

+ Fast Line Load

+ Dead

Line

Load

Fd = W + Ff + Fs

Fd W

W

W

E n

n

1 E E n

=

W

E n

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

Example 1.2

A rig must hoist a load of 300,000 lbf. The drawworks can

provide an input power to the block and tackle system as

high as 500 hp. Eight lines are strung between the crown

block and traveling block. Calculate

1. The static tension in the fast line

when upward motion is impending,

2. the maximum hook horsepower

available,

METU - NCC

3.

4.

5.

6.

the actual derrick load,

the maximum equivalent derrick load, and,

the derrick efficiency factor.

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Solution

1. The power efficiency for n = 8 is given as 0.841

in Table 1.2. The tension in the fast line is given by

Eq. 1.7.

Tension in the Fast Line,

W

300 ,000

F

44 ,590 lb

E n 0 .841 * 8

( 0.988 = 0.851 )

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

Solution

2. The maximum hook horsepower available is

Ph = Epi = 0.841(500) = 420.5 hp.

METU - NCC

Solution

P=F.v

Ph

vb

W

33,000 ft - lbf / min

420.5 hp

hp

300,000 lbf

= 46.3 ft / min

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

To pull a 90-ft stand would require

90 ft

t

1.9 min.

46.3 ft / min

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Solution

4. The actual derrick load is given by Eq.1.8b:

1 E En

Fd

W

En

1 + 0.841 + 0.841(8)

=

(300,000)

0.841(8)

= 382,090 lbf.

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

Solution

5. The maximum equivalent load is given

Eq.1.9:

by

n4

84

Fde

W

* 300 ,000

n

8

Fde 4 * FDLL

FDLL

W W

4

n

n 4

W

FDLL

4

n

METU - NCC

Solution

6. The derrick efficiency factor is:

Fd 382,090

Ed

Fde 450,000

E d 0 .849 or 84.9%

PNGE 321 Drilling Engineering I

METU - NCC

Drawworks

Hoisting and breaking power

Main parts

Drum

Brakes

hydrodynamic type

electromagnetic type

block)

Catheads

Friction cathead (lifting or moving equipment)

Tongs

METU - NCC

METU - NCC

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